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Sample records for brown deletion complex

  1. Sir Thomas Browne Against Error: An Apology for Complexity

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    Giuliana Iannaccaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1646 Sir Thomas Browne published his Pseudodoxia Epidemica, a broad, somewhat encyclopedic catalogue of errors divided into seven books. Browne intended his work as “Enquiries into Vulgar and Common Errors” to help discourage “radicated beliefs” – that is, received opinions based on popular credulity and the unchallenged authority of tradition. Far from being dogmatic and assertive, the treatise engages the modern reader for its defence of open debate and of the value of contradiction; actually, Pseudodoxia appears deeply in tune with the epistemological uncertainty of our times for its complex, relativising and even dubitative approach to all things human. Browne endorses the idea that uncritical acceptance of received notions about the world hinders the advancement of learning; at the same time, though, a rigidly straight path – a unique, simplified method to decipher reality – equally perverts knowledge and is the source of misapprehension and mystification. Building on recent studies on his style and his connection with a culturally and politically convulsed historical period, the present contribution discusses Browne’s notion of complexity and highlights exemplary passages in which he discusses the main source of error: the human tendency to simplify what is complex, thus reducing the interpretation of notions, signs and phenomena to a one-sided and necessarily inadequate undertaking.

  2. Bayesian Case-deletion Model Complexity and Information Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongtu; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Qingxia

    2014-10-01

    We establish a connection between Bayesian case influence measures for assessing the influence of individual observations and Bayesian predictive methods for evaluating the predictive performance of a model and comparing different models fitted to the same dataset. Based on such a connection, we formally propose a new set of Bayesian case-deletion model complexity (BCMC) measures for quantifying the effective number of parameters in a given statistical model. Its properties in linear models are explored. Adding some functions of BCMC to a conditional deviance function leads to a Bayesian case-deletion information criterion (BCIC) for comparing models. We systematically investigate some properties of BCIC and its connection with other information criteria, such as the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). We illustrate the proposed methodology on linear mixed models with simulations and a real data example.

  3. Deletion of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in leptin-deficient mice improves brown adipose tissue function.

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    Sara Becerril

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin and nitric oxide (NO on their own participate in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the functional interplay between both factors in this process has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of the absence of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS gene in the regulation of energy balance in ob/ob mice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Double knockout (DBKO mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes were generated, and the expression of molecules involved in the control of brown fat cell function was analyzed by real-time PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry. Twelve week-old DBKO mice exhibited reduced body weight (p<0.05, decreased amounts of total fat pads (p<0.05, lower food efficiency rates (p<0.05 and higher rectal temperature (p<0.05 than ob/ob mice. Ablation of iNOS also improved the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice. DBKO showed a marked reduction in the size of brown adipocytes compared to ob/ob mutants. In this sense, in comparison to ob/ob mice, DBKO rodents showed an increase in the expression of PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, a transcriptional regulator of brown adipogenesis. Moreover, iNOS deletion enhanced the expression of mitochondria-related proteins, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (Pgc-1alpha, sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1 and sirtuin-3 (Sirt-3. Accordingly, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 (Ucp-1 and Ucp-3 were upregulated in brown adipose tissue (BAT of DBKO mice as compared to ob/ob rodents. CONCLUSION: Ablation of iNOS improved the energy balance of ob/ob mice by decreasing food efficiency through an increase in thermogenesis. These effects may be mediated, in part, through the recovery of the BAT phenotype and brown fat cell function improvement.

  4. Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A;

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or ...

  5. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

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    Colovati Mileny ES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1, mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement.

  6. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 Deletion Induces Adipose Browning and Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

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    Shangang Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6, a monoacylglycerol (MAG hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning. Adipose browning and cold-induced thermogenesis are replicated by the ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 and by antisense oligonucleotides targeting ABHD6. Our evidence suggests that one mechanism by which the lipolysis derived 1-MAG signals intrinsic and cell-autonomous adipose browning is via PPARα and PPARγ activation, and that ABHD6 regulates adipose browning by controlling signal competent 1-MAG levels. Thus, ABHD6 regulates energy homeostasis, brown adipose function, and white adipose browning and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Two novel gross deletions of TSC2 in Malaysian patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and TSC2/PKD1 contiguous deletion syndrome.

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    Ismail, Nur Farrah Dila; Nik Abdul Malik, Nik Mohd Ariff; Mohseni, Jafar; Rani, Abdulqawee Mahyoob; Hayati, Fatemeh; Salmi, Abdul Razak; Narazah, Mohd Yusof; Zabidi-Hussin, Z A M H; Silawati, Abdul Rashid; Keng, Wee Teik; Ngu, Lock Hock; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

    2014-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder affecting multiple organs. Tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by mutation in either one of the two disease-causing genes, TSC1 or TSC2, encoding for hamartin and tuberin, respectively. TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome is a very rare condition due to deletion involving both TSC2 and PKD1 genes. Tuberous sclerosis complex cannot be easily diagnosed since there is no pathognomonic feature, although there are consensus diagnostic criteria for that. Mutation analysis is useful and plays important roles. We report here two novel gross deletions of TSC2 gene in Malay patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome, respectively.

  8. KIT exon 11 deletion-inversions represent complex mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

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    Lasota, Jerzy; Miettinen, Markku

    2007-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. KIT expression and mutational KIT activation have been documented in a majority of GISTs. Most mutations have been found in KIT juxtamembrane domain encoded by exon 11. Recently, we have identified three, complex KIT exon 11 mutations previously unreported in GISTs. These mutations consisted of several nucleotide deletions accompanied by insertions of inverted complementary DNA strand sequences. All three mutations were found in the 5' part of KIT exon 11. At the protein level, these mutations lead to the same end result: in-frame loss and insertion of a number of amino acids and could be considered examples of deletion-insertion. Although proper description of these mutations at the genomic level is a complex task and requires an individual approach, the uniform name deletion-inversion is suggested for this type of mutation, based on the present study. The frequency of deletion-inversions among KIT exon 11 mutant GISTs was estimated to be <0.5%, based on evaluation of 700 KIT exon 11 mutants. Molecular events leading to formation of deletion-inversions remain elusive and should be studied further.

  9. Expression of brown-midrib in a spontaneous sorghum mutant is linked to a 5'-UTR deletion in lignin biosynthesis gene SbCAD2.

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    Li, Huang; Huang, Yinghua

    2017-09-15

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Studying bmr mutants has considerably expanded our understanding of the molecular basis underlying lignin biosynthesis and perturbation in grasses. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, identified and cloned a novel cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase allele (SbCAD2) that has an 8-bp deletion in its 5'-untranslated region (UTR), conferring the spontaneous brown midrib trait and lignin reduction in the sorghum germplasm line PI 595743. Complementation test and gene expression analysis revealed that this non-coding region alteration is associated with the significantly reduced expression of the SbCAD2 in PI 595743 throughout its growth stages. Moreover, a promoter-GUS fusion study with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants found that SbCAD2 promoter is functionally conserved, driving a specific expression pattern in lignifying vascular tissues. Taken together, our results revealed the genetic basis of bmr occurrence in this spontaneous sorghum mutant and suggested the regulatory region of the SbCAD2 can be a target site for optimizing lignin modification in sorghum and other bioenergy crops.

  10. Deletion of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in leptin-deficient mice improves brown adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Sara; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Sáinz, Neira; Ramírez, Beatriz; Collantes, María; Peñuelas, Iván; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2010-06-04

    Leptin and nitric oxide (NO) on their own participate in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the functional interplay between both factors in this process has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of the absence of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene in the regulation of energy balance in ob/ob mice. Double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes were generated, and the expression of molecules involved in the control of brown fat cell function was analyzed by real-time PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry. Twelve week-old DBKO mice exhibited reduced body weight (padipose tissue (BAT) of DBKO mice as compared to ob/ob rodents. Ablation of iNOS improved the energy balance of ob/ob mice by decreasing food efficiency through an increase in thermogenesis. These effects may be mediated, in part, through the recovery of the BAT phenotype and brown fat cell function improvement.

  11. Characterization of cryptic rearrangements, deletion, complex variants of PML, RARA in acute promyelocytic leukemia

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    Pratibha Kadam Amare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is characterized by a reciprocal translocation t(15;17(q22;q21 leading to the disruption of Promyelocytic leukemia (PML and Retionic Acid Receptor Alpha (RARA followed by reciprocal PML-RARA fusion in 90% of the cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has overcome the hurdles of unavailability of abnormal and/or lack of metaphase cells, and detection of cryptic, submicroscopic rearrangements. In the present study, besides diagnostic approach we sought to analyze these cases for identification and characterization of cryptic rearrangements, deletion variants and unknown RARA translocation variants by application of D-FISH and RARA break-apart probe strategy on interphase and metaphase cells in a large series of 200 cases of APL. Forty cases (20% had atypical PML-RARA and/or RARA variants. D-FISH with PML/RARA probe helped identification of RARA insertion to PML. By application of D-FISH on metaphase cells, we documented that translocation of 15 to 17 leads to 17q deletion which results in loss of reciprocal fusion and/or residual RARA on der(17. Among the complex variants of t(15;17, PML-RARA fusion followed by residual RARA insertion closed to PML-RARA on der(15 was unique and unusual. FISH with break-apart RARA probe on metaphase cells was found to be a very efficient strategy to detect unknown RARA variant translocations like t(11;17(q23;q21, t(11;17(q13;q21 and t(2;17(p21;q21. These findings proved that D-FISH and break-apart probe strategy has potential to detect primary as well as secondary additional aberrations of PML, RARA and other additional loci. The long-term clinical follow-up is essential to evaluate the clinical importance of these findings.

  12. Further evidence for charge transfer complexes in brown carbon aerosols from excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

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    Phillips, Sabrina M; Smith, Geoffrey D

    2015-05-14

    The light-absorbing fraction of organic molecules in ambient aerosols, known as "brown carbon," is an important yet poorly characterized component. Despite the fact that brown carbon could alter the radiative forcing of aerosols significantly, identification of specific chromophores has remained challenging. We recently demonstrated that charge transfer (CT) complexes formed in organic molecules could be responsible for a large fraction of absorption observed in water-extracted ambient particulate matter.1 In the present study, we use excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy to further corroborate the importance of CT complexes in defining aerosol optical properties. Monotonically increasing and decreasing quantum yields, decreasing Stokes shifts, and red-shifting emission maxima are observed from ambient particulate matter collected in Athens, Georgia, strongly suggesting that a superposition of independent chromophores is not sufficient to explain brown carbon absorption and fluorescence. Instead, we show that a model in which such chromophores are energetically coupled to a dense manifold of CT complexes is consistent with all of the observations. Further, we suggest that a significant fraction of the observed fluorescence originates from CT complexes and that their contribution to brown carbon absorption is likely greater than we reported previously.

  13. Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Lichtenberg, Mads; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Kühl, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions.

  14. Chromosome 8p23.1 deletions as a cause of complex congenital heart defects and diaphragmatic hernia.

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    Wat, Margaret J; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Holder, Ashley M; Breman, Amy M; Dagli, Aditi; Bacino, Carlos; Scaglia, Fernando; Zori, Roberto T; Cheung, Sau Wai; Scott, Daryl A; Kang, Sung-Hae Lee

    2009-08-01

    Recurrent interstitial deletion of a region of 8p23.1 flanked by the low copy repeats 8p-OR-REPD and 8p-OR-REPP is associated with a spectrum of anomalies that can include congenital heart malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Haploinsufficiency of GATA4 is thought to play a critical role in the development of these birth defects. We describe two individuals and a monozygotic twin pair discordant for anterior CDH all of whom have complex congenital heart defects caused by this recurrent interstitial deletion as demonstrated by array comparative genomic hybridization. To better define the genotype/phenotype relationships associated with alterations of genes on 8p23.1, we review the spectrum of congenital heart and diaphragmatic defects that have been reported in individuals with isolated GATA4 mutations and interstitial, terminal, and complex chromosomal rearrangements involving the 8p23.1 region. Our findings allow us to clearly define the CDH minimal deleted region on chromosome 8p23.1 and suggest that haploinsufficiency of other genes, in addition to GATA4, may play a role in the severe cardiac and diaphragmatic defects associated with 8p23.1 deletions. These findings also underscore the importance of conducting a careful cytogenetic/molecular analysis of the 8p23.1 region in all prenatal and postnatal cases involving congenital defects of the heart and/or diaphragm.

  15. Chromosome 8p23.1 Deletions as a Cause of Complex Congenital Heart Defects and Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Margaret J.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Holder, Ashley M.; Breman, Amy M.; Dagli, Aditi; Bacino, Carlos; Scaglia, Fernando; Zori, Roberto T.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Scott, Daryl A.; Kang, Sung-Hae Lee

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent interstitial deletion of a region of 8p23.1 flanked by the low copy repeats 8p-OR-REPD and 8p-OR-REPP is associated with a spectrum of anomalies that can include congenital heart malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Haploinsufficiency of GATA4 is thought to play a critical role in the development of these birth defects. We describe two individuals and a monozygotic twin pair discordant for anterior CDH all of whom have complex congenital heart defects caused by this recurrent interstitial deletion as demonstrated by array comparative genome hybridization. To better define the genotype/phenotype relationships associated with alterations of genes on 8p23.1, we review the spectrum of congenital heart and diaphragmatic defects that have been reported in individuals with isolated GATA4 mutations and interstitial, terminal, and complex chromosomal rearrangements involving the 8p23.1 region. Our findings allow us to clearly define the CDH minimal deleted region on chromosome 8p23.1 and suggest that haploinsufficiency of other genes, in addition to GATA4, may play a role in the severe cardiac and diaphragmatic defects associated with 8p23.1 deletions. These findings also underscore the importance of conducting a careful cytogenetic/molecular analysis of the 8p23.1 region in all prenatal and postnatal cases involving congenital defects of the heart and/or diaphragm. PMID:19606479

  16. Complex interaction between proliferative kidney disease, water temperature and concurrent nematode infection in brown trout.

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    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Steiner, Pascale; Müller, Barbara; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako

    2013-04-29

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a temperature-dependent disease caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. It is an emerging threat to wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in Switzerland. Here we examined (1) how PKD prevalence and pathology in young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout relate to water temperature, (2) whether wild brown trout can completely recover from T. bryosalmonae-induced renal lesions and eliminate T. bryosalmonae over the winter months, and (3) whether this rate and/or extent of the recovery is influenced by concurrent infection. A longitudinal field study on a wild brown trout cohort was conducted over 16 mo. YOY and age 1+ fish were sampled from 7 different field sites with various temperature regimes, and monitored for infection with T. bryosalmonae and the nematode Raphidascaris acus. T. bryosamonae was detectable in brown trout YOY from all sampling sites, with similar renal pathology, independent of water temperature. During winter months, recovery was mainly influenced by the presence or absence of concurrent infection with R. acus larvae. While brown trout without R. acus regenerated completely, concurrently infected brown trout showed incomplete recovery, with chronic renal lesions and incomplete translocation of T. bryosalmonae from the renal interstitium into the tubular lumen. Water temperature seemed to influence complete excretion of T. bryosalmonae, with spores remaining in trout from summer-warm rivers, but absent in trout from summer-cool rivers. In the following summer months, we found PKD infections in 1+ brown trout from all investigated river sites. The pathological lesions indicated a re-infection rather than a proliferation of remaining T. bryosalmonae. However, disease prevalence in 1+ trout was lower than in YOY.

  17. Deletion of potD, encoding a putative spermidine-binding protein, results in a complex phenotype in Legionella pneumophila.

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    Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Abdelhady, Hany; Tompkins, Nicholas P; Carson, Kaitlyn R; Garduño, Rafael A

    2014-07-01

    L. pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a membrane-bound compartment known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). We previously observed that the polyamine spermidine, produced by host cells or added exogenously, enhances the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. To study this enhancing effect and determine whether polyamines are used as nutrients, we deleted potD from L. pneumophila strain JR32. The gene potD encodes a spermidine-binding protein that in other bacteria is essential for the function of the PotABCD polyamine transporter. Deletion of potD did not affect L. pneumophila growth in vitro in the presence or absence of spermidine and putrescine, suggesting that PotD plays a redundant or no role in polyamine uptake. However, deletion of potD resulted in a puzzlingly complex phenotype that included defects in L. pneumophila's ability to form filaments, tolerate Na(+), associate with macrophages and amoeba, recruit host vesicles to the LCV, and initiate intracellular growth. Moreover, the ΔpotD mutant was completely unable to grow in L929 cells treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of spermidine synthesis. These complex and disparate effects suggest that the L. pneumophila potD encodes either: (i) a multifunctional protein, (ii) a protein that interacts with, or regulates a, multifunctional protein, or (iii) a protein that contributes (directly or indirectly) to a regulatory network. Protein function studies with the L. pneumophila PotD protein are thus warranted.

  18. GALC deletions increase the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: the role of Mendelian variants in complex disease.

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    Yutao Liu

    Full Text Available DNA copy number variants (CNVs have been reported in many human diseases including autism and schizophrenia. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG is a complex adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive optic neuropathy and vision loss. Previous studies have identified rare CNVs in POAG; however, their low frequencies prevented formal association testing. We present here the association between POAG risk and a heterozygous deletion in the galactosylceramidase gene (GALC. This CNV was initially identified in a dataset containing 71 Caucasian POAG cases and 478 ethnically matched controls obtained from dbGAP (study accession phs000126.v1.p1. (p = 0.017, fisher's exact test. It was validated with array comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH and realtime PCR, and replicated in an independent POAG dataset containing 959 cases and 1852 controls (p = 0.021, OR (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% CI -1.1-12.0. Evidence for association was strengthened when the discovery and replication datasets were combined (p = 0.002; OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-16.4. Several deletions with different endpoints were identified by array CGH of POAG patients. Homozygous deletions that eliminate GALC enzymatic activity cause Krabbe disease, a recessive Mendelian disorder of childhood displaying bilateral optic neuropathy and vision loss. Our findings suggest that heterozygous deletions that reduce GALC activity are a novel mechanism increasing risk of POAG. This is the first report of a statistically-significant association of a CNV with POAG risk, contributing to a growing body of evidence that CNVs play an important role in complex, inherited disorders. Our findings suggest an attractive biomarker and potential therapeutic target for patients with this form of POAG.

  19. True lemurs…true species - species delimitation using multiple data sources in the brown lemur complex

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Species are the fundamental units in evolutionary biology. However, defining them as evolutionary independent lineages requires integration of several independent sources of information in order to develop robust hypotheses for taxonomic classification. Here, we exemplarily propose an integrative framework for species delimitation in the “brown lemur complex” (BLC) of Madagascar, which consists of seven allopatric populations of the genus Eulemur (Primates: Lemuridae), which were s...

  20. Insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the ΔNp63 promoter are a risk factor for bladder exstrophy epispadias complex.

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    Simon Wilkins

    Full Text Available Bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC is a severe congenital anomaly; however, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of BEEC remain unclear. TP63, a member of TP53 tumor suppressor gene family, is expressed in bladder urothelium and skin over the external genitalia during mammalian development. It plays a role in bladder development. We have previously shown that p63(-/- mouse embryos developed a bladder exstrophy phenotype identical to human BEEC. We hypothesised that TP63 is involved in human BEEC pathogenesis. RNA was extracted from BEEC foreskin specimens and, as in mice, ΔNp63 was the predominant p63 isoform. ΔNp63 expression in the foreskin and bladder epithelium of BEEC patients was reduced. DNA was sequenced from 163 BEEC patients and 285 ethnicity-matched controls. No exon mutations were detected. Sequencing of the ΔNp63 promoter showed 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 4 insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms. Indel polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of BEEC. Significantly the sites of indel polymorphisms differed between Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. A 12-base-pair deletion was associated with an increased risk with only Caucasian patients (p = 0.0052 Odds Ratio (OR = 18.33, whereas a 4-base-pair insertion was only associated with non-Caucasian patients (p = 0.0259 OR = 4.583. We found a consistent and statistically significant reduction in transcriptional efficiencies of the promoter sequences containing indel polymorphisms in luciferase assays. These findings suggest that indel polymorphisms of the ΔNp63 promoter lead to a reduction in p63 expression, which could lead to BEEC.

  1. BIOGENESIS OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES WITH RECONSTRUCTION OF CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPLEXES IN DELETION-MUTANT OF ORF469 IN BLUE-GREEN ALGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuQingyu; WangRuiyong; XuHong; WireVermaas

    1997-01-01

    The transformable blue green alga is used productively for mutation and deletion studies to provide functional information regarding photosynthetic reaction center complexes. We wish to take the application of transformable blue-green algal systems one step further ,and set out the

  2. Sports Complexes, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

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    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sports Complexes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. Data by this publisher...

  3. Different roles of eukaryotic MutS and MutL complexes in repair of small insertion and deletion loops in yeast.

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    Nina V Romanova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA mismatch repair greatly increases genome fidelity by recognizing and removing replication errors. In order to understand how this fidelity is maintained, it is important to uncover the relative specificities of the different components of mismatch repair. There are two major mispair recognition complexes in eukaryotes that are homologues of bacterial MutS proteins, MutSα and MutSβ, with MutSα recognizing base-base mismatches and small loop mispairs and MutSβ recognizing larger loop mispairs. Upon recognition of a mispair, the MutS complexes then interact with homologues of the bacterial MutL protein. Loops formed on the primer strand during replication lead to insertion mutations, whereas loops on the template strand lead to deletions. We show here in yeast, using oligonucleotide transformation, that MutSα has a strong bias toward repair of insertion loops, while MutSβ has an even stronger bias toward repair of deletion loops. Our results suggest that this bias in repair is due to the different interactions of the MutS complexes with the MutL complexes. Two mutants of MutLα, pms1-G882E and pms1-H888R, repair deletion mispairs but not insertion mispairs. Moreover, we find that a different MutL complex, MutLγ, is extremely important, but not sufficient, for deletion repair in the presence of either MutLα mutation. MutSβ is present in many eukaryotic organisms, but not in prokaryotes. We suggest that the biased repair of deletion mispairs may reflect a critical eukaryotic function of MutSβ in mismatch repair.

  4. Deletion of the gene encoding G0/G 1 switch protein 2 (G0s2) alleviates high-fat-diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, and promotes browning of white adipose tissue in mice.

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    El-Assaad, Wissal; El-Kouhen, Karim; Mohammad, Amro H; Yang, Jieyi; Morita, Masahiro; Gamache, Isabelle; Mamer, Orval; Avizonis, Daina; Hermance, Nicole; Kersten, Sander; Tremblay, Michel L; Kelliher, Michelle A; Teodoro, Jose G

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic resulting from increased energy intake, which alters energy homeostasis and results in an imbalance in fat storage and breakdown. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0s2) has been recently characterised in vitro as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting step in fat catabolism. In the current study we aim to functionally characterise G0s2 within the physiological context of a mouse model. We generated a mouse model in which G0s2 was deleted. The homozygous G0s2 knockout (G0s2 (-/-)) mice were studied over a period of 22 weeks. Metabolic variables were measured including body weight and body composition, food intake, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, energy metabolism and thermogenesis. We report that G0s2 inhibits ATGL and regulates lipolysis and energy metabolism in vivo. G0s2 (-/-) mice are lean, resistant to weight gain induced by a high-fat diet and are glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive. The white adipose tissue of G0s2 (-/-) mice has enhanced lipase activity and adipocytes showed enhanced stimulated lipolysis. Energy metabolism in the G0s2 (-/-) mice is shifted towards enhanced lipid metabolism and increased thermogenesis. G0s2 (-/-) mice showed enhanced cold tolerance and increased expression of thermoregulatory and oxidation genes within white adipose tissue, suggesting enhanced 'browning' of the white adipose tissue. Our data show that G0s2 is a physiological regulator of adiposity and energy metabolism and is a potential target in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  5. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and complex karyotype show an adverse outcome even in absence of TP53/ATM FISH deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiggros, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Calasanz, Maria José; Ortega, Margarita; Ruiz-Xivillé, Neus; Rivas-Delgado, Alfredo; Luño, Elisa; González, Teresa; Navarro, Blanca; García-Malo, MaDolores; Valiente, Alberto; Hernández, José Ángel; Ardanaz, María Teresa; Piñan, María Ángeles; Blanco, María Laura; Hernández-Sánchez, María; Batlle-López, Ana; Salgado, Rocío; Salido, Marta; Ferrer, Ana; Abrisqueta, Pau; Gimeno, Eva; Abella, Eugènia; Ferrá, Christelle; Terol, María José; Ortuño, Francisco; Costa, Dolors; Moreno, Carol; Carbonell, Félix; Bosch, Francesc; Delgado, Julio; Espinet, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Genomic complexity identified by chromosome banding analysis (CBA) predicts a worse clinical outcome in CLL patients treated either with standard or new treatments. Herein, we analyzed the clinical impact of complex karyotypes (CK) with or without high-risk FISH deletions (ATM and/or TP53, HR-FISH) in a cohort of 1045 untreated MBL/CLL patients. In all, 99/1045 (9.5%) patients displayed a CK. Despite ATM and TP53 deletions were more common in CK (25% vs 7%; P < 0.001; 40% vs 5%; P < 0.001, respectively), only 44% (40/90) patients with TP53 deletions showed a CK. CK group showed a significant higher two-year cumulative incidence of treatment (48% vs 20%; P < 0.001), as well as a shorter overall survival (OS) (79 mo vs not reached; P < 0.001). When patients were categorized regarding CK and HR-FISH, those with both characteristics showed the worst median OS (52 mo) being clearly distinct from those non-CK and non-HR-FISH (median not reached), but no significant differences were detected between cases with only CK or HR-FISH. Both CK and TP53 deletion remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis for OS. In conclusion, CK group is globally associated with advanced disease and poor prognostic markers. Further investigation in larger cohorts with CK lacking HR-FISH is needed to elucidate which mechanisms underlie the poor outcome of this subgroup.

  6. Resident macrophages (ramified microglia) of the adult brown Norway rat central nervous system are constitutively major histocompatibility complex class II positive

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometric phenotype for isolated adult central nervous system (CNS) ramified microglia was previously defined (CD45low CD11b/c+) in the Lewis strain rat, that clearly distinguished these cells from all blood-derived leucocytes, the latter being CD45high. Consistent with the reported lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in the CNS, isolated microglia were mostly MHC class II-. Employing these phenotypic criteria, we now show that a proportion of microglia in Brown ...

  7. Pre-S deletion and complex mutations of hepatitis B virus related to young age hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishuai Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the roles of biomedical factors, hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA levels, genotypes, and specific viral mutation patterns on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients below 40 years of age in Qidong, China. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study within a cohort of 2387 male HBV carriers who were recruited from August, 1996. The HBV DNA sequence was determined in 49 HCC and 90 chronic hepatitis (CH patients below 40 years of age. Mutation exchanges during follow-up in 32 cases were compared with 65 controls with paired serum samples. In addition, a consecutive series of samples from 14 HCC cases were employed to compare the sequences before and after the occurrence of HCC. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, HBeAg positive, HBV DNA levels ≥4.00 log(10 copies/mL, pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations were associated with risk of young age HCC. Moreover, the presence of an increasing number of HCC-related mutations (pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations was associated with an increased risk of young age HCC. Paired samples analysis indicated that the increased HCC risk for at-risk sequence mutations were attributable to the persistence of these mutations, but not a single time point mutation. The longitudinal observation demonstrated a gradual combination of pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations during the development of HCC. CONCLUSION: High HBV DNA levels and pre-S deletion were independent risk factors of young age HCC. Combination of pre-S deletion and core promoter mutations increased the risk and persistence of at-risk sequence mutations is critical for HCC development.

  8. Complex translocation t(1;12;14)(q42;q14;q32) and HMGA2 deletion in a fetus presenting growth delay and bilateral cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Laure; Francou, Bruno; Petit, François; Tosca, Lucie; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Metay, Corinne; Martinovic, Jelena; Cordier, Anne-Gaël; Benachi, Alexandra; Pineau, Dominique; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Goossens, Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard; Brisset, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    We report the prenatal detection of a de novo unbalanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR), in a fetus with growth delay and bilateral cataracts. Standard karyotype and FISH analyses on amniotic fluid revealed a complex de novo translocation, resulting in a 46,XY,t(1;12;14)(q42;q14;q32) karyotype. CGH-array showed a significant deletion of 387  kb at 12q14.3, at a distance of only 200-700 kb from the breakpoint at 12q14, which encompassed the HMGA2 gene and occurred de novo. Although 12q14 microdeletions are associated with growth delay in several reports in the literature, we present here the smallest deletion prenatally detected, and we detail the clinical description of the fetus. The correlation between cataracts and this complex genotype is puzzling. Among the genes disrupted by the breakpoint in 12q14, GRIP1 has been associated with abnormal eye development in mice, including lens degeneration. Interestingly, HMGA2 is expressed in the mouse's developing lens, and its expression is decreased in lens of elderly humans, correlated with the severity of lens opacity. In this report, we refine the link between HMGA2 loss of function and growth delay during prenatal development. We also discuss the correlation between cataracts and genotype in this unbalanced CCR case of unexpected complexity.

  9. Structures of Receptor Complexes of a North American H7N2 Influenza Hemagglutinin with a Loop Deletion in the Receptor Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hua; Chen, Li-Mei; Carney, Paul J.; Donis, Ruben O.; Stevens, James (CDC)

    2012-02-21

    Human infections with subtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been reported as early as 1979. In 1996, a genetically stable 24-nucleotide deletion emerged in North American H7 influenza virus hemagglutinins, resulting in an eight amino acid deletion in the receptor-binding site. The continuous circulation of these viruses in live bird markets, as well as its documented ability to infect humans, raises the question of how these viruses achieve structural stability and functionality. Here we report a detailed molecular analysis of the receptor binding site of the North American lineage subtype H7N2 virus A/New York/107/2003 (NY107), including complexes with an avian receptor analog (3'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 3'SLN) and two human receptor analogs (6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 6'SLN; sialyllacto-N-tetraose b, LSTb). Structural results suggest a novel mechanism by which residues Arg220 and Arg229 (H3 numbering) are used to compensate for the deletion of the 220-loop and form interactions with the receptor analogs. Glycan microarray results reveal that NY107 maintains an avian-type ({alpha}2-3) receptor binding profile, with only moderate binding to human-type ({alpha}2-6) receptor. Thus despite its dramatically altered receptor binding site, this HA maintains functionality and confirms a need for continued influenza virus surveillance of avian and other animal reservoirs to define their zoonotic potential.

  10. FISH and array-CGH analysis of a complex chromosome 3 aberration suggests that loss of CNTN4 and CRBN contributes to mental retardation in 3pter deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Essen, Ton; van der Vlies, Pieter; Verheij, Joke B G M; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Veen, Anneke Y; Gerssen-Schoorl, Klasien B J; Buys, Charles H C M; Kok, Klaas

    2006-11-15

    Imbalances of 3p telomeric sequences cause 3p- and trisomy 3p syndrome, respectively, showing distinct, but also shared clinical features. No causative genes have been identified in trisomy 3p patients, but for the 3p- syndrome, there is growing evidence that monosomy for one or more of four genes at 3pter, CHL1, CNTN4, CRBN, and MEGAP/srGAP3, may play a causative role. We describe here an analysis of a complex chromosome 3p aberration in a severely mentally retarded patient that revealed two adjacent segments with different copy number gains and a distal deletion. The deletion in this patient included the loci for CHL1, CNTN4, and CRBN, and narrowed the critical segment associated with the 3p- syndrome to 1.5 Mb, including the loci for CNTN4 and CRBN. We speculate that the deletion contributes more to this patient's phenotype than the gains that were observed. We suggest that 3p- syndrome associated features are primarily caused by loss of CNTN4 and CRBN, with loss of CHL1 probably having an additional detrimental effect on the cognitive functioning of the present patient.

  11. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kolumam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  12. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Chen, Mark Z; Tong, Raymond; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Ross, Jed; Wyatt, Shelby K; Gandham, Vineela D; Carano, Richard A D; Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Wu, Ai-Luen; Haley, Benjamin; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Søren; Rairdan, Xin Y; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Zhang, Yingnan; Gutierrez, Johnny; Baruch, Amos; Gelzleichter, Thomas R; Stevens, Dale; Rajan, Sharmila; Bainbridge, Travis W; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y Gloria; Ziai, James; Soriano, Robert H; Brauer, Matthew J; Chen, Yongmei; Stawicki, Scott; Kim, Hok Seon; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Luis, Elizabeth; Spiess, Christoph; Wu, Yan; Ernst, James A; McGuinness, Owen P; Peterson, Andrew S; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2015-07-01

    Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  13. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  14. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Gu

    Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450 is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs, diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5(p13.3p15.33 spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5 (q23;p14.1p15.31,ins(21;5(q21;p13.3p14.1,ins(21;5(q21;p15.31p15.33,inv(7(p22q32dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5 identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5. Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  15. A complex chromosome rearrangement involving four chromosomes, nine breakpoints and a cryptic 0.6-Mb deletion in a boy with cerebellar hypoplasia and defects in skull ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, R S; Cernach, M C S P; Sfakianakis, T E; Takeno, S S; Nardozza, L M M; Rossi, C; Bhatt, S S; Liehr, T; Melaragno, M I

    2013-01-01

    Constitutional complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are considered rare cytogenetic events. Most apparently balanced CCRs are de novo and are usually found in patients with abnormal phenotypes. High-resolution techniques are unveiling genomic imbalances in a great percentage of these cases. In this paper, we report a patient with growth and developmental delay, dysmorphic features, nervous system anomalies (pachygyria, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellum), a marked reduction in the ossification of the cranial vault, skull base sclerosis, and cardiopathy who presents a CCR with 9 breakpoints involving 4 chromosomes (3, 6, 8 and 14) and a 0.6-Mb deletion in 14q24.1. Although the only genomic imbalance revealed by the array technique was a deletion, the clinical phenotype of the patient most likely cannot be attributed exclusively to haploinsufficiency. Other events must also be considered, including the disruption of critical genes and position effects. A combination of several different investigative approaches (G-banding, FISH with different probes and SNP array techniques) was required to describe this CCR in full, suggesting that CCRs may be more frequent than initially thought. Additionally, we propose that a chain chromosome breakage mechanism may have occurred as a single rearrangement event resulting in this CCR. This study demonstrates the importance of applying different cytogenetic and molecular techniques to detect subtle rearrangements and to delineate the rearrangements at a more accurate level, providing a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in CCR formation and a better correlation with phenotype.

  16. Characterization of a Complex Chromosomal Rearrangement Involving a de novo Duplication of 9p and 9q and a Deletion of 9q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-De Saro, Mónica D; Valdés-Miranda, Juan M; Plaza-Benhumea, Lautaro; Pérez-Cabrera, Adrián; Gonzalez-Huerta, Luz M; Guevara-Yañez, Roberto; Cuevas-Covarrubias, Sergio A

    2015-01-01

    Rearrangements of the distal region of 9p are important chromosome imbalances in human beings. Trisomy 9p is the fourth most frequent chromosome anomaly and is a clinically recognizable syndrome. Kleefstra syndrome, previously named 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome, is either caused by a submicroscopic deletion in 9q34.3 or an intragenic mutation of EHMT1. We report a Mexican male patient with abnormal development, dysmorphism, systemic anomalies and a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR). GTG-banding revealed a 46,XY,add(9)(q34.3) karyotype, whereas array analysis resulted in arr[hg19] 9p24.3p23(203,861-11,842,172)×3, 9q34.3(138,959,881-139,753,294)×3, 9q34.3(139,784,913-141,020,389)×1. Array and karyotype analyses were normal in both parents. Partial duplication of 9p is one of the most commonly detected autosomal structural abnormalities in liveborn infants. A microdeletion in 9q34.3 corresponds to Kleefstra syndrome, whereas a microduplication in 9q34.3 shows a great clinical variability. Here, we present a CCR in a patient with multiple congenital anomalies who represents the first case with partial 9p trisomy, partial 9q trisomy and partial 9q monosomy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis, browning, and energy balance in adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyi; Lei, Xinnuo; Benson, Tyler; Mintz, James; Xu, Xiaojing; Harris, Ruth B; Weintraub, Neal L; Wang, Xiaoling; Chen, Weiqin

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in BSCL2/SEIPIN cause Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), but the mechanisms whereby Bscl2 regulates adipose tissue function are unclear. Here, we generated adipose tissue (mature) Bscl2 knockout (Ad-mKO) mice, in which Bscl2 was specifically ablated in adipocytes of adult animals, to investigate the impact of acquired Bscl2 deletion on adipose tissue function and energy balance. Ad-mKO mice displayed reduced adiposity and were protected against high fat diet-induced obesity, but not insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. Gene expression profiling and biochemical assays revealed increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue , as well as browning of WAT, owing to induction of cAMP/protein kinase A signaling upon Bscl2 deletion. Interestingly, Bscl2 deletion reduced food intake and downregulated adipose β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) expression. Impaired ADRB3 signaling partially offsets upregulated browning-induced energy expenditure and thermogenesis in Ad-mKO mice housed at ambient temperature. However, this counter-regulatory response was abrogated under thermoneutral conditions, resulting in even greater body mass loss in Ad-mKO mice. These findings suggest that Bscl2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis and β-adrenergic signaling to produce complex effects on adipose tissues and whole-body energy balance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Complex III deficiency due to an in-frame MT-CYB deletion presenting as ketotic hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Mori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex III deficiency due to a MT-CYB mutation has been reported in patients with myopathy. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy who presented with metabolic acidosis, ketotic hypoglycemia and carnitine deficiency. Electron transport chain analysis and mitochondrial DNA sequencing on muscle tissue lead to the eventual diagnosis of complex III deficiency. This case demonstrates the critical role of muscle biopsies in a myopathy work-up, and the clinical efficacy of supplement therapy.

  19. Up-regulation of Paxillin and Focal Adhesion Signaling follows Dystroglycan Complex deletions and promotes a Hypertensive State of Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Shamik; Tewari, Manorama; Zajac, Allison; Barton, Elisabeth; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    Anchorage to matrix is mediated for many cells not only by integrin-based focal adhesions but also by a parallel assembly of integral and peripheral membrane proteins known as the Dystroglycan Complex. Deficiencies in either dystrophin (mdx mice) or γ-sarcoglycan (γSG−/− mice) components of the Dystroglycan Complex lead to upregulation of numerous focal adhesion proteins, and the phosphoprotein paxillin proves to be among the most prominent. In mdx muscle, paxillin-Y31 and Y118 are both hyper...

  20. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  1. Upregulation of paxillin and focal adhesion signaling follows Dystroglycan Complex deletions and promotes a hypertensive state of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Shamik; Tewari, Manorama; Zajac, Allison; Barton, Elisabeth; Sweeney, H Lee; Discher, Dennis E

    2011-01-01

    Anchorage to matrix is mediated for many cells not only by integrin-based focal adhesions but also by a parallel assembly of integral and peripheral membrane proteins known as the Dystroglycan Complex. Deficiencies in either dystrophin (mdx mice) or γ-sarcoglycan (γSG(-/-) mice) components of the Dystroglycan Complex lead to upregulation of numerous focal adhesion proteins, and the phosphoprotein paxillin proves to be among the most prominent. In mdx muscle, paxillin-Y31 and Y118 are both hyper-phosphorylated as are key sites in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the stretch-stimulatable pro-survival MAPK pathway, whereas γSG(-/-) muscle exhibits more erratic hyper-phosphorylation. In cultured myotubes, cell tension generated by myosin-II appears required for localization of paxillin to adhesions while vinculin appears more stably integrated. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) paxillin has no obvious effect on focal adhesion density or the physical strength of adhesion, but WT and a Y118F mutant promote contractile sarcomere formation whereas a Y31F mutant shows no effect, implicating Y31 in striation. Self-peeling of cells as well as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) probing of cells with or without myosin-II inhibition indicate an increase in cell tension within paxillin-overexpressing cells. However, prednisolone, a first-line glucocorticoid for muscular dystrophies, decreases cell tension without affecting paxillin at adhesions, suggesting a non-linear relationship between paxillin and cell tension. Hypertension that results from upregulation of integrin adhesions is thus a natural and treatable outcome of Dystroglycan Complex down-regulation.

  2. Deletion of flbA results in increased secretome complexity and reduced secretion heterogeneity in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsheld, Pauline; Nitsche, Benjamin M; Post, Harm; Levin, Ana M; Müller, Wally H; Heck, Albert J R; Ram, Arthur F J; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Wösten, Han A B

    2013-04-05

    Aspergillus niger is a cell factory for the production of enzymes. This fungus secretes proteins in the central part and at the periphery of the colony. The sporulating zone of the colony overlapped with the nonsecreting subperipheral zone, indicating that sporulation inhibits protein secretion. Indeed, strain ΔflbA that is affected early in the sporulation program secreted proteins throughout the colony. In contrast, the ΔbrlA strain that initiates but not completes sporulation did not show altered spatial secretion. The secretome of 5 concentric zones of xylose-grown ΔflbA colonies was assessed by quantitative proteomics. In total 138 proteins with a signal sequence for secretion were identified in the medium of ΔflbA colonies. Of these, 18 proteins had never been reported to be part of the secretome of A. niger, while 101 proteins had previously not been identified in the culture medium of xylose-grown wild type colonies. Taken together, inactivation of flbA results in spatial changes in secretion and in a more complex secretome. The latter may be explained by the fact that strain ΔflbA has a thinner cell wall compared to the wild type, enabling efficient release of proteins. These results are of interest to improve A. niger as a cell factory.

  3. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis, browning, and energy balance in adult animals[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyi; Lei, Xinnuo; Benson, Tyler; Mintz, James; Xu, Xiaojing; Harris, Ruth B.; Weintraub, Neal L.; Wang, Xiaoling; Chen, Weiqin

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in BSCL2/SEIPIN cause Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), but the mechanisms whereby Bscl2 regulates adipose tissue function are unclear. Here, we generated adipose tissue (mature) Bscl2 knockout (Ad-mKO) mice, in which Bscl2 was specifically ablated in adipocytes of adult animals, to investigate the impact of acquired Bscl2 deletion on adipose tissue function and energy balance. Ad-mKO mice displayed reduced adiposity and were protected against high fat diet-induced obesity, but not insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. Gene expression profiling and biochemical assays revealed increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue , as well as browning of WAT, owing to induction of cAMP/protein kinase A signaling upon Bscl2 deletion. Interestingly, Bscl2 deletion reduced food intake and downregulated adipose β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) expression. Impaired ADRB3 signaling partially offsets upregulated browning-induced energy expenditure and thermogenesis in Ad-mKO mice housed at ambient temperature. However, this counter-regulatory response was abrogated under thermoneutral conditions, resulting in even greater body mass loss in Ad-mKO mice. These findings suggest that Bscl2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis and β-adrenergic signaling to produce complex effects on adipose tissues and whole-body energy balance. PMID:26269358

  4. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-27

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  5. Characterization of a complex rearrangement involving duplication and deletion of 9p in an infant with craniofacial dysmorphism and cardiac anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Bartolo Daniel L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partial duplication and partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 have each been reported in the literature as clinically recognizable syndromes. We present clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings on a five-week-old female infant with concomitant duplication and terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9. To our knowledge ten such cases have previously been reported. Conventional cytogenetic analysis identified additional material on chromosome 9 at band p23. FISH analysis aided in determining the additional material consisted of an inverted duplication with a terminal deletion of the short arm. Microarray analysis confirmed this interpretation and further characterized the abnormality as a duplication of about 32.7 Mb, from 9p23 to 9p11.2, and a terminal deletion of about 11.5 Mb, from 9p24.3 to 9p23. The infant displayed characteristic features of Duplication 9p Syndrome (hypotonia, bulbous nose, single transverse palmar crease, cranial anomalies, as well as features associated with Deletion 9p Syndrome (flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, cardiac anomalies despite the deletion being distal to the reported critical region for this syndrome. This case suggests that there are genes or regulatory elements that lie outside of the reported critical region responsible for certain phenotypic features associated with Deletion 9p Syndrome. It also underscores the importance of utilizing array technology to precisely define abnormalities involving the short arm of 9p in order to further refine genotype/phenotype associations and to identify additional cases of duplication/deletion.

  6. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  7. 乳清蛋白菊粉糖基化复合物的褐变特性与抗氧化活性%Characteristics of browning and antioxidant property of glycosylation complex of whey protein isolate and inulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 周春生; 刘书云; 田然; 田雨; 姜瞻梅

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of browning and antioxidant property of glycosylation complex of whey protein isolate and inulin were studied by detecting browning and antioxidant activity.It was shown that the higher reactant concentration and reaction temperature were,glycosylated products of whey protein isolate and inulin had higher browning intensity and antioxidant activity.When initial pH was higher,glycosylated products of whey protein isolate and inulin had higher browning intensity and reducing power ability.However,their DPPH radical scavenging capacity increased and subsequently decreased.When reactant concentration,reaction temperature,and initial pH were 6%,100 ℃,and 9,respectively,glycosylated products of whey protein isolate and inulin obtained higher antioxidant activity.%以褐变程度及抗氧化活性为检测指标,研究湿热反应条件对乳清蛋白菊粉糖基化复合物的褐变特性与抗氧化活性的影响.研究结果表明:反应物浓度越大,反应温度越高,乳清蛋白菊粉糖基化产物的褐变强度越大,抗氧化活性越强;起始反应pH值越大,乳清蛋白菊粉糖基化产物的褐变强度及还原能力越强,而其DPPH·清除能力呈现先升高后降低的趋势.当反应物浓度为6%,温度为100℃,起始反应pH值为9时,所获得的乳清蛋白糖基化产物抗氧化活性较强.

  8. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  9. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B;

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...

  10. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  11. Quantum deletion is possible

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, E

    2000-01-01

    A deleting operation is introduced which differs from the commonly used {\\it controlled-not} (C-not) conditional logical operation $-$to flip the (classical or quantum) state of the last copy in a chain in a deletion process. It is completely reversible, in the classical case, possessing a most natural cloning operation counterpart. We call this deleting procedure R-deletion since, in a way, it can be viewed as a `randomization' of the standard C-not operator. It is a nonlinear operation and has the remarkable property of avoiding in a simple manner the `impossibility of deletion of a quantum state' principle, put forward by Pati and Braunstein recently \\cite{pbn1}.

  12. A Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase with Broad Xyloglucan Specificity from the Brown-Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and Its Action on Cellulose-Xyloglucan Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    KOJIMA, Yuka; Várnai, Anikó; Ishida, Takuya; Sunagawa, Naoki; Petrovic, Dejan M.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jellison, Jody; GOODELL, BARRY; Alfredsen, Gry; Westereng, Bjørge; Vincent G H Eijsink; Yoshida, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi secrete a set of glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) to degrade plant polysaccharides. Brown-rot fungi, such as Gloeophyllum trabeum, tend to have few LPMOs, and information on these enzymes is scarce. The genome of G. trabeum encodes four auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) LPMOs (GtLPMO9s), whose coding sequences were amplified from cDNA. Due to alternative splicing, two variants of GtLPMO9A seem to be produced, a single-domain variant, GtLPMO9A-1, and...

  13. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci among sea trout (Salmo trutta) (n = 846) collected from three areas in the Limfjord (Denmark). We then assessed their potential population source by comparing, using a mixed stock analysis (MSA) Bayesian framework, their genetic composition...... to that of brown trout collected from 32 tributaries pooled into nine geographical regions (n = 3801) and two hatcheries (n = 222) used for stocking. For each of the three regional sea trout groups (western, central and eastern Limfjord, n = 91, n = 426, n = 329, respectively), MSA was conducted with (i) all...

  14. NFKBIA Deletion in Glioblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredel, Markus; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Alvarez, Angel A.; Renfrow, Jaclyn J.; Chandler, James P.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Carro, Maria S.; Dai, Fangping; Tagge, Michael J.; Ferrarese, Roberto; Bredel, Claudia; Phillips, Heidi S.; Lukac, Paul J.; Robe, Pierre A.; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Vogel, Hannes; Dubner, Steven; Mobley, Bret; He, Xiaolin; Scheck, Adrienne C.; Sikic, Branimir I.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Harsh, Griffith R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amplification and activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene are molecular hallmarks of glioblastomas. We hypothesized that deletion of NFKBIA (encoding nuclear factor of κ-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-α), an inhibitor of the EGFR-signaling pathway, promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastomas that do not have alterations of EGFR. METHODS We analyzed 790 human glioblastomas for deletions, mutations, or expression of NFKBIA and EGFR. We studied the tumor-suppressor activity of NFKBIA in tumor-cell culture. We compared the molecular results with the outcome of glioblastoma in 570 affected persons. RESULTS NFKBIA is often deleted but not mutated in glioblastomas; most deletions occur in nonclassical subtypes of the disease. Deletion of NFKBIA and amplification of EGFR show a pattern of mutual exclusivity. Restoration of the expression of NFKBIA attenuated the malignant phenotype and increased the vulnerability to chemotherapy of cells cultured from tumors with NFKBIA deletion; it also reduced the viability of cells with EGFR amplification but not of cells with normal gene dosages of both NFKBIA and EGFR. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with unfavorable outcomes. Patients who had tumors with NFKBIA deletion had outcomes that were similar to those in patients with tumors harboring EGFR amplification. These outcomes were poor as compared with the outcomes in patients with tumors that had normal gene dosages of NFKBIA and EGFR. A two-gene model that was based on expression of NFKBIA and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase was strongly associated with the clinical course of the disease. CONCLUSIONS Deletion of NFKBIA has an effect that is similar to the effect of EGFR amplification in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma and is associated with comparatively short survival. PMID:21175304

  15. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  16. Rictor/mTORC2 Loss in the Myf5 Lineage Reprograms Brown Fat Metabolism and Protects Mice against Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Hung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo functions of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 and the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT fuel utilization and activity are not well understood. Here, by conditionally deleting Rictor in the Myf5 lineage, we provide in vivo evidence that mTORC2 is dispensable for skeletal muscle development and regeneration but essential for BAT growth. Furthermore, deleting Rictor in Myf5 precursors shifts BAT metabolism to a more oxidative and less lipogenic state and protects mice from obesity and metabolic disease at thermoneutrality. We additionally find that Rictor is required for brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and that the mechanism specifically requires AKT1 hydrophobic motif phosphorylation but is independent of pan-AKT signaling and is rescued with BMP7. Our findings provide insights into the signaling circuitry that regulates brown adipocytes and could have important implications for developing therapies aimed at increasing energy expenditure as a means to combat human obesity.

  17. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  18. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  19. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of complex phenotype in a 13-week-old fetus with an interstitial multigene deletion 20q13.13.-q13.2 by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipoljev, Feodora; Miric-Tesanic, Danka; Hafner, Tomislav; Barbalic, Maja; Logara, Monika; Lasan-Trcic, Ruzica; Vicic, Ana; Gjergja-Juraski, Romana

    2017-11-01

    We report the first trimester three-dimensional ultrasonographic findings in a 13-week-old fetus with complex phenotype and a de novo 4.7 Mb multigene deletion encompassing chromosome region 20q13.13-q13.2 detected by chromosomal microarray. Fetal sonography detected radial-ray anomalies in the form of bilateral absence of thumbs and the left club hand deformity. The presence of single atrioventricular canal instead of the atrial septal defect typical for Holt-Oram syndrome pointed us to rather suspect the SALL4 related diseases. Central nervous system anomaly in the form of enlarged lateral brain ventricles with choroid plexus shifted backwards was not previously reported as a part of SALL4 related disorders. The pregnancy was terminated at 14 + 3 weeks of pregnancy and the autopsy confirmed ultrasonographic findings. Deleted region included 38 genes, where only SALL4, ADNP and KCNB1 heterozygote pathogenic variants were described to be cause of syndromic forms. Radial ray anomalies are common part of clinical picture of SALL4 related disorders. Despite the lack of prenatally described cases, we hypothesized that maldevelopment of lateral brain ventriculomegaly could be very early sonographic sign of disturbed ADNP expression causing Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome, but in some extent also of KCNB1 related early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Furthermore, the possible dosage-dependent influence of recessive genes located in this region cannot be also excluded. The use of genome-wide technologies enables the detection of subtle chromosomal imbalances and more precise familial genetic counseling regarding actual and future pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Calsequestrin 2 deletion causes sinoatrial node dysfunction and atrial arrhythmias associated with altered sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and degenerative fibrosis within the mouse atrial pacemaker complex1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, Alexey V.; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Lou, Qing; Hage, Lori T.; Hansen, Brian J.; Belevych, Andriy E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Knollmann, Björn C.; Periasamy, Muthu; Györke, Sandor; Fedorov, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Loss-of-function mutations in Calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) are associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT patients also exhibit bradycardia and atrial arrhythmias for which the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We aimed to study the sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction due to loss of CASQ2. Methods and results In vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, in vitro high-resolution optical mapping, confocal imaging of intracellular Ca2+ cycling, and 3D atrial immunohistology were performed in wild-type (WT) and Casq2 null (Casq2−/−) mice. Casq2−/− mice exhibited bradycardia, SAN conduction abnormalities, and beat-to-beat heart rate variability due to enhanced atrial ectopic activity both at baseline and with autonomic stimulation. Loss of CASQ2 increased fibrosis within the pacemaker complex, depressed primary SAN activity, and conduction, but enhanced atrial ectopic activity and atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with macro- and micro-reentry during autonomic stimulation. In SAN myocytes, CASQ2 deficiency induced perturbations in intracellular Ca2+ cycling, including abnormal Ca2+ release, periods of significantly elevated diastolic Ca2+ levels leading to pauses and unstable pacemaker rate. Importantly, Ca2+ cycling dysfunction occurred not only at the SAN cellular level but was also globally manifested as an increased delay between action potential (AP) and Ca2+ transient upstrokes throughout the atrial pacemaker complex. Conclusions Loss of CASQ2 causes abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and selective interstitial fibrosis in the atrial pacemaker complex, which disrupt SAN pacemaking but enhance latent pacemaker activity, create conduction abnormalities and increase susceptibility to AF. These functional and extensive structural alterations could contribute to SAN dysfunction as well as AF in CPVT patients. PMID:24216388

  2. Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Negatively Regulates Thermogenic Program in Brown Adipocytes via Coordinated Regulation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) Deacetylation and Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Cui, Xin; Zha, Lin; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-02-26

    Inhibiting class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increases energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC1 is a negative regulator of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program. The Hdac1 level is lower in mouse brown fat (BAT) than white fat, is suppressed in mouse BAT during cold exposure or β3-adrenergic stimulation, and is down-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation. Remarkably, overexpressing Hdac1 profoundly blocks, whereas deleting Hdac1 significantly enhances, β-adrenergic activation-induced BAT-specific gene expression in brown adipocytes. β-Adrenergic activation in brown adipocytes results in a dissociation of HDAC1 from promoters of BAT-specific genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (Pgc1α), leading to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark of gene activation. This is followed by dissociation of the polycomb repressive complexes, including the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue (EZH2), suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12), and ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) from (and concomitant recruitment of H3K27 demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) to) Ucp1 and Pgc1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27 trimethylation, a histone transcriptional repression mark. Thus, HDAC1 negatively regulates the brown adipocyte thermogenic program, and inhibiting Hdac1 promotes BAT-specific gene expression through a coordinated control of increased acetylation and decreased methylation of H3K27, thereby switching the transcriptional repressive state to the active state at the promoters of Ucp1 and Pgc1α. Targeting HDAC1 may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity by enhancing BAT thermogenesis.

  3. Deletion of the proline-rich region of TonB disrupts formation of a 2:1 complex with FhuA, an outer membrane receptor of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khursigara, Cezar M; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Pawelek, Peter D; Coulton, James W

    2005-05-01

    TonB protein of Escherichia coli couples the electrochemical potential of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) to active transport of iron-siderophores and vitamin B(12) across the outer membrane (OM). TonB interacts with OM receptors and transduces conformationally stored energy. Energy for transport is provided by the proton motive force through ExbB and ExbD, which form a ternary complex with TonB in the CM. TonB contains three distinct domains: an N-terminal signal/anchor sequence, a C-terminal domain, and a proline-rich region. The proline-rich region was proposed to extend TonB's structure across the periplasm, allowing it to contact spatially distant OM receptors. Having previously identified a 2:1 stoichiometry for the complex of full-length (FL) TonB and the OM receptor FhuA, we now demonstrate that deletion of the proline-rich region of TonB (TonBDelta66-100) prevents formation of the 2:1 complex. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation of TonBDelta66-100 with FhuA revealed that a 1:1 TonB-FhuA complex is formed. Interactions between TonBDelta66-100 and FhuA were assessed by surface plasmon resonance, and their affinities were determined to be similar to those of TonB (FL)-FhuA. Presence of the FhuA-specific siderophore ferricrocin altered neither stoichiometry nor affinity of interaction, leading to our conclusion that the proline-rich region in TonB is important in forming a 2:1 high-affinity TonB-FhuA complex in vitro. Furthermore, TonBDelta66-100-FhuADelta21-128 interactions demonstrated that the cork region of the OM receptor was also important in forming a complex. Together, these results demonstrate a novel function of the proline-rich region of TonB in mediating TonB-TonB interactions within the TonB-FhuA complex.

  4. Planck cold clumps in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex: I. Discovery of an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object and a proto-brown dwarf candidate in a bright rimmed clump PGCC G192.32-11.88

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Choi, Minho; Juvela, Mika; Thompson, Mark; Goldsmith, Paul F; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Naomi, Hirano; Koch, Patrick; Henkel, Christian; Sanhueza, Patricio; He, JinHua; Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Wang, Ke; Cunningham, Maria R; Tang, Ya-Wen; Lai, Shih-Ping; Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Di; Fuller, Gary; Kang, Miju; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Yang, Ji; Xu, Ye; Hirota, Tomoya; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Huei-Ru; Kwon, Woojin; Meng, FanYi; Zhang, Huawei; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Yi, Hee-Weon

    2015-01-01

    We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound bright-rimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity ($\\sim0.8$ L$_{\\sun}$) and accretion rate (6.3$\\times10^{-7}$ M$_{\\sun}$~yr$^{-1}$) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g. PACS Bright Red sources (PBRs)) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity ($0.21\\pm0.01$ L$_{\\sun}$) and outflow velocity ($\\sim$14 km~s$^{-1}$) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N...

  5. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  6. Recurrent deletions and reciprocal duplications of 10q11.21q11.23 including CHAT and SLC18A3 are likely mediated by complex low-copy repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Paweł; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Sampath, Srirangan; Bhatt, Samarth S; Shaikh, Tamim H; Xia, Zhilian; Pursley, Amber N; Cooper, M Lance; Shinawi, Marwan; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Grange, Dorothy K; Noetzel, Michael J; Saunders, Scott; Simons, Paul; Summar, Marshall; Lee, Brendan; Scaglia, Fernando; Fellmann, Florence; Martinet, Danielle; Beckmann, Jacques S; Asamoah, Alexander; Platky, Kathryn; Sparks, Susan; Martin, Ann S; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Hoover, Jacqueline; Medne, Livija; Bonnemann, Carsten G; Moeschler, John B; Vallee, Stephanie E; Parikh, Sumit; Irwin, Polly; Dalzell, Victoria P; Smith, Wendy E; Banks, Valerie C; Flannery, David B; Lovell, Carolyn M; Bellus, Gary A; Golden-Grant, Kathryn; Gorski, Jerome L; Kussmann, Jennifer L; McGregor, Tracy L; Hamid, Rizwan; Pfotenhauer, Jean; Ballif, Blake C; Shaw, Chad A; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Bacino, Carlos A; Patel, Ankita; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Cheung, Sau Wai; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2012-01-01

    We report 24 unrelated individuals with deletions and 17 additional cases with duplications at 10q11.21q21.1 identified by chromosomal microarray analysis. The rearrangements range in size from 0.3 to 12 Mb. Nineteen of the deletions and eight duplications are flanked by large, directly oriented segmental duplications of >98% sequence identity, suggesting that nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) caused these genomic rearrangements. Nine individuals with deletions and five with duplications have additional copy number changes. Detailed clinical evaluation of 20 patients with deletions revealed variable clinical features, with developmental delay (DD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) as the only features common to a majority of individuals. We suggest that some of the other features present in more than one patient with deletion, including hypotonia, sleep apnea, chronic constipation, gastroesophageal and vesicoureteral refluxes, epilepsy, ataxia, dysphagia, nystagmus, and ptosis may result from deletion of the CHAT gene, encoding choline acetyltransferase, and the SLC18A3 gene, mapping in the first intron of CHAT and encoding vesicular acetylcholine transporter. The phenotypic diversity and presence of the deletion in apparently normal carrier parents suggest that subjects carrying 10q11.21q11.23 deletions may exhibit variable phenotypic expressivity and incomplete penetrance influenced by additional genetic and nongenetic modifiers.

  7. Deletion (2)(q37)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, R.F.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Young, R.S. [South Texas Genetics Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    We report on a 5-month-old girl with widely spaced nipples, redundant nuchal skin, coarctation of the aorta, anal atresia with distal fistula, postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, and sparse scalp hair. Initial clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Chromosome analysis showed a 46,XX,del(2)(q37) karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes. We compare her findings to those of other reported patients with terminal deletions of 2q. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Single gene deletions of mrpA to mrpG and mrpE point mutations affect activity of the Mrp Na+/H+ antiporter of alkaliphilic Bacillus and formation of hetero-oligomeric Mrp complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Swartz, Talia H; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro

    2008-06-01

    Mrp antiporters catalyze secondary Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiport and/or K(+)/H(+) antiport that is physiologically important in diverse bacteria. An additional capacity for anion flux has been observed for a few systems. Mrp is unique among antiporters in that it requires all six or seven hydrophobic gene products (MrpA to MrpG) of the mrp operon for full antiporter activity, but MrpE has been reported to be dispensable. Here, the membrane complexes formed by Mrp proteins were examined using a cloned mrp operon from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. The operon was engineered so that the seven Mrp proteins could be detected in single samples. Membrane extracts of an antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli strain expressing this construct were analyzed by blue native-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mrp complexes of two sizes were identified containing all seven Mrp proteins. Studies of the single nonpolar mrp gene deletions in the construct showed that a subcomplex of MrpA, MrpB, MrpC, and MrpD was formed in the absence of MrpE, MrpF, or MrpG. By contrast, MrpE, MrpF, and MrpG were not observed in membranes lacking MrpA, MrpB, MrpC, or MrpD. Although MrpA and MrpD have been hypothesized to be the antiporter proteins, the MrpA-to-D complex was inactive. Every Mrp protein was required for an activity level near that of the wild-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, but a very low activity level was observed in the absence of MrpE. The introduction of an MrpE(P114G) mutation into the full Mrp complex led to antiport activity with a greatly increased apparent K(m) value for Na(+). The results suggested that interactions among the proteins of heterooligomeric Mrp complexes strongly impact antiporter properties.

  9. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  10. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dake

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV, because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.296 ~ 35.817, P = 0.023. In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P = 0.007. Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(tide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P = 0.023. Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that

  11. Síndrome de deleção 22q11 e cardiopatias congênitas complexas 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and complex congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a frequência da síndrome de deleção 22q11 (SD22q11 entre pacientes portadores de cardiopatia congênita do tipo complexa. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por uma coorte prospectiva e consecutiva de pacientes com cardiopatia complexa em sua primeira hospitalização em uma unidade de tratamento intensivo cardiológica de um hospital pediátrico. Para cada paciente foi preenchida uma ficha de avaliação, com coleta de dados clínicos, e realizado o cariótipo de alta resolução e técnica de hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH com pesquisa de microdeleção 22q11. Os defeitos cardíacos foram classificados por um cardiologista participante do estudo. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 66 pacientes. Quanto à análise cariotípica, alterações foram observadas em cinco pacientes (7,6%; contudo, nenhum deles apresentava deleção 22q11. A avaliação pela técnica de FISH pôde ser realizada com sucesso em 65 pacientes, sendo que a microdeleção 22q11 foi identificada em dois (3,1%. Dos 66 pacientes com defeitos complexos, 52 eram portadores de malformações do tipo conotruncal, sendo que em 51 a pesquisa para microdeleção 22q11 foi realizada. Os dois pacientes portadores da microdeleção 22q11 fizeram parte deste grupo, representando uma frequência de 3,9%. Eles apresentavam tetralogia de Fallot. CONCLUSÃO: A SD22q11 é uma anormalidade frequente entre pacientes com cardiopatias congênitas complexas e conotruncais. Variações da frequência da SD22q11 entre os estudos parecem estar associadas, principalmente, com a forma adotada para a seleção da amostra e às características da população em análise.OBJECTIVE: Investigate the frequency of 22q11 deletion syndrome among patients with complex congenital heart disease. METHODS: A prospective and consecutive cohort of patients with complex heart defects was evaluated in their first hospitalization at a cardiac intensive care unit of a pediatric

  12. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse;

    2016-01-01

    into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than....... We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... previous wake studies have suggested....

  13. Leptin and insulin act on POMC neurons to promote the browning of white fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Garron; Descherf, Stephanie; Loh, Kim; Simonds, Stephanie E.; Wiede, Florian; Balland, Eglantine; Merry, Troy L.; Münzberg, Heike; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Kahn, Barbara B.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Bence, Kendra K.; Andrews, Zane B.; Cowley, Michael A.; Tiganis, Tony

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The primary task of white adipose tissue (WAT) is the storage of lipids. However, ‘beige’ adipocytes also exist in WAT. Beige adipocytes burn fat and dissipate the energy as heat, but their abundance is diminished in obesity. Stimulating beige adipocyte development, or WAT browning, increases energy expenditure and holds potential for combating metabolic disease and obesity. Here we report that insulin and leptin act together on hypothalamic neurons to promote WAT browning and weight loss. Deletion of the phosphatases PTP1B and TCPTP enhanced insulin and leptin signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons and prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing WAT browning and energy expenditure. The co-infusion of insulin plus leptin into the CNS or the activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons also increased WAT browning and decreased adiposity. Our findings identify a homeostatic mechanism for coordinating the status of energy stores, as relayed by insulin and leptin, with the central control of WAT browning. PMID:25594176

  14. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  15. Tribbles 3 inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation and function by suppressing insulin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ha-Won; Choi, Ran Hee; McClellan, Jamie L. [Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Piroli, Gerardo G.; Frizzell, Norma [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology & Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J. [Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Koh, Ho-Jin, E-mail: kohh@mailbox.sc.edu [Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that adult humans have substantial amounts of functioning brown adipose tissue (BAT). Since BAT has been implicated as an anti-obese and anti-diabetic tissue, it is important to understand the signaling molecules that regulate BAT function. There has been a link between insulin signaling and BAT metabolism as deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function. Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is a pseudo kinase that has been shown to regulate metabolism and insulin signaling in multiple tissues but the role of TRB3 in BAT has not been studied. In this study, we found that TRB3 expression was present in BAT and overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes impaired differentiation and decreased expression of BAT markers. Furthermore, TRB3 overexpression resulted in significantly lower oxygen consumption rates for basal and proton leakage, indicating decreased BAT activity. Based on previous studies showing that deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function, we assessed insulin signaling in brown preadipocytes and BAT in vivo. Overexpression of TRB3 in cells impaired insulin-stimulated IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation, whereas TRB3KO mice displayed improved IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation. Finally, deletion of IRS1 abolished the function of TRB3 to regulate BAT differentiation and metabolism. These data demonstrate that TRB3 inhibits insulin signaling in BAT, resulting in impaired differentiation and function. - Highlights: • TRB3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and its expression is increased during differentiation. • Overexpression of TRB3 inhibits differentiation and its activity. • Overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes inhibits insulin signaling. • TRB3KO mice displays improved insulin signaling in brown adipose tissue. • Insulin signaling is required for the effects of TRB3 to regulate brown adipose tissue differentiation and

  16. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  17. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  18. Mitochondrial Myopathy with DNA Deletions

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1992-01-01

    Deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are reported in 19 of 56 patients with mitochondrial myopathy examined in the Department of Neurology and Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

  19. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  20. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  1. Cold-Inducible SIRT6 Regulates Thermogenesis of Brown and Beige Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological “whitening” of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2 consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, SIRT6 deficiency inhibits the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT following cold exposure or β3-agonist treatment. Depletion of SIRT6 expression in brown adipocytes reduces expression of thermogenic genes, causing a reduction in cellular respiration. Conversely, SIRT6 overexpression in primary fat cells stimulates the thermogenic program. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with and promotes phospho-ATF2 binding to the PGC-1α gene promoter to activate its expression. The present study reveals a critical role for SIRT6 in regulating thermogenesis of fat.

  2. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  4. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  5. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  6. The Brown-Golasinski model structure on $\\infty$-groupoids revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ara, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the folk model structure on strict $\\infty$-categories transfers to $\\infty$-groupoids, and that the resulting model structure coincides with the one defined by Brown and Golasinski via crossed complexes.

  7. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torode, Thomas A; Marcus, Susan E; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  9. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  11. Molecular genetic analyses of human NKG2C (KLRC2) gene deletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, R; Tsuchiya, N; Hikami, K; Kuroki, K; Fukazawa, T; Bijl, M; Kallenberg, CGM; Hashimoto, H; Yabe, T; Tokunaga, K

    Human NKG2A, NKG2C and NKG2E genes are located on 12p13 in the NK gene complex. We recently identified deletion of NKG2C in a Japanese population. This study was performed to identify the breakpoint, and to examine the association of NKG2C deletion with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and

  12. Complex chromosome rearrangement in a child with microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features and mosaicism for a terminal deletion del(18(q21.32-qter investigated by FISH and array-CGH: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokotas Haris

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 7 years and 4 months old Greek boy with mild microcephaly and dysmorphic facial features. He was a sociable child with maxillary hypoplasia, epicanthal folds, upslanting palpebral fissures with long eyelashes, and hypertelorism. His ears were prominent and dysmorphic, he had a long philtrum and a high arched palate. His weight was 17 kg (25th percentile and his height 120 cm (50th percentile. High resolution chromosome analysis identified in 50% of the cells a normal male karyotype, and in 50% of the cells one chromosome 18 showed a terminal deletion from 18q21.32. Molecular cytogenetic investigation confirmed a del(18(q21.32-qter in the one chromosome 18, but furthermore revealed the presence of a duplication in q21.2 in the other chromosome 18. The case is discussed concerning comparable previously reported cases and the possible mechanisms of formation.

  13. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  14. Notch Signaling Rescues Loss of Satellite Cells Lacking Pax7 and Promotes Brown Adipogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasut, Alessandra; Chang, Natasha C; Rodriguez, Uxia Gurriaran; Faulkes, Sharlene; Yin, Hang; Lacaria, Melanie; Ming, Hong; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2016-07-12

    Pax7 is a nodal transcription factor that is essential for regulating the maintenance, expansion, and myogenic identity of satellite cells during both neonatal and adult myogenesis. Deletion of Pax7 results in loss of satellite cells and impaired muscle regeneration. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the constitutively active intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD1) rescues the loss of Pax7-deficient satellite cells and restores their proliferative potential. Strikingly NICD1-expressing satellite cells do not undergo myogenic differentiation and instead acquire a brown adipogenic fate both in vivo and in vitro. NICD-expressing Pax7(-/-) satellite cells fail to upregulate MyoD and instead express the brown adipogenic marker PRDM16. Overall, these results show that Notch1 activation compensates for the loss of Pax7 in the quiescent state and acts as a molecular switch to promote brown adipogenesis in adult skeletal muscle.

  15. Tribbles 3 inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation and function by suppressing insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ha-Won; Choi, Ran Hee; McClellan, Jamie L; Piroli, Gerardo G; Frizzell, Norma; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J; Koh, Ho-Jin

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that adult humans have substantial amounts of functioning brown adipose tissue (BAT). Since BAT has been implicated as an anti-obese and anti-diabetic tissue, it is important to understand the signaling molecules that regulate BAT function. There has been a link between insulin signaling and BAT metabolism as deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function. Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is a pseudo kinase that has been shown to regulate metabolism and insulin signaling in multiple tissues but the role of TRB3 in BAT has not been studied. In this study, we found that TRB3 expression was present in BAT and overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes impaired differentiation and decreased expression of BAT markers. Furthermore, TRB3 overexpression resulted in significantly lower oxygen consumption rates for basal and proton leakage, indicating decreased BAT activity. Based on previous studies showing that deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function, we assessed insulin signaling in brown preadipocytes and BAT in vivo. Overexpression of TRB3 in cells impaired insulin-stimulated IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation, whereas TRB3KO mice displayed improved IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation. Finally, deletion of IRS1 abolished the function of TRB3 to regulate BAT differentiation and metabolism. These data demonstrate that TRB3 inhibits insulin signaling in BAT, resulting in impaired differentiation and function.

  16. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, Diego [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dionisi-Vici, Carlo [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Nobili, Valerio [Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco [Dept. Pathology, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Santorelli, Filippo Maria [UOC Neurogenetica e Malattie Neuromuscolari, Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  17. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  5. Biosynthetic Pathway and Health Benefits of Fucoxanthin, an Algae-Specific Xanthophyll in Brown Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hosokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown seaweeds to date. Here, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for fucoxanthin in the brown seaweed, Ectocarpus siliculosus, derived from comparison of carotenogenic genes in its sequenced genome with those in the genomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Currently, fucoxanthin is receiving attention, due to its potential benefits for human health. Therefore, new knowledge regarding the medical and nutraceutical properties of fucoxanthin from brown seaweeds is also summarized here.

  6. 5q14.3 deletion neurocutaneous syndrome: Contiguous gene syndrome caused by simultaneous deletion of RASA1 and MEF2C: A progressive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Rita; Agosta, Guillermo; Bacino, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a young girl who was presented with complex clinical symptoms caused by the deletion of contiguous genes: RASA1 and MEF2C, located on chromosome 5q14.3. Specifically, the diagnosis of her skin disorder and vascular malformations involving central nervous system is consistent with a RASopathy. The child's neurological manifestations are observed in most patients suffering from 5q14.3 by deletion or mutation of the MEF2C gene. A review of the literature allowed us to conclude that the contiguous deletion of genes RASA1 and MEF2C fulfills the criteria for the diagnosis of a Neurocutaneous syndrome as proposed by Carr et al. [2011]. We also assessed the penetrance of RASA1 and clinical manifestations of MEF2C according to the type of deletion. This child described presents the complete symptomatology of both deleted genes. We would also like to highlight the progression of the disorder.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  9. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  10. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  11. 76 FR 9555 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed deletions from the Procurement...'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 46- 48c) in connection with the products proposed for deletion from the...

  12. Identification of a mutation in the tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) gene associated with brown oculocutaneous albinism (OCA3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenberg, S.C.; Oetting, W.S.; Fryer, J.P. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The genes responsible for the two most common types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) have been identified. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene (chromosome 11q14-21) produce OCA1, and mutations of the P gene (chromosome 15q11.2-13) produce OCA2. Another type of OCA known as brown OCA or OCA3 is found commonly in the African and African-American population. OCA3 is characterized by light brown skin and hair with the ocular features of albinism and represents the third most frequent type of OCA. We previously identified dizygotic African-American twin boys who were discordant for OCA3. Melanocytes from the affected twin produced brown melanin and contained no detectable TRP1 protein. We have now characterized the TRP1 gene from the affected twin. The human TRP1 gene, homologous to the murine brown locus, contains 8 exons and maps to chromosome 9p23. Using PCR amplification of each exon coupled with SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing, we found the affected twin to homozygous for a single bp deletion in exon 6. The deletion removes a G in codon 368 leading to a premature stop at codon 384. We also identified a Tsp509 polymorphism in the 3{prime} UTR. We conclude that mutations of the TRP1 gene are responsible for brown OCA or OCA3, making this the third major OCA gene identified in humans.

  13. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  14. Characterization of Phlorotannins from Brown Algae by LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Jeremy E; MacKinnon, Shawna L

    2015-01-01

    Phlorotannins are a class of polyphenols found in brown seaweeds that have significant potential for use as therapeutics, owing to their wide range of bioactivities. Molecular characterization of phlorotannin-enriched extracts is challenging due to the extreme sample complexity and the wide range of molecular weights observed. Herein, we describe a method for characterizing phlorotannins employing ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) operating in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

  15. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  16. Deletion of a single-copy DAAM1 gene in congenital heart defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Bihui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing incidence of congenital heart defects (CHDs in recent years, genotype-phenotype correlation and array-based methods have contributed to the genome-wide analysis and understanding of genetic variations in the CHD population. Here, we report a copy number deletion of chromosomal 14q23.1 in a female fetus with complex congenital heart defects. This is the first description of DAAM1 gene deletion associated with congenital heart anomalies. Case Presentation Compared with the control population, one CHD fetus showed a unique copy number deletion of 14q23.1, a region that harbored DAAM1 and KIAA0666 genes. Conclusions Results suggest that the copy number deletion on chromosome 14q23.1 may be critical for cardiogenesis. However, the exact relationship and mechanism of how DAAM1 and KIAA0666 deletion contributes to the onset of CHD is yet to be determined.

  17. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  19. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  20. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  1. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging to Detect and Quantify Adipose Tissue Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinish, U. S; Wong, Chi Lok; Sriram, Sandhya; Ong, Wee Kiat; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Sugii, Shigeki; Olivo, Malini

    2017-01-01

    Adipose (fat) tissue is a complex metabolic organ that is highly active and essential. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is deemed metabolically beneficial because of its ability to burn calories through heat production. The conversion of WAT-resident adipocytes to “beige” or “brown-like” adipocytes has recently attracted attention. However, it typically takes a few days to analyze and confirm this browning of WAT through conventional molecular, biochemical, or histological methods. Moreover, accurate quantification of the overall browning process is not possible by any of these methods. In this context, we report the novel application of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and multispectral imaging (MSI) to detect and quantify the browning process in mice. We successfully demonstrated the time-dependent increase in browning of WAT, following its induction through β-adrenergic agonist injections. The results from these optical techniques were confirmed with those of standard molecular and biochemical assays, which measure gene and protein expression levels of UCP1 and PGC-1α, as well as with histological examinations. We envision that the reported optical methods can be developed into a fast, real time, cost effective and easy to implement imaging approach for quantification of the browning process in adipose tissue. PMID:28145475

  2. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  3. NPM1 deletion is associated with gross chromosomal rearrangements in leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta La Starza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NPM1 gene at chromosome 5q35 is involved in recurrent translocations in leukemia and lymphoma. It also undergoes mutations in 60% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML cases with normal karyotype. The incidence and significance of NPM1 deletion in human leukemia have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bone marrow samples from 145 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and AML were included in this study. Cytogenetically 43 cases had isolated 5q-, 84 cases had 5q- plus other changes and 18 cases had complex karyotype without 5q deletion. FISH and direct sequencing investigated the NPM1 gene. NPM1 deletion was an uncommon event in the "5q- syndrome" but occurred in over 40% of cases with high risk MDS/AML with complex karyotypes and 5q loss. It originated from large 5q chromosome deletions. Simultaneous exon 12 mutations were never found. NPM1 gene status was related to the pattern of complex cytogenetic aberrations. NPM1 haploinsufficiency was significantly associated with monosomies (p<0.001 and gross chromosomal rearrangements, i.e., markers, rings, and double minutes (p<0.001, while NPM1 disomy was associated with structural changes (p=0.013. Interestingly, in complex karyotypes with 5q- TP53 deletion and/or mutations are not specifically associated with NPM1 deletion. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: NPM1/5q35 deletion is a consistent event in MDS/AML with a 5q-/-5 in complex karyotypes. NPM1 deletion and NPM1 exon 12 mutations appear to be mutually exclusive and are associated with two distinct cytogenetic subsets of MDS and AML.

  4. Quantitation of Brown Adipose Tissue Perfusion in Transgenic Mice Using Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nakayama

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT; brown fat is the principal site of adaptive thermogenesis in the human newborn and other small mammals. Of paramount importance for thermogenesis is vascular perfusion, which controls the flow of cool blood in, and warmed blood out, of BAT. We have developed an optical method for the quantitative imaging of BAT perfusion in the living, intact animal using the heptamethine indocyanine IR-786 and near-infrared (NIR fluorescent light. We present a detailed analysis of the physical, chemical, and cellular properties of IR-786, its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics, and its uptake into BAT. Using transgenic animals with homozygous deletion of Type II iodothyronine deiodinase, or homozygous deletion of uncoupling proteins (UCPs 1 and 2, we demonstrate that BAT perfusion can be measured noninvasively, accurately, and reproducibly. Using these techniques, we show that UCP 1/2 knockout animals, when compared to wild-type animals, have a higher baseline perfusion of BAT but a similar maximal response to β3-receptor agonist. These results suggest that compensation for UCP deletion is mediated, in part, by the control of BAT perfusion. Taken together, BAT perfusion can now be measured noninvasively using NIR fluorescent light, and pharmacological modulators of thermogenesis can be screened at relatively high throughput in living animals.

  5. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  6. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  7. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  8. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  9. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan VK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Valerie K Jordan,1 Hitisha P Zaveri,2 Daryl A Scott1,2 1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes. Keywords: chromosome 1p36, chromosome deletion, 1p36 deletion syndrome, monosomy 1p36

  10. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia without Maturation with a Retinoic Alpha-Receptor Deletion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosclair, Christopher; Pollen, Maressa; Capraro, Gerald; Cotelingam, James; Shackelford, Rodney E

    2014-05-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a t(15;17) which fuses the 17q retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence to the 15q PML gene sequence. The resulting fusion product plays a role in the development and maintenance of APL, and is very rarely found in other acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes. Rare complex APL genomic rearrangements have retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletions. Here we report a retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletion in a case of AML without differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletion in this AML subtype.

  11. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia without Maturation with a Retinoic Alpha-Receptor Deletion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Trosclair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is characterized by a t(15;17 which fuses the 17q retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence to the 15q PML gene sequence. The resulting fusion product plays a role in the development and maintenance of APL, and is very rarely found in other acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtypes. Rare complex APL genomic rearrangements have retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletions. Here we report a retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletion in a case of AML without differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a retinoic acid alpha-receptor sequence deletion in this AML subtype.

  12. Biotechnological applications of brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Henrique da Silva, Paulo; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Paludo, Kátia Sabrina; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Gremski, Waldemiro; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2008-01-01

    Loxoscelism (the term used to define accidents by the bite of brown spiders) has been reported worldwide. Clinical manifestations following brown spider bites are frequently associated with skin degeneration, a massive inflammatory response at the injured region, intravascular hemolysis, platelet aggregation causing thrombocytopenia and renal disturbances. The mechanisms by which the venom exerts its noxious effects are currently under investigation. The whole venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched with low molecular mass proteins in the range of 5-40 kDa. Toxins including alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronidase, metalloproteases (astacin-like proteases), low molecular mass (5.6-7.9 kDa) insecticidal peptides and phospholipases-D (dermonecrotic toxins) have been identified in the venom. The purpose of the present review is to describe biotechnological applications of whole venom or some toxins, with especial emphasis upon molecular biology findings obtained in the last years.

  13. The chromosome 9q subtelomere deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, D.R.; Kleefstra, T.

    2007-01-01

    The chromosome 9q subtelomere deletion syndrome (9qSTDS) is among the first and most common clinically recognizable syndromes to arise from widespread testing by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of subtelomere deletions. There are about 50 reported cases worldwide. Affected individuals invar

  14. Seven gene deletions in seven days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Lennen, Rebecca; Herrgard, Markus;

    2015-01-01

    enables growth at 37 °C, thereby facilitating removal of integrated antibiotic cassettes and deletion of additional genes in the same day. Phosphorothioated primers were demonstrated to enable simultaneous deletions during one round of electroporation. Utilizing these methods, we constructed strains...

  15. Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Thorup, Mikkel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    A union-find data structure maintains a collection of disjoint sets under the operations makeset, union, and find. Kaplan, Shafrir, and Tarjan [SODA 2002] designed data structures for an extension of the union-find problem in which items of the sets maintained may be deleted. The cost of a delete...

  16. Contiguous gene deletion of ELOVL7, ERCC8 and NDUFAF2 in a patient with a fatal multisystem disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Rolf J R J; Distelmaier, Felix; Smeets, Roel

    2009-01-01

    gene deletion on chromosome 5. The deletion encompassed the NDUFAF2, ERCC8 and ELOVL7 genes, encoding complex I assembly factor 2 (also known as human B17.2L), a protein of the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) machinery, and a putative elongase of very long-chain fatty acid...

  17. Bridging the Gene-Behavior Divide through Neuroimaging Deletion Syndromes: Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) and Williams (7q11.23 Deletion) Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel Paul; Jabbi, Mbemba; Berman, Karen Faith

    2010-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between genes and the neural substrates of complex human behavior promises to provide essential insight into the pathophysiology of mental disorders. One approach to this inquiry is through neuroimaging of individuals with microdeletion syndromes that manifest in specific neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Both Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS) and Williams Syndrome (WS) involve haploinsufficiency of a relatively small set of identified genes on the one hand and association with distinct, clinically-relevant behavioral and cognitive profiles on the other hand. In VCFS, there is a deletion in chromosomal region 22q11.2 and a resultant predilection toward psychosis, poor arithmetic proficiency, and low performance intelligence quotients. In WS, there is a deletion in chromosomal region 7q11.23 and a resultant predilection toward hypersociability, non-social anxiety, impaired visuospatial construction, and often intellectual impairment. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have begun not only to map these well-defined genetic alterations to systems-level brain abnormalities, but also to identify relationships between neural phenotypes and particular genes within the critical deletion regions. Though neuroimaging of both VCFS and WS presents specific, formidable methodological challenges, including comparison subject selection and accounting for neuroanatomical and vascular anomalies in patients, and many questions remain, the literature to date on these syndromes, reviewed herein, constitutes a fruitful “bottom-up” approach to defining gene-brain relationships. PMID:20206275

  18. Congenital heart defect in a patient with deletion of chromosome 7q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, G E; Watson, M S; Duncan, L M; Dowton, S B

    1988-02-01

    We describe a premature male infant with a terminal deletion of 7q [del(7) (pter----q34:)]. Manifestations include low birth weight, hypertelorism, bilateral cleft lip and palate, cryptorchidism, and a complex congenital heart defect. The latter consisted of hypoplasia of the main pulmonary artery, absent pulmonary valve, ventricular septal defect, and anomalous right pulmonary artery. We briefly review the spectrum of heart defects seen with chromosome 7 deletions, and comment on the incidence of this unusual heart lesion.

  19. Inflammation Downregulates UCP1 Expression in Brown Adipocytes Potentially via SIRT1 and DBC1 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K. Nøhr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis at the cost of energy is not only important for the development of obesity, but also possesses great promise in anti-obesity treatment. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression has been reported to be under control of the intracellular deacetylase SIRT1. Here, we investigated the effect and mechanism of inflammation and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 activation on the induction of thermogenic genes in immortalized brown adipocytes incubated with LPS or IL1β and mice with elevated inflammatory tone. In vitro stimulation of brown adipocytes with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosthate (dbcAMP reduced the expression of deleted in breast cancer-1 (Dbc1 (SIRT1 inhibitor and increased the Ucp1 expression. Silencing of SIRT1 attenuated dbcAMP induction of Ucp1. In contrast, IL1β increased the expression of Dbc1 and greatly reduced the induction of Ucp1. Similarly, in vivo studies revealed decreased expression of Ucp1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT in mice chronically infused with LPS. Resveratrol, a known SIRT1 activator, partly rescued the Ucp1 downregulation by inflammation in both the cell cultures and mice. Here, we describe how the expression of Ucp1 in BAT is controlled via SIRT1 and is reduced under inflammation and can be rescued by SIRT1 activation by resveratrol. We suggest the reduced UCP1 expression under inflammation is mediated by the increased expression of DBC1, which inhibits SIRT1 activity.

  20. Inflammation Downregulates UCP1 Expression in Brown Adipocytes Potentially via SIRT1 and DBC1 Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, Mark K; Bobba, Natalia; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B

    2017-05-08

    Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis at the cost of energy is not only important for the development of obesity, but also possesses great promise in anti-obesity treatment. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression has been reported to be under control of the intracellular deacetylase SIRT1. Here, we investigated the effect and mechanism of inflammation and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) activation on the induction of thermogenic genes in immortalized brown adipocytes incubated with LPS or IL1β and mice with elevated inflammatory tone. In vitro stimulation of brown adipocytes with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosthate (dbcAMP) reduced the expression of deleted in breast cancer-1 (Dbc1) (SIRT1 inhibitor) and increased the Ucp1 expression. Silencing of SIRT1 attenuated dbcAMP induction of Ucp1. In contrast, IL1β increased the expression of Dbc1 and greatly reduced the induction of Ucp1. Similarly, in vivo studies revealed decreased expression of Ucp1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice chronically infused with LPS. Resveratrol, a known SIRT1 activator, partly rescued the Ucp1 downregulation by inflammation in both the cell cultures and mice. Here, we describe how the expression of Ucp1 in BAT is controlled via SIRT1 and is reduced under inflammation and can be rescued by SIRT1 activation by resveratrol. We suggest the reduced UCP1 expression under inflammation is mediated by the increased expression of DBC1, which inhibits SIRT1 activity.

  1. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  2. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  3. Effects of glucocorticoids on human brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Johanna L; Agada, Hadiya; Jang, Christina; Ward, Micheal; Wetzig, Neil; Ho, Ken K Y

    2015-02-01

    Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of brown adipocytes. Human brown adipocytes sourced from supraclavicular fat biopsies were grown in culture and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Human white adipocytes sourced from subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were cultured as controls. Effects of dexamethasone on growth, differentiation (UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A expression), and function (oxygen consumption rate (OCR)) of brown adipocytes were quantified. Dexamethasone (1 μM) significantly stimulated the proliferation of brown preadipocytes and reduced that of white preadipocytes. During differentiation, dexamethasone (at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) stimulated the expression of UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by fourfold to sixfold the OCR of brown adipocytes. Isoprenaline (100 nM) significantly increased (POCR of brown adipocytes. These effects were significantly reduced (Pbiology of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and for the involvement of the BAT system in the metabolic manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  5. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  6. HARPERS FERRY, A PLAY ABOUT JOHN BROWN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAVIS, BARRIE

    THIS PLAY IS A DRAMATIC RENDERING OF JOHN BROWN'S ATTACK ON THE ARMORY AT HARPERS FERRY AND HIS SUBSEQUENT TRIAL FOR TREASON. ALTHOUGH IT ADHERES TO THE FACTS OF HISTORY, THEY ARE NOT TREATED REALISTICALLY. "HARPERS FERRY" PORTRAYS BROWN AS POSSESSING A PURE IDEALISM UNTAINTED IN THE SLIGHTEST DEGREE BY MATERIALISM OR SELF-SEEKING, WHICH…

  7. John Brown and the Abolitionist Ministry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Stuart

    1982-01-01

    John Brown's death did not cause the Civil War; it precipitated the conflict. Many ministers anticipated the war and hurried its outbreak by canonizing a fanatic. By 1859, the abolitionists needed a martyr to infuse new emotion into their cause and seized upon John Brown to fill this role. (Author/GC)

  8. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; López, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4 Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. © 2017 The authors.

  9. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  10. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  11. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  12. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  13. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  14. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  15. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  16. Large contiguous gene deletions in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstad, Holly; Carney, Gael; S'aulis, Dana; Rise, Janae; Sanger, Warren G; Rudd, M Katharine; Richard, Gabriele; Carr, Christopher W; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Rizzo, William B

    2011-11-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of fatty aldehyde to fatty acid. More than 70 mutations have been identified in SLS patients, including small deletions or insertions, missense mutations, splicing defects and complex nucleotide changes. We now describe 2 SLS patients whose disease is caused by large contiguous gene deletions of the ALDH3A2 locus on 17p11.2. The deletions were defined using long distance inverse PCR and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. A 24-year-old SLS female was homozygous for a 352-kb deletion involving ALDH3A2 and 4 contiguous genes including ALDH3A1, which codes for the major soluble protein in cornea. Although lacking corneal disease, she showed severe symptoms of SLS with uncommon deterioration in oral motor function and loss of ambulation. The other 19-month-old female patient was a compound heterozygote for a 1.44-Mb contiguous gene deletion and a missense mutation (c.407C>T, P136L) in ALDH3A2. These studies suggest that large gene deletions may account for up to 5% of the mutant alleles in SLS. Geneticists should consider the possibility of compound heterozygosity for large deletions in patients with SLS and other inborn errors of metabolism, which has implications for carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis.

  17. A deletion distinct from the classical homologous recombination of juvenile nephronophthisis type 1 (NPH1) allows exact molecular definition of deletion breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, E; Betz, R; Rensing, C; Schätzle, S; Kuntzen, T; Vetsi, T; Imm, A; Hildebrandt, F

    2000-09-01

    Juvenile nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease, is the most common genetic cause of end-stage renal disease in children and young adults. We recently identified by positional cloning the causative gene, NPHP1. Its gene product nephrocystin may play a role in focal adhesion and adherens junction signaling. Approximately 80% of all patients with NPH1 carry large homozygous deletions, which contain the NPHP1 gene. These common deletions are positioned within a complex arrangement of large inverted and direct repeats, suggesting unequal recombination as a potential cause for their origin. In this study we have characterized the deletion breakpoints in a family with juvenile nephronophthisis that bears a unique maternal deletion of the NPHP1 gene, which is not the result of an event of homologous recombination. We molecularly characterized the centromeric and telomeric deletion breakpoints by extensive genomic sequencing, Southern blot analysis, and cloning and sequencing of the junction fragment. We were able to exactly localize the breakpoints at the position of two guanines. The centromeric breakpoint was positioned within intron 2 of the NPHP1 gene 360 bp downstream of the 5' end of a complete LINE-1 element. Multiple topoisomerase I and II consensus sequences were found at the breakpoint sites, suggesting the involvement of topoisomerase II in the deletion mechanism. These findings provide the first data on a potential mechanism for a deletion of the NPHP1 gene, that most likely is not the result of an event of homologous recombination and thereby distinct from the known common deletions. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chakrabarty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observation of large-scale production of spherical, carbonaceous particles – "tar balls" – from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements indicate that brown carbon is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional organic carbon (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths and brown carbon suggest that accounting for UV absorption by brown carbon leads to a significant increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased atmospheric warming. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  19. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chakrabarty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles – "tar balls" – from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index – optically defined as "brown carbon" – is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  20. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-07-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index - optically defined as "brown carbon" - is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  1. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  2. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  3. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  4. A Story in Brown and White Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Brown Adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mössenböck, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue exists in three shades: White adipose tissue (WAT), the site of energy storage, brown adipose tissue (BAT), which burns nutrients to generate heat and maintain body temperature, and brown in white adipose tissue (brite AT), which represents WAT adapting BAT features in cold exposure. Thermogenically active BAT has been discovered in adult humans and inversely correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The link between impaired insulin sensitivity and the browning of adipos...

  5. "Every morning before you open the door you have to watch for that brown envelope": complexities and challenges of undertaking oral history with Ethiopian forced migrants in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David

    2010-01-01

    The experience, "voice," and perceptions of the "individual refugee" is conspicuous by its virtual absence from academic research. The few studies dealing with black adn minority ethnic experiences from an emic perspective in relation to mental health do not specifically refer to refugees or asylum seekers. This article explores the use of oral history techniques when researching Ethiopian forced migrants in the U.K. Based on two pilot research projects which explored Ethiopian culture and experience in reference to mental health adn well-being, it will focus on some of the complexities and challenges encountered. This article acknowledges the need for an understanding of cultural traditions as well as history and experience when planning and implementing such research as this proved to be an essential part of the research process, ensuring that individual stories and truths were allowed to evolve. The oral history approach for this research therefore ensured that the experiential knowledge of the Ethiopian forced migrant participants was given space, authenticity, and validity.

  6. Browns Park Bottomlands Amendment : April 7, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The University of Wyoming proposed a two year research project to address identified vegetation monitoring needs of the Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  7. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  8. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  9. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  10. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  11. What Brown saw and you can too

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  12. Characteristics of the Thorez open pit brown coal mine in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Hungarian (VNR) brown coal deposits have a large number of thin and varying quality seams. The problem of selecting optimal equipment and technology for mining is determined by finding the parameters of a rotary complex and then the parameters of the technology.

  13. Somatic mosaicism for a DMD gene deletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kayoko; Ikeya, Kiyoko; Kondo, Eri [Tokyo Women`s Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    Mosaicism is a mixed state, with two cell populations of different genetic origins caused by a cell mutation occurring after fertilization. In the present case, DNA analysis of lymphocytes led to a DMD diagnosis before death. Postmortem immunocytochemical and DNA analysis showed somatic mosaicism. At age 18 years, blood lymphocyte DNA analysis showed a DMD gene deletion, upstream from exon 7 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. As the patient`s mother and elder sister had no deletions, he was considered to have a new mutation. Immunocytochemical studies of postmortem tissues showed that dystrophin was absent from the tongue, deltoid, intercostal, psoas and rectus femoris muscles, but there was a mix of dystrophin-positive and negative fibers in the rectus abdominis, cardiac, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. All diaphragm cells were dystrophin positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from all tissues except the temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles, diaphragm and kidney, in which no deletion was found, showed the deletion from at least exon 6 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. In this case, a genomic deletion of the DMD gene contributed to the formation of tissues derived from both ectoderm and endoderm, and cells of mesodermal origin showed genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Our results indicate a mutation of the present case may have occurred just before the period of germ layer formation. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

    2012-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ~139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS.

  15. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  16. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    CERN Document Server

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of this problem, we give different representations of the generalized Brown-Resnick processes - including random shifting and a mixed moving maxima representation - and derive various kinds of finite approximations that can be used for simulation purposes. Furthermore, error bounds are calculated in the case of the original process by Brown and Resnick (1977). For a one-paramatric class of Brown-Resnick processes based on the fractional Brownian motion we perform a simulation study and compare the results of the different met...

  17. Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Vuitika, Larissa; Dias-Lopes, Camila; Ullah, Anwar; de Moraes, Fábio Rogério; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2014-06-01

    The Loxosceles genus spiders (the brown spiders) are encountered in all the continents, and the clinical manifestations following spider bites include skin necrosis with gravitational lesion spreading and occasional systemic manifestations, such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Brown spider venoms are complex mixtures of toxins especially enriched in three molecular families: the phospholipases D, astacin-like metalloproteases and Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) peptides. Other toxins with low level of expression also present in the venom include the serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, hyaluronidases, allergen factors and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The mechanisms by which the Loxosceles venoms act and exert their noxious effects are not fully understood. Except for the brown spider venom phospholipase D, which causes dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, the pathological activities of the other venom toxins remain unclear. The objective of the present review is to provide insights into the brown spider venoms and loxoscelism based on recent results. These insights include the biology of brown spiders, the clinical features of loxoscelism and the diagnosis and therapy of brown spider bites. Regarding the brown spider venom, this review includes a description of the novel toxins revealed by molecular biology and proteomics techniques, the data regarding three-dimensional toxin structures, and the mechanism of action of these molecules. Finally, the biotechnological applications of the venom components, especially for those toxins reported as recombinant molecules, and the challenges for future study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 9q22 Deletion - First Familial Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Toshiyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400 due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309. Methods and Results We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion at 9q22.2q22.32, detected by array CGH (244 K. The deletion does not involve the PTCH1 gene, but instead 30 other gene,s including the ROR2 gene (MIM *602337 which causing both brachydactyly type 1 (MIM #113000 and Robinow syndrome (MIM #268310, and the immunologically active SYK gene (MIM *600085. The deletion in the father was de novo and FISH analysis of blood lymphocytes did not suggest mosaicism. All three patients share similar mild dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures, narrow, high bridged nose with small nares, long, deeply grooved philtrum, ears with broad helix and uplifted lobuli, and small toenails. All have significant dysarthria and suffer from continuous middle ear and upper respiratory infections. The father also has a funnel chest and unilateral hypoplastic kidney but the daughters have no malformations. Conclusions This is the first report of a familial constitutional 9q22 deletion and the first deletion studied by array-CGH which does not involve the PTCH1 gene. The phenotype and penetrance are variable and the deletion found in the cognitively normal normal father poses a challenge in genetic counseling.

  19. Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan Mary C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy. Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements

  20. Microlensing Planet Around Brown-Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Batista, V; Christie, G; Choi, J -Y; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Monard, L A G; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Porritt, I; Shin, I -G; Tan, T G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Liebig, C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around brown dwarfs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field brown dwarf via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 +- 0.001), relatively tightly-separated (~0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 +- 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a brown dwarf with a mass 0.022 M_Sun. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the brown dwarf host, in a manner analogous to planets.

  1. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  2. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  3. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  4. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  5. Huntington's disease and mitochondrial DNA deletions: event or regular mechanism for mutant huntingtin protein and CAG repeats expansion?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Houshmand, Massoud; Panahi, Mehdi Shafa Shariat; Shariati, Parvin; Rostami, Maryam; Manshadi, Masoumeh Dehghan; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh

    2007-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory chain complex activities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). Research studies were conducted to determine the possible levels of mitochondrial defect (deletion) in HD patients and consideration of interaction between the expanded Huntingtin gene as a nuclear gene and mitochondria as a cytoplasmic organelle. To determine mtDNA damage, we investigated deletions based in four areas of mitochondrial DNA, in a group of 60 Iranian patients clinically diagnosed with HD and 70 healthy controls. A total of 41 patients out of 60 had CAG expansion (group A). About 19 patients did not show expansion but had the clinical symptoms of HD (group B). MtDNA deletions were classified into four groups according to size; 9 kb, 7.5 kb, 7 kb, and 5 kb. We found one of the four-mtDNA deletions in at least 90% of samples. Multiple deletions have also been observed in 63% of HD patients. None of the normal control (group C) showed mtDNA deletions. The sizes or locations of the deletions did not show a clear correlation with expanded CAG repeat and age in our samples. The study presented evidence that HD patients had higher frequencies of mtDNA deletions in lymphocytes in comparison to the controls. It is thus proposed that CAG repeats instability and mutant Htt are causative factor in mtDNA damage.

  6. Intra-family phenotypic heterogeneity of 16p11.2 deletion carriers in a three-generation Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiping; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Liwen; Guo, Jin; Shen, Jianliang; An, Yu; Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Yanli; Xin, Ruolei; Bao, Yihua; Gusella, James F; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2011-03-01

    The 16p11.2 deletion is a recurrent genomic event and a significant risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This genomic disorder also exhibits extensive phenotypic variability and diverse clinical phenotypes. The full extent of phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the 16p11.2 deletion disorder and the factors that modify the clinical phenotypes are currently unknown. Multiplex families with deletion offer unique opportunities for exploring the degree of heterogeneity and implicating modifiers. Here we reported the clinical and genomic characteristics of three 16p11.2 deletion carriers in a Chinese family. The father carries a de novo 16p11.2 deletion, and it was transmitted to the proband and sib. The proband presented with ASD, intellectual disability, learning difficulty, congenital malformations such as atrial septal defect, scoliosis. His dysmorphic features included myopia and strabismus, flat and broad nasal bridge, etc. While the father shared same neurodevelopmental problems as the proband, the younger brother did not show many of the proband's phenotypes. The possible unmasked mutation of TBX6 and MVP gene in this deleted region and the differential distribution of other genomic CNVs were explored to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity in these carriers. This report demonstrated the different developmental trajectory and discordant phenotypes among family members with the same 16p11.2 deletion, thus further illustrated the phenotypic complexity and heterogeneity of the 16p11.2 deletion.

  7. Adipocyte-Specific Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α Deficiency Exacerbates Obesity-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and Metabolic Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    García-Martín, Rubén; Alexaki, Vasileia I.; Qin, Nan; Rubín de Celis, María F.; Economopoulou, Matina; Ziogas, Athanasios; Gercken, Bettina; Kotlabova, Klara; Phieler, Julia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Eisenhofer, Graeme; BREIER, GEORG; Blüher, Matthias; Hampe, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a central regulator for white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue adaptation in the course of obesity. Here we show that deletion of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) in adipocytes (by using Fabp4-Cre transgenic mice) but not in myeloid or endothelial cells negatively impacted WAT angiogenesis and promoted WAT inflammation, WAT dysfunction, hepatosteatosis, and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Importantly, adipocyte HIF2α regulated vascular endothelial growth factor ...

  8. A study of fucoidan from the brown seaweed Chorda filum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhov, A O; Dell, A; Morris, H R; Haslam, S M; McDowell, R A; Shashkov, A S; Nifant'ev, N E; Khatuntseva, E A; Usov, A I

    1999-07-20

    Fucoidan fractions from the brown seaweed Chorda filum were studied using solvolytic desulfation. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy were applied for native and desulfated polysaccharides. Homofucan sulfate from C. filum was shown to contain poly-alpha-(1-->3)-fucopyranoside backbone with a high degree of branching, mainly of alpha-(1-->2)-linked single units. Some fucopyranose residues are sulfated at O-4 (mainly) and O-2 positions. Some alpha-(1-->3)-linked fucose residues were shown by NMR to be 2-O-acetylated. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of desulfated, deacetylated fucan were completely assigned. The spectral data obtained correspond to a quasiregular polysaccharide structure with a branched hexasaccharide repeating unit. Other fucoidan fractions from C. filum have more complex carbohydrate composition and give rather complex methylation patterns. [formula: see text

  9. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  10. Exon-disrupting deletions of NRXN1 in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke S; Weber, Yvonne G; Klitten, Laura L

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins are neuronal adhesion molecules located in the presynaptic terminal, where they interact with postsynaptic neuroligins to form a transsynaptic complex required for efficient neurotransmission in the brain. Recently, deletions and point mutations of the neurexin 1 (NRXN1) gene have been ...

  11. Brown Dwarf Companions to White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burleigh, M R; Dobbie, P D; Farihi, J; Napiwotzki, R; Maxted, P F L; Barstow, M A; Jameson, R F; Casewell, S L; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R

    2011-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions to white dwarfs are rare, but recent infra-red surveys are slowly reveal- ing examples. We present new observations of the post-common envelope binary WD0137-349, which reveals the effects of irradiation on the ~ 0.05M* secondary, and new observations of GD 1400 which show that it too is a close, post-comon envelope system. We also present the lat- est results in a near-infrared photometric search for unresolved ultracool companions and to white dwarfs with UKIDSS. Twenty five DA white dwarfs were identified as having photometric excesses indicative of a low mass companion, with 8-10 of these having a predicted mass in the range asso- ciated with brown dwarfs. The results of this survey show that the unresolved (< 2") brown dwarf companion fraction to DA white dwarfs is 0.3 \\leq fWD+BD \\leq 1.3%.

  12. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  13. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  14. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  15. Familial deletion 18p syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemyre Emmanuelle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion 18p is a frequent deletion syndrome characterized by dysmorphic features, growth deficiencies, and mental retardation with a poorer verbal performance. Until now, five families have been described with limited clinical description. We report transmission of deletion 18p from a mother to her two daughters and review the previous cases. Case presentation The proband is 12 years old and has short stature, dysmorphic features and moderate mental retardation. Her sister is 9 years old and also has short stature and similar dysmorphic features. Her cognitive performance is within the borderline to mild mental retardation range. The mother also presents short stature. Psychological evaluation showed moderate mental retardation. Chromosome analysis from the sisters and their mother revealed the same chromosomal deletion: 46, XX, del(18(p11.2. Previous familial cases were consistent regarding the transmission of mental retardation. Our family differs in this regard with variable cognitive impairment and does not display poorer verbal than non-verbal abilities. An exclusive maternal transmission is observed throughout those families. Women with del(18p are fertile and seem to have a normal miscarriage rate. Conclusion Genetic counseling for these patients should take into account a greater range of cognitive outcome than previously reported.

  16. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  17. Shaping the Brown Dwarf Desert: Predicting the Primordial Brown Dwarf Binary Distributions from Turbulent Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumper, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ($\\leq 5$ AU) brown dwarf companions to solar-mass stars, known as the brown dwarf desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly-bound than stellar binaries, have been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for brown dwarfs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that brown dwarfs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the brown dwarf desert, as well as wide brown-dwarf binary systems. Further, we demonstrate analytically that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low-mass (VLM) binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly-bound than stellar systems. In addit...

  18. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: tools for biological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Olga Meiri; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Wille, Ana Carolina M; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2011-03-01

    Venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. These venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. In general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom is enriched in low molecular mass proteins (5-40 kDa). Although their venom is produced in minute volumes (a few microliters), and contain only tens of micrograms of protein, the use of techniques based on molecular biology and proteomic analysis has afforded rational projects in the area and permitted the discovery and identification of a great number of novel toxins. The brown spider phospholipase-D family is undoubtedly the most investigated and characterized, although other important toxins, such as low molecular mass insecticidal peptides, metalloproteases and hyaluronidases have also been identified and featured in literature. The molecular pathways of the action of these toxins have been reported and brought new insights in the field of biotechnology. Herein, we shall see how recent reports describing discoveries in the area of brown spider venom have expanded biotechnological uses of molecules identified in these venoms, with special emphasis on the construction of a cDNA library for venom glands, transcriptome analysis, proteomic projects, recombinant expression of different proteic toxins, and finally structural descriptions based on crystallography of toxins.

  19. Brown Spider (Loxosceles genus Venom Toxins: Tools for Biological Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Senff-Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. These venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. In general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus venom is enriched in low molecular mass proteins (5–40 kDa. Although their venom is produced in minute volumes (a few microliters, and contain only tens of micrograms of protein, the use of techniques based on molecular biology and proteomic analysis has afforded rational projects in the area and permitted the discovery and identification of a great number of novel toxins. The brown spider phospholipase-D family is undoubtedly the most investigated and characterized, although other important toxins, such as low molecular mass insecticidal peptides, metalloproteases and hyaluronidases have also been identified and featured in literature. The molecular pathways of the action of these toxins have been reported and brought new insights in the field of biotechnology. Herein, we shall see how recent reports describing discoveries in the area of brown spider venom have expanded biotechnological uses of molecules identified in these venoms, with special emphasis on the construction of a cDNA library for venom glands, transcriptome analysis, proteomic projects, recombinant expression of different proteic toxins, and finally structural descriptions based on crystallography of toxins.

  20. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  1. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  2. Connecting the green and brown worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Christian; Ahrestani, Farshid S.; Bahn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    resources (hence, drivers) and more retranslocation of P than of N from leaves will lead to higher N:P in the litter and soil organic matter. Thus, under nutrient-rich conditions, higher foliar concentrations of N and P are reflected by lower N:P in the brown litter, suggesting less P retranslocated than N....... This apparent stoichiometric dichotomy between green and brown could result in shifts in threshold elemental ratios critical for ecosystem functioning. It has important implications for a general food-web model, given that resource C:N:P ratios are generally assumed to reflect environmental C:N:P ratios. We...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1982. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and...

  5. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  6. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  7. Uniform deletion junctions of complete azoospermia factor region c deletion in infertile men in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Chin Hsu; Pao-Lin Kuo; Louise Chuang; Ying-Hung Lin; Yen-Ni Teng; Yung-Ming Lin

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the deletion junctions of infertile men in Taiwan with azoospermia factor region c (AZFc) deletions and to evaluate the genotype/phenotype correlation. Methods: Genomic DNAs from 460 infertile men were examined. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones were used to verify the accuracy of polymerase chain reaction.Deletion junctions of the AZFc region were determined by analysis of sequence-tagged sites and gene-specific markers.Results: Complete AZFc deletions, including BPY2, CDY1 and DAZ genes, were identified in 24 men. The proximal breakpoints were clustered between sY1197 and sY1192, and the distal breakpoints were clustered between sY1054and sY1125 in all but one of the 24 men. The testicular phenotypes of men with complete AZFc deletion varied from oligozoospermia, to hypospermatogenesis, to maturation arrest. Conclusion: We identified a group of infertile men with uniform deletion junctions of AZFc in the Taiwan population. Despite this homogeneous genetic defect in the AZFc region, no clear genotype/phenotype correlation could be demonstrated.

  8. Calcium-SANDOZ®-induced erythrocyte exovesiculation and internalization of hemichromic material into rat brown adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markelić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultramicroscopic study of brown adipose tissue (BAT of rats treated with Ca-SANDOZ® (480 mg/l for 3 days, revealed erythrocyte exovesiculation and migratory erythrocytic complexes from the capillaries to adipocyte cytoplasm and mitochondria. Two types of erythrocytic material transfer were observed: (i numerous exocytic vesicles with electron dense material leaving the erythrocytes; (ii furcated complexes with microholes, embedded in amorphous material. The content of red blood cell (RBC complexes passed through the capillaries and transferred to the brown adipocytes where it was detectable in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Light microscopy confirmed sphenoechinocytic transformation of the RBCs in the blood smears of the Ca-SANDOZ® treated rats.

  9. Genotype/phenotype correlation in women with nonmosaic X chromosome deletions and Turner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, A.R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex human developmental disorder associated with the absence of the second sex chromosome (monosomy X). Cardinal features of the Turner phenotype include high intrauterine lethality, growth retardation, gonadal failure, and the variable presence of specific somatic abnormalities such as webbed neck, lymphedema, and skeletal abnormalities. Recent observations support the hypothesis that the phenotype associated with monosomy X results from haploid dosage of genes common the X and Y chromosomes that escape X-inactivation ({open_quotes}Turner genes{close_quotes}). Apart from a locus causing short stature that maps to the pseudoautosomal region on the distal short arm, the location of X-linked Turner genes is not known. Karyotype/phenotype correlations in women with partial X deletions have been inconsistent. However, previous studies have focused on sporadic sex chromosome aberrations and may have been confounded by occult mosaicism. In addition, mapping of deletions was limited by the resolution of cytogenetic techniques. I am reexamining genotype/phenotype correlations in partial X monosomy, focusing on a subset of cases in which mosaicism is highly unlikely (e.g., unbalanced X-autosome translocations, familial X deletions), and using molecular techniques to map deletions. I have collected eight cases of nonmosaic X deletions in women with varied manifestations of Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic data suggests that genes responsible for Turner anatomic abnormalities may lie within a critical region of the very proximal portion of the short arm (Xp11). Molecular characterization of the deletions is in progress. Methods include (1) fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads from patient-derived cell lines, using cosmid probes that map to known locations on Xp, and (2) sequence tagged site (STS) content mapping of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted X chromosomes derived from these cell lines.

  10. The first Dutch SDHB founder deletion in paraganglioma – pheochromocytoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devilee Peter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor genes SDHB, SDHC and SDHD play a major role in hereditary paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. These three genes encode subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme and complex II component of the electron transport chain. The majority of variants of the SDH genes are missense and nonsense mutations. To date few large deletions of the SDH genes have been described. Methods We carried out gene deletion scanning using MLPA in 126 patients negative for point mutations in the SDH genes. We then proceeded to the molecular characterization of deletions, mapping breakpoints in each patient and used haplotype analysis to determine whether the deletions are due to a mutation hotspot or if a common haplotype indicated a single founder mutation. Results A novel deletion of exon 3 of the SDHB gene was identified in nine apparently unrelated Dutch patients. An identical 7905 bp deletion, c.201-4429_287-933del, was found in all patients, resulting in a frameshift and a predicted truncated protein, p.Cys68HisfsX21. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a common haplotype at the SDHB locus. Index patients presented with pheochromocytoma, extra-adrenal PGL and HN-PGL. A lack of family history was seen in seven of the nine cases. Conclusion The identical exon 3 deletions and common haplotype in nine patients indicates that this mutation is the first Dutch SDHB founder mutation. The predominantly non-familial presentation of these patients strongly suggests reduced penetrance. In this small series HN-PGL occurs as frequently as pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal PGL.

  11. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  12. Imaging of Brown Fat Associated with Adrenal Pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundamadappa, S.K.; Shankar, S.; Danrad, R.; Singh, Ajay; Vijayaraghavan, G.; Kim, Y.; Perugini, R. [Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The association of adrenal pheochromocytoma and brown fat has been described in the pathology literature and scantily in the radiology literature. We present a case of diffuse collection of brown fat in both perinephric spaces associated with left adrenal pheochromocytoma, and describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Keywords: Brown fat; computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; pheochromocytoma.

  13. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  14. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  15. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  16. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  17. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  18. Computing at Brown--An Ongoing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Discusses conclusions based on results of two Brown University research projects aimed at understanding social and educational significance of computing in higher education: 1984 university-wide survey of students, faculty, and staff, and a 1985 survey of incoming freshmen. The conclusions discussed relate to computer use, experience, attitudes,…

  19. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  20. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  1. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  3. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  4. The browning of Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Parent; David. Verbyla

    2010-01-01

    We used twelve Landsat scenes from the 1980s-2009 and regional 2000-2009 MODIS data to examine the long-term trend in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within unburned areas of the Alaskan boreal forest. Our analysis shows that there has been a declining trend in NDVI in this region, with the strongest "browning trend" occurring in eastern...

  5. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can sometimes be hard to diagnose a spider bite correctly. The spider can be killed first before you bring it ... is really damaged at the area of the bite. (A skin graft is when a small amount ... getting bitten by brown recluse spiders is to be careful in areas where they ...

  6. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the......, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans.......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  7. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  8. Physical and genetic characterization of deletions in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lataste, H; Claverys, J P; Sicard, A M

    1980-01-01

    Genetic properties of markers may discriminate between deletions and point mutations. We have designed a physical method for a direct characterization of deletions which also gives an estimate of their size.

  9. Physical and genetic characterization of deletions in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataste, H; Claverys, J P; Sicard, A M

    1980-10-01

    Genetic properties of markers may discriminate between deletions and point mutations. We have designed a physical method for a direct characterization of deletions which also gives an estimate of their size.

  10. WAGR syndrome and congenital hypothyroidism in a child with a Mosaic 11p13 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh Tuan; Boudry-Labis, Elise; Duban, Bénédicte; Andrieux, Joris; Tran, Cong Toai; Tampere, Heidi; Ceraso, Delphine; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is caused by the loss of 11p13 region including PAX6 and WT1. We report novel findings in a 28-month-old boy with aniridia, Wilm's tumor, congenital hypothyroidism, and sublingual thyroid ectopia. He was found to have a mosaic 5.28 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 11p13 deleting PAX6 and WT1. In order to clarify the mechanism underlying his thyroid dysgenesis, sequence analysis of candidate thyroid developmental genes was performed. We identified a FOXE1: c.532_537delGCCGCC p.(Ala178_Ala179del) variant that predisposes to thyroid ectopia. Taken together, this is the first report of mosaic 11p13 deletion in association with thyroid dysgenesis. We also propose a model of complex interactions of different genetic variants for this particular phenotype in the present patient. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neuropsychological profiles of patients with 2q37.3 deletion associated with developmental dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kaeko; Takeshita, Kenzo; Arakawa, Chikako; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-12-01

    Patients with 2q37 deletions manifest brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR). Recent advances in human molecular research have revealed that alterations in the histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) are responsible for the clinical manifestations of BDMR. Here, we report two male patients with 2q37.3 deletions. One of the patients showed a typical BDMR phenotype, and HDAC4 was included in the deletion region. HDAC4 was preserved in the other patient, and he showed a normal intelligence level with the delayed learning of complex motor skills. Detailed neuropsychological examinations revealed similar neuropsychological profiles in these two patients (visuo-spatial dyspraxia) that suggested developmental dyspraxia. These observations suggested that some other candidate genes for neuronal development exist in the telomeric region of HDAC4.

  12. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    OpenAIRE

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of t...

  13. Fetal ventriculomegaly due to familial submicroscopic terminal 6q deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin; Jensen, Lisa Neerup; Bjerglund, Lise;

    2012-01-01

    Submicroscopic terminal 6q deletions are rare. We report on two familial submicroscopic terminal 6q deletions ascertained because of prenatally detected isolated ventriculomegaly and further delineate the variable prenatal and postnatal phenotype. We review published cases of......Submicroscopic terminal 6q deletions are rare. We report on two familial submicroscopic terminal 6q deletions ascertained because of prenatally detected isolated ventriculomegaly and further delineate the variable prenatal and postnatal phenotype. We review published cases of...

  14. The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-01-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MAT a and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on...

  15. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like Hα, in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral Hα emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  16. The randomized complexity of maintaining the minimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Chaudhuri, Shiva; Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar

    1996-01-01

    The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for FindMin. If F...

  17. Rac1 deletion causes thymic atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Hunziker

    Full Text Available The thymic stroma supports T lymphocyte development and consists of an epithelium maintained by thymic epithelial progenitors. The molecular pathways that govern epithelial homeostasis are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that deletion of Rac1 in Keratin 5/Keratin 14 expressing embryonic and adult thymic epithelial cells leads to loss of the thymic epithelial compartment. Rac1 deletion led to an increase in c-Myc expression and a generalized increase in apoptosis associated with a decrease in thymic epithelial proliferation. Our results suggest Rac1 maintains the epithelial population, and equilibrium between Rac1 and c-Myc may control proliferation, apoptosis and maturation of the thymic epithelial compartment. Understanding thymic epithelial maintenance is a step toward the dual goals of in vitro thymic epithelial cell culture and T cell differentiation, and the clinical repair of thymic damage from graft-versus-host-disease, chemotherapy or irradiation.

  18. Rac1 deletion causes thymic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Lukas; Benitah, Salvador Aznar; Aznar Benitah, Salvador; Braun, Kristin M; Jensen, Kim; McNulty, Katrina; Butler, Colin; Potton, Elspeth; Nye, Emma; Boyd, Richard; Laurent, Geoff; Glogauer, Michael; Wright, Nick A; Watt, Fiona M; Janes, Sam M

    2011-04-29

    The thymic stroma supports T lymphocyte development and consists of an epithelium maintained by thymic epithelial progenitors. The molecular pathways that govern epithelial homeostasis are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that deletion of Rac1 in Keratin 5/Keratin 14 expressing embryonic and adult thymic epithelial cells leads to loss of the thymic epithelial compartment. Rac1 deletion led to an increase in c-Myc expression and a generalized increase in apoptosis associated with a decrease in thymic epithelial proliferation. Our results suggest Rac1 maintains the epithelial population, and equilibrium between Rac1 and c-Myc may control proliferation, apoptosis and maturation of the thymic epithelial compartment. Understanding thymic epithelial maintenance is a step toward the dual goals of in vitro thymic epithelial cell culture and T cell differentiation, and the clinical repair of thymic damage from graft-versus-host-disease, chemotherapy or irradiation.

  19. An environment-mediated quantum deleter

    CERN Document Server

    Srikanth, R; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2006-01-01

    Environment-induced decoherence presents a great challenge to realizing a quantum computer. We point out the somewhat surprising fact that decoherence can be useful, indeed necessary, for practical quantum computation, in particular, for the effective erasure of quantum memory in order to initialize the state of the quantum computer. The essential point behind the deleter is that the environment, by means of a dissipative interaction, furnishes a contractive map towards a pure state. We present a specific example of an amplitude damping channel provided by a two-level system's interaction with its environment in the weak Born-Markov approximation. This is contrasted with a purely dephasing, non-dissipative channel provided by a two-level system's interaction with its environment by means of a quantum nondemolition interaction. We point out that currently used state preparation techniques, for example using optical pumping, essentially perform as quantum deleters.

  20. Orbital deletion procedure and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫亦荣; 林梦海; 吴玮; 张乾二

    1999-01-01

    The orbital deletion procedure is introduced, which is suited to quantitatively investigating the electronic delocalization effiect in earboeations and boranes. While the routine, ab initio molecular orbital methods can generate wavefunetions for real systems where all electrons are delocalized, the present orbital deletion procedure can generate wavefunctions for hypothetical reference molecules where electronic delocalization effect is deactivated. The latter wavefunetion normlly corresponds In the most stable resonance structure in terms of the resonance theory. By comparing and analyzing the delocalized and the localized wavefunetions, one can obtain a quantitative and instinct pieture to show how electronic deloealizalion inside a molecule affects the molecular structure, energy as well as other physical properties. Two examples are detailedly discussed. The first is related to the hypercoujugation of alkyl groups in carbocations and a comparison of the order of stability of carbocations is made, T

  1. 19 CFR 142.49 - Deletion of C-4 Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deletion of C-4 Code. 142.49 Section 142.49... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.49 Deletion of C-4 Code. (a) By Customs. A port director may temporarily or permanently delete an entry filer's C-4 Code without providing the...

  2. Creating, Searching, and Deleting KD Trees Using C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Creating, Searching, and Deleting KD Trees Using C++ by Robert J Yager ARL-TN-0629 September 2014...Deleting KD Trees Using C++ by Robert J Yager Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Searching, and Deleting KD Trees Using C++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert J Yager

  3. Chromosome 11q13 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Seon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, So-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 11q13 deletion syndrome has been previously reported as either otodental syndrome or oculo-oto-dental syndrome. The otodental syndrome is characterized by dental abnormalities and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, and by ocular coloboma in some cases. The underlying genetic defect causing otodental syndrome is a hemizygous microdeletion involving the FGF3 gene on chromosome 11q13.3. Recently, a new form of severe deafness, microtia (small ear) and small teeth, without the appearance of eye abnormalities, was also reported. In this report, we describe a 1-year-old girl presenting with ptosis of the left upper eyelid, right auricular deformity, high-arched palate, delayed dentition, simian line on the right hand, microcephaly, and developmental delay. In this patient, we identified a deletion in the chromosome 11q13.2-q13.3 (2.75 Mb) region by using an array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The deletion in chromosome 11q13 results in a syndrome characterized by variable clinical manifestations. Some of these manifestations involve craniofacial dysmorphology and require a functional workup for hearing, ophthalmic examinations, and long-term dental care. PMID:28018436

  4. Secure Deletion of Data from SSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akli Fundo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deletion of data from storage is an important component on data security. The deletion of entire disc or special files is well-known on hard drives, but this is quite different on SSDs, because they have a different architecture inside, and the main problem is if they serve the same methods like hard drives for data deletion or erasing. The built-in operations are used to do this on SSDs. The purpose of this review is to analyses some methods which are proposed to erase data form SSDs and their results too, to see which of them offers the best choice. In general we will see that the techniques of erasing data from entire disc from hard drives can be used also on SSDs, but there’s a problem with bugs. On the other hand, we cannot use the same techniques of erasing a file from hard drives and SSDs. To make this possible, there are required changes in FTL layer, which is responsible for mapping between logic addresses and physical addresses.

  5. Delineation of a deletion region critical for corpus callosal abnormalities in chromosome 1q43-q44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Bay, Carolyn; Pettigrew, Anjana; Lalani, Seema R; Herman, Kristin; Graham, Brett H; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata Jm; Proud, Monica; Craigen, William J; Hopkins, Bobbi; Kozel, Beth; Plunkett, Katie; Hixson, Patricia; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2012-02-01

    Submicroscopic deletions involving chromosome 1q43-q44 result in cognitive impairment, microcephaly, growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and variable involvement of other organ systems. A consistently observed feature in patients with this deletion are the corpus callosal abnormalities (CCAs), ranging from thinning and hypoplasia to complete agenesis. Previous studies attempting to delineate the critical region for CCAs have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven patients with deletions of chromosome 1q43-q44. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. Four patients had CCAs, and shared the smallest region of overlap that contains only three protein coding genes, CEP170, SDCCAG8, and ZNF238. One patient with a small deletion involving SDCCAG8 and AKT3, and another patient with an intragenic deletion of AKT3 did not have any CCA, implying that the loss of these two genes is unlikely to be the cause of CCA. CEP170 is expressed extensively in the brain, and encodes for a protein that is a component of the centrosomal complex. ZNF238 is involved in control of neuronal progenitor cells and survival of cortical neurons. Our results rule out the involvement of AKT3, and implicate CEP170 and/or ZNF238 as novel genes causative for CCA in patients with a terminal 1q deletion.

  6. Enhanced thermogenic program by non-viral delivery of combinatory browning genes to treat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hongsuk; Cho, Sungpil; Janat-Amsbury, Margit M; Bae, You Han

    2015-12-01

    Thermogenic program (also known as browning) is a promising and attractive anti-obesity approach. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and irisin have emerged as potential browning hormones that hold high potential to treat obesity. Here, we have constructed a dual browning gene system containing both IAPP and irisin (derived from fibronectin type III domain containing 5; FNDC5) combined with 2A and furin self-cleavage sites. Intraperitoneal administration of the construct complexed with a linear polyethylenimine into diet-induced obese mice demonstrated the elevation of anti-obesogenic effects characterized as the decreased body weight, adiposity, and levels of glucose and insulin. In addition, the construct delivery increased energy expenditure and the expression of core molecular determinants associated with browning. The additional advantages of the dual browning gene construct delivery compared to both single gene construct delivery and dual peptide delivery can be emphasized on efficacy and practicability. Hence, we have concluded that dual browning gene delivery makes it therapeutically attractive for diet-induced obesity treatment.

  7. Differential modulation of host genes in the kidney of brown trout Salmo trutta during sporogenesis of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-10-04

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. In Europe, spores of T. bryosalmonae develop in the kidney of infected brown trout Salmo trutta and are released via urine to infect the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana. The transcriptomes of kidneys of infected and non-infected brown trout were compared by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Differential screening and a subsequent NCBI BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags revealed 21 transcripts with functions that included cell stress and cell growth, ribonucleoprotein, signal transduction, ion transporter, immune response, hemoglobin and calcium metabolisms. Quantitative real time PCR was used to verify the presence of these selected transcripts in brown trout kidney at sporogonic stages of T. bryosalmonae development. Expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, prothymosin alpha, transforming protein RhoA, immunoglobulin light chain and major histocompatibility complex class I were up-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. Expression of both the hemoglobin subunit beta and stanniocalcin precursor were down-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. This study suggests that cell stress and cell growth processes, signal transduction activities, erythropoiesis and calcium homeostasis of the host are modulated during sporogonic stages of parasite development, which may support the sporogenesis of T. bryosalmonae in the kidney of brown trout.

  8. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  9. EPIDERMAL DELETION OF HIF-2α STIMULATES WOUND CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowburn, Andrew S.; Crotty Alexander, Laura E.; Southwood, Mark; Nizet, Victor; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Johnson, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Wound closure requires a complex series of micro-environmentally influenced events. A key aspect of wound closure is the migration of keratinocytes across the open wound. It has been found previously that the response to hypoxia via the HIF-1α transcription factor is a key feature of wound closure. The need for hypoxic response is likely due to interrupted wound vasculature as well as infection, and in this work, we investigated the need for a highly related hypoxic response transcription factor, HIF-2α. This factor was deleted tissue-specifically in mice, and the resulting mice were found to have an accelerated rate of wound closure. This is correlated with a reduced bacterial load and inflammatory response in these mice. This indicates that manipulating or reducing the HIF-2α response in keratinocytes could be a useful means to accelerate wound healing and tissue repair. PMID:24037341

  10. Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization reveals multiple amplification targets and novel homozygous deletions in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidenblad, M.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Jonson, T.; Gorunova, L.; Veltman, J.A.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Hoglund, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinomas display highly complex chromosomal abnormalities, including many structural and numerical aberrations. There is ample evidence indicating that some of these abnormalities, such as recurrent amplifications and homozygous deletions, contribute to tumorigenesis by altering express

  11. Astronaut David Brown talks to FIRST team members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown talks with FIRST team members, Baxter Bomb Squad, from Mountain Home High School, Mountain Home, Ariz., during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  12. Lsd1 Ablation Triggers Metabolic Reprogramming of Brown Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Duteil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous work indicated that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1 can positively regulate the oxidative and thermogenic capacities of white and beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the role of Lsd1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT and find that BAT-selective Lsd1 ablation induces a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism. This shift is associated with downregulation of BAT-specific and upregulation of white adipose tissue (WAT-selective gene expression. This results in the accumulation of di- and triacylglycerides and culminates in a profound whitening of BAT in aged Lsd1-deficient mice. Further studies show that Lsd1 maintains BAT properties via a dual role. It activates BAT-selective gene expression in concert with the transcription factor Nrf1 and represses WAT-selective genes through recruitment of the CoREST complex. In conclusion, our data uncover Lsd1 as a key regulator of gene expression and metabolic function in BAT.

  13. Astronaut David Brown talks with team members from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown looks over the robot named 'L'il Max' with members of the team The Bot Kickers! from Northwestern High School, Rock Hill, S.C. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition being held March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  14. Conversion of Deletions during Recombination in Pneumococcal Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, J. C.; Mostachfi, P; Gasc, A M; Guillot, E; Pasta, F.; M. Sicard

    1989-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 16 deletions obtained in the amiA locus of pneumococcus is described. When present on donor DNA, all deletions increased drastically the frequency of wild-type recombinants in two-point crosses. This effect was maximal for deletions longer than 200 bases. It was reduced for heterologies shorter than 76 bases and did not exist for very short deletions. In three-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between two point mutations, we demonstrated that this excess of...

  15. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  16. Initial consonant deletion in bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Cuzner, Suzanne Lea

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed. Initial consonant deletion errors were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. An analysis of cross-linguistic effects and an analysis of phonemic complexity were performed. Monolingual English-speaking children exhibited initial consonant deletion at a significantly lower rate than bilingual children in their Spanish productions; however, no other quantitative differences were found across groups or languages. Qualitative differences yielded between-language interaction in the error patterns of bilingual children. Phonemic complexity appeared to play a role in initial consonant deletion. Evidence from the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders supports analysing bilingual speech using a cross-linguistic framework. Both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Deletion of host histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases strongly affects Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; van Heusden, Gerard Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2009-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that genetically transforms plant cells by transferring a part of its Ti-plasmid, the T-strand, to the host cell. Under laboratory conditions, it can also transform cells from many different nonplant organisms, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Collections of S. cerevisiae strains have been developed with systematic deletion of all coding sequences. Here, we used these collections to identify genes involved in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of S. cerevisiae. We found that deletion of genes (GCN5, NGG1, YAF9 and EAF7) encoding subunits of the SAGA, SLIK, ADA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes highly increased the efficiency of AMT, while deletion of genes (HDA2, HDA3 and HST4) encoding subunits of histone deacetylase complexes decreased AMT. These effects are specific for AMT as the efficiency of chemical (lithium acetate) transformation was not or only slightly affected by these deletions. Our data are consistent with a positive role of host histone deacetylation in AMT.

  18. FLCN intragenic deletions in Chinese familial primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yibing; Zhu, Chengchu; Zou, Wei; Ma, Dehua; Min, Haiyan; Chen, Baofu; Ye, Minhua; Pan, Yanqing; Cao, Lei; Wan, Yueming; Zhang, Wenwen; Meng, Lulu; Mei, Yuna; Yang, Chi; Chen, Shilin; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2015-05-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a significant clinical problem, affecting tens of thousands patients annually. Germline mutations in the FLCN gene have been implicated in etiology of familial PSP (FPSP). Most of the currently identified FLCN mutations are small indels or point mutations that detected by Sanger sequencing. The aim of this study was to determine large FLCN deletions in PSP families that having no FLCN sequence-mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays and breakpoint analyses were used to detect and characterize the deletions. Three heterozygous FLCN intragenic deletions were identified in nine unrelated Chinese families including the exons 1-3 deletion in two families, the exons 9-14 deletion in five families and the exon 14 deletion in two families. All deletion breakpoints are located in Alu repeats. A 5.5 Mb disease haplotype shared in the five families with exons 9-14 deletion may date the appearance of this deletion back to approximately 16 generations ago. Evidences for founder effects of the other two deletions were also observed. This report documents the first identification of founder mutations in FLCN, as well as expands mutation spectrum of the gene. Our findings strengthen the view that MLPA analysis for intragenic deletions/duplications, as an important genetic testing complementary to DNA sequencing, should be used for clinical molecular diagnosis in FPSP.

  19. Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 define subgroups of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Starza, Roberta; Barba, Gianluca; Demeyer, Sofie; Pierini, Valentina; Di Giacomo, Danika; Gianfelici, Valentina; Schwab, Claire; Matteucci, Caterina; Vicente, Carmen; Cools, Jan; Messina, Monica; Crescenzi, Barbara; Chiaretti, Sabina; Foà, Robin; Basso, Giuseppe; Harrison, Christine J; Mecucci, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Recurrent deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 were detected in 23/200 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genomic studies identified two types of deletions: interstitial and terminal. Interstitial 5q deletions, found in five cases, were present in both adults and children with a female predominance (chi-square, P=0.012). Interestingly, these cases resembled immature/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia showing significant down-regulation of five out of the ten top differentially expressed genes in this leukemia group, including TCF7 which maps within the 5q31 common deleted region. Mutations of genes known to be associated with immature/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, i.e. WT1, ETV6, JAK1, JAK3, and RUNX1, were present, while CDKN2A/B deletions/mutations were never detected. All patients had relapsed/resistant disease and blasts showed an early differentiation arrest with expression of myeloid markers. Terminal 5q deletions, found in 18 of patients, were more prevalent in adults (chi-square, P=0.010) and defined a subgroup of HOXA-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by 130 up- and 197 down-regulated genes. Down-regulated genes included TRIM41, ZFP62, MAPK9, MGAT1, and CNOT6, all mapping within the 1.4 Mb common deleted region at 5q35.3. Of interest, besides CNOT6 down-regulation, these cases also showed low BTG1 expression and a high incidence of CNOT3 mutations, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HOXA-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with terminal 5q deletions. In conclusion, interstitial and terminal 5q deletions are recurrent genomic losses identifying distinct subtypes of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  1. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  2. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  3. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of modified xylofucan sulfate from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Gerbst, Alexey G; Ushakova, Natalia A; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Usov, Anatolii I; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-01-20

    Selectively and totally sulfated (1 → 3)-linked linear homofucans bearing ∼ 20 monosaccharide residues on average have been prepared from the branched xylofucan sulfate isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of the parent biopolymer and its derivatives were assessed in vitro. Highly sulfated linear fucan derivatives were shown to inhibit clot formation in APTT assay and ristocetin induced platelets aggregation, while the partially sulfated analogs were inactive. In the experiments with purified proteins, fucan derivatives with degree of sulfation of ∼ 2.0 were found to enhance thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin III. The effect of sulfated fucans on thrombin inhibition, which was similar to those of heparinoid Clexane(®) (enoxaparin) and of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina latissima studied previously, can be explained by the multicenter interaction and formation of a ternary complex thrombin-antithrombin III-polysaccharide. The possibility of such complexation was confirmed by computer docking study.

  4. Comparison of cloud models for Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Ch; Allard, F; Dehn, M; Hauschildt, P; Homeier, D; Lodders, K; Marley, M; Rietmeijer, F; Tsuji, T; Woitke, P

    2007-01-01

    A test case comparison is presented for different dust cloud model approaches applied in brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. We aim to achieve more transparency in evaluating the uncertainty inherent to theoretical modelling. We show in how far model results for characteristic dust quantities vary due to different assumptions. We also demonstrate differences in the spectral energy distributions resulting from our individual cloud modelling in 1D substellar atmosphere simulations

  5. Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Kleisner; Lenka Priplatova; Peter Frost; Jaroslav Flegr

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the eff...

  6. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  7. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  8. Epilepsy phenotype associated with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A: Migrating partial seizures of infancy or atypical Dravet syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Hunmin; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    The deletion of a sodium channel gene cluster located on chromosome 2q24.3 is associated with variable epilepsy phenotypes, including Dravet syndrome and migrating partial seizures of infancy. Although SCN1A is considered as the major contributor to the epilepsy phenotype, the role of other sodium channel genes that map within this cluster has not been delineated. We presented five new cases with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A and investigated their epilepsy phenotype in relation to the extent of the deletion. Three cases with deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster (SCN3A, SCN2A, SCN1A, SCN9A, and SCN7A) exhibited a complex epilepsy phenotype that was atypical for Dravet syndrome and suggestive of migrating partial seizures of infancy: early seizure onset (before 2 months of age), severe developmental delay from seizure onset, multifocal interictal spikes, polymorphous focal seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Two cases with partial deletion of SCN1A and SCN9A and whole SCN1A deletion had an epilepsy phenotype of Dravet syndrome. A literature review of cases with chromosome 2q24.3 deletion revealed that, in most Dravet syndrome cases, it does not involve SCN2A and SCN3A, whereas a complex epilepsy phenotype that is shared with migrating partial seizures of infancy was associated with cases of deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster.

  9. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Wei, Gang; You, Yilin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Dong, Meng; Lin, Jun; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hanlin; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Ye, Rongcai; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhai, Baiqiang; Huang, Weidong; Liu, Shunai; Xie, Wen; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Cui, Chengbi; Li, Donghao; Zhan, Jicheng; Cheng, Jun; Yuan, Zengqiang; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Rutin also induced brown-like adipocyte (beige) formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in both obesity mouse models. Mechanistically, we found that rutin directly bound to and stabilized SIRT1, leading to hypoacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein, which stimulated Tfam transactivation and eventually augmented the number of mitochondria and UCP1 activity in BAT. These findings reveal that rutin is a novel small molecule that activates BAT and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of metabolic disorders.-Yuan, X., Wei, G., You, Y., Huang, Y., Lee, H. J., Dong, M., Lin, J., Hu, T., Zhang, H., Zhang, C., Zhou, H., Ye, R., Qi, X., Zhai, B., Huang, W., Liu, S., Xie, W., Liu, Q., Liu, X., Cui, C., Li, D., Zhan, J., Cheng, J., Yuan, Z., Jin, W. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation. © FASEB.

  10. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  11. Brown Dwarfs From Mythical to Ubiquitous

    CERN Document Server

    Liebert, J

    1998-01-01

    Astrophysical objects below the stellar mass limit but well above the mass of Jupiter eluded discovery for nearly three decades after Kumar first proposed their existence, and for two decades after Tarter proposed the name "brown dwarfs." The first unambiguous discoveries of planetary (51 Peg B) and brown dwarf (Gliese 229B) companions occurred about three years ago. Yet while extrasolar planets are now being discovered at a breathtaking rate, brown dwarf companions to ordinary stars are apparently rare; likewise imaging surveys show that GL229B is still unique as a distant companion to a low mass star. On the other hand, the deep imaging studies of the Pleiades and several imbedded young clusters show that the mass function (ie. of single objects) extends in substantial numbers down to at least 40 Jupiter masses. The high mass / stellar density Orion Nebula Cluster may have relatively fewer low mass objects. In the field of the solar neighborhood, the infrared sky surveys DENIS and especially 2MASS show that...

  12. Parallax measurements of cool brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Manjavacas, E; Reffert, S; Henning, T

    2013-01-01

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models, break the age-mass degeneracy and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of 6 cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. We derive the absolute J-mag. The six T brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5 and magnitudes in J between 13.9 and 18.0, with photometric distances below 25 pc. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega-2000 camera on the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto, during a time period of 27 months, between March 2011 and June 2013. The number of epochs varied between 11 and 12 depending on the object. The reduction of the astrometric measurements was carried out with respect to the field stars. The relative parallax and proper motions were transformed into absolute measurements using the background galaxies in ou...

  13. Sestrin2, a regulator of thermogenesis and mitohormesis in brown adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun eRo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sestrin2 is a stress-inducible protein that functions as an antioxidant and inhibitor of mTOR complex 1. In a recent study, we found that Sestrin2 overexpression in brown adipocytes interfered with normal metabolism by reducing mitochondrial respiration through the suppression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression. The metabolic effects of Sestrin2 in brown adipocytes were dependent on its antioxidant activity, and chemical antioxidants produced similar effects in inhibiting UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. These observations suggest that low levels of ROS in brown adipocytes can actually be beneficial and necessary for proper metabolic homeostasis. In addition, considering that Sestrins are ROS-inducible and perform ROS-detoxifying as well as other metabolism-controlling functions, they are potential regulators of mitohormesis. This is a concept in which overall beneficial effects result from low-level oxidative stress stimuli, such as the ones induced by caloric restriction or physical exercise. In this perspective, we incorporate our recent insight obtained from the Sestrin2 study towards a better understanding of the relationship between ROS, Sestrin2 and mitochondrial metabolism in the context of brown adipocyte physiology.

  14. A child with an inherited 0.31 Mb microdeletion of chromosome 14q32.33: further delineation of a critical region for the 14q32 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J Lloyd; Lotze, Timothy E; Bacino, Carlos; Cheung, Sau-Wai

    2012-08-01

    Chromosome 14q32.3 deletions are uncommon, with most described patients harboring a ring chromosome 14. Only 15 deletions have been described not associated with ring formation or other complex chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we describe a child with the smallest deletion of chromosome 14q32.3 reported in the literature. This child's deletion encompasses at most 0.305 Mb and six genes including NUDT14, BRF1, BTBD6, PACS2, MTA1, and TEX22. He has similar clinical findings, including mild facial dysmorphisms and intellectual disability, as other individuals with much larger deletions of the terminus of the long arm of chromosome 14. This suggests that the genes deleted in our patient contribute to the 14q32 deletion syndrome.

  15. Automatic Airway Deletion in Pulmonary Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; ZHUANG Tian-ge

    2005-01-01

    A method of removing the airway from pulmonary segmentation image was proposed. This method firstly segments the image into several separate regions based on the optimum threshold and morphological operator,and then each region is labeled and noted with its mean grayscale. Therefore, most of the non-lung regions can be removed according to the tissue's Hounsfield units (HU) and the imaging modality. Finally, the airway region is recognized and deleted automatically through using the priori information of its HU and size. This proposed method is tested using several clinical images, yielding satisfying results.

  16. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  17. SNP genotyping to screen for a common deletion in CHARGE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molinari Laura M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHARGE syndrome is a complex of birth defects including coloboma, choanal atresia, ear malformations and deafness, cardiac defects, and growth delay. We have previously hypothesized that CHARGE syndrome could be caused by unidentified genomic microdeletion, but no such deletion was detected using short tandem repeat (STR markers spaced an average of 5 cM apart. Recently, microdeletion at 8q12 locus was reported in two patients with CHARGE, although point mutation in CHD7 on chromosome 8 was the underlying etiology in most of the affected patients. Methods We have extended our previous study by employing a much higher density of SNP markers (3258 with an average spacing of approximately 800 kb. These SNP markers are diallelic and, therefore, have much different properties for detection of deletions than STRs. Results A global error rate estimate was produced based on Mendelian inconsistency. One marker, rs431722 exceeded the expected frequency of inconsistencies, but no deletion could be demonstrated after retesting the 4 inconsistent pedigrees with local flanking markers or by FISH with the corresponding BAC clone. Expected deletion detection (EDD was used to assess the coverage of specific intervals over the genome by deriving the probability of detecting a common loss of heterozygosity event over each genomic interval. This analysis estimated the fraction of unobserved deletions, taking into account the allele frequencies at the SNPs, the known marker spacing and sample size. Conclusions The results of our genotyping indicate that more than 35% of the genome is included in regions with very low probability of a deletion of at least 2 Mb.

  18. Youngest Brown Dwarf Yet in a Multiple Stellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    ... and the Sharpest Optical Image (0.18 arcsec) from the VLT so far...! Astronomers are eager to better understand the formation of stars and planets - with an eye on the complex processes that lead to the emergence of our own solar system some 4600 million years ago. Brown Dwarfs (BDs) play a special role in this context. Within the cosmic zoo, they represent a class of "intermediate" objects. While they are smaller than normal stars, they shine by their own energy for a limited time, in contrast to planets. Recent observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) of a "young" Brown Dwarf in a multiple stellar system are taking on a particular importance in this connection. An evaluation of the new data by an international team of astronomers [1] shows that it is by far the youngest of only four such objects found in a stellar system so far. The results are now providing new insights into the stellar formation process. This small object is known as TWA-5 B and with a mass of only 15 - 40 times that of Jupiter, it is near the borderline between planets and Brown Dwarfs, cf. the explanatory Appendix to this Press Release. However, visible and infrared VLT spectra unambiguously classify it in the latter category. Accurate positional measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the VLT hint that it is orbiting the central, much heavier and brighter star in this system, TWA-5 A (itself a close double star of which each component presumably has a mass of 0.75 solar masses), with a period that may be as long as 900 years. And, by the way, an (I-band) image of the TWA-5 system is the sharpest delivered by the VLT so far, with an image size of only 0.18 arcsec [2]! Brown Dwarfs: a cool subject In current astronomical terminology, Brown Dwarfs (BDs) are objects whose masses are below those of normal stars - the borderline is believed to be about 8% of the mass of our Sun - but larger than those of planets, cf. [3]. Unlike normal stars, Brown Dwarfs are unable

  19. Detection of mitochondrial DNA deletion by a modified PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪振诚; 王学敏; 缪明永; 章卫平; 焦炳华; 倪庆桂

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple and efficient method for detecting small populations of mitochondrial DNA deletion. Methods: Peripheral blood cell DNA was obtained from a victim who was accidently exposed to a 60Co radiation source 11 years ago. Using the DNA as template, PCR was performed to generate multiple products including true deletions and artifacts. The full length product was recovered and used as template of secondary PCR. The suspicious deletion product of mtDNA could be confirmed if it was only yielded by first PCR. Using either original primers or their nested primers, the suspicious deletion product was amplified and authenticated as true deletion product. The template was recovered and determined to be a deletion by sequencing directly. Results: A new mtDNA deletion, spanning 889 bp from nt11688 to nt12576, was detected in the peripheral blood cells of the victim. Conclusion: The new PCR-based method is more efficient in detecting small populations of mtDNA deletion than other routine methods. MtDNA deletion is found in the victim, suggesting there is relationship between the deletion and phenotypes of the disease.

  20. Secure Deletion on Log-structured File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reardon, Joel; Capkun, Srdjan; Basin, David

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of secure data deletion on log-structured file systems. We focus on the YAFFS file system, widely used on Android smartphones. We show that these systems provide no temporal guarantees on data deletion and that deleted data still persists for nearly 44 hours with average phone use and indefinitely if the phone is not used after the deletion. Furthermore, we show that file overwriting and encryption, methods commonly used for secure deletion on block-structured file systems, do not ensure data deletion in log-structured file systems. We propose three mechanisms for secure deletion on log-structured file systems. Purging is a user-level mechanism that guarantees secure deletion at the cost of negligible device wear. Ballooning is a user-level mechanism that runs continuously and gives probabilistic improvements to secure deletion. Zero overwriting is a kernel-level mechanism that guarantees immediate secure deletion without device wear. We implement these mechanisms on Nexus One smartphon...

  1. AZF deletions in infertile men from the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaseski, Toso; Novevski, Predrag; Kocevska, Borka; Dimitrovski, Cedomir; Efremov, Georgi D; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2006-07-01

    Y chromosome deletions in the three azoospermia factor (AZF) regions constitute the most common genetic cause of spermatogenic failure. The aim of this study was to estimate the length and boundaries of the AZF deletions and to correlate the AZF deletions with the sperm concentrations, testicular histology, Y haplogroups and the ethnic origin of the men with deletions. PCR analysis of STS loci in the three AZF regions was used to characterize the deletions. Y haplogroup was predicted from a set of 17 Y short tandem repeats (STR) marker values. A total of nine men out of 218 infertile/subfertile men showed the presence of Y microdeletions. In eight patients the results were consistent with the presence of AZFc deletions, while in one patient a larger deletion involving both AZFb and AZFc regions was detected. In two patients, the deletion, initially diagnosed as AZFc, involved part of the distal part of the AZFb region and in one of them the deletion also extended into the region distal to the AZFc. The 3.5 Mb AZFc deletion, due to homologous recombination between b2 and b4 amplicons, was detected in six men (66.7% of all Y deletions), thus being the most common type of AZF deletion among infertile men from the Republic of Macedonia. Patients with the 3.5 Mb AZFc deletion had azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia and variable histological results [Sertoly cell only syndrome (SCOS), maturity arrest (MA) and hypospermatogenesis (HSG)]. They were of different ethnic origin (Macedonian, Albanian and Romany) and belonged to different Y haplogroups (I1b, J2, E3b and G).

  2. Rare human diseases: 9p deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galagan V.O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to review the anamnesis, pheno - and genotype in patients with rare chromosome disorders such as 9p deletion syndrome. Genetic methods of investigation (clinical and genealogical, cytogenetic, FISH- method, paraclinical and instrumental methods of examination were used. Karyotyping was performed by the G-method of differential staining of chromosomes. Only three cases of pathology were diagnosed in the Medical Genetics Center over the last 10 years. By anamnesis data nobody in the probands’ families had bad habits, was exposed to occupational hazards, took part in the elimination of the Chernobyl accident or lived in contaminated areas. Clinical signs of diseases have not been identified in probands’ parents. All probands had trigonocephaly, bilateral epicanthal folds, ocular hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, long philtrum, flat face and nasal bridge, low set ears with malformed auricles. Two patients of three ones had exophthalmos, contracture of the second and third fingers, abnormal external genitalia. In all three cases there was monosomy of chromosome 9 of critical segment p 24. Normal karyotypes were seen in all parents, so there were three cases of new mutations of 9p deletion syndrome. Retardation of physical, psycho-spech, mental development in proband with or without congenital anomalies requires medical genetic counseling in a specialized institution. Cases of reproductive loss in anamnesis require cytogenetic investigation of fetal membranes and amniotic fluid.

  3. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  4. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene deleted or mutated in many human cancers such as glioblastoma, spinal tumors, prostate, bladder, adrenals, thyroid, breast, endometrium, and colon cancers. They result from loss of heterozygosity (LOH for the PTEN gene on chromosome 10q23. Previous studies reported that various drugs, chemicals, and foods can up-regulate PTEN mRNA and protein expression in different cell lines, and they may be useful in the future prevention and/or treatment of these cancers. PTEN has also been observed to have prognostic significance and is gradually being accepted as an independent prognostic factor. This will help in monitoring disease progression and/or recurrence, with a view to improving treatment outcomes and reducing the associated morbidity and mortality from these cancers. Neprilysin (NEP is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase that cleaves and inactivates some biologically active peptides thus switching off signal transduction at the cell surface. Decreased NEP expression in many cancers has been reported. NEP can form a complex with PTEN and enhance PTEN recruitment to the plasma membrane as well as stabilize its phosphatase activity. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 post-transcriptionally down-regulates the expression of PTEN and stimulates growth and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC (lung Ca, suggesting that this may be a potential therapeutic target in the future treatment of NSCLC. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene associated with many human cancers. This has diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic significance in the management of many human cancers, and may be a target for new drug development in the future.

  5. REDD1 deletion prevents dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Florian A; Begue, Gwenaelle; Rossano, Bernadette; Docquier, Aurélie; Vernus, Barbara; Sar, Chamroeun; Ferry, Arnaud; Bonnieu, Anne; Ollendorff, Vincent; Favier, François B

    2014-12-01

    REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) has been proposed to inhibit the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) during in vitro hypoxia. REDD1 expression is low under basal conditions but is highly increased in response to several catabolic stresses, like hypoxia and glucocorticoids. However, REDD1 function seems to be tissue and stress dependent, and its role in skeletal muscle in vivo has been poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of REDD1 deletion on skeletal muscle mass, protein synthesis, proteolysis, and mTORC1 signaling pathway under basal conditions and after glucocorticoid administration. Whereas skeletal muscle mass and typology were unchanged between wild-type (WT) and REDD1-null mice, oral gavage with dexamethasone (DEX) for 7 days reduced tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle weights as well as tibialis anterior fiber size only in WT. Similarly, REDD1 deletion prevented the inhibition of protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity (assessed by S6, 4E-BP1, and ULK1 phosphorylation) observed in gastrocnemius muscle of WT mice following single DEX administration for 5 h. However, our results suggest that REDD1-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 in skeletal muscle is not related to the modulation of the binding between TSC2 and 14-3-3. In contrast, our data highlight a new mechanism involved in mTORC1 inhibition linking REDD1, Akt, and PRAS40. Altogether, these results demonstrated in vivo that REDD1 is required for glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of protein synthesis via mTORC1 downregulation. Inhibition of REDD1 may thus be a strategy to limit muscle loss in glucocorticoid-mediated atrophy. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  7. Outcomes of first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Keating, Michael J; O'Brien, Susan M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Faderl, Stefan; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G

    2014-08-01

    Although uncommon in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, deletion 17p is a high-risk disease characteristic. We analyzed and reported outcomes for 63 patients with deletion 17p chronic lymphocytic leukemia who received first-line therapy at our institution; at time of first treatment, 81% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene and 58% had complex karyotype. Forty-nine patients (76%) received first-line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based therapy, 6 (11%) received rituximab-based and 8 (13%) received lenalidomide-based treatment. Overall, the complete plus nodular partial remission rate was 33%; on multivariable model, higher complete plus nodular partial remission rate was observed in patients with less than 50% cells positive for deletion 17p, and a higher probability of achieving at least a partial remission was observed with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based treatment. After a median follow up of 33 months (range 1-89 months), the estimated median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% confidence interval 10-18) and estimated median overall survival was 63 months (95% confidence interval 43-83). In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with longer progression-free survival were response to treatment and absence of complex karyotype. Achievement of complete plus nodular partial remission rate and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene were independently associated with longer overall survival in multivariable model. Complex karyotype was associated with increased risk for Richter's transformation. New first-line strategies and agents must aim at both improving response and maintaining remission in patients with deletion 17p, particularly in the presence of complex karyotype.

  8. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  9. Group II intron-anchored gene deletion in Clostridium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizhi Jia

    Full Text Available Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron "ClosTron" system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC1493-1494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established.

  10. DeF-GPU: Efficient and effective deletions finding in hepatitis B viral genomic DNA using a GPU architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Pei; Lan, Kuo-Lun; Liu, Wen-Chun; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Tseng, Vincent S

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is strongly associated with an increased risk of liver diseases like cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many lines of evidence suggest that deletions occurring in HBV genomic DNA are highly associated with the activity of HBV via the interplay between aberrant viral proteins release and human immune system. Deletions finding on the HBV whole genome sequences is thus a very important issue though there exist underlying the challenges in mining such big and complex biological data. Although some next generation sequencing (NGS) tools are recently designed for identifying structural variations such as insertions or deletions, their validity is generally committed to human sequences study. This design may not be suitable for viruses due to different species. We propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based data mining method called DeF-GPU to efficiently and precisely identify HBV deletions from large NGS data, which generally contain millions of reads. To fit the single instruction multiple data instructions, sequencing reads are referred to as multiple data and the deletion finding procedure is referred to as a single instruction. We use Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) to parallelize the procedures, and further validate DeF-GPU on 5 synthetic and 1 real datasets. Our results suggest that DeF-GPU outperforms the existing commonly-used method Pindel and is able to exactly identify the deletions of our ground truth in few seconds. The source code and other related materials are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/defgpu/.

  11. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  12. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  13. Deletions of the elastin gene in Williams Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, F.; Nickerson, E.; McCaskill, C. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To investigate deletions in the elastin gene in patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), we screened 37 patients and their parents for deletions in the elastin gene by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid cELN272 containing the 5{prime} end of the elastin gene and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair which amplifies intron 17 in the elastin gene, producing a polymorphic amplification product. Thirty-two patients have been investigated by both the FISH and PCR techniques, one patient was studied only by PCR, and 4 patients were studied only by FISH. Overall, 34 of 37 patients (92%) were deleted for the elastin gene. Using the PCR marker, 14 patients were informative and 12 were shown to be deleted [maternal (n=5) and paternal (n=7)]. Using cosmid cELN272, 33 of 36 patients demonstrated a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. In one family, both the mother and daughter were deleted due to an apparently de novo deletion arising in the mother. Three patients were not deleted using the elastin cosmid; 2 of these patients have classic WS. Another non-deleted patient has the typical facial features and hypercalcemia but normal intelligence. These three patients will be important in delineating the critical region(s) responsible for the facial features, hypercalcemia, mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). There was not an absolute correlation between deletions in elastin and SVAS, although these individuals may be at risk for other cardiovascular complications such as hypertention. Since the majority of WS patients are deleted for a portion of the elastin gene, most likely this marker will be an important diagnostic tool, although more patients will need to be studied. Those patients who are not deleted but clinically have WS will be missed using only this one marker. Expansion of the critical region to other loci and identification of additional markers will be essential for identifying all patients with WS.

  14. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  15. Production of Textile Reddish Brown Dyes by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal strains were tested for their ability to produce brown and reddish brown textile dyes using H-acid (1-naphthol-8-amino-3, 6-disulfonic acid as a dye precursor in the fermentation medium. All tested fungal strains exhibited high ability to produce dyes varying in both dye color (brown to reddish brown and fastness properties to washing, perspiration and UV light. The produced dyes were subjected to further analysis for quantitative determination of dye components for investigation of their inter-relations as well as their role in dye color and stability.

  16. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  17. Uterine deletion of Gp130 or Stat3 shows implantation failure with increased estrogenic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2013-09-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a downstream target of estrogen, is essential for implantation in mice. LIF function is thought to be mediated by its binding to LIF receptor (LIFR) and recruitment of coreceptor GP130 (glycoprotein 130), and this receptor complex then activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. However, the importance of LIFR and GP130 acting via STAT3 in implantation remains uncertain, because constitutive inactivation of Lifr, Gp130, or Stat3 shows embryonic lethality in mice. To address this issue, we generated mice with conditional deletion of uterine Gp130 or Stat3 and show that both GP130 and STAT3 are critical for uterine receptivity and implantation. Implantation failure in these deleted mice is associated with higher uterine estrogenic responses prior to the time of implantation. These heightened estrogenic responses are not due to changes in ovarian hormone levels or expression of their nuclear receptors. In the deleted mice, estrogen-responsive gene, Lactoferrin (Ltf), and Mucin 1 protein, were up-regulated in the uterus. In addition, progesterone-responsive genes, Hoxa10 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were markedly down-regulated in STAT3-inactivated uteri. These changes in uteri of deleted mice were reflected by the failure of differentiation of the luminal epithelium, which is essential for blastocyst attachment.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M. [Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.

  19. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very low mass pre-stellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which André et al. have identified as a pre-stellar core with mass between ˜0.020 M⊙ and ˜0.030 M⊙. We re-analyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit at ˜0.075 M⊙, is between 0.66 and 0.86 . We conclude that, if Oph-B11 is destined to collapse, it probably will form a brown dwarf. However, the flows required to trigger this appear to be so contrived that it is difficult to envisage this being the only way, or even a major way, of forming isolated brown dwarfs. Moreover, Oph-B11 could easily be a transient, bouncing, prolate core, seen end-on; there could, indeed should, be many such objects masquerading as very low mass pre-stellar cores.

  20. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: two distinct ENG deletions in one family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooderchak, W; Gedge, F; McDonald, M; Krautscheid, P; Wang, X; Malkiewicz, J; Bukjiok, C J; Lewis, T; Bayrak-Toydemir, P

    2010-11-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by aberrant vascular development. Mutations in endoglin (ENG) or activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) account for around 90% of HHT patients, 10% of those are large deletions or duplications. We report here the first observation of two distinct, large ENG deletions segregating in one pedigree. An ENG exon 4-7 deletion was observed in a patient with HHT. This deletion was identified in several affected family members. However, some affected family members had an ENG exon 3 deletion instead. These deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and confirmed by mRNA sequencing and an oligo-CGH array. Linkage analysis revealed that one individual with the exon 3 deletion inherited the same chromosome from his mother who has the exon 4-7 deletion. This finding has important clinical implications because it shows that targeted family-specific mutation analysis for exon deletions could have led to the misdiagnosis of some affected family members. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. From a Brown to a Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    One main theme in the Rio+20 Conference was how to facilitate the growth of green industries. How can politicians more specifically promote renewable green industries such as wind turbines or solar energy? How can we get prices right in the market? Prices can be adjusted by the use of economic...... instruments such as taxes and subsidies. In this way, renewable energy sources and green industries become more competitive, thus enhancing the transition from brown to green economy. Not only can these economic incentives accelerate the so-called switch point in time from fossil fuel–based energy sources...

  2. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  3. Extrasolar Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Models

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A; Lunine, J I; Guillot, M P; Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S

    1997-01-01

    With the discovery of the companions of 51 Peg, 55 Cnc, $\\tau$ Boo, gas giants and/or brown dwarfs with masses from 0.3 through 60 times that of Jupiter assume a new and central role in the emerging field of extrasolar planetary studies. In this contribution, we describe the structural, spectral, and evolutionary characteristics of such exotic objects, as determined by our recent theoretical calculations. These calculations can be used to establish direct search strategies via SIRTF, ISO, and HST (NICMOS), and via various ground--based adaptive optics and interferometric platforms planned for the near future.

  4. A Prenatally Ascertained De Novo Terminal Deletion of Chromosomal Bands 1q43q44 Associated with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities in a Female Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sismani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 1 result in a postnatally recognizable disorder described as 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The size of the deletions and the resulting phenotype varies among patients. However, some features are common among patients as the chromosomal regions included in the deletions. In the present case, ultrasonography at 22 weeks of gestation revealed choroid plexus cysts (CPCs and a single umbilical artery (SUA and therefore amniocentesis was performed. Chromosomal analysis revealed a possible terminal deletion in 1q and high resolution array CGH confirmed the terminal 1q43q44 deletion and estimated the size to be approximately 8 Mb. Following termination of pregnancy, performance of fetopsy allowed further clinical characterization. We report here a prenatal case with the smallest pure terminal 1q43q44 deletion, that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized. In addition, to our knowledge this is the first prenatal case reported with 1q13q44 terminal deletion and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS. Our findings combined with review data from the literature show the complexity of the genetic basis of the associated syndrome.

  5. Chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors suppresses brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jiyoung; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds promise to combat obesity through energy-spending, non-shivering thermogenesis. Understanding of regulation of BAT development can lead to novel strategies to increase BAT mass and function for obesity treatment and prevention. Here, we report the effects of chronic activation of PRR on brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized brown pre-adipocytes from the classical interscapular BAT of mice. Activation of NOD1, TLR4, or TLR2 by their respective synthetic ligand suppressed brown marker gene expression and lipid accumulation during differentiation of brown-like adipocytes of C3H10T1/2. Activation of the PRR only during the commitment was sufficient to suppress the differentiation. PRR activation suppressed PGC-1α mRNA, but induced PRDM16 mRNA at the commitment. Consistently, PRR activation suppressed the differentiation of immortalized brown pre-adipocytes. Activation of PRR induced NF-κB activation in both cells, which correlated with their abilities to suppress PPARγ transactivation, a critical event for brown adipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chronic PRR activation suppressed brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes, possibly through suppression of PPARγ transactivation. The results suggest that anti- inflammatory therapies targeting PRRs may be beneficial for the BAT development.

  6. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tim J; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E; Townsend, Kristy L; Cypess, Aaron M; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-03-21

    Maintenance of body temperature is essential for the survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation. Owing to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anatomically located in the interscapular region of mice; and recruitable BAT (rBAT), which resides within white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, and has alternatively been called beige, brite or inducible BAT. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate the formation and thermogenic activity of BAT. Here we use mouse models to provide evidence for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis. Genetic ablation of the type 1A BMP receptor (Bmpr1a) in brown adipogenic progenitor cells leads to a severe paucity of cBAT. This in turn increases sympathetic input to WAT, thereby promoting the formation of rBAT within white fat depots. This previously unknown compensatory mechanism, aimed at restoring total brown-fat-mediated thermogenic capacity in the body, is sufficient to maintain normal temperature homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These data suggest an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells. This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology.

  8. The physiological basis of the migration continuum in brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    , expressed as a migration continuum, ranging from residency to anadromy. In looking at brown trout, our objective with this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in migration strategies is underpinned by physiological variation. Prior to migration, physiological samples were taken from fish......Partial migration is common in many animal taxa; however, the physiological variation underpinning migration strategies remains poorly understood. Among salmonid fishes, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is one of the species that exhibits the most complex variation in sympatric migration strategies...... to the two migratory strategies were generally similar; however, lower triacylglycerides levels in the short-distance migrants indicated that they were more lipid depleted prior to migration compared with the long-distance migrants. In the context of migration cost, we suggest that additional lipid depletion...

  9. Deletion of Late Cornified Envelope 3B and 3C Genes Is Not Associated with Atopic Dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergboer, Judith G. M.; Zeeuwen, Patrick L. J. M.; Irvine, Alan D.; Weidinger, Stephan; Giardina, Emiliano; Novelli, Giuseppe; Den Heijer, Martin; Rodriguez, Elke; Illig, Thomas; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Campbell, Linda E.; Tyson, Jess; Dannhauser, Emma N.; O'Regan, Grainne M.; Galli, Elena; Klopp, Norman; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Novak, Natalija; Estivill, Xavier; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Postma, Dirkje S.; Armour, John A. L.; Schalkwijk, Joost

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are common skin diseases characterized by cutaneous inflammation and disturbed epidermal differentiation. Genome-wide analyses have shown overlapping susceptibility loci, such as the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1q21. Recently, a deletion on

  10. Denis Browne: maverick or master surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E

    2000-11-01

    The current generation of surgeons may remember Denis Browne only as an inventor of surgical instruments which few people use, an innovator of procedures condemned as inadequate, and a personality bristling with controversy: a maverick indeed. And yet this assessment belies his influence as the founder of modern paediatric surgery in the development of British surgery. Further, his innovative operations in a range of paediatric lesions were revolutionary in the context of the time. Browne was born in 1892 and educated in Australia, although his whole surgical career was in England. He had a remarkable family background; unique Australian experiences in childhood, when he commenced to display independence and individuality of spirit, through University, where he gained 'Blues' in tennis and shooting, to war, where he served in Gallipoli and France; and to controversies that surrounded him in his battle to establish paediatric surgery as a legitimate surgical discipline. He certainly had a prickly personality and a particular venom reserved for orthopaedic surgeons and anatomists, but his achievements may have been possible only by one possessed of such a strong and towering character.

  11. Investigating the magnetism of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmychov, O; Harrington, D; Kuhn, J

    2013-01-01

    We model the spectra of two brown dwarfs observed with the low resolution spectropolarimeter LRIS (Keck observatory) during several rotational phases in order to infer their magnetic properties. The spectra modeled include the intensity signal (Stokes I/Ic) as well as the polarimetric signals (Stokes Q/Ic, U/Ic, and V/Ic), all coming from the 0-0 vibrational band of the CrH molecule at approx. 8610 A. In order to model the Stokes profiles, we solve a set of the radiative transfer equations for the CrH transitions in the presence of an external magnetic field. We present the upper limits for the magnetic field strengths for the objects observed, based on the modeling of the intensity signal I/Ic and the signal-to-noise information only. The proper modeling of the polarimetric signals, that requires more careful data reduction, is underway. Nevertheless, our preliminary results show a hint for kG magnetic fields for both brown dwarfs, that is in a good agreement with the result obtained from the simultaneous ra...

  12. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  13. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  17. A high-resolution CNV map across Brown Swiss cattle populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Teresa Matilde Maria Prinsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic studies and their use in selection programs are having a strong impact in dairy cattle selection (E. Liu et al., 2010. The first aim was to create a high resolution map of CNV regions (CNVRs in Brown Swiss cattle and the characterization of identified CNVs as markers for quantitative and population genetic studies. CNVs were called in a set of 164 sires with PennCNV and genoCN. PennCNV identified 2,377 CNVRs comprising 1,162 and 1,131 gain and loss events, respectively, and 84 regions of complex nature. GenoCN detected 41,519 CNVRs comprising 3,475 and 34,485 gain and loss events, respectively, and 3,559 regions of complex ones. Consensus calls between algorithms were summarized to CNVRs at the population level. GenoCN was also used to identify total allelic content in consensus CNVRs. Moreover, population haplotype frequencies were calculated. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was established between CNVs and SNPs in and around CNVRs. In this study the potential contribution of CNVs as genetic markers for genome wide association studies (GWAS has been assessed thanks to PIC and LD values. The next aim is to investigate genomic structural variation in cattle using dense SNP information in more than 1000 samples of the Italian and Swiss Brown Swiss breed genotyped on HD Bovine BeadChips. Today there is still no CNV map available across Brown Swiss populations belonging to different countries. This study therefore expands the catalogue of CNVRs in the bovine genome, delivers an international based high-resolution map of CNVRs specific to Brown Swiss dairy cattle and will lastly provide information for GEBV estimation with CNVs.

  18. Explaining millimeter-sized particles in brown dwarf disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pinilla; T. Birnstiel; M. Benisty; L. Ricci; A. Natta; C.P. Dullemond; C. Dominik; L. Testi

    2013-01-01

    Context. Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emis

  19. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  20. Thermodestruction of brown coals of different genetic types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butuzova, Ludmila; Isaeva, Lubov [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 70 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Turchanina, Oksana [Donetsk National Technical University, 48 Artema str., 83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Krzton, Andrzej [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Sowinskiego, 44-102, Gliwice (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The influence of brown coal genetic type and method of chemical pre-treatment on its behavior in pyrolysis processes has been shown. An important role of brown coal reductivity in coal thermal decomposition has been ascertained. It has been found that chemical pre-treatment permits variation of the rate of pyrolysis, the yields of pyrolysis products and structure of semi-cokes.

  1. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  2. Differential gene expression in white and brown preadipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeuf, S.; Klaus, S.; Klingenspor, M.; Schneider, T.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Keijer, J.

    2001-01-01

    White (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue are tissues of energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that brown and white preadipocytes are differentially determined, but so far not much is known about the genetic control of this determination process. The ai

  3. Brown Adipogenic Reprogramming Induced by a Small Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR agonist, bexarotene (Bex, that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells. Bex-treated mice exhibited enlarged BAT mass, enhanced BAT function, and a modest browning effect in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Expression analysis showed that Bex initiated several “browning” pathways at an early stage during brown adipocyte reprogramming. Our findings suggest RXRs as new master regulators that control brown and beige fat development and activation, unlike the common adipogenic regulator PPARγ. Moreover, we demonstrated that selective RXR activation may potentially offer a therapeutic approach to manipulate brown/beige fat function in vivo.

  4. Coexistence of 9p Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Ekinci, Nuran; Toros, Fevziye

    2017-01-01

    Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA deletions in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Arzu; Tasdemir, Sener; Sahin, Ibrahim; Bozoglu, Ceyda; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Yoruk, Ozgur; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 and 7400 bp deletions of mitochondrial DNA in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and to indicate the possible association of mitochondrial DNA deletions with chronic suppurative otitis media. Thirty-six patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were randomly selected to assess the mitochondrial DNA deletions. Tympanomastoidectomy was applied for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and the curettage materials including middle ear tissues were collected. The 4977 and 7400 bp deletion regions and two control regions of mitochondrial DNA were assessed by using the four pair primers. DNA was extracted from middle ear tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients, and then polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed. PCR products were separated in 2 % agarose gel. Seventeen of 36 patients had the heterozygote 4977 bp deletion in the middle ear tissue but not in peripheral blood. There wasn't any patient who had the 7400 bp deletion in mtDNA of their middle ear tissue or peripheral blood tissue. The patients with the 4977 bp deletion had a longer duration of chronic suppurative otitis media and a higher level of hearing loss than the others (p media and the reactive oxygen species can cause the mitochondrial DNA deletions and this may be a predisposing factor to sensorineural hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media. An antioxidant drug as a scavenger agent may be used in long-term chronic suppurative otitis media.

  6. Recurrence and Variability of Germline EPCAM Deletions in Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Roland P.; Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M.; Venkatachalam, Ramprasath; Bodmer, Danielle; Hoenselaar, Eveline; Goossens, Monique; Haufe, Aline; Kamping, Eveline; Niessen, Renee C.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Gille, Johan J. P.; Redeker, Bert; Tops, Carli M. J.; van Gijn, Marielle E.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Rahner, Nils; Steinke, Verena; Kahl, Philip; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Kloor, Matthias; Stemmler, Susanne; Betz, Beate; Hutter, Pierre; Bunyan, David J.; Syngal, Sapna; Culver, Julie O.; Graham, Tracy; Chan, Tsun L.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; van Krieken, J. Han J. M.; Schackert, Hans K.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we identified 3' end deletions in the EPCAM gene as a novel cause of Lynch syndrome. These truncating EPCAM deletions cause allele-specific epigenetic silencing of the neighboring DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2 in tissues expressing EPCAM. Here we screened a cohort of unexplained Lynch-like

  7. Using Topic Modeling and Text Embeddings to Predict Deleted Tweets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potash, Peter J.; Bell, Eric B.; Harrison, Joshua J.

    2016-02-29

    Predictive models for tweet deletion have been a relatively unexplored area of Twitter-related computational research. We first approach the deletion of tweets as a spam detection problem, applying a small set of handcrafted features to improve upon the current state-of-the- art in predicting deleted tweets. Next, we apply our approach to a dataset of deleted tweets that better reflects the current deletion rate. Since tweets are deleted for reasons beyond just the presence of spam, we apply topic modeling and text embeddings in order to capture the semantic content of tweets that can lead to tweet deletion. Our goal is to create an effective model that has a low-dimensional feature space and is also language-independent. A lean model would be computationally advantageous processing high-volumes of Twitter data, which can reach 9,885 tweets per second. Our results show that a small set of spam-related features combined with word topics and character-level text embeddings provide the best f1 when trained with a random forest model. The highest precision of the deleted tweet class is achieved by a modification of paragraph2vec to capture author identity.

  8. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 5.27 Section 5.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY..., FEMA may delete identifying details when making available or publishing an opinion, statement of...

  9. Linguistic and Psychomotor Development in Children with Chromosome 14 Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Laura; D'Odorico, Laura; Zanchi, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The present study focussed on a specific type of rare genetic condition: chromosome 14 deletions. Children with this genetic condition often show developmental delays and brain and neurological problems, although the type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the deleted genetic material. The specific aim of the…

  10. Linguistic and Psychomotor Development in Children with Chromosome 14 Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Laura; D'Odorico, Laura; Zanchi, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The present study focussed on a specific type of rare genetic condition: chromosome 14 deletions. Children with this genetic condition often show developmental delays and brain and neurological problems, although the type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the deleted genetic material. The specific aim of the…

  11. Coexistence of 9p Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Ekinci, Nuran; Toros, Fevziye

    2017-01-01

    Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

  12. Syntactic doubling and deletion as a source of variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbiers, S.; Picallo, M. Carme

    2014-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this paper is that syntactic doubling is necessary for full interpretation at LF, while deletion of locally redundant material is possible and sometimes necessary at PF. This was called the Doubling and Deletion hypothesis (DaD). According to this hypothesis, syntactic doub

  13. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  14. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  15. 'Deletion rescue' by mitotic 11q uniparental disomy in a family with recurrence of 11q deletion Jacobsen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J P; Haag, M; Beischel, L; McCann, C; Phillips, S; Tunby, M; Hansen, J; Schwanke, C; Reynolds, J F

    2014-04-01

    We describe a family with recurrent 11q23-qter deletion Jacobsen syndrome in two affected brothers, with unique mosaic deletion 'rescue' through development of uniparental disomy (UPD) in the mother and one of the brothers. Inheritance studies show that the deleted chromosome is of maternal origin in both boys, and microarray shows a break near the ASAM gene. Parental lymphocyte chromosomes were normal. However, the mother is homozygous in lymphocytes for all loci within the deleted region in her sons, and presumably has UPD for this region. In addition, she is mosaic for the 11q deletion seen in her sons at a level of 20-30% in skin fibroblasts. We hypothesize that one of her #11 chromosomes shows fragility, that breakage at 11q23 occurred with telomeric loss in some cells, but 'rescue' from the deletion occurred in most cells by the development of mitotic UPD. She apparently carries the 11q deletion in her germ line resulting in recurrence of the syndrome. The older son is mosaic for the 11q cell line (70-88%, remainder 46,XY), and segmental UPD11 'rescue' apparently also occurred in his cytogenetically normal cells. This is a novel phenomenon restoring disomy to an individual with a chromosomal deletion.

  16. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  17. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  18. Accretion and Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the magnetospheric accretion and outflow signatures in sub-stellar objects is a natural extension of similar studies conducted on classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), and helps understand if brown dwarfs (BDs) follow the same formation mechanism as stars. Over the past decade, evidence for accretion in very low-mass stars (VLMs) and BDs has been accumulated using various techniques, which indicates that the overall accretion characteristics are continuous across the sub-stellar boundary. Outflow activity in VLMs and BDs has been confirmed based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden emission lines observed in the optical, and in millimetre continuum images of CO J=2-1 emission. This review summarizes the past and current state of observational work on accretion and outflow activity in VLMs and BDs, particularly with the advent of new instruments such as VLT/X-Shooter which has allowed the study of several accretion and outflow indicators over a wider wavelength range.

  19. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyngararasan M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  1. Brown v. Plata: prison overcrowding in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Scott, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    California's prisons are currently designed to house approximately 85,000 inmates. At the time of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2011 decision in Brown v. Plata, the California prison system housed nearly twice that many (approximately 156,000 inmates). The Supreme Court held that California's prison system violated inmates' Eighth Amendment rights. The Court upheld a three-judge panel's order to decrease the population of California's prisons by an estimated 46,000 inmates. They determined that overcrowding was the primary cause of the inmates' inadequate medical and mental health care. As a result, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) has been working to redistribute inmates and parolees safely and decrease the overall population to the mandated levels. These large-scale adjustments to California's penal system create potential opportunities to study the long-term effects on affected inmates.

  2. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  3. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  4. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 reduces diet-induced obesity by enhancing AMPK-mediated thermogenesis

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    Zhu, Qingzhang; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Rodrigues, Ana; Gao, Su; Asterian, Alice; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Barrow, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 (AdKO) enhanced thermogenic EE, which protected mice from high-fat diet–induced weight gain at ambient temperature (23°C), but not at thermoneutral temperature (30°C). AdKO-induced increases in thermogenesis also protected mice from cold-induced decreases in body temperature. UCP1, PGC1α, and other markers of browning and thermogenesis were elevated in IWAT and RWAT of AdKO mice. Cold-induced activation of sympathetic signaling was unaltered, whereas AMPK was enhanced, in AdKO IWAT. Moreover, beige adipocytes from AdKO IWAT displayed enhanced browning, which was diminished by AMPK depletion. Furthermore, we determined that IP6 and IP6K1 differentially regulate upstream kinase-mediated AMPK stimulatory phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, treating mildly obese mice with the IP6K inhibitor TNP enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited progression of DIO. Thus, IP6K1 regulates energy metabolism via a mechanism that could potentially be targeted in obesity. PMID:27701146

  5. Thyroid hormone status defines brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipose tissues in mice.

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    Weiner, Juliane; Kranz, Mathias; Klöting, Nora; Kunath, Anne; Steinhoff, Karen; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Zeisig, Vilia; Hankir, Mohammed; Gebhardt, Claudia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Heiker, John T; Kralisch, Susan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Brust, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Krause, Kerstin

    2016-12-12

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal (18)F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo(14)C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice. (18)F-FDG PET/MRI revealed a lack of brown adipose tissue activity in hypothyroid mice, whereas hyperthyroid mice displayed increased BAT mass alongside enhanced (18)F-FDG uptake. In white adipose tissue of both, hyper- and hypothyroid mice, we found a significant induction of thermogenic genes together with multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1. Taken together, these results suggest that both the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state stimulate WAT thermogenesis most likely as a consequence of enhanced adrenergic signaling or compensation for impaired BAT function, respectively.

  6. Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue

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    Umesh D. Wankhade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT. Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The recent appreciation that adult humans possess functional BAT strengthens this prospect. Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and “beige” adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. This review aims to provide a brief overview of BAT research and summarize recent findings concerning the physiological, cellular, and developmental characteristics of brown adipocytes. In addition, some key genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic targets of BAT/Beige cells that have been reported to have therapeutic potential to combat obesity will be discussed.

  7. The HLA-G 14-base pair deletion allele and the deletion/deletion genotype are associated with persistent HBe antigenemia in chronic hepatis B infection.

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    Ferreira, Sandro da Costa; Chachá, Silvana Gama Florêncio; Souza, Fernanda Fernandes; Teixeira, Andreza Corrêa; Santana, Rodrigo de Carvalho; Deghaide, Neifi Hassan Saloun; Rodrigues, Sandra; Marano, Leonardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo

    2017-02-01

    HLA-G has well-recognized immunomodulatory properties, and this molecule is frequently expressed in the livers of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. Because the HLA-G 14 bp-insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs371194629) has been associated with the magnitude of HLA-G expression, we evaluated this polymorphism in the recognized evolutionary forms of chronic HBV infection. We studied 196 chronic HBV-infected patients (118 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis, 53 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis and 25 inactive carriers exhibiting low levels of serum HBVDNA and persistently normal ALT levels), and 202 healthy individuals. Chronic hepatitis HLA-G typing was performed using PCR-amplified DNA hybridized with specific primers. The frequencies of the insertion/deletion alleles and genotypes were very similar in patients and controls. After patient stratification according to the evolutionary form of the chronic HBV infection, the frequencies of the deletion allele (P=0.0460; OR=1.26; 95%CI=1.01-1.45) and of the deletion/deletion genotype (P=0.0356; OR=2.08; 95%CI=1.05-4.09) were overrepresented in HBeAg-positive patients when compared to HBeAg-negative patients. No differences were observed when HBV inactive carriers were compared to HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis patients. Because the 14-bp deletion allele has been associated with increased HLA-G production and because HLA-G may down regulate the cytotoxic activity of TCD8 and NK cells, patients exhibiting the 14-bp deletion allele at single or double doses are at increased risk for developing chronic forms of HBV associated with persistent viremia and worse prognoses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conversion of deletions during recombination in pneumococcal transformation.

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    Lefèvre, J C; Mostachfi, P; Gasc, A M; Guillot, E; Pasta, F; Sicard, M

    1989-11-01

    Genetic analysis of 16 deletions obtained in the amiA locus of pneumococcus is described. When present on donor DNA, all deletions increased drastically the frequency of wild-type recombinants in two-point crosses. This effect was maximal for deletions longer than 200 bases. It was reduced for heterologies shorter than 76 bases and did not exist for very short deletions. In three-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between two point mutations, we demonstrated that this excess of wild-type recombinants was the result of a genetic conversion. This conversion extended over several scores of bases outside the deletion. Conversion takes place during the heteroduplex stage of recombination. Therefore, in pneumococcal transformation, long heterologies participated in this heteroduplex configuration. As this conversion did not require an active DNA polymerase A gene it is proposed that the mechanism of conversion is not a DNA repair synthesis but involves breakage and ligation between DNA molecules. Conversion of deletions did not require the Hex system of correction of mismatched bases. It differs also from localized conversion. It appears that it is a process that evolved to correct errors of replication which lead to long heterologies and which are not eliminated by other systems.

  9. Multivariate analysis of the chemical properties of the eroded brown soils

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    Juan Alejandro Villazón Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out with the data obtained of 30 profiles of Brown soils classified according to the effect of erosion. With the objective of determining, by means of a multivariate analysis, the effect of the erosion on the chemicals properties of the Brown soils was carried out a Discriminant and Principals Components Analysis. It was evaluated the chemicals variables pH in water, pH in KCl, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and S, T and V values. The Multivariate Analysis allowed establishing that magnesium is the only chemical property that evidence contraposition with the other variables, due to the harmful effect that this base exerts on the soil aggregates, which can accelerate or stressing the action of the erosive processes in the Brown soils. In the Principals Components Analysis, then components represented by the influence of the soil reaction, the absorbing complex and magnesium accumulate 78.75 % of the variance. The Discriminant Analysis explains the 97.06 % of the total of the variation in the two first axes, with the 93.33 % of good classification, with all the groups conformed by the categories of erosion well told apart among themselves.

  10. Secondary brown carbon formation via the dicarbonyl imine pathway: nitrogen heterocycle formation and synergistic effects.

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    Kampf, C J; Filippi, A; Zuth, C; Hoffmann, T; Opatz, T

    2016-07-21

    Dicarbonyls are known to be important precursors of so-called atmospheric brown carbon, significantly affecting aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. In this systematic study we report the formation of light-absorbing nitrogen containing compounds from simple 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,5-dicarbonyl + amine reactions. A combination of spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric techniques was used to characterize reaction products in solutions mimicking atmospheric particulates. Experiments with individual dicarbonyls and dicarbonyl mixtures in ammonium sulfate and glycine solutions demonstrate that nitrogen heterocycles are common structural motifs of brown carbon chromophores formed in such reaction systems. 1,4- and 1,5-dicarbonyl reaction systems, which were used as surrogates for terpene ozonolysis products, showed rapid formation of light-absorbing material and products with absorbance maxima at ∼450 nm. Synergistic effects on absorbance properties were observed in mixed (di-)carbonyl experiments, as indicated by the formation of a strong absorber in ammonium sulfate solutions containing acetaldehyde and acetylacetone. This cross-reaction oligomer shows an absorbance maximum at 385 nm, relevant for the actinic flux region of the atmosphere. This study demonstrates the complexity of secondary brown carbon formation via the imine pathway and highlights that cross-reactions with synergistic effects have to be considered an important pathway for atmospheric BrC formation.

  11. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation.

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    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393].

  12. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

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    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  13. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

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    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  14. Regulation of brown and beige fat by microRNAs.

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    Chen, Yong; Pan, Ruping; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold. Later on, it was also discovered in human adults, suggesting its potential role in energy balance and metabolism. Moreover, "brown-like" adipocytes present in WAT depots, so called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells, were discovered by several groups. In recent years, miRNAs were found to have important regulatory function during brown fat differentiation, brown fat activation and white fat "browning". In this review, we focus on the regulation of brown and beige fat by miRNAs including the role in their differentiation and function, providing evidence for their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases.

  15. Shades of Brown: A Model for Thermogenic Fat

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    Jon Michael Dempersmier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is specialized to burn fuels to perform thermogenesis in defense of body temperature against cold. Recent discovery of metabolically active and relevant amounts of BAT in adult humans have made it a potentially attractive target for development of anti-obesity therapeutics. There are two types of brown adipocytes: classical brown adipocytes as well as brown adipocyte-like cells, so called beige/brite cells, that arise in white adipose tissue in response to cold and hormonal stimuli. These cells may derive from distinct origins, and while functionally similar, have different gene signatures. Here, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of brown and beige/brite adipocytes as well as transcriptional regulation for development and function of murine brown and beige/brite adipocytes focusing on EBF2, IRF4 and ZFP516, in addition to PRDM16 as a coregulator. We also discuss hormonal regulation of brown and beige/brite adipocytes including several factors secreted from various tissues, including BMP7, FGF21 and irisin, as well as those from BAT itself, such as Nrg4 and adenosine.

  16. A novel deletion/insertion caused by a replication error in the β-globin gene locus control region.

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    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Meley, Roland; Pondarré, Corinne; Francina, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Deletions in the β-globin locus control region (β-LCR) lead to (εγδβ)(0)-thalassemia [(εγδβ)(0)-thal]. In patients suffering from these rare deletions, a normal hemoglobin (Hb), phenotype is found, contrasting with a hematological thalassemic phenotype. Multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) is an efficient tool to detect β-LCR deletions combined with long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to pinpoint deletion breakpoints. We present here a novel 11,155 bp β-LCR deletion found in a French Caucasian patient which removes DNase I hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) to HS4 of the β-LCR. Interestingly, a 197 bp insertion of two inverted sequences issued from the HS2-HS3 inter-region is present and suggests a complex rearrangement during replication. Carriers of this type of thalassemia can be misdiagnosed as an α-thal trait. Consequently, a complete α- and β-globin gene cluster analysis is required to prevent a potentially damaging misdiagnosis in genetic counselling.

  17. Adipocyte-specific deletion of mTOR inhibits adipose tissue development and causes insulin resistance in mice.

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    Shan, Tizhong; Zhang, Pengpeng; Jiang, Qinyang; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yizhen; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-09-01

    The in vivo role of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the development and function of adipose tissue, especially brown adipose tissue (BAT), is not well understood. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of mTOR (also known as Mtor) knockout on adipose tissues and systemic energy metabolism. We generated adipocyte-specific mTOR-knockout mice (Adipoq-mTOR) by crossing adiponectin-Cre (Adipoq-Cre) mice with mTOR (flox/flox) mice. The mice were then subjected to morphological, physiological (indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests) and gene expression analyses to determine the role of mTOR in adipose tissues. We provide in vivo evidence that mTOR is essential for adipose tissue development and growth. Deletion of mTOR decreased the mass of both BAT and white adipose tissues (WAT) and induced browning of WAT. In addition, ablation of mTOR in adipose tissues caused insulin resistance and fatty liver in the Adipoq-mTOR mice. Furthermore, mTOR was required for adipocyte differentiation in vivo and activation of PPARγ ameliorated the differentiation deficiency of the mTOR-null adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that mTOR is a critical regulator of adipogenesis and systemic energy metabolism. Our study provides key insights into the role of mTOR in adipose tissues; such knowledge may facilitate the development of novel strategies with which to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  18. Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence

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    Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis

    2017-10-01

    Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

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    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  20. Neural Computations for Biosonar Imaging in the Big Brown Bat

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    Saillant, Prestor Augusto

    1995-11-01

    The study of the intimate relationship between space and time has taken many forms, ranging from the Theory of Relativity down to the problem of avoiding traffic jams. However, nowhere has this relationship been more fully developed and exploited than in dolphins and bats, which have the ability to utilize biosonar. This thesis describes research on the behavioral and computational basis of echolocation carried out in order to explore the neural mechanisms which may account for the space-time constructs which are of psychological importance to the big brown bat. The SCAT (Spectrogram Correlation and Transformation) computational model was developed to provide a framework for understanding the computational requirements of FM echolocation as determined from psychophysical experiments (i.e., high resolution imaging) and neurobiological constraints (Saillant et al., 1993). The second part of the thesis consisted in developing a new behavioral paradigm for simultaneously studying acoustic behavior and flight behavior of big brown bats in pursuit of stationary or moving targets. In the third part of the thesis a complete acoustic "artificial bat" was constructed, making use of the SCAT process. The development of the artificial bat allowed us to begin experimentation with real world echoes from various targets, in order to gain a better appreciation for the additional complexities and sources of information encountered by bats in flight. Finally, the continued development of the SCAT model has allowed a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of "time expansion" and of the phenomenon of phase sensitivity in the ultrasonic range. Time expansion, first predicted through the use of the SCAT model, and later found in auditory local evoked potential recordings, opens up a new realm of information processing and representation in the brain which as of yet has not been considered. It seems possible, from the work in the auditory system, that time expansion may provide a novel

  1. Thomas Graham Brown (1882--1965), Anders Lundberg (1920-), and the neural control of stepping.

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    Stuart, Douglas G; Hultborn, Hans

    2008-11-01

    Thomas Graham Brown (1882--1965) undertook experiments on the neural control of stepping in the University of Liverpool laboratory of Charles Sherrington (1857--1952) in 1910--13 and his own laboratory in 1913--15 at the University of Manchester. His results revealed the intrinsic capability of the spinal cord in the guinea pig and cat to generate a stepping output pattern whose timing did not depend upon descending or sensory inputs. This idea was then revolutionary because the prevailing viewpoint was that the stepping rhythm was generated by spinal reflexes. Sadly, Graham Brown's GBR peers gave little credence to this seminal accomplishment, except perhaps Sherrington, who waxed but largely waned on the potential significance of the work. It remained for the Swedish neuroscientist, Anders Lundberg (1920-), to rescue Graham Brown's concepts from obscurity: in seminars presented in several countries between 1957 and 1980, and in widely read articles and reviews (1965--1981). Graham Brown had proposed mutually inhibitory connections between a pair of intrinsically active flexor and extensor "half-centers" on each side of the spinal cord, with the rhythmic output modulated by sensory proprioceptive input. Lundberg, Elzbieta Jankowska (1930-), and their colleagues provided seminal, compelling evidence for spinal half-center interneuronal circuitry implicated in the control of stepping and Lundberg and Ingemar Engberg (1935--2005) made behavioral EMG observations on unrestrained cats that supported a central generation of the rhythm. Subsequently, models of the spinal pattern generators for mammalian locomotion have become progressively more complex but they mostly still include a half-center component.

  2. Brown but not white adipose cells synthesize omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xia; Park, Hui Gyu; Zhang, Ji Yao; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Guowen; Subramanian, Nivetha; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ which coordinates several crucial biological functions including fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, and immune function. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is most abundant in young infants during the brain growth spurt when demands for omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is greatest for brain structure. Our aim was to characterize relative biosynthesis of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from precursors in cultured white (WAT) and brown (BAT) cells and study relevant gene expression. Mouse WAT and BAT cells were grown in regular DMEM media to confluence, and differentiation was induced. At days 0 and 8 cells were treated with albumin bound d5-18:3n-3 (d5-ALA) and analyzed 24h later. d5-ALA increased cellular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in undifferentiated BAT cells, whereas differentiated BAT cells accumulated 20:4n-3, EPA and DPA. DHA as a fraction of total omega-3 LCPUFA was greatest in differentiated BAT cells compared to undifferentiated cells. Undifferentiated WAT cells accumulated EPA, whereas differentiated cells accumulated DPA. WAT accumulated trace newly synthesized DHA. Zic1 a classical brown marker and Prdm16 a key driver of brown fat cell fate are expressed only in BAT cells. Ppargc1a is 15 fold higher in differentiated BAT cells. We conclude that in differentiated adipose cells accumulating fat, BAT cells but not WAT cells synthesize DHA, supporting the hypothesis that BAT is a net producer of DHA.

  3. Acquired Brown Syndrome Treated With Traction of Superior Oblique Tendon.

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    Shin, Kwang Hoon; Paik, Hae Jung; Chi, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Brown syndrome is a rare strabismic disease characterized by a limited elevation in adduction of the eye. The lengthening/weakening of superior oblique muscle is the main way of surgical intervention for this disease. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed as having acquired Brown syndrome in his right eye after injury in his face. We experienced successful release of this Brown syndrome through mere pulling outward of superior oblique tendon during surgical exploration. We briefly discuss why this manipulation of superior oblique tendon that we performed was successful.

  4. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  5. TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, HAIYING; Wan, Bo; Grubisic, Ivan; Kaplan, Tommy; Tjian, Robert

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Mammals produce two distinct types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (white fat) is the more common type and is used to store energy; brown adipose tissue (brown fat) is mostly found in young animals and infants, and it plays an important role in dissipating energy as heat rather than storing it in fat for future use. In adults, higher levels of brown fat are associated with lower levels of fat overall, so there is considerable interest in learning more about this form of f...

  6. Brown dwarf accretion: Nonconventional star formation over very long timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Milan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the process of accretion of interstellar gas by the Galactic population of brown dwarfs over very long timescales typical for physical eschatology. In particular, we use the classical Hoyle-Lyttleton-Bondi accretion model to investigate the rate at which brown dwarfs collect enough additional mass to become red dwarfs, accretion-induced changes in the mass function of the low- mass objects, and the corresponding accretion heating of brown dwarfs. In addition, we show how we can make the definition of the final mass function for stellar objects more precise.

  7. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  8. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  9. The browning kinetics of the non-enzymatic browning reaction in L-ascorbic acid/basic amino acid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Nong YU

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the conditions of weak basis and the reaction temperature range of 110-150 °C, lysine, arginine and histidine were reacted with L-ascorbic acid at equal amount for 30-150 min, respectively and the formation of browning products was monitored with UV–vis spectrometry. The kinetic characteristics of their non-enzymatic browning reaction were investigated. The study results indicated that the non-enzymatic browning reaction of these three amino acids with L-ascorbic acid to form browning products was zero-order reaction. The apparent activation energies for the formation of browning products from L-ascorbic acid/lysine, L-ascorbic acid/arginine and L-ascorbic acid/histidine systems were 54.94, 50.08 and 35.31kJ/mol. The activation energy data indicated the degree of effects of reaction temperature on non-enzymatic browning reaction. Within the temperature range of 110-150 °C, the reaction rate of L-ascorbic acid/lysine system was the fastest one, followed by that of the L-ascorbic acid/arginine system. The reaction rate of L-ascorbic acid/histidine system was the slowest one. Based on the observed kinetic data, the formation mechanisms of browning products were proposed.

  10. Deletion in the EVC2 Gene Causes Chondrodysplastic Dwarfism in Tyrolean Grey Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Benazzi, Cinzia; Bolcato, Marilena; Brunetti, Barbara; Muscatello, Luisa Vera; Dittmer, Keren; Piffer, Christian; Gentile, Arcangelo; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013 seven Italian Tyrolean Grey calves were born with abnormally short limbs. Detailed clinical and pathological examination revealed similarities to chondrodysplastic dwarfism. Pedigree analysis showed a common founder, assuming autosomal monogenic recessive transmission of the defective allele. A positional cloning approach combining genome wide association and homozygosity mapping identified a single 1.6 Mb genomic region on BTA 6 that was associated with the disease. Whole genome re-sequencing of an affected calf revealed a single candidate causal mutation in the Ellis van Creveld syndrome 2 (EVC2) gene. This gene is known to be associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese Brown cattle, and dwarfism, abnormal nails and teeth, and dysostosis in humans with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a 2 bp deletion in exon 19 (c.2993_2994ACdel) that led to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of bovine EVC2, and was concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier animals. This loss of function mutation confirms the important role of EVC2 in bone development. Genetic testing can now be used to eliminate this form of chondrodysplastic dwarfism from Tyrolean Grey cattle. PMID:24733244

  11. Regional genomic instability predisposes to complex dystrophin gene rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Junko; Magner, Daniel B; Lee, Jennifer A; Breman, Amy M; Schmitt, Eric S; White, Lisa D; Crowe, Carol A; Merrill, Michelle; Jayakar, Parul; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Eng, Christine M; del Gaudio, Daniela

    2009-09-01

    Mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies and the majority of cases are due to DMD gene rearrangements. Despite the high incidence of these aberrations, little is known about their causative molecular mechanism(s). We examined 792 DMD/BMD clinical samples by oligonucleotide array-CGH and report on the junction sequence analysis of 15 unique deletion cases and three complex intragenic rearrangements to elucidate potential underlying mechanism(s). Furthermore, we present three cases with intergenic rearrangements involving DMD and neighboring loci. The cases with intragenic rearrangements include an inversion with flanking deleted sequences; a duplicated segment inserted in direct orientation into a deleted region; and a splicing mutation adjacent to a deletion. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that 7 of 12 breakpoints combined among 3 complex cases aligned with repetitive sequences, as compared to 4 of 30 breakpoints for the 15 deletion cases. Moreover, the inversion/deletion case may involve a stem-loop structure that has contributed to the initiation of this rearrangement. For the duplication/deletion and splicing mutation/deletion cases, the presence of the first mutation, either a duplication or point mutation, may have elicited the deletion events in an attempt to correct preexisting mutations. While NHEJ is one potential mechanism for these complex rearrangements, the highly complex junction sequence of the inversion/deletion case suggests the involvement of a replication-based mechanism. Our results support the notion that regional genomic instability, aided by the presence of repetitive elements, a stem-loop structure, and possibly preexisting mutations, may elicit complex rearrangements of the DMD gene.

  12. 77 FR 27737 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...: Document Destruction Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 6200 Jefferson St. NE., Albuquerque, NM. NPA: Adelante Development Center, Inc., Albuquerque, NM. Contracting Activity: Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Conservation Service, Albuquerque, NM. Deletions...

  13. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  14. Characterization of a lymphoblastoid line deleted for lambda immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, C.A., White, B.N., Holden, J.A. [Queen`s Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    While characterizing the cat eye syndrome (CES) supernumerary chromosome for the presence of {lambda} immunoglobulin gene region sequences, a lymphoblastoid cell line from one CES patient was identified in which there was selection of cells deleted from some IGLC and IGLV genes. Two distinct deletions, one on each chromosome 22, were identified, presumably arising from independent somatic recombination events occurring during B-lymphocyte differentiation. The extent of the deleted regions was determined using probes from the various IGLV subgroups and they each covered at least 82 kilobases. The precise definition of the deletions was not possible because of conservation of some restriction sites in the IGLV region. The cell line was used to map putative IGLV genes within the recombinant phage {lambda}V{lambda}135 to the distal part of the IGLV gene region. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  15. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Deletion of identifying details. When CMS publishes or otherwise makes available an opinion or order, statement of policy, or other record which relates to a private party or parties, the name or names or...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: distal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (7 links) Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard ... Pliszka SR, Gelfond JA, Hale DE, Cody JD. Mood disorders in individuals with distal 18q deletions. Am ...

  17. Influence of the LILRA3 Deletion on Multiple Sclerosis Risk: Original Data and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Ortiz

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified over hundred polymorphisms with modest individual effects in MS susceptibility and they have confirmed the main individual effect of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Additional risk loci with immunologically relevant genes were found significantly overrepresented. Nonetheless, it is accepted that most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined. Candidate association studies of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor LILRA3 gene in MS have been repeatedly reported with inconsistent results.In an attempt to shed some light on these controversial findings, a combined analysis was performed including the previously published datasets and three newly genotyped cohorts. Both wild-type and deleted LILRA3 alleles were discriminated in a single-tube PCR amplification and the resulting products were visualized by their different electrophoretic mobilities.Overall, this meta-analysis involved 3200 MS patients and 3069 matched healthy controls and it did not evidence significant association of the LILRA3 deletion [carriers of LILRA3 deletion: p = 0.25, OR (95% CI = 1.07 (0.95-1.19], even after stratification by gender and the HLA-DRB1*15:01 risk allele.

  18. Bilateral hand amyotrophy with PMP-22 gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochard, A; Guennoc, A M; Praline, J; Malinge, M C; de Toffol, B; Corcia, P

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) phenotypes are heterogeneous. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman without medical history, who complained of bilateral hand weakness suggestive first of a motor neuron disorder. The presence of a diffuse predominant distal demyelinating neuropathy suggested a deletion of PMP-22 gene, which was confirmed by genetic analysis. This case report underlines a novel phenotype related to the deletion of PMP-22 gene.

  19. Targeted gene deletions in C. elegans using transposon excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M. Wayne; Hollopeter, Gunther; Taylor, Jon; Harris, Todd; Nix, Paola; Lofgren, Rachel; Prestgard-Duke, Michael; Bastiani, Michael; Moerman, Donald G.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a method, MosDel, to generate targeted knock-outs of genes in C. elegans. We make use of the Mos1 transposase to excise a Mos1 transposon adjacent to the region to be deleted. The double-strand break is repaired using injected DNA as a template. Repair can delete up to 25 kb of DNA and simultaneously insert a positive selection marker. PMID:20418868

  20. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  1. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population. The human...

  2. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: Where to look for them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation for the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100–5000 AU around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  3. Browning effects of (-)-epicatechin on adipocytes and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Claudia Elena; Rodriguez, Alonso; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Mansour, Christina; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin (Epi), a cacao flavanol, induces the browning of fat by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing indicators of mitochondrial structure and function, increasing fatty acid metabolism and upregulating the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific proteins in a high-fat diet mouse model of obesity and in cultured human adipocytes. Epi treatment significantly improved mitochondrial function, as measured by citrate synthase activity, and also reduced protein acetylation of total and specific regulators in both adipose tissue and human adipocytes. Browning of fat via Epi was evidenced by the increased expression of key thermogenic genes, phosphorylation of upstream regulators of fatty acid oxidation, and reduced triglyceride levels. Properly designed clinical trials are needed to explore the potential of Epi as an agent that promotes the browning of fat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sphenoid Brown Tumor Associated with a Parathyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Loya-Solís

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumors are osteolytic bone lesions that occur as a result of persistent hyperparathyroidism. They usually appear late in the natural history of the disease and are currently very rare due to an earlier diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. We present the case of a 53-year-old female with a 2-month history of bitemporal hemianopsia and diplopia. A computed tomography showed an osteolytic bone lesion that involved the sphenoid corpus and clivus. A biopsy was made and the histopathology result was consistent with a brown tumor. The aforementioned location is very infrequent to such tumors, and therefore represented a diagnostic challenge. However, in this case, its association to primary hyperparathyroidism was the clue for the diagnosis. The association of a brown tumor secondary to a parathyroid carcinoma has been seldom reported. This case represents, to our knowledge, one of the few brown tumors described in such location and the first secondary to a parathyroid carcinoma.

  5. The formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that ~60% of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2Msun. Currently, there is no consensus on how these objects form. I will briefly review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will focus on the disc fragmentation theory and discuss how it addresses critical observational constraints, i.e. the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will examine whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in low-mass star and brown dwarf formation.

  6. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  7. Integrated Pest Management Plan Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Browns Park National...

  8. Narrative report : Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  11. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: where to look for them?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100-5000 AU) around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  13. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  14. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ferrannini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  15. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  18. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Brooks-Wisniewski-Brown syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Hol, F.A.; Meirleir, L. de; Seneca, S.; Busch, R.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Brooks, Wisniewski, and Brown described a familial presentation of severe developmental retardation, speech delay, static encephalopathy with atrophic hydrocephalus, microcephaly, progressive spastic diplegia, a characteristic facial appearance, optic atrophy, and growth retardation associated with

  20. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins with a brief...

  1. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  2. John Browne (1642-1702): anatomist and plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Akiyama, Matthew; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Yalçin, Bulent; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to many other physicians of his age, John Browne (1642-1702), an English anatomist and surgeon, managed to strike a balance in his career that spanned relative obscurity, prestige, and notoriety. Among his more prestigious credits, Browne was Surgeon in Ordinary to King Charles II and William III. He also had numerous publications to his name, some of which are credited as great innovations. His career, however, was tempered by his most important book, which has been critiqued by his contemporaries as well as modern historians as plagiarism. Although Browne undeniably copied the works of others and published them under his name, he was not alone in this practice. Various forms of intellectual thievery were common in Browne's day, and there were many perpetrators. The life of this overlooked figure in the history of anatomy and the stigma attached to him will be examined.

  3. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  4. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  5. NFIA co-localizes with PPARγ and transcriptionally controls the brown fat gene program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiraike, Yuta; Waki, Hironori; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    . NFIA and the master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, co-localize at the brown-fat-specific enhancers. Moreover, the binding of NFIA precedes and facilitates the binding of PPARγ, leading to increased chromatin accessibility and active transcription. Introduction of NFIA into myoblasts...... results in brown adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, the brown fat of NFIA-knockout mice displays impaired expression of the brown-fat-specific genes and reciprocal elevation of muscle genes. Finally, expression of NFIA and the brown-fat-specific genes is positively correlated in human brown fat......Brown fat dissipates energy as heat and protects against obesity. Here, we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a transcriptional regulator of brown fat by a genome-wide open chromatin analysis of murine brown and white fat followed by motif analysis of brown-fat-specific open chromatin regions...

  6. Exon Deletions of Parkin Gene in Patients with Parkinson Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 梁直厚; 孙圣刚; 曹学兵; 彭海; 刘红进; 童萼塘

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Mutations in the parkin gene have recently been identified in familial and isolated patients with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD) and that subregions between exon 2 and 4 of the parkin gene are hot spots of deletive mutations. To study the distribution of deletions in the parkin gene among variant subset patients with PD in China, and to explore the role of parkin gene in the pathogenesis of PD, 63 patients were divided into early onset and later onset groups. Exons 1-12 were amplified by PCR, templated by the genomic DNA of patients, and then the deletion distribution detected by agarose electrophoresis. Four patients were found to be carrier of exon deletions in 63 patients with PD. The location of the deletion was on exon 2 (1 case), exon 3 (2 cases) and exon 4 (1 case). All patients were belong to the group of early onset PD. The results showed that parkin gene deletion on exon 2, exon 3 and exon 4 found in Chinese population contributes partly to early onset PD.

  7. Fast detection of deletion breakpoints using quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshara Abildinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The routine detection of large and medium copy number variants (CNVs is well established. Hemizygotic deletions or duplications in the large Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD gene responsible for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are routinely identified using multiple ligation probe amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These methods only map deleted or duplicated exons, without providing the exact location of breakpoints. Commonly used methods for the detection of CNV breakpoints include long-range PCR and primer walking, their success being limited by the deletion size, GC content and presence of DNA repeats. Here, we present a strategy for detecting the breakpoints of medium and large CNVs regardless of their size. The hemizygous deletion of exons 45-50 in the DMD gene and the large autosomal heterozygous PARK2 deletion were used to demonstrate the workflow that relies on real-time quantitative PCR to narrow down the deletion region and Sanger sequencing for breakpoint confirmation. The strategy is fast, reliable and cost-efficient, making it amenable to widespread use in genetic laboratories.

  8. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease.

  9. Adenovirus mediated homozygous endometrial epithelial Pten deletion results in aggressive endometrial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ayesha; Ellenson, Lora Hedrick, E-mail: lora.ellenson@med.cornell.edu

    2011-07-01

    Pten is the most frequently mutated gene in uterine endometriod carcinoma (UEC) and its precursor complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). Because the mutation frequency is similar in CAH and UEC, Pten mutations are thought to occur relatively early in endometrial tumorigenesis. Previous work from our laboratory using the Pten{sup +/-} mouse model has demonstrated somatic inactivation of the wild type allele of Pten in both CAH and UEC. In the present study, we injected adenoviruses expressing Cre into the uterine lumen of adult Pten floxed mice in an attempt to somatically delete both alleles of Pten specifically in the endometrium. Our results demonstrate that biallelic inactivation of Pten results in an increased incidence of carcinoma as compared to the Pten{sup +/-} mouse model. In addition, the carcinomas were more aggressive with extension beyond the uterus into adjacent tissues and were associated with decreased expression of nuclear ER{alpha} as compared to associated CAH. Primary cultures of epithelial and stromal cells were prepared from uteri of Pten floxed mice and Pten was deleted in vitro using Cre expressing adenovirus. Pten deletion was evident in both the epithelial and stromal cells and the treatment of the primary cultures with estrogen had different effects on Akt activation as well as Cyclin D3 expression in the two purified components. This study demonstrates that somatic biallelic inactivation of Pten in endometrial epithelium in vivo results in an increased incidence and aggressiveness of endometrial carcinoma compared to mice carrying a germline deletion of one allele and provides an important in vivo and in vitro model system for understanding the genetic underpinnings of endometrial carcinoma.

  10. Gene Deletion by Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad E. Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although progress in Chlamydia genetics has been rapid, genomic modification has previously been limited to point mutations and group II intron insertions which truncate protein products. The bacterium has thus far been intractable to gene deletion or more-complex genomic integrations such as allelic exchange. Herein, we present a novel suicide vector dependent on inducible expression of a chlamydial gene that renders Chlamydia trachomatis fully genetically tractable and permits rapid reverse genetics by fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM. We describe the first available system of targeting chlamydial genes for deletion or allelic exchange as well as curing plasmids from C. trachomatis serovar L2. Furthermore, this approach permits the monitoring of mutagenesis by fluorescence microscopy without disturbing bacterial growth, a significant asset when manipulating obligate intracellular organisms. As proof of principle, trpA was successfully deleted and replaced with a sequence encoding both green fluorescent protein (GFP and β-lactamase. The trpA-deficient strain was unable to grow in indole-containing medium, and this phenotype was reversed by complementation with trpA expressed in trans. To assess reproducibility at alternate sites, FRAEM was repeated for genes encoding type III secretion effectors CTL0063, CTL0064, and CTL0065. In all four cases, stable mutants were recovered one passage after the observation of transformants, and allelic exchange was limited to the specific target gene, as confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Deleted sequences were not detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR from isogenic mutant populations. We demonstrate that utilization of the chlamydial suicide vector with FRAEM renders C. trachomatis highly amenable to versatile and efficient genetic manipulation.

  11. The evolution of small insertions and deletions in the coding genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Zechen; Zhai, Weiwei; Li, Chunyan; Gao, Min; Gong, Qiang; Ruan, Jue; Li, Juan; Jiang, Lan; Lv, Xuemei; Hungate, Eric; Wu, Chung-I

    2013-12-01

    Studies of protein evolution have focused on amino acid substitutions with much less systematic analysis on insertion and deletions (indels) in protein coding genes. We hence surveyed 7,500 genes between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, using D. yakuba as an outgroup for this purpose. The evolutionary rate of coding indels is indeed low, at only 3% of that of nonsynonymous substitutions. As coding indels follow a geometric distribution in size and tend to fall in low-complexity regions of proteins, it is unclear whether selection or mutation underlies this low rate. To resolve the issue, we collected genomic sequences from an isogenic African line of D. melanogaster (ZS30) at a high coverage of 70× and analyzed indel polymorphism between ZS30 and the reference genome. In comparing polymorphism and divergence, we found that the divergence to polymorphism ratio (i.e., fixation index) for smaller indels (size ≤ 10 bp) is very similar to that for synonymous changes, suggesting that most of the within-species polymorphism and between-species divergence for indels are selectively neutral. Interestingly, deletions of larger sizes (size ≥ 11 bp and ≤ 30 bp) have a much higher fixation index than synonymous mutations and 44.4% of fixed middle-sized deletions are estimated to be adaptive. To our surprise, this pattern is not found for insertions. Protein indel evolution appear to be in a dynamic flux of neutrally driven expansion (insertions) together with adaptive-driven contraction (deletions), and these observations provide important insights for understanding the fitness of new mutations as well as the evolutionary driving forces for genomic evolution in Drosophila species.

  12. Targeted deletion of Kcne2 impairs HCN channel function in mouse thalamocortical circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Wang Ying

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels generate the pacemaking current, I(h, which regulates neuronal excitability, burst firing activity, rhythmogenesis, and synaptic integration. The physiological consequence of HCN activation depends on regulation of channel gating by endogenous modulators and stabilization of the channel complex formed by principal and ancillary subunits. KCNE2 is a voltage-gated potassium channel ancillary subunit that also regulates heterologously expressed HCN channels; whether KCNE2 regulates neuronal HCN channel function is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of Kcne2 gene deletion on I(h properties and excitability in ventrobasal (VB and cortical layer 6 pyramidal neurons using brain slices prepared from Kcne2(+/+ and Kcne2(-/- mice. Kcne2 deletion shifted the voltage-dependence of I(h activation to more hyperpolarized potentials, slowed gating kinetics, and decreased I(h density. Kcne2 deletion was associated with a reduction in whole-brain expression of both HCN1 and HCN2 (but not HCN4, although co-immunoprecipitation from whole-brain lysates failed to detect interaction of KCNE2 with HCN1 or 2. Kcne2 deletion also increased input resistance and temporal summation of subthreshold voltage responses; this increased intrinsic excitability enhanced burst firing in response to 4-aminopyridine. Burst duration increased in corticothalamic, but not thalamocortical, neurons, suggesting enhanced cortical excitatory input to the thalamus; such augmented excitability did not result from changes in glutamate release machinery since miniature EPSC frequency was unaltered in Kcne2(-/- neurons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Loss of KCNE2 leads to downregulation of HCN channel function associated with increased excitability in neurons in the cortico-thalamo-cortical loop. Such findings further our understanding of the normal physiology of brain circuitry critically

  13. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  14. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  15. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  16. Tidal evolution of planets around brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bolmont, Emeline; Leconte, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. This has important implications for the tidal evolution of planets around BDs. We used a standard equilibrium tidal model to compute the orbital evolution of a large ensemble of planet-BD systems. We tested the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both the BD and planet, and the tidal dissipation factors. We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than \\sim 0.1 are repelled from the BD. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their ...

  17. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  18. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  19. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  1. Extraction of organic compounds from brown coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Hredzák

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study on the extraction of organic compounds (low-molecular weight - diterpenes, high-molecular weight - fullerenes and humic acids from Handlová brown coal and pyrolytic soot. It was confirmed that the coal extract with a diterpene content - 16 β (H kaurene was obtained by the supercritical fluid extraction (using CO2 and modificator - tetrahydrofurane/acetone, 8:2 w/w at T = 90 oC and p = 30 MPa. The occurrence of fullerenes in the toluene extract of solid carbon product has confirmed by the MALDI - TOF - MS and UV-VIS spectroscopy. In the extraction process of GACL (Grinding Aqueous Caustic Leaching at the concentration of 0.1 % NaOH, the content of humic acids (HK in the physically untreated and pretreated sample increased by 6.09 and 4.57 times, respectively. In the case of higher leaching agent concentration (2 % NaOH, the content of HK in the physically untreated and pretreated sample increased by 8,67 and 8,21 times, respectively.

  2. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Allyson K; Timonin, Mary E; McGuire, Liam P; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-01-01

    Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals) but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY) and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  4. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  5. Pref-1 preferentially inhibits heat production in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-05-01

    In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for heat production (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.

  6. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  7. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  8. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compound deletion of Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 partially rescues the Hyp mouse phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hua; Martin, Aline; David, Valentin; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the physiologically relevant fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) for FGF23 in the kidney and the precise tubular segments that are targeted by FGF23. Current data suggest that FGF23 targets the FGFR1c-Klotho complex to coordinately regulate phosphate transport and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] production in the proximal tubule. In studies using the Hyp mouse model, which displays FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemia and aberrant vitamin D, deletion of...

  10. Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning Agents: Irisin and FGF21 in the Development of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrżak, B; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the pediatric population, especially in early infancy, the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the highest. Further in life BAT is more active in individuals with a lower body mass index and one can expect that BAT is protective against childhood obesity. The development of BAT throughout the whole life can be regulated by genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified: white, brown, and beige adipocytes. The process by which BAT can become beige is still unclear and is an area of intensive research. The "browning agents" increase energy expenditure through the production of heat. Numerous factors known as "browning agents" have currently been described. In humans, recent studies justify a notion of a role of novel myokines: irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the metabolism and development of obesity. This review describes a possible role of irisin and FGF21 in the pathogenesis of obesity in children.

  11. Searching for chemical signatures of brown dwarf formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J.; Villaver, E.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Recent studies have shown that close-in brown dwarfs in the mass range 35-55 MJup are almost depleted as companions to stars, suggesting that objects with masses above and below this gap might have different formation mechanisms. Aims: We aim to test whether stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs and stars with low-mass brown dwarfs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to different formation processes. Methods: Our methodology is based on the analysis of high-resolution échelle spectra (R 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes. We determine the fundamental stellar parameters, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn for a large sample of stars known to have a substellar companion in the brown dwarf regime. The sample is divided into stars hosting massive and low-mass brown dwarfs. Following previous works, a threshold of 42.5 MJup was considered. The metallicity and abundance trends of the two subsamples are compared and set in the context of current models of planetary and brown dwarf formation. Results: Our results confirm that stars with brown dwarf companions do not follow the well-established gas-giant planet metallicity correlation seen in main-sequence planet hosts. Stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs show similar metallicity and abundance distribution as stars without known planets or with low-mass planets. We find a tendency of stars harbouring less-massive brown dwarfs of having slightly higher metallicity, [XFe/Fe] values, and abundances of Sc ii, Mn i, and Ni i than the stars having the massive brown dwarfs. The data suggest, as previously reported, that massive and low-mass brown dwarfs might present differences in period and eccentricity. Conclusions: We find evidence of a non-metallicity dependent mechanism for the formation of massive brown dwarfs. Our results agree with a scenario in which massive brown dwarfs are formed as stars. At high metallicities, the core

  12. Coupling of lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis in brown, beige, and white adipose tissues during chronic β3-adrenergic receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottillo, Emilio P; Balasubramanian, Priya; Lee, Yun-Hee; Weng, Changren; Kershaw, Erin E; Granneman, James G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic activation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) expands the catabolic activity of both brown and white adipose tissue by engaging uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and UCP1-independent processes. The present work examined de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and TG/glycerol dynamics in classic brown, subcutaneous "beige," and classic white adipose tissues during sustained β3-AR activation by CL 316,243 (CL) and also addressed the contribution of TG hydrolysis to these dynamics. CL treatment for 7 days dramatically increased DNL and TG turnover similarly in all adipose depots, despite great differences in UCP1 abundance. Increased lipid turnover was accompanied by the simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in FAS, glycerol metabolism, and FA oxidation. Inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of adipose TG lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for lipolysis, demonstrates that TG hydrolysis is required for CL-induced increases in DNL, TG turnover, and mitochondrial electron transport in all depots. Interestingly, the effect of ATGL deletion on induction of specific genes involved in FA oxidation and synthesis varied among fat depots. Overall, these studies indicate that FAS and FA oxidation are tightly coupled in adipose tissues during chronic adrenergic activation, and this effect critically depends on the activity of adipocyte ATGL. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Lkb1 controls brown adipose tissue growth and thermogenesis by regulating the intracellular localization of CRTC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tizhong; Xiong, Yan; Zhang, Pengpeng; Li, Zhiguo; Jiang, Qingyang; Bi, Pengpeng; Yue, Feng; Yang, Gongshe; Wang, Yizhen; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy through Ucp1-mediated uncoupled respiration and its activation may represent a therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Here we show that Lkb1 controls BAT expansion and UCP1 expression in mice. We generate adipocyte-specific Lkb1 knockout mice and show that, compared with wild-type littermates, these mice exhibit elevated UCP1 expression in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, have increased BAT mass and higher energy expenditure. Consequently, KO mice have improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Deletion of Lkb1 results in a cytoplasm to nuclear translocation of CRTC3 in brown adipocytes, where it recruits C/EBPβ to enhance Ucp1 transcription. In parallel, the absence of Lkb1 also suppresses AMPK activity, leading to activation of the mTOR signalling pathway and subsequent BAT expansion. These data suggest that inhibition of Lkb1 or its downstream signalling in adipocytes could be a novel strategy to increase energy expenditure in the context of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. PMID:27461402

  14. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.

  15. Disruption of insulin signaling in Myf5-expressing progenitors leads to marked paucity of brown fat but normal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynes, Matthew D; Schulz, Tim J; Pan, Andrew J; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Insulin exerts pleiotropic effects on cell growth, survival, and metabolism, and its role in multiple tissues has been dissected using conditional knockout mice; however, its role in development has not been studied. Lineage tracing experiments have demonstrated that interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) arises from a Myf5-positive lineage shared with skeletal muscle and distinct from the majority of white adipose tissue (WAT) precursors. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of impaired insulin signaling in the Myf5-expressing precursor cells by deleting the insulin receptor gene. Mice lacking insulin receptor in the Myf5 lineage (Myf5IRKO) have a decrease of interscapular BAT mass; however, muscle development appeared normal. Histologically, the residual BAT had decreased cell size but appeared mature and potentially functional. Expression of adipogenic inhibitors preadipocyte factor-1, Necdin, and wingless-type MMTV integration site member 10a in the residual BAT tissue was nonetheless increased compared with controls, and there was an enrichment of progenitor cells with impaired adipogenic differentiation capacity, suggesting a suppression of adipogenesis in BAT. Surprisingly, when cold challenged, Myf5IRKO mice did not show impaired thermogenesis. This resistance to cold could be attributed to an increased presence of uncoupling protein 1-positive brown adipocytes in sc WAT as well as increased expression of lipolytic activity in BAT. These data suggest a critical role of insulin signaling in the development of interscapular BAT from Myf5-positive progenitor cells, but it appears to be dispensable for muscle development. They also underscore the importance of compensatory browning of sc WAT in the absence of BAT for thermoregulation.

  16. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  17. 木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒基因重组和缺失产生DNAβ相关的新型小分子%Novel DNA-β associated molecules produced by sequence recombination and deletion of cotton leaf curl Multan virus complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖艺祯; 谢科; 蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 李战彪; 刘玉乐

    2012-01-01

    in Pakistan and India. In China, CLCuD has been discovered in the field of Nanning, GuangXi. To better understand this disease, we sequenced the virus-associated small DNA molecules. [Methods] We purified total DNA from cotton and okra plants exhibiting leaf curl symptoms; PCR amplified and sequenced CLCuMV satellite DNA (DNAp)-related small DNA molecules. [Results] We identified 2 novel recombinant DNA molecules with 1384 nucleotides in cotton and 754 nucleotides in okra. The 1384 nt molecule contains partial DNA-A and DNAp of CLCuMV GX1. It includes the intergenic region, adjacent AV2 and AC1 coding sequences, and reverse complementary AC3 of DNA-A and A-rich region of DNAp. Common nucleotides were found around the junction points of DNA-A and DNAp sequences, suggesting they were the sites of recombination. Comparison with previous reported CLCuMV recombinants produced in lab showed that the intergenic region of DNA-A and A-rich region of DNAp were conserved on the recombination process. The 754 nt molecule was produced by deletion of CLCuMV DNAp in the Cl open reading frame and A-rich region. [Conclusion] We identified a novel recombinant molecule originated from CLCuMV DNA-A and DNAp and a small defective molecule of DNAp. This is the first report of sequence recombination and deletion of CLCuMV in China, which may be helpful to understand the CLCuMV evolution and host adaptation.

  18. Similarity of DMD gene deletion and duplication in the Chinese patients compared to global populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ming

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA deletion and duplication were determined as the major mutation underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD. Method Applying multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA, we have analyzed 179 unrelated DMD/BMD subjects from northern China. Results Seventy-three percent of the subjects were found having a deletion (66.25% or duplication (6.25%. Exons 51–52 were detected as the most common fragment deleted in single-exon deletion, and the region of exons 45–50 was the most common exons deleted in multi-exon deletions. About 90% of DMD/BMD cases carry a small size deletion that involves 10 exons or less, 26.67% of which carry a single-exon deletion. Most of the smaller deletions resulted in an out-of-frame mutation. The most common exons deleted were determined to be between exon 48 and exon 52, with exon 50 was the model allele. Verifying single-exon deletion, one sample with a deletion of exon 53 that was initially observed from MLPA showed that there was a single base deletion that abolished the ligation site in MLPA. Confirmation of single-exon deletion is recommended to exclude single base deletion or mutation at the MLPA ligation site. Conclusion The frequency of deletion and duplication in northern China is similar to global ethnic populations.

  19. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

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    R. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  20. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  1. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  2. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

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    Sathasivam Sivakumar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding, limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases, gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases

  3. Characteristics of brown carbon in the urban Po Valley atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Francesca; Gilardoni, Stefania; Barnaba, Francesca; Di Ianni, Antonio; Di Liberto, Luca; Dionisi, Davide; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Paglione, Marco; Poluzzi, Vanes; Rinaldi, Matteo; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Gobbi, Gian Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigate optical-microphysical-chemical properties of brown carbon (BrC) in the urban ambient atmosphere of the Po Valley. In situ ground measurements of aerosol spectral optical properties, PM1 chemical composition (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions were carried out in Bologna. BrC was identified through its wavelength dependence of light absorption at visible wavelengths, as indicated by the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that BrC occurs in particles with a narrow monomodal size distribution peaking in the droplet mode, enriched in ammonium nitrate and poor in black carbon (BC), with a strong dependance on OA-to-BC ratios, and SSA530 of 0.98 ± 0.01. We demonstrate that specific complex refractive index values (k530 = 0.017 ± 0.001) are necessary in addition to a proper particle size range to match the large AAEs measured for this BrC (AAE467 - 660 = 3.2 ± 0.9 with values up to 5.3). In terms of consistency of these findings with literature, this study i. provides experimental evidence of the size distribution of BrC associated with the formation of secondary aerosol;ii. shows that in the lower troposphere AAE increases with increasing OA-to-BC ratios rather than with increasing OA - contributing to sky radiometer retrieval techniques (e.g., AERONET);iii. extends the dependence of AAE on BC-to-OA ratios previously observed in chamber experiments to ambient aerosol dominated by wood-burning emissions. These findings are expected to bear important implications for atmospheric modeling studies and remote sensing observations as regards the parametrization and identification of BrC in the atmosphere.

  4. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

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    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any

  5. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any insertion

  6. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  7. Brown-adipose-tissue macrophages control tissue innervation and homeostatic energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Yochai; Boura-Halfon, Sigalit; Cortese, Nina; Haimon, Zhana; Sar Shalom, Hadas; Kuperman, Yael; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brandis, Alexander; David, Eyal; Segal-Hayoun, Yifat; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Yaron, Avraham; Jung, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    Tissue macrophages provide immunological defense and contribute to the establishment and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we used constitutive and inducible mutagenesis to delete the nuclear transcription regulator Mecp2 in macrophages. Mice that lacked the gene encoding Mecp2, which is associated with Rett syndrome, in macrophages did not show signs of neurodevelopmental disorder but displayed spontaneous obesity, which was linked to impaired function of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Specifically, mutagenesis of a BAT-resident Cx3Cr1(+) macrophage subpopulation compromised homeostatic thermogenesis but not acute, cold-induced thermogenesis. Mechanistically, malfunction of BAT in pre-obese mice with mutant macrophages was associated with diminished sympathetic innervation and local titers of norepinephrine, which resulted in lower expression of thermogenic factors by adipocytes. Mutant macrophages overexpressed the signaling receptor and ligand PlexinA4, which might contribute to the phenotype by repulsion of sympathetic axons expressing the transmembrane semaphorin Sema6A. Collectively, we report a previously unappreciated homeostatic role for macrophages in the control of tissue innervation. Disruption of this circuit in BAT resulted in metabolic imbalance.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA deletion analysis: a comparison of PCR quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblet, N S; Castora, F J

    1995-02-15

    The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases is often determined by measuring the amount of deleted mtDNA in the affected tissue. Upon examining brain autopsy tissue from a 59 year old individual with lung cancer we determined by serial dilution PCR and kinetic PCR that a greater ratio of deleted mtDNA was present in the caudate than in the parietal cortex. However, the magnitude difference for these two brain regions appeared to be technique dependent; by serial dilution PCR the caudate had 10 times more deleted mtDNA than the parietal cortex (0.0141 vs 0.0014) whereas kinetic PCR yielded a 4-fold difference (0.1258 vs 0.0316). These results indicate that although it is valid to compare the amount of deleted mtDNA in normal and diseased tissue and draw conclusions based on relative comparisons within one study, greater caution should be exercised when comparing absolute values from studies using different measurement techniques.

  9. The yeast deletion collection: a decade of functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-06-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MAT A: and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Molecular studies of deletions at the human steroid sulfatase locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.J.; Yen, P.; Pomerantz, D.; Martin, E.; Rolewic, L.; Mohandas, T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The human steroid sulfatase gene (STS) is located on the distal X chromosome short arm close to the pseudoautosomal region but in a segment of DNA that is unique to the X chromosome. In contrast to most X chromosome-encoded genes, STS expression is not extinguished during the process of X chromosome inactivation. Deficiency of STS activity produced the syndrome of X chromosome-linked ichthyosis, which is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism in man. Approximately 90% of STS{sup {minus}} individuals have large deletions at the STS locus. The authors and others have found that the end points of such deletions are heterogeneous in their location. One recently ascertained subject was observed to have a 40-kilobase deletion that is entirely intragenic, permitting the cloning and sequencing of the deletion junction. Studies of this patient and of other X chromosome sequences in other subjects permit some insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for generating frequent deletions on the short arm of the X chromosome.

  11. Deletion 2q37 syndrome: Cognitive-behavioral trajectories and autistic features related to breakpoint and deletion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Gene S; Falk, Rena E; Carey, John C; Imitola, Jaime; Sederberg, Maria; Caravalho, Karen S; South, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Subtelomeric deletions have been reported in ∼2.5% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Subtelomeric deletion 2q37 has been detected in many individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previously, genotype-phenotype correspondences were examined for their relationship to breakpoints 37.1, 37.2, or 37.3. Our purpose was to ascertain whether there were phenotypic differences at these breakpoints, elucidate the cognitive-behavioral phenotype in del2q37, and examine the genotype-phenotype association in the deletion with respect to cognitive-behavioral profiles and ASD. We administered a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral battery to nine children diagnosed with del 2q37, ages 3.9-17.75 years. ID for five tested with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition) (SBFE) ranged from severe to mild [IQ Range: 36-59]. Adaptive behavior scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were much below adequate levels (DQ Range: floor value ["19"] to 55). Autism scores from the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ranged from 22 [non-autistic] to 56 [extremely autistic]; 5/8 [63%] children received scores on the autism spectrum. Participants with the largest deletions, 10.1 and 9.5 Mb, attained the highest IQ and DQ scores while those with the smallest deletions, 7.9 and 6.6 Mb, made the lowest IQ and DQ scores. No association between deletion breakpoint and phenotype were found. Assessment of the various deleted regions suggested histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) was a likely candidate gene for ASD in our sample. However, two earlier reports found no association between HDAC4 haploinsufficiency and ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The membrane may be an important factor in browning of fresh-cut pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Yuxing; Ge, Huibo

    2017-09-01

    Surface browning is an important cause of deterioration of fresh-cut fruit during postharvest handling. In this paper, four pear cultivars with different extents of natural browning were selected to analyse the factors involved in browning. The main results are as follows: the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of 'Mantianhong' and 'Yali' pears was higher accompanied by a stronger degree of browning, while the LOX activity in 'Xueqing' and 'Xinli 7' pears was lower, with less browning. A higher unsaturated fatty acid ratio of pear resulted in reduced browning. The cell membranes disappeared 30min after being cut in 'Mantianhong' pear, which browns easily; however, the cell membranes were still intact 30min after being cut in 'Xueqing' pear, which does not brown easily. Therefore, it can be assumed that the stability of the cell membrane plays an important role in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pears. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Humans and climate change drove the Holocene decline of the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Jörg; Bartoń, Kamil A; Selva, Nuria; Sommer, Robert S; Swenson, Jon E; Bischof, Richard

    2017-09-04

    The current debate about megafaunal extinctions during the Quaternary focuses on the extent to which they were driven by humans, climate change, or both. These two factors may have interacted in a complex and unexpected manner, leaving the exact pathways to prehistoric extinctions unresolved. Here we quantify, with unprecedented detail, the contribution of humans and climate change to the Holocene decline of the largest living terrestrial carnivore, the brown bear (Ursus arctos), on a continental scale. We inform a spatially explicit metapopulation model for the species by combining life-history data and an extensive archaeofaunal record from excavations across Europe with reconstructed climate and land-use data reaching back 12,000 years. The model reveals that, despite the broad climatic niche of the brown bear, increasing winter temperatures contributed substantially to its Holocene decline - both directly by reducing the species' reproductive rate and indirectly by facilitating human land use. The first local extinctions occurred during the Mid-Holocene warming period, but the rise of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago marked the onset of large-scale extinctions, followed by increasingly rapid range loss and fragmentation. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that complex interactions between climate and humans may have accelerated megafaunal extinctions.

  14. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  15. Pref-1 in brown adipose tissue: specific involvement in brown adipocyte differentiation and regulatory role of C/EBPδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Jordi; Villena, Josep A; Hondares, Elayne; Carmona, María C; Sul, Hei Sook; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1) is known to play a central role in regulating white adipocyte differentiation, but the role of Pref-1 in BAT (brown adipose tissue) has not been analysed. In the present study we found that Pref-1 expression is high in fetal BAT and declines progressively after birth. However, Pref-1-null mice showed unaltered fetal development of BAT, but exhibited signs of over-activation of BAT thermogenesis in the post-natal period. In C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) α-null mice, a rodent model of impaired fetal BAT differentiation, Pref-1 was dramatically overexpressed, in association with reduced expression of the Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1) gene, a BAT-specific marker of thermogenic differentiation. In brown adipocyte cell culture models, Pref-1 was mostly expressed in pre-adipocytes and declined with brown adipocyte differentiation. The transcription factor C/EBPδ activated the Pref-1 gene transcription in brown adipocytes, through binding to the proximal promoter region. Accordingly, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced C/EBPδ knockdown led to reduced Pref-1 gene expression. This effect is consistent with the observed overexpression of C/EBPδ in C/EBPα-null BAT and high expression of C/EBPδ in brown pre-adipocytes. Dexamethasone treatment of brown pre-adipocytes suppressed Pref-1 down-regulation occurring throughout the brown adipocyte differentiation process, increased the expression of C/EBPδ and strongly impaired expression of the thermogenic markers UCP1 and PGC-1α [PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) co-activator-α]. However, it did not alter normal fat accumulation or expression of non-BAT-specific genes. Collectively, these results specifically implicate Pref-1 in controlling the thermogenic gene expression program in BAT, and identify C/EBPδ as a novel transcriptional regulator of Pref-1 gene expression that may be related to the specific role of glucocorticoids in BAT differentiation.

  16. Role of phosphate and carboxylate ions in maillard browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, George P

    2004-02-25

    The Maillard reaction of carbohydrates and amino acids is the underlying chemical basis for flavor and color formation in many processed foods. Phosphate and other polyatomic anions will accelerate the rate of Maillard browning, and this effect has been explained by invoking enhanced proton abstraction from intermediate Amadori compounds. In this work, the effect of phosphate and carboxylate ions on browning was measured for a series of reducing sugars with and without the presence of beta-alanine. Significant browning was observed for sugars alone suggesting that polyatomic anions contribute to Maillard browning by providing reactive intermediates directly from sugars. A mechanism is proposed for decomposition of sugars by polyatomic anions and efforts to trap reactive species using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) are described. The results of this study suggest how complications may arise from the popular usage of phosphate buffers in the study of Maillard reaction kinetics. In addition, the results imply how phosphates may be useful for enhancing browning during food processing.

  17. Two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    During the last years the existence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has been widely accepted by the research community. Its unique ability to dissipate chemical energy stored in triglycerides as heat makes it an attractive target for new drugs against obesity and its related diseases. Hence the tissue is now subject to intense research, the hypothesis being that an expansion and/or activation of the tissue is associated with a healthy metabolic phenotype. Animal studies provide evidence for the existence of at least two types of brown adipocytes. Apart from the classical brown adipocyte that is found primarily in the interscapular region where it constitutes a thermogenic organ, a second type of brown adipocyte, the so-called beige adipocyte, can appear within white adipose tissue depots. The fact that the two cell types develop from different precursors suggests that they might be recruited and stimulated by different cues and therefore represent two distinct targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this commentary is to discuss recent work addressing the question whether also humans possess two types of brown adipocytes and to highlight some issues when looking for molecular markers for such cells.

  18. Dissecting the brown adipogenic regulatory network using integrative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rachana N.; Bues, Johannes J.; Gardeux, Vincent; Schwalie, Petra C.; Alpern, Daniel; Chen, Wanze; Russeil, Julie; Raghav, Sunil K.; Deplancke, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling, which makes them attractive therapeutic targets to tackle obesity. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying brown adipogenesis are still poorly understood. To address this, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin state during mouse brown fat cell differentiation, revealing extensive gene expression changes and chromatin remodeling, especially during the first day post-differentiation. To identify putatively causal regulators, we performed transcription factor binding site overrepresentation analyses in active chromatin regions and prioritized factors based on their expression correlation with the bona-fide brown adipogenic marker Ucp1 across multiple mouse and human datasets. Using loss-of-function assays, we evaluated both the phenotypic effect as well as the transcriptomic impact of several putative regulators on the differentiation process, uncovering ZFP467, HOXA4 and Nuclear Factor I A (NFIA) as novel transcriptional regulators. Of these, NFIA emerged as the regulator yielding the strongest molecular and cellular phenotypes. To examine its regulatory function, we profiled the genomic localization of NFIA, identifying it as a key early regulator of terminal brown fat cell differentiation. PMID:28181539

  19. Relationship in between Chemical Oxidation and Browning of Flavanols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.; Qi, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. At present, influencing factors of phenol chemical oxidation is little research. In order to study non-enzymatic browning factors, this research utilized catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid to establish simulation systems. The browning degree and products of flavanols were investigated by transmittance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main results and conclusions were follows. The brown generation is increased after phenols of chemical oxidation at 50°C and at pH 3.7 phosphate buffered saline, the sequence of influencing factor of browning is pH > kind of phenol > temperature. Oxidation of compounds of catechin and epicatechin results in formation of their Methylene quinone or o -Quinones. In addition, oxidation products of catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were mixture of different molecular sizes. The research has showed that brown generation correlated well with chemical oxidation of phenols and chemical oxidation reaction generated larger molecular weight polymers.

  20. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  1. Gamma irradiation inhibits wound induced browning in shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Suprasanna, Penna; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-04-15

    Gamma-radiation induced browning inhibition in minimally processed shredded cabbage stored (10 °C) for up to 8 days was investigated. γ-irradiation (2 kGy) resulted in inhibition of browning as a result of down-regulation (1.4-fold) in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, total and individual phenolic content as well as o-quinone concentration were, however, unaffected. In the non-irradiated samples, PAL activity increased as a consequence of up-regulation of PAL gene expression after 24 and 48 h by 1.2 and 7.7-fold, respectively, during storage that could be linearly correlated with enhanced quinone formation and browning. Browning inhibition in radiation processed shredded cabbage as a result of inhibition of PAL activity was thus clearly demonstrated. The present work provides an insight for the first time on the mechanism of browning inhibition at both biochemical and genetic level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro Prevention of Browning in Plantain Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent C. Onuoha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The in vitro propagation of plantain (Musa paradisiaca is still faced with lots of challenges such as blackening or browning of tissues prior to culture due to the oxidation of phenolic compound by polyphenolic oxidase enzyme present in the tissue when excised. Approach: Understanding browning processes in plantain and possible ways of minimizing it during excision of explants with particular emphasis on the use of antioxidants was purposed. Tissues were surfaced sterilized with 0.1% (w/v HgCL2 for 1-6 min to get a pure culture and then treated for 2 h with different concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mg mL- of potassium citrate and citrate (K-C: C as an antioxidant to check browning while sterile distilled water was used as control. Results and Conclusion: The result showed that contamination free culture (100% was achieved in the explants treated with HgCL2 for 6 min. Also the various concentration of K-C: C prevented browning within 2 h before culturing the tissues inferring that browning in young plantain excised tissue can be greatly reduced by presoaking or pretreatment with antioxidant solution of potassium citrate-citrate before culturing them.

  3. Reliable communication over non-binary insertion/deletion channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdani, Raman

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of reliable communication over non-binary insertion/deletion channels where symbols are randomly deleted from or inserted in the transmitted sequence and all symbols are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. To this end, we utilize the inherent redundancy achievable in non-binary symbol sets by first expanding the symbol set and then allocating part of the bits associated with each symbol to watermark symbols. The watermark sequence, known at the receiver, is then used by a forward-backward algorithm to provide soft information for an outer code which decodes the transmitted sequence. Through numerical results and discussions, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution and show that it leads to significant system ability to detect and correct insertions/deletions. We also provide estimates of the maximum achievable information rates of the system, compare them with the available bounds, and construct practical codes capable of approaching these limits.

  4. A local-world node deleting evolving network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yuying [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Jitao [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: sunjt@sh163.net

    2008-06-16

    A new type network growth rule which comprises node addition with the concept of local-world connectivity and node deleting is studied. A series of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to the LWD network are conducted in this Letter. Firstly, the degree distribution p(k) of this network changes no longer pure scale free but truncates by an exponential tail and the truncation in p(k) increases as p{sub a} decreases. Secondly, the connectivity is tighter, as the local-world size M increases. Thirdly, the average path length L increases and the clustering coefficient decreases as generally node deleting increases. Finally, trends up when the local-world size M increases, so as to k{sub max}. Hence, the expanding local-world can compensate the infection of the node deleting.

  5. Functional analysis of the PsbX protein by deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C

    2000-12-01

    The psbX gene (sml0002) coding for a 4.1 kDa protein in Photosystem II of plants and cyanobacteria was deleted in both wild type and in a Photosystem I-less mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis showed that the mutants had completely segregated. Deletion of the PsbX protein does not seem to influence growth rate, electron transport or water oxidation ability. Whereas a high light induction of the psbX mRNA could be observed in wild type, deletion of the gene did not lead to high light sensibility. Light saturation measurements and 77K fluorescence measurements indicated a minor disconnection of the antenna in the deletion mutant. Furthermore, fluorescence induction measurements as well as immuno-staining of the D1 protein showed that the amount of Photosystem II complexes in the mutants was reduced by 30%. Therefore, PsbX does not seem to be necessary for the Photosystem II electron transport, but directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of the amount of functionally active Photosystem II centres in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  6. Camk2a-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of chromatin remodeler Brg1 causes perinatal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mou; Wu, Jiang I

    2015-06-15

    Mammalian SWI/SNF-like BAF chromatin remodeling complexes are essential for many aspects of neural development. Mutations in the genes encoding the core subunit Brg1/SmarcA4 or other complex components cause neurodevelopmental diseases and are associated with autism. Congenital hydrocephalus is a serious brain disorder often experienced by these patients. We report a role of Brg1 in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus disorder. We discovered an unexpected early activity of mouse Camk2a-Cre transgene, which mediates Brg1 deletion in a subset of forebrain neurons beginning in the late embryonic stage. Brg1 deletion in these neurons led to severe congenital hydrocephalus with enlargement of the lateral ventricles and attenuation of the cerebral cortex. The Brg1-deficient mice had significantly smaller subcommissural organs and narrower Sylvian aqueducts than mice that express normal levels of Brg1. Effects were non-cell autonomous and may be responsible for the development of the congenital hydrocephalus phenotype. Our study provides evidence indicating that abnormalities in Brg1 function result in defects associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and autism.

  7. Prostate cancer and glutathione S-transferase deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Saima Shakil; Masood, Nosheen; Yasmin, Azra

    2015-01-01

    GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms have been studied in many populations to evaluate their association with prostate cancer risk with contrasting results. The current study was aimed to find out the association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer in Pakistani men. This case control study included pathologically confirmed prostate cancer patients and age matched male controls. Epidemiological data was collected by a standard questionnaire and presence or absence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene was observed by multiplex PCR using CYP1A1 as housekeeping gene. Prostate cancer was more prevalent in age of >60 years and most of the patients were at stage IV (70 %) and have undergone surgery. Family history of cancer, smoking, metastasis and surgery were found to be significant (Pprostate cancer development. Gleason score 7 was most prevalent (40.5 %) in prostate cancer patients. Source of drinking water, residential area, occupation, eating habits and number of family members had no association (P>0.05) with prostate cancer risk. No significant association was found when comparing GSTM1 (OR=0.78) and GSTT1 (OR=0.89) gene deletions with prostate cancer risk. Smoking and TNM staging were also not associated with deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Comparison of dual null deletion of both genes with prostate cancer also showed non-significant associations. Deletion of GSTM1 gene at stage IV prostate cancer patients was significantly higher compared with other stages of cancer while no significance was shown by GSTT1 gene deletion. GSTM1, GSTT1 and deletion of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes do not contribute towards increased risk of prostate cancer in Pakistani population.

  8. Effects of crp deletion in Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubino Salvatore

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum remains an important pathogen of poultry, especially in developing countries. There is a need to develop effective and safe vaccines. In the current study, the effect of crp deletion was investigated with respect to virulence and biochemical properties and the possible use of a deletion mutant as vaccine candidate was preliminarily tested. Methods Mutants were constructed in S. Gallinarum by P22 transduction from Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium with deletion of the crp gene. The effect was characterized by measuring biochemical properties and by testing of invasion in a chicken loop model and by challenge of six-day-old chickens. Further, birds were immunized with the deleted strain and challenged with the wild type isolate. Results The crp deletions caused complete attenuation of S. Gallinarum. This was shown by ileal loop experiments not to be due to significantly reduced invasion. Strains with such deletions may have vaccine potential, since oral inoculatoin with S. Gallinarum Δcrp completely protected against challenge with the same dose of wild type S. Gallinarum ten days post immunization. Interestingly, the mutations did not cause the same biochemical and growth changes to the two biotypes of S. Gallinarum. All biochemical effects but not virulence could be complemented by providing an intact crp-gene from S. Typhimurium on the plasmid pSD110. Conclusion Transduction of a Tn10 disrupted crp gene from S. Typhimurium caused attenuation in S. Gallinarum and mutated strains are possible candidates for live vaccines against fowl typhoid.

  9. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  10. A Dense Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Linkage Map Reveals Recent Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Salmo Genus and the Impact of Selection on Linked Neutral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitwein, Maeva; Guinand, Bruno; Pouzadoux, Juliette; Desmarais, Erick; Berrebi, Patrick; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses. Performing map comparison between S. trutta and its sister species, S. salar, revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Strikingly, all of the fusion and fission events that occurred after the S. salar/S. trutta speciation happened in the Atlantic salmon branch, whereas the brown trout remained closer to the ancestral chromosome structure. Using the strongly conserved synteny within chromosome arms, we aligned the brown trout linkage map to the Atlantic salmon genome sequence to estimate the local recombination rate in S. trutta at 3721 loci. A significant positive correlation between recombination rate and within-population nucleotide diversity (π) was found, indicating that selection constrains variation at linked neutral sites in brown trout. This new high-density linkage map provides a useful genomic resource for future aquaculture, conservation, and eco-evolutionary studies in brown trout. PMID:28235829

  11. Filler DNA is associated with spontaneous deletions in maize.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessler, S; Tarpley, A; Purugganan, M.; Spell, M; Okagaki, R.

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the structure of five spontaneous deletions within the maize waxy (Wx) gene. Of these, four were found in spontaneous wx mutants (wx-B, wx-B1, wx-B6, wx-C4) and include exon sequences; the fifth is restricted to an intron and represents a restriction fragment length polymorphism of a nonmutant allele (Wx-W23). The deletions, which range in size from 60 to 980 base pairs (bp), cluster in a G+C-rich region of approximately 1000 bp that is capable of forming stable secondary s...

  12. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  13. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  14. A resolved outflow of matter from a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Natta, A; Testi, L; Randich, S; Whelan, Emma T.; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs amongst newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  15. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  16. Detectability of dirty dust grains in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, C H; Thi, W F; Woitke, P; Helling, CH.

    2006-01-01

    Dust clouds influence the atmospheric structure of brown dwarfs, and they affect the heat transfer and change the gas-phase chemistry. However, the physics of their formation and evolution is not well understood. In this letter, we predict dust signatures and propose a potential observational test of the physics of dust formation in brown dwarf atmosphere based on the spectral features of the different solid components predicted by dust formation theory. A momentum method for the formation of dirty dust grains (nucleation, growth, evaporation, drift) is used in application to a static brown dwarf atmosphere structure to compute the dust grain properties, in particular the heterogeneous grain composition and the grain size. Effective medium and Mie theory are used to compute the extinction of these spherical grains. Dust formation results in grains whose composition differs from that of grains formed at equilibrium. Our kinetic model predicts that solid amorphous SiO2[s] (silica) is one of the most abundant so...

  17. Potential pharmacological applications of polyphenolic derivatives from marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the isolation and characterization of the biologically active components from seaweeds have gained much attention from various research groups across the world. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins are one among them. Among marine algae, brown algal species such as Ecklonia cava, Eisenia arborea, Ecklonia stolinifera and Eisenia bicyclis have been studied for their potential biological activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their potentiality as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, anti-allergic, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition and in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition activity. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the potential biological activities of phlorotannins from marine brown algae and their possible candidature in the pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  19. On Brown's and Newton's methods with convexity hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaszewicz, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the monotone Newton theorem (MNT) it has been conjectured that discretised Brown iterations converge at least as fast as discretised Newton iterations, because such is the case for analytic iterations. With easily verified hypotheses, it is proved here that Brown analytic iterations converge strictly faster than Newton ones. As a consequence, the same result holds for discretised iterations with conveniently small incremental steps. However, in the general context of the MNT, it may happen that Newton's discretised method converges faster than Brown's, but this situation can be remedied in many cases by conveniently shifting the initial value, so that those hypotheses ensuring the reverse are satisfied. Thus, a fairly effective solution is given to the problem stated initially.

  20. Laboratory studies of briquetting and coking of hard brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, R.; Basanshaw, B.

    1988-01-01

    Assesses feasibility of producing lumpy, high strength coke from hard brown coal unsuitable for conventional briquetting and coking technologies. Laboratory studies used brown coal with 11.5 to 23.5% ash content and 11.8 to 48% coal moisture from the Adun-tschulun, Scharin-gol, Baga-nur and Nalaich deposits in Mongolia. Two experimental briquetting technologies (briquetting of pregranulated coal dust, briquetting of dried coal from slurry comminution) were applied. Resulting briquets were coked at maximum 1,000 C temperature. Graphs provide briquetting and coking results. Influence of major briquetting and coking parameters is evaluated. The highest briquet compression strength obtained ranged between 15.2 and 34.3 MPa, the highest coke compression strength was 32.0 up to 87.0 MPa. Studies proved that suitable coke for use in the metallurgical and chemical industry can be produced from various types of hard brown coal. 6 refs.