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Sample records for brown coal surface

  1. Effects of fractal surface on rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of modified brown coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Gao; Shuquan Zhu; Mingdong Zheng; Zhaojin Wu; Huihong Lu; Weiming Liu

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of surface fractal structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of raw brown coal and three modified coal water slurries (CWSs). The results show that the fractal structures and physicochemical properties of samples are dependent on various modification processes. The apparent viscosities of the coal water slurries increase with increasing surface fractal dimensions (D), especially with decreasing shear rates. Fur-thermore, it has been proved that the ignition temperatures and apparent activation energies of modified CWSs are lower than that of raw coal water slurry. Compared with the traditional qualitative analysis of the effect of pore structures on CWSs properties, D can more efficiently indicate the quantificational effect of pore structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of CWSs.

  2. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  3. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  4. Exploitation of raw materials from the overburden of the Klettwitz brown coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anke, S.; Knuth, M.

    1982-12-01

    The paper discusses mining of clay for the ceramic industry from the overburden of the Klettwitz mine. The clay fulfills the TGL 29317 quality standard for crude ceramic products; the clay layer in the surface mine has an average thickness of 4.7 m. Clay reserves of the mine will last 25 to 30 years for the operation of a new clinker brick factory. Mining losses of 20% of reserves are taken into account. Clay reserves were calculated without the first 0.3 m from the top and bottom of the layer. The clay is mined with a bucket wheel excavator and transported by train to an open air storage yard. The clay stock pile is 13 m high. Liquefaction of the clay occurs after rain causing flows up to 40 m long, thus partially reducing the dump height to between 5 and 7 m. Clay quality from the mine varies; clay blending at the storage yard is therefore required. Various details on legal obligations of clay mining as a measure of complex utilization of resources in surface mines, as well as details on clay delivery contracts made by the mine with the brick factory are outlined. (In German)

  5. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Thermodestruction of brown coals of different genetic types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butuzova, Ludmila; Isaeva, Lubov [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 70 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Turchanina, Oksana [Donetsk National Technical University, 48 Artema str., 83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Krzton, Andrzej [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Sowinskiego, 44-102, Gliwice (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The influence of brown coal genetic type and method of chemical pre-treatment on its behavior in pyrolysis processes has been shown. An important role of brown coal reductivity in coal thermal decomposition has been ascertained. It has been found that chemical pre-treatment permits variation of the rate of pyrolysis, the yields of pyrolysis products and structure of semi-cokes.

  7. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

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    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  8. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

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    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  9. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Pyrolysis of brown coal mixed with heavy products of coal and petroleum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhorev, A.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Akhmedov, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    Investigates effect of various additives on yield of liquid product from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk (Berezovsk deposit) brown coal mixed with organic additives: waste from caprolactam plant consisting mostly of saturated oxygen containing compounds and mono- and di-carboxylic acid esters, waste from sabatic acid plant consisting predominantly of unsaturated acids, distillation residue of synthetic fatty acids, heavy residue from Arlansk oil refineries containing mainly condensed naphtheno-aromatic systems and heavy tar from rapid pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk coal. Finds that joint pyrolysis of brown coal with organic additives increases yield of liquid products and that intensive decomposition begins at lower temperatures. 4 refs.

  11. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  12. Capital investment at North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrecka, S.

    1987-03-01

    Various categories of investment are discussed to be undertaken by North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines: State Plan projects, such as new extraction capacity at Most and Vrsany mines; other construction work, such as schools and recreation facilities, housing construction; underground mine workings; equipment and machinery not included in other categories; restoration work, such as the Ervenicky road/rail/water corridor; work to remove obstacles hindering future mining operations. Investments are briefly summarizes since the beginning of the 5th Five Year Plan as being concerned mainly with the shift in emphasis from underground mining to surface mining at 8 large-scale mines (Merkur, Brezno, Vrsany, Sverma, VCSA, Most, VMG, Chabrovice). An analysis of investment procedures conducted in 1980 is briefly discussed, the results of which had 4 main themes: investment control systems should be strengthened, communications between general directorate and individual departments should be improved, links between specialist institutes should be improved and these recommendations should be built into the organizational structure.

  13. Nanoporosity development in the thermal-shock KOH activation of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherenko, V.A.; Shendrik, T.G.; Tamarkina, Y.V.; Mysyk, R.D. [LM Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic & Coal Chemistry, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2010-12-15

    Thermal-shock KOH activation of brown coal (800 degrees C, KOH/coal ratio 1 g/g) was shown to produce nanoporous activated carbon with more developed surface area than thermally-programmed heating (S-BET up to 1700 vs 1000 m{sup 2}/g). Increasing the KOH/coal ratio (up to 1 g/g) in the activated mixture increases the total pore volume (0.14-1.0 cm{sup 3}/g), the micropore volume (0.03-0.71 cm{sup 3}/g), and also the volume of subnanometer pores (0.01-0.40 cm{sup 3}/g). Thermal shock produces nanoporosity at lower KOH/coal ratios (0.5-1.0 g/g) than respective low-rate heating KOH activation.

  14. Variability of production in the Tito brown coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, S. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1987-05-01

    Examines daily production fluctuations in the Banovici coal basin from 1978-1985, where 2,800-4,100 workers produced 2-2.3x10{sup 6} t/a from underground and surface mines. The underground mine used mechanized longwall mining, surface mines employed shovel excavators, draglines, dumpers and belt conveyors. Statistical data showed large variations (+/- 2.5%, from 4,630 to 7,792 t/day) in daily coal production; evaluation showed close correlations for surface and underground mines. Highest production was achieved on Saturdays and Sundays, lowest on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. It is suggested that these variations may be due to maintenance work in the coal preparation plant, which was usually carried out on Mondays and Fridays. A stereogram of coal and overburden output for both types of mine and detailed statistical computations are included. 7 refs.

  15. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  16. Brown Coal Dewatering Using Poly (Acrylamide-Co-Potassium Acrylic Based Super Absorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devasahayam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising cost of energy and fuel oils, clean coal technologies will continue to play an important role during the transition to a clean energy future. Victorian brown coals have high oxygen and moisture contents and hence low calorific value. This paper presents an alternative non evaporative drying technology for high moisture brown coals based on osmotic dewatering. This involves contacting and mixing brown coal with anionic super absorbent polymers (SAP which are highly crossed linked synthetic co-polymers based on a cross-linked copolymer of acryl amide and potassium acrylate. The paper focuses on evaluating the water absorption potential of SAP in contact with 61% moisture Loy Yang brown coal, under varying SAP dosages for different contact times and conditions. The amount of water present in Loy Yang coal was reduced by approximately 57% during four hours of SAP contact. The extent of SAP brown coal drying is directly proportional to the SAP/coal weight ratio. It is observed that moisture content of fine brown coal can readily be reduced from about 59% to 38% in four hours at a 20% SAP/coal ratio.

  17. Gaseous phase coal surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  18. Comparative analysis for performance of brown coal combustion in a vortex furnace with improved design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinsky, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Comparative study of 3D numerical simulation of fluid flow and coal-firing processes was applied for flame combustion of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in a vortex furnace of improved design with bottom injection of secondary air. The analysis of engineering performance of this furnace was carried out for several operational modes as a function of coal grinding fineness and coal input rate. The preferable operational regime for furnace was found.

  19. New interpretations of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, H.W.; Wolf, M.

    1987-05-01

    New ideas concerning the understanding of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany are discussed. These new interpretations are based on a significantly larger number of samples and refined procedures for analysis within the field of paleobotany, palynology, coal petrology and organic geochemistry than were available to P.W. Thomson and M. Teichmuller. The light and dark bands in the coal are mainly the result of different degrees of plant decomposition. The influence of the peat-forming plant communities plays a subordinate role in the petrographical composition of these particular strata of the Rhenish brown coal. 28 refs.

  20. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of a Ukrainian low-grade coal (brown) with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.N. Shevkoplyas [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    An effective pathway of the wastes plastics utilization can be its co-pyrolysis with a low-grade (brown) coal. The Dneprovsky deposit brown coal (Ukraine) and waste plastics as a polyethyleneterephthalate in this investigation were taken. The brown coal-plastics mixed used: 19:1; 9:1 and 4:1 ratio that was as 5, 10 and 20 % plastics additive to the brown coal. The co-pyrolysis mix prepared in the temperature region 450-800{sup o}C in a fixed bed reactor has been carried out. The process time was 0, 60 and 120 min., heating rate - 25{sup o}C/min. The influence plastics additive on the co-pyrolysis yield has been estimated. The influence of the co-pyrolysis isothermal time on the yield and properties of the tars produced has been studied. The mass balances of co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics have been calculated. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics is a way to utilize organic pollutants. 3 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  2. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah's coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  3. Effects of pretreatment in steam on the pyrolysis behavior of Loy Yang brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Zeng; George Favas; Hongwei Wu; Alan L. Chaffee; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-01

    Dewatering/drying of Victorian brown coal will be an integral part of future brown coal utilization processes aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims to investigate the effects of the thermal pretreatment of brown coal in the presence of steam/water on its subsequent pyrolysis behavior. A Victorian (Loy Yang) brown coal was thermally pretreated in pressurized steam and inert atmospheres. The pyrolysis behavior of these pretreated coal samples was investigated in a wire-mesh reactor. While the pretreatment in steam at temperatures higher than 250{sup o}C increased the char yield of the steam-treated coal, it did not affect the overall pyrolysis char yield at 1000{sup o} C s{sup -1} if the weight loss during the pretreatment in steam was also considered. However, the tar yield decreased significantly after the pretreatment in the presence of steam. The UV-fluorescence spectroscopy of tars revealed that the release of large aromatic systems from the steam-treated coal was only affected by the pretreatment in steam if the treatment temperature was very high (e.g. 350{sup o}C). The loss of NaCl and the use of high pressure during the pretreatment of brown coal in steam were not the main reasons for the changes in the observed tar yield. The hydrolysis of O-containing structures such as ethers, esters, and carboxylates during the pretreatment in the presence of steam plays an important role in the fates of these O-containing structures during pretreatment and subsequent pyrolysis, leading to changes in the pyrolysis behavior of the brown coal. 36 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Application of principal-component analysis to the interpretation of brown coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, S.; Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Institute for Analytical Chemistry

    1995-07-01

    The characterization of coal properties using principal-component analysis is described. The aim is to obtain correlations between a large number of chemical and technological parameters as well as FT-i.r. spectroscopic data. A database on 44 brown coals from different deposits was interpreted. After computation of the principal components, scatterplots and component-weight plots are presented for the first two or three principal components. The overlap of the component-weights plot and the scatterplot (biplot) shows how it is possible to classify brown coals by means of selected characteristics. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

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    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  7. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  8. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BROWN COAL ASH FOR CEMENT AND CONCRETE MIXTURES AT THE LELCHITSKY DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Lyahevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern visions on the role of high-dispersity additives in concrete mixtures reflect a positive effect of optimal amount of ash left after combustion of solid fuel on structure and physico-mechanical characteristics of cement compositions: hardening of contact zone between cement stone and aggregates with formation of “binder – aggregate” clusters due to high surface energy of aggregate particles; reduction of total cement stone porosity in concrete while increasing volumetric concentration and aggregate dispersion; binding of calcium hydroxide by amorphized silicon of pozzolanic aggregates; increase in pozzolanic aggregate activity with its fine grinding, etc. Experimental investigations have ascertained that usage of portland cement clinker ash samples left after brown coal burning at the Lelchitsky deposit contributed to an increase of cement working life and activity. Concrete samples have been obtained that have improved physico-mechanical properties owing to introduction the following components in their composition: 2–14 % (of cement mass of ash left after brown coal burning and 1.6–2.1 % of sodium salt that is a condensation product of sulfur oxidate in aromatic hydrocarbons with formaldehyde. Efficiency of the executed work has been proved by solution of the problems pertaining to an increase of neat cement working life, cement activity, concrete strength. The paper also considers no less important problem concerning protection of the environment from contamination with ash left after burning of high-ash brown coal

  9. Laser pyrolysis of brown coal in the field of low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galkin, G.A.; Grigoriev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors studied thermal decomposition of Irsha-Borodinsky brown coal under pulse laser radiation within the energy density range from 2.5 to 25 J. cm /sub -2/ . It has been shown that the amount of the gas phase increases monotonously with the increase in the radiation energy density. Alongside the increase of the gas pressure, its composition changes noticeably. Maximum concentration of CH/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ is observed with the radiation energy density of 6.4J.cm /sup -2/ . Further increase in the radiation energy density leads to an abrupt increase in acetylene output. The assessment of the brown coal melting point under laser radiation by infrared spectra has been made. It has been shown that thermovacuum processing of a brown coal specimen contributes to a more complete carbonization of coal substance. Thermal processing of the specimen in the open air leads to a more profound thermodestruction of brown coal substance.

  10. Brown coal conversion by microwave plasma reactions under successive supply of methane

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    Kamei, O.; Onoe, K.; Marushima, W.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1998-10-01

    To develop an innovative method for directly converting brown coal to relatively important fuels and synthesis gases in a single step, while simultaneously upgrading the carbon content of the residue, microwave plasma technology was applied to the direct conversion of brown coal (Yallourn). Methane under reduced pressure was supplied through a quartz reactor into the irradiation zone and reacted with the coal bed placed downstream. Both the coal conversion and the carbon content of the residue were increased with an increase of irradiation time. The yield of oily products showed a maximum value (18 wt.%) at 2 min irradiation, and the fuels were composed mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the range from C{sub 13} to C{sub 34}. Furthermore, carbon monoxide and hydrogen accompanied by a molar fraction of {lt} 16% of acetylene were mainly produced when the irradiation time was varied from 1 to 10 min. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Modified Two-Step Dimethyl Ether (DME) Synthesis Simulation from Indonesian Brown Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiwahju Sasongko; Abdurrahman Fadhlil Halim Luthan; Winny Wulandari

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to investigate the performance of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from coal. This paper presents a model for two-step DME synthesis from brown coal represented by the following processes: drying, gasification, water-gas reaction, acid gas removal, and DME synthesis reactions. The results of the simulation suggest that a feedstock ratio of coal : oxygen : steam of 1 : 0.13 : 0.821 produces the highest DME concentration. The water-gas reactor simulation at a tem...

  12. Characteristics of the Thorez open pit brown coal mine in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Hungarian (VNR) brown coal deposits have a large number of thin and varying quality seams. The problem of selecting optimal equipment and technology for mining is determined by finding the parameters of a rotary complex and then the parameters of the technology.

  13. Do stable carbon isotopes of brown coal woods record changes in Lower Miocene palaeoecology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Dolezych, M.; Kool, J.; Burgh, J. van der; Bergen, P.F. van

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of fossil wood from the Miocene brown coal deposits in former East Germany are compared with palaeobotanical and sedimentological data to test the use of stable isotopes in determining palaeoenvironment. Significant differences in the chemical composition of samples from

  14. Co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate with brown coal and effect on monomer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Orinak; L. Halas; I. Amar; J.T. Andersson; M. Adamova [University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia). Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography has been applied to the study of the co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with Slovakian brown coal with the aim of finding pyrolysis conditions yielding a maximum amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Effects of pyrolysis temperature and PMMA-coal weight ratios were investigated. Capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detector (cGC-MS) was used for MMA identification. The highest yield of MMA in the pyrolysate was obtained at 750{sup o}C. The optimal PMMA-coal weight ratio for maximum MMA production lies in the interval 0.5 mg PMMA and 0.6-0.8 mg brown coal with an MMA yield of 64%. Coal addition to the sample affects species recombination in gaseous phase, augments MMA production at higher temperatures and eliminates degradation products of PMMA and coal pyrolysis. Different conversion diagrams are characteristic for thermal degradation of single PMMA and in the mixture with coal. Detailed mechanism of synergetic effects arisen during co-pyrolysis are not yet known. It was also found that lower pyrolysis temperatures are more suitable to study degradation mechanism and kinetics while higher temperatures are more applicable for identification purposes. MMA decomposes completely at 900{sup o}C. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Thirty five years of North Bohemian brown coal region after liberation of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M.

    1980-09-01

    Problems of the North Bohemian brown coal basin are evaluated. In 35 years coal output of the region increased from 40 Mt to nearly 70 Mt in spite of deteriorating mining and geological conditions and shortages of manpower. Output increase was possible as a result of a comprehensive program of modernization and construction of new mines. The following mines are the most productive in the region: Maxim Gorkij, Most, CSA, Jan Sverma, Chabarovice, Merkur, Brezno, Vrsany. Investments in modernizing older mines and constructing new surface mines are evaluated: the investments increased from close to 800 million crowns in 1971 to over 2 billion crowns in 1979. Machines and equipment used in the North Bohemian surface mines are characterized: K 1000, K-800-B, K-300 bucket wheel excavators, D 800, DO 800 and DO 400 bucket chain excavators as well as the high capacity KU 800 bucket wheel excavator.

  16. Fuel retrofitting possibilities in pulverised brown coal power plants towards reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agraniotis, Michalis

    2012-07-01

    The thesis intends to assess the potential of two different brown coal substitution concepts as possible options to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in existing pulverised brown coal power plants. The substitution of brown coal by Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) is examined as first concept. The second concept regarded is the integration of a lignite pre-drying system in an existing steam cycle and the substitution of raw brown coal by pre-dried brown coal. SRF co-firing is demonstrated in a 600 MWe pulverised brown coal boiler in Germany, while pre-dried brown coal co-firing is demonstrated in a 75 MWth pulverised lignite boiler in Greece. Specific environmental, technological and economic parameters are used for the evaluation according to a multi-criteria analysis approach. The analysis tools adopted include experimental measurement activities in the industrial and semi industrial scale, 3D numerical simulations (CFD), thermodynamic calculations of power plant steam cycles and financial calculations. (orig.)

  17. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  18. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  19. Nickel-catalyzed hydroliquefaction of Morwell brown coal at low temperatures using phenolic compounds as solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Y.; Saito, Y.; Okada, K.; Koinuma, Y.

    To attain a more effective coal liquefaction process, low-temperature (230-270 degrees C) coal hydroliquefaction was performed by using 15 kinds of single- or double-ring phenolic compounds as solvents and nickel acetate as a catalyst precursor. The role of the phenolic compound in the liquefaction reaction is discussed. With selected compounds, such as 1,7-dihydroxynaphthalene and resorcinol, Morwell brown coal was catalytically liquefied in a batch autoclave under H/sub 2/ pressure (10 MPa, cold) to give the coversions of the coal (to benzene/ethanol mixture solubles), which are higher than 70 wt%, at 270 degrees C for 1 h. Among three dihydroxybenzenes, resorcinol showed the highest efficiency for the Ni-catalyzed hydroliquefaction of the coal, though the capability of resorcinol to dissolve coal is the lowest in the absence of H/sub 2/. Capabilities of o-phenylphenol and its related compounds to dissolve the coal at 250 degrees C under Ar pressure (10 MPa, cold) and to hydroliquefy the coal at 270 degrees C under H/sub 2/ pressure (10 MPa, cold) were quantified. The respective orders of the conversion of the coal with these compounds are as follows: o-phenylphenol approximately equal to o-cyclohexylphenol > biphenyl approximately equal to cyclohexylbenzene. At this temperature, the solvent effect of phenolic functionality is larger than that of the hydroaromatic one. The same result is found with 1-naphthol and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-naphthol. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. Simulating isolation of liquid products from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, A.M.; Ustyuzhanina, G.P.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1988-10-20

    A model was constructed describing the volatile release from coal based on the pyrolysis mechanism and identification of the major elements in relation to the conditions. Pyrolysis involves the following stages: heating, primary decomposition, decomposition-product diffusion in the particles, and external mass transfer. The model gives a complete kinetic description for the release of liquid products. The description is dependent on the rate relations and incorporates the nonstationary temperature distribution along with the effect of coal particle diameter on liquid product yield. The model has been used to define parameters and identify two critical particle diameters enabling one to define the semicoking range.

  3. The competitive strength of German brown coal; Deutsche Braunkohle im Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, D.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of a celebration on 4 December 1996, Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning, Chairman of the Board of Rheinbraun-AG, outlined the changes in the energy-political boundary conditions in Germany and Europe, strategies for maintaining the competitive strength of brown coal, and the importance of this feld of industry, and especially of the Garzweiler II oopen-cast mine, for the structural development of the Rhenish brown coal district. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gemeinsame Barbara-Feier am 4. Dezember 1996 in der Erfthalle Kerpen-Tuernich war dem Vorstandsvorsitzenden der Rheinbraun AG, Bergwerksdirektor Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning Anlass genug, von den Fuehrungskraeften des Rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbaus und den Bergingenieuren vom Bezirksverein Rheinische Braunkohle, die Veraenderungen der energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in Deutschland und Europa, die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Braunkohle und die Bedeutung dieses Industriezweiges und vor allem von Garzweiler II fuer die strukturelle Entwicklung des rheinischen Reviers, darzulegen. (orig.)

  4. Mechanochemical activation of iron ore-based catalysts for the hydrogenation of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Chumakov, V.G.; Moiseeva, G.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2000-10-01

    Genesis of pyrrhotite catalysts from different iron ore concentrates and pure iron oxides was investigated using the method of mechanochemical treatment in a planetary mill. The dispersion and fine crystalline structure of oxide and pyrrhotite particles were studied as the function of mechanical load, sulfiding temperature and mode of preparation. Methods for the preparation of high performance iron ore-based catalysts for brown coal hydrogenation have been developed. (orig.)

  5. The immersion freezing behavior of ash particles from wood and brown coal burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Sarah; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Prager, Andrea; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that ash particles from coal combustion can trigger ice nucleation when they interact with water vapor and/or supercooled droplets. However, data on the ice nucleation of ash particles from different sources, including both anthropogenic and natural combustion processes, are still scarce. As fossil energy sources still fuel the largest proportion of electric power production worldwide, and biomass burning contributes significantly to the global aerosol loading, further data are needed to better assess the ice nucleating efficiency of ash particles. In the framework of this study, we found that ash particles from brown coal (i.e., lignite) burning are up to 2 orders of magnitude more ice active in the immersion mode below -32 °C than those from wood burning. Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was shown to be the most efficient at nucleating ice. Furthermore, the influence of various particle generation methods on the freezing behavior was studied. For instance, particles were generated either by dispersion of dry sample material, or by atomization of ash-water suspensions, and then led into the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) where the immersion freezing behavior was examined. Whereas the immersion freezing behavior of ashes from wood burning was not affected by the particle generation method, it depended on the type of particle generation for ash from brown coal. It was also found that the common practice of treating prepared suspensions in an ultrasonic bath to avoid aggregation of particles led to an enhanced ice nucleation activity. The findings of this study suggest (a) that ash from brown coal burning may influence immersion freezing in clouds close to the source and (b) that the freezing behavior of ash particles may be altered by a change in sample preparation and/or particle generation.

  6. Volatilisation and catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis and gasification of Victorian brown coal. Part IV. Catalytic effects of NaCl and ion-exchangeable Na in coal on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimple Mody Quyn; Hongwei Wu; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li, [Monash University, Monash, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the catalytic effects of Na as NaCl or as sodium carboxylates ( COONa) in Victorian brown coal on the char reactivity. A Na-exchanged coal and a set of NaCl-loaded coal samples prepared from a Loy Yang brown coal were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor and in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivities of the chars were measured in air at 400{sup o}C using the TGA. The experimental data indicate that the Na in coal as NaCl and as sodium carboxylates ( COONa) had very different catalytic effects on the char reactivity. It is the chemical form and dispersion of Na in char, not in coal, that govern the catalytic effects of Na. For the Na-form (Na-exchanged) coal, the char reactivity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature from 500 to 700{sup o}C and then decreased with pyrolysis temperature from 700 to 900{sup o}C. The increase in reactivity with pyrolysis temperature (500 700{sup o}C) is mainly due to the changes in the relative distribution of Na in the char matrix and on the pore surface. For the NaCl-loaded coals, when Cl was released during pyrolysis or gasification, the Na originally present in coal as NaCl showed good catalytic effects for the char gasification. Otherwise, Cl would combine with Na in the char to form NaCl during gasification, preventing Na from becoming an active catalyst. Controlling the pyrolysis conditions to favour the release of Cl can be a promising way to transform NaCl in coal into an active catalyst for char gasification. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Exploration possibilities of Oligocene brown coal seams in the Vertessomio - Majkpuszta - Orosziany region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidai, L.

    1986-01-01

    The history of exploration, the stratigraphic conditions of the Oligocene formations together with the tectonics of the region are discussed. Based on exploration borehole data the expected thickness and distribution of the coal seams are presented. As demonstrated by the isopach lines the depth of the Oligocene coal seams varies between 50 and 300 mm below the surface, i.e. the beds lie somewhat higher than the Eocene coal-bearing strata. For this very reason the region seems to be extractable though the thickness of the coal seams falls behind the Eocene ones.

  8. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  9. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  10. Changes in brown coal structure caused by coal-solubilizing microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiers, H.; Koepsel, R.; Weber, A.; Winkelhoefer, M.; Grosse, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen

    1997-12-31

    The phenomenon of coal solubilization caused by microorganisms has been explained by various mechanisms: extraction of non-covalently bonded polar components of the coal substance by biogenic agents (chelating agents, alkaline substances) and enzyme-catalyzed cleavage of covalent bonds by extracellular enzyme systems. For this it is assumed that bond cleavage occurs on the aliphatic carbon (methylene groups, aliphatic bridges or on ester groups). As the coal has usually been treated with oxidizing agents such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or HNO{sub 3} before bioconversion, there is a possibility that the result of bioconversion is overlaid with the effect of the chemical treatment. We therefore studied the structural changes in the organic coal substance during pre-oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treatment with MnP and conversion using the fungal strains of Trichoderma and Fusarium oxysporum. (orig.)

  11. Changes in epigeic spider community in primary succession on a brown-coal dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekár, Stanislav

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive model of primary succession of spiders on a brown-coal dump is presented. Multivariate methods (cluster analysis and detrended correspondence analysis, and community indexes were applied to evaluate changes in community composition of epigeic spiders. Two different rehabilitation age stages were investigated. The cluster analysis helped to determine a case of horizontal asynchronous succession. The DCA was able to distinguish divergent trends of succession from the initial stage. Successional trends in species replacements were observed. In all aspects of succession there was found to be directional towards a "ruderal steppe" subclimax.

  12. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  13. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  14. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Australian coals. I. Angularly fused pentacyclic tri- and tetraaromatic components of Victorian brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Alan L.; Johns, R. B.

    1983-12-01

    Analysis of the tri- and tetraaromatic hydrocarbon fractions of a brown coal sample from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia indicate the predominance of pentacyclic hydroaromatic components. Many of these have not been previously reported in the literature, but are obviously diagenetically related to triterpenoids naturally occurring in the biosphere. The components whose molecular structures have been confirmed, together with those for which tentative structural assignments are given, offer strong support for a theory of progressive diagenetic aromatization of C-3 oxygenated triterpenoids, commencing from ring A. Other compounds present in smaller amounts suggest that 1,2-methyl shift reactions also occur prior to or during aromatization. There is a notable absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) which can be diagenetically related to the steroid or extended-side-chain hopane skeletons.

  16. The issues of the self-fill aquifer in the north Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halir, J.; Zizka, L. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The brown coal basin in the Czech Republic is located in the northwestern region of the country. Mining activities in the region have led to the flooding of various underground areas. This paper described the dewatering activities conducted as a safety procedure in a mine located in the brown coal basin. Pumping stations were established in various parts of the basin to collect inflows. Average annual pumping for the stations is approximately 990,000 m{sup 3} of mine water. The deepest pumping station in the basin is 90 meters under sea level. The activities are being conducted to ensure that a self-fill system is established to create a large self-filling water horizon after mining activities have stopped. Depressions in the mine will be successively flooded to create reservoirs of self-filling water. A computerized model of the water fluctuation rates in the mine is being prepare to accurately characterize the filling process. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?; Braunkohleausstieg NRW. Welche Abbaumengen sind energiewirtschaftlich notwendig und klimapolitisch moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, Dierk; Hermann, Hauke; Ritter, David; Vogel, Moritz; Winger, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  18. Formation of NH{sub 3} during the pyrolysis of a brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.Z.; Pang, Y.; Li, X.G. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) from power generation using coal are an important environmental problem, contributing to the formation of photochemical smog and acid rain or to the enhancement of greenhouse effects and to the enhanced depletion of stratospheric ozone. During pyrolysis, the nitrogen in coal, as a part of coal organic matter, is converted into NOx precursors (eg. NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO and the nitrogen in tar and char). These NOx precursors may then be converted into either NOx or N{sub 2} during subsequent combustion or gasification/combustion. The conversion efficiency of these NOx precursors into NOx depends strongly upon the type of NOx precursor. Knowledge of the formation of these NOx precursors during pyrolysis is therefore essential for the accurate predictions of NOx emissions from large scale power plants, and therefore for the development of optimum strategies for NOx reduction. Formation of NH{sub 3} during the pyrolysis of a Victorian brown coal (Loy Yang) has been studied in a novel reactor. The experimental results obtained suggest that a considerable amount of the nitrogen in the nascent char could be converted into NH{sub 3} if the char is held at high temperatures for a long period of time. The formation of NH{sub 3} from the thermal cracking of char was seen to last for more than an hour even at temperatures as high as 700--900 C. The experimental results seem to suggest that the differences in reactor geometries would account at least partially for some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the formation of NH{sub 3} during the pyrolysis of coals. It is thought that NH{sub 3} may be formed from the hydrogenation of the N sites in the char by the active hydrogen generated from the thermal cracking of the char.

  19. Modified Two-Step Dimethyl Ether (DME Synthesis Simulation from Indonesian Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study was conducted to investigate the performance of dimethyl ether (DME synthesis from coal. This paper presents a model for two-step DME synthesis from brown coal represented by the following processes: drying, gasification, water-gas reaction, acid gas removal, and DME synthesis reactions. The results of the simulation suggest that a feedstock ratio of coal : oxygen : steam of 1 : 0.13 : 0.821 produces the highest DME concentration. The water-gas reactor simulation at a temperature of 400°C and a pressure of 20 bar gave the ratio of H2/CO closest to 2, the optimal value for two-step DME synthesis. As for the DME synthesis reactor simulation, high pressure and low temperature promote a high DME concentration. It is predicted that a temperature of 300°C and a pressure of 140 bar are the optimum conditions for the DME synthesis reaction. This study also showed that the DME concentration produced by the two-step route is higher than that produced by one-step DME synthesis, implying that further improvement and research are needed to apply two-step DME synthesis to production of this liquid fuel.

  20. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  1. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, GPO Box 36, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Lian, E-mail: lian.zhang@monash.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, GPO Box 36, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The indirect CO{sub 2} mineralization by brown coal fly ash has been tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large CO{sub 2} capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate with low activation energy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fly ash based capture process is highly efficient and cost-effective. - Abstract: The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO{sub 2} capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO{sub 2} was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60 Degree-Sign C and a CO{sub 2} partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO{sub 2}/tonne fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to

  2. Improving adsorption properties of semicoke from power and industrial processing of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz' min, G.V.; Lozhaeva, V.I.; Kim, S.T.; Kalyuzhnyi, V.V.; Nikolaeva, V.A.

    1981-09-01

    Possibility is investigated of improving adsorption properties of semicoke obtained by thermocontact coking from Irsha-Borodinsk brown coal in order to use it for cleaning industrial waste water. Parameters of the porous structures, physical, chemical and adsorption properties of the semicoke are given after subjection to progressive activation by steam at 500-850 C with combustion losses of 11-48 percent. Analysis of the parameters of the porous structure showed that the total volume of micro and mezopores increased from 135 x 10 /SUP/-/SUP/6 to 779 x 10 /SUP/-/SUP/6 m/SUP/3/kg. This is mainly due to the increase in mezopores. Maximum adsorption of iodine is obtained from semicoke activated at a combustion loss of 11 percent. (4 refs.) (In Russian)

  3. Transformation of chlorine in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during the gasification in steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu; Mohammad Asadullah; Rosalie Hocking; LIN Jian-ying; LI Chun-zhu

    2012-01-01

    This study is to examine the changes in Cl volatilizations and chemical forms in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during gasification in steam at 800 ℃ using Cl K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.The char samples were prepared in a novel one-stage fluidised-bed/fixed-bed quartz reactor at a fast heating rate.The samples were then collected and sealed in an argon-filled bag in order to minimise possible oxidation of char and Cl by air prior to analysis by XANES.Char-steam reactions were found to significantly affect the transformation of Cl,including the possible formation of chlorine-containing organic structures.On the other hand,volatile-char interactions during the gasificauon appeared to enhance the Cl retention and prevent the formation of organic chlorine compounds in chars.

  4. Development of scientific and technological bases for application of brown coal semi coke in the technology of non- milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics is investigated, and the optimum temperature and time modes of carbonization of a briquetted silica fume batch- brown coal semi coke are defined. The complete carbonization of the batch in the conditions of heat treatment is achieved at a temperature of 1923 - 1973 K within 15 - 20 minutes. The conditions and indicators of the chemical enrichment of carbonization products are established. After enrichment, the carbide content is more than 90%. Silicon carbide micro-powder is obtained with a specific surface area 8000 - 9000 m2/kg.

  5. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay; Zhang, Lian

    2012-03-30

    The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO(2) capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO(2) capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO(2) was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60°C and a CO(2) partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO(2) capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO(2)/ton fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to cement and in the paper and pulp industry.

  6. Surface Modification Mechanism of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong; WANG Fang-hui; WANG Dian-zuo; OU Ze-shen

    2006-01-01

    In order to reveal the surface modification mechanism of fine coal by electrochemical methods, the structural changes of the coal surface before and after electrochemical modification were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) and Raman Spectra. The results show that under certain electrochemical conditions, the oxygen-containing functional group in the coal structure and the oxygen content of absorption could be reduced and the floatability of coal improved. At the same time, the sulfur in the coal was reduced to the hydrophilic S2- which could be separated easily from coal. Thus electrochemical modification methods could be used to change the structure and functional group on the coal surface and to enhance the floatability of coal.

  7. Guide for surface coal mine reclamation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of the guide is to provide a framework for Nova Scotia's coal mining community to consult during reclamation planning and environmental assessment. The guide describe the best management practices for application to surface mine reclamation. Principles of reclamation, standard submission requirements for a reclamation plan, planning for reclamation, landscape design, and revegetation, and methods for site preparation, monitoring, and maintenance are discussed. Backfilling, flooded excavation management, and other options are outlined. The reclamation plan must consider decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure, water retention and treatment ponds, acid rock drainage control and monitoring, site monitoring, watercourse management, and public safety. A glossary is included.

  8. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  9. APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE SPLINEFUNCTIONS TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HanJinyan; YuZhiwei

    1996-01-01

    A surface spline function is used to fit a coal seam surface in structural analysis in coal geology. From the surface spline function, the first and second partial derivatives can also be derived and used to structural analysis, especially for recognition of the concealed structures. The detection of structures related to faulting is emphasized.

  10. Further studies of the effects of oxidation on the surface properties of coal and coal pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research was to investigate the oxidation behavior of coal and coal pyrite and to correlate the changes in the surface properties induced by oxidation, along with the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these organic and inorganic materials, with the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. This provide more fundamental knowledge for understanding the way in which different factors interact in a medium as heterogeneous as coal. Fourteen coal samples of different ranks ranging from high to medium sulfur content were studied by dry oxidation tests at different temperatures and humidities, and by wet oxidation tests using different oxidizing agents. The concentration of surface oxygen functional groups was determined by ion-exchange methods. The changes in the coal composition with oxidation were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The wettability of as-received and oxidized coal and coal pyrite samples was assessed by film flotation tests. The electrokinetic behavior of different coals and coal pyrite samples was studied by electrokinetic tests using electrophoresis. Possible oxidation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the changes on the coal surface induced by different oxidation treatments.

  11. Chemical constituents and structural characteristic of the combined acids in brown coal resin from Chinese brown coal waxes%褐煤树脂中结合酸的化学组成与结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝才; 傅家谟; 卜贻孙; 黄祖琦; 盛国英

    2001-01-01

    对云南潦浒、寻甸、吉林舒兰褐煤树脂中结合酸进行了GC-MS分析,对其化学组成及结构特征进行了对比研究.结果显示,树脂结合酸均以正构烷酸为主要成分,其分布为C12~C28,高含量的正构烷酸集中在低碳数一端.在潦浒、寻甸树脂结合酸中,C20含量最高,其次为C16,而在舒兰结合酸中,正构烷酸占绝对优势,且C16为最高含量的化合物;去氢松香酸在每个样品中含量均较低,其它三环二萜酸,如松脂酸、三达松脂酸等异构体或立体异构体含量也非常低;具有五环三萜骨架的酸性物质,在潦浒、舒兰结合酸中比较丰富,其含量超过寻甸结合酸;在低碳数一端,存在着各种支链烷酸及苯甲酸、苯酚及取代物.对比树脂烃、树脂游离酸的结果,潦浒树脂结合酸与寻甸树脂结合酸无论从组成和分布上都是极其相似的,故其原料煤成煤植物和成煤环境具有相似性,与舒兰煤之生源和环境存在着本质的差异.%The acids combined to form esters, LHZZS,XDZZS and SLZZS, the fractio ns in brown coal resins from brown coal waxes from Liaohu, Xundian (Yunnan Province) and Shulan(Jilin Province) brown coal respectively, were derived by CH 2N2 to methyl esters and their chemical constituents and structural characteristic were studied on GCMS. The experimental results demonstrate that normal fatty acids from C12 to C28are dominant in combined acid fraction, but concen trated mainly in low carbon number (C16,C18,C20,C22). Fatty acid with highest content both in LHZZS and XDZZS is eicosanoic acid, the next, hexadecanoic acid. In SLZZS, the normal fatty acids are absolutely dominant compositions, hexadecanoic acid with the highest content, the next, benzoic acid; Tricyclic diterpanoic acids and pentacyclic triterpanoic acids, such as dehydroabietic acid, pimaric acid, isopima ric acid, sandaracopimaric acid, tetrahydroabietic acid

  12. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  13. SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force

  14. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  15. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  16. CO2 adsorption properties of char produced from brown coal impregnated with alcohol amine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Paweł; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Czuma, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction is critical to mitigating climate change. Power plants for heating and industry are significant sources of CO2 emissions. There is a need for identifying and developing new, efficient methods to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods used is flue gas purification by CO2 capture through adsorption. This study aimed to develop CO2 adsorbent out of modified brown coal impregnated with solutions of first-, second-, and third-order amines. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherms and CO2 isotherms were measured for the prepared samples. The results of experiments unexpectedly revealed that CO2 sorption capacity decreased after impregnation. Due to lack of strait trends in CO2 sorption capacity decrease, the results were closely analyzed to find the reason for the inconsistencies. It was revealed that different amines represent different affinities for CO2 and that the size and structure of impregnating factor has influence on the CO2 sorption capacity of impregnated material. The character of a support was also noticeable as well for impregnation results as for the affinity to CO2. The influence of amine concentration used was investigated along with the comparison on how the theoretical percentage of the impregnation on the support influenced the results. The reaction mechanism of tertiary amine was taken into consideration in connection to no presence of water vapor during the experiments. Key findings were described in the work and provide a strong basis for further studies on CO2 adsorption on amine-impregnated support.

  17. The loss of Na and Cl during the pyrolysis of a NaCl-loaded brown coal sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, D.; Li, C.Z.

    1999-07-01

    A Victorian brown coal was physically loaded with NaCl and pyrolyzed in a quartz fluidized-bed reactor. The fluidized-bed reactor was equipped with a quartz frit in the freeboard zone to enable the total devolatilization of the coal particles. The introduction of NaCl into the coal has caused only minor reductions in the weight loss. A significant amount of chlorine was volatilized during pyrolysis at temperatures as low as 200 C. At temperatures around 400--500 C where the loss of sodium was not very significant, about 70% of chlorine was volatilized from the coal particles. With the volatilization of chlorine at this temperature level, sodium must have been bonded to the char matrix. With increasing temperature, the volatilization of chlorine decreased and then increased again, whereas the volatilization of sodium increased monotonically with increasing temperature. Almost all the Na in coal could be volatilized at temperatures higher than about 800 C. These experimental results clearly indicate that chlorine and Na interacted strongly with coal/char at high temperatures. Na and Cl in the coal did not volatilize as NaCl molecules. Significant amounts of species containing a COO-group such as acetate, formate and oxalate were observed in the pyrolysis products although the exact forms of these species (i.e., as acids, salts or esters) in the pyrolysis product remain unknown. The yields of the species containing a COO-group decreased with increasing temperature, possibly due to the intensified thermal cracking reactions at high temperatures.

  18. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  19. Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Palynostratigraphy from the Arkhara-Boguchan Brown Coal Mine of Zeya-Bureya Depression, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatyana V. Kezina

    2003-01-01

    A well-preserved Late Cretaceous-Paleogene palynological flora from the middle member of the Tsagajan Formation and the upper member of the Tsagajan Formation including the Kivda Beds is reported for the first time from the Arkhara-Boguchan brown coal mine, southeastern part of the Zeya-Bureya Basin. Four palynocomplexes were established for the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. The climate and phytocoenoses were also analyzed,based on the detailed palynological data. The results are coincident with those of mega-flora studied by Akhmetiev et al. (2002).

  20. Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Porous Structure of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Ljubisa R; Hatcher, Patrick G

    1997-05-01

    In this report, 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of xenon gas adsorbed in coal is used to describe some poorly understood features of coal microporous structure, particularly in establishing that a connected network exists, the type of connectivity, and its changes with the rank of coal. Micropore size scale and distribution are also considered. Two methods are developed which are new and versatile tools for the investigation of porous structure. Both utilize xenon gas that is in motion, while undergoing diffusion or exchange in coal, to describe the connectivity of the micropore structure of coal. Time tracking of the adsorption process by NMR, selective saturation, and saturation transfer techniques were used to obtain new information on the coal rank dependence of porous structure. In addition, an existing 129 Xe chemical shift-pore diameter model was used to calculate micropore diameters for coals, as well as for a microporous carbon, before and after pore-size alteration. In the initial study performed, straightforward 129 Xe NMR spectra at equilibrium xenon adsorption at a series of pressures were acquired for a rank-varied set of six coals. Acquisition of the NMR signal as an echo was tested and found to improve spectral quality. The spectra were used to calculate micropore diameters for the six coals. These range from 5.6 to 7.5 and exhibit a minimum value for the intermediate coal rank. The smallest pores occur in coals of about 82-85% carbon; at both lower and higher coal ranks, the average micropore size tends to be larger. The changes in the spectra with coal rank and surface area were explored. Signal linewidths were found to decrease with increasing coal rank and were interpreted in terms of increasing chemical or physical homogeneity of the coal as rank increases. The packing density of powdered coal was found to alter the spectral appearance in a high volatile bituminous coal, which is preliminary evidence that exchange affects the

  1. Investigation into the surface active groups of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-cai; XUE Han-ling; Deng Jun; Wen Hu; ZHANG Xing-hai

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation heat of coal is the direct reason leading to coal spontaneous combustion.When coal is exposed in oxygen atmosphere, the physical adsorption and chemisorption happened, and then which resulting chemical reaction followed heat between coal and oxygen. Owing to the complexity and uncertain of molecular structure of coal, it was only reduced that bridge bonds, side chains and O2-containing functional groups in coal may be prone to oxidation in last year, but not to deeply investigate into the structures and the type of the active radicals. In this paper, according to the last achievements in coal structure research, the hypomethylether bond,hypoalkyl bond of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl and α-carbon atom with hypomethy side chain and hypomettyl bonds linking up two aromatic hydrocarbon in bridge bonds, and methoxy, aldehyde and alkyls of α-carbon atom with hydroxy in side bonds are inferred to be free radical easily to lead to oxidize coal under the ambient temperature and pressure. The order from strong to week of oxide activation of the seven surface active groups is aldehyde side chains, hypomethylether bonds, hypoalkyl bonds of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl, hypoalkyl bonds of α-carbon atom with hypomethyl, hypomethyl bonds linking up two aromatic hydrocarbon, methoxy, alkyls side chains of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl. Because of the two unsaturated molecular tracks of C2, unpaired eleotron clouds of the part of surface active groups of coal enter molecular tracks of O2 to lead to chemisorb on the conjugate effect and induced effect of surface active groups, and then chemical reaction followed heat happens in them. On the basis of change of bond energy, weighted average method is adopted to count the reactionheat value of each mol CO, CO2 and H2O. The property of coal spontaneous combustion is different for the different number and oxidability of the active structure in the coal resulting in the different oxidation heat.

  2. Coal mine spoil-water interaction: Ⅱ. Weathering concentrated metals in surface coal mine spoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党志; 万国江; 李德忍

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of metals are lower in coal shales collected from recently exposed surface mine wastes than in shales collected from spoils exposed to surface weathering for 45 a. In this period, the character of the spoils changes dramatically as a result of the accelerated breakdown of the freshly exposed minestones. Since the metals are held as unstable sulfides, it is suggested that enrichment may be caused by absorption of metals by colloid of iron or formation of organic complex compound with organic carbon existing in the remnant structure of coal mine spoil. This process may contribute to the triggering of soil contamination thresholds on coal-lands already heavily loaded with metals.

  3. Nitrogen oxides, sulfur trioxide, and mercury emissions during oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion of Victorian brown coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bithi; Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates, for the first time, the NOx, N2O, SO3, and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOx emissions and higher N2O formation were observed in the oxy-fuel atmosphere. These NOx reduction and N2O formations were further enhanced with steam in the combustion environment. The NOx concentration level in the flue gas was within the permissible limit in coal-fired power plants in Victoria. Therefore, an additional NOx removal system will not be required using this coal. In contrast, both SO3 and gaseous mercury concentrations were considerably higher under oxy-fuel combustion compared to that in the air combustion. Around 83% of total gaseous mercury released was Hg(0), with the rest emitted as Hg(2+). Therefore, to control harmful Hg(0), a mercury removal system may need to be considered to avoid corrosion in the boiler and CO2 separation units during the oxy-fuel fluidized-bed combustion using this coal.

  4. Metallization of oxide-ore-containing wastes with the use of brown coal semicoke from Berezovsky deposit of the Kansk- Achinsk Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The research of the metallization process of the roll scale and sludge after gas treatment in the BOF production with the use of brown coal semicoke mined in Berezovsky field of the Kansk-Achinsk Basin was carried out. A flow diagram of “cold” briquetting using a water-soluble binder was offered. The reduction of iron from its oxide Fe2O3 with brown coal semicoke in the laboratory electric-tube furnace in the argon atmosphere was studied. The mathematical models of dependence of the metallization degree on variable factors were developed. The optimal values of technological factors and essential characteristics of the obtained metallized products were revealed.

  5. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  6. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1992-12-15

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption of various alcohols on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed during the July--September period. The alcohols include ethanol, methanol, isobutanol, t-butanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, and 2-methyl-l-pentanol. Amounts of equilibrium adsorption of alcohols (ALCO) on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal are 1 - 230 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] mg-ALCO/g-coal, whereas equilibrium concentrations of alcohols are 3--40 ppM. Relations between equilibrium loadings of alcohols on the coal and equilibrium concentrations of alcohols in aqueous solutions are shown to be linear.

  7. Gaseous phase coal surface modification. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  8. Impact of Calcium on Pyrolysis and Gasification Characteristics of Brown Coal%钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 余江龙; 尹丰魁; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    综述了钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响,讨论了钙元素对热解产物中挥发分、焦油产率和气体产物分布的影响,以及对褐煤半焦气化的催化作用.结果表明,与酸洗煤相比,热解过程中,钙元素降低焦油产率,提高半焦产率;气化过程中,钙元素的植入提高褐煤半焦的反应活性,缩短了反应时间.高温时钙元素主要以氧化态的形式存在,低温时则不断与半焦基体键合而参与交联反应,少部分挥发.%This paper provides an overview on the impact of calcium on the pyrolysis and gasification characteristics of brown coal. The impact of calcium on the total volatile matter yield, the tar yield and the distribution of gaseous products during pyrolysis as well as its influences on the catalysis of the gasification of brown coal and chars are discussed. It is shown that the tar yield of the Ca-enriched coal is lower than that of the acid-washed coal and the char yield is higher than that of the acid-washed coal in the pyrolysis process. The reactivity of brown coal is increased and the reaction time is shortened in the gasification process because of the calcium implantation into the brown coal. Calcium oxide is the main form existing in the coal at high temperatures, but it is strongly bonded to the char structure and attends cross linking reactions and a small proportion of volatilizes.

  9. CO2 GASIFICATION REACTIVITY OF BROWN COAL CHAR%一种褐煤热解煤焦的CO2气化反应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范冬梅; 张海霞; 朱治平; 吕清刚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the step utilization of brown coal pyrolysis, partial gasification, and residual carbon combustion, a brown coal from Shigouyi Coal Mine in Ningxia was chosen as research object to produce the rapid and slow coal chars at temperature of 700 ℃-950 ℃ in a hori- zontal tube furnace. The effect of pyrolysis conditions on carbon microcrystal structure and BET surface area of chars was investigated. The carbon dioxide gasification reactivity was analyzed by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric technology, and different evolution indexes were used to characterize the reactivity of chars. It is found that the gasification rate of Shigouyi chars increases by more than 50% with the temperature increasing by 50 ℃. When the pyrolysis temperature rises, the carbon microcrystal structure of coal chars becomes more orderly and the BET surface area decreases. However, the gasification reactivity is mainly controlled by gasification temperature. The gasification reactivity of rapid pyrolyzed coal char is better than that of slow pyrolyzed coal char, and the difference between them become greater as gasification temperature rises. Average specific reaction rates of both rapid and slow pyrolyzed chars have a linear relationship with reaction index.%针对褐煤的热解-部分气化-残炭燃烧梯级利用工艺,以宁夏石沟驿褐煤为原料,采用水平管式炉在700℃~950℃温度范围内分别制备快速和慢速热解煤焦,考察了煤焦微晶结构和比表面积随制焦条件的变化.利用热重-质谱联用技术研究煤焦CO2气化反应特性,并采用不同评价指标对煤焦气化活性进行了表征.结果表明:气化温度每升高50℃,煤焦CO2气化反应速率增加50%以上;热解温度升高,虽然煤焦微晶结构的有序化程度加深,比表面积减小,但煤焦CO2气化反应活性主要受气化温度影响;快速热解煤焦的CO2气化反应活性高于慢速热解煤焦,二者的差异随着气化温度升

  10. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  11. 75 FR 64974 - Notice of Data Availability on Coal Combustion Residual Surface Impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Coal Combustion Residual Surface Impoundments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities. The Agency is seeking public comment on how, if...; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From Electric Utilities Docket, Attention Docket ID No.,...

  12. Grinding analysis of Indian coal using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Twinkle Singh; Aishwarya Awasthi; Pranjal Tripathi; Shina Gautam; Alok Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The present work discusses a systematic approach to model grinding parameters of coal in a ball mill.A three level Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology using second order model was applied to the experiments done according to the model requirement.Three parameters ball charge (numbers 10-20),coal content (100-200 g) and the grinding time (4-8 min) were chosen for the experiments as well as for the modeling work.Coal fineness is defined as the d80 (80 % passing size).A quadratic model was developed to show the effect of parameters and their interaction with fineness of the product.Three different sizes (4,1 and 0.65 mm) of Indian coal were used.The model equations for each fraction were developed and different sets of experiments were performed.The predicted values of the fineness of coal were in good agreement with the experimental results (R2 values of d80 varies between 0.97 and 0.99).Fine size of three different coal sizes were obtained with larger ball charge with less grinding time and less solid content.This work represents the efficient use of response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken design use for grinding of Indian coal.

  13. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  14. Mineral composition of rock in Visonia lignite and Nograd brown coal and its influence on abradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szalay, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A study is made of the properties of coals when they are reprocessed in a crusher and tubular furnace at the Gagarin heat and electric power plant and the characteristics of the forming fly ash. The coals are distinguished by high percentages (15-28%) of montmorillonite and kaolinite (3-13%). DTA and x-ray structural analysis of the coals and solid residues were conducted. It is shown that the fly ash is mainly formed from clay minerals and consists of an amorphous mass and modifications of free SiO/sub 2/.

  15. Reduction of sulfur content of brown coals and lignites by hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.; Wolf, G.; Bognar, T.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrothermal experiments were carried out in acid-proof autoclaves. The experimental conditions are described and the results are summarized for different coal types. The heat treatment reduces the organic sulfur content and increases the calorific value. From 300 degrees C the pyritic sulfur can be separated from the other forms of sulfur. By the hydrothermal treatment the bitumen content to be extracted by benzene-alcohol mixture also increased in thermo-coals.

  16. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF HEAT STORAGE MATERIALS BASED ON PARAFFIN, BROWN-COAL WAX AND POLYETHYLENE WAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhkin Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper overviews heat storage materials (HSM with phase change based on organic compounds. They consist of paraffin, brown-coal wax and polyethylene wax. These materials are produced on an industrial scale for the foundry work. It is shown that heat capacity of HSM in the solid and liquid states can be used for heat storage in addition to the heat of phase change. The results of investigations of phase change during heating and cooling HSM are presented. The studies are carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The measurement techniques of the specific heat capacity and the coefficient of thermal conductivity are shown. Temperature dependences of the specific heat capacity of HSM in the solid and liquid states are researched by DSC. Values of the coefficient of thermal conductivity are determined by contact stationary technique of the flat plate over the entire temperature range of the operation of heat storage system.

  18. Thermogravimetric study of the combustion of Tetraselmis suecica microalgae and its blend with a Victorian brown coal in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Arash; Kassim, Mohd Asyraf; Yu, Jianglong; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-12-01

    The combustion characteristics of microalgae, brown coal and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres were studied using thermogravimetry. In microalgae combustion, two peaks at 265 and 485°C were attributable to combustion of protein and carbohydrate with lipid, respectively. The DTG profile of coal showed one peak with maximum mass loss rate at 360°C. Replacement of N2 by CO2 delayed the combustion of coal and microalgae. The increase in O2 concentration did not show any effect on combustion of protein at the first stage of microalgae combustion. However, between 400 and 600°C, with the increase of O2 partial pressure the mass loss rate of microalgae increased and TG and DTG curves of brown coal combustion shifted to lower temperature zone. The lowest and highest activation energy values were obtained for coal and microalgae, respectively. With increased microalgae/coal ratio in the blends, the activation energy increased due to synergy effect.

  19. Effect of Product Dimensions and Surface Browning Method on Salmonella Contamination in Frozen, Surface-Browned, Breaded Chicken Products Treated with Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2015-12-01

    Not-ready-to-eat breaded chicken products formulated with antimicrobial ingredients were tested for the effect of sample dimensions, surface browning method and final internal sample temperature on inoculated Salmonella populations. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 × 5 × 5 cm), inoculated with Salmonella (7-strain mixture; 5 log CFU/g), were mixed with (5% v/w total moisture enhancement) (i) distilled water (control), (ii) caprylic acid (CAA; 0.0625%) and carvacrol (CAR; 0.075%), (iii) CAA (0.25%) and ε-polylysine (POL; 0.5%), (iv) CAR (0.15%) and POL (0.5%), or (v) CAA (0.0625%), CAR (0.075%) and POL (0.5%). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments. The mixtures were then ground and formed into 9 × 5 × 3 cm (150 g) or 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm (50 g) portions. The products were breaded, browned in (i) an oven (208 °C, 15 min) or (ii) deep fryer (190 °C, 15 s), packaged, and stored at -20 °C (8 d). Overall, maximum internal temperatures of 62.4 ± 4.0 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 46.0 ± 3.0 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) were reached in oven-browned samples, and 35.0 ± 1.1 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 31.7 ± 2.6 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) in fryer-browned samples. Irrespective of formulation treatment, total (after frozen storage) reductions of Salmonella were greater (P Salmonella reductions (0.6 to 2.8 log CFU/g) in fryer-browned samples. All antimicrobial treatments reduced Salmonella to undetectable levels (Salmonella contamination.

  20. Investigations of safety measures against rock bursts in Stara Jama of the brown coal mine 'Zenica'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanagic, M.; Kocar, F.; Petkovic, L.; Teskeredzic, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed historical review, with charts, illustrations and formulae used, of the cause, effect, research done, and safety measures taken concerning rock bursts in the Stara Jama seam of the Zenica brown coal mine in Yugoslavia. The geological conditions of the seam, with high calorific value and strength lying in very hard and elastic limestone and limestone marls, are reviewed. From 1962 onward, systematic recording and classification of rock burst frequency, size, intensity, and location have been carried out. Some observations are: regular mining of the relaxed overlaying seam without leaving pillars proved effective relative to reducing rock burst danger; rate of advance considerably affects the number and intensity of rock bursts; breaking of the basic hanging wall is an important factor; coal pillars between two goafs is dangerous for mining. Partial success has been achieved in forecasting and artificially provoking rock bursts. Stress relaxation by blasting has proved to be the most effective measure. Advances have also been made in reducing stored energy by water injection under high pressure. (14 refs.) (In English)

  1. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  2. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  3. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-10-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  4. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Fractal analysis of the hierarchic structure of fossil coal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A.D.; Vasilenko, T.A.; Kirillov, A.K. [National Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2008-05-15

    The fractal analysis is described as method of studying images of surface of fossil coal, one of the natural sorbent, with the aim of determining its structural surface heterogeneity. The deformation effect as a reduction in the dimensions of heterogeneity boundaries is considered. It is shown that the theory of nonequilibrium dynamic systems permits to assess a formation level of heterogeneities involved into a sorbent composition by means of the Hurst factor.

  6. Research results of geotechnical properties of soils at the Podkrušnohorská výsypka dump in Sokolov brown coal field

    OpenAIRE

    Milan MIKOLÁŠ; Štrejbar, Martin; Stavinoha, Josef; Čermák, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Open pit brown coal mining in the Sokolov coal field has been suffering with the lack of a space for overburden rocks dumping from its very beginning. The Podkrušnohorská výsypka dump is situated in a geomorphologically highly broken landscape at the Krušné Hory Mountains foot and northern part of Sokolov Basin divide. Dump rock consists of tuffaceous clays vith minimal specific resistance values QST = 0.5 - 1.0 MPa and cypric clays with minimal specific resistance values QST =...

  7. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    It is the purpose of this research to study electrostatic charging mechanisms related to electrostatic beneficiation of coal with the goal of improving models of separation and the design of electrostatic separators. Areas addressed in this technical progress report are (a) electrostatic beneficiation of Pittsburgh #8 coal powders as a function of grind size and processing atmosphere; (b) the use of fluorescent micro-spheres to probe the charge distribution on the surfaces of coal particles; (c) the use of electrostatic beneficiation to recover unburned carbon from flyash; (d) the development of research instruments for investigation of charging properties of coal. Pittsburgh #8 powders were beneficiated as a function of grind size and under three atmosphere conditions: fresh ground in air , after 24 hours of air exposure, or under N2 atmosphere. The feed and processed powders were analyzed by a variety of methods including moisture, ash, total sulfur, and pyritic sulfur content. Mass distribution and cumulative charge of the processed powders were also measured. Fresh ground coal performed the best in electrostatic beneficiation. Results are compared with those of similar studies conducted on Pittsburgh #8 powders last year (April 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997). Polystyrene latex spheres were charged and deposited onto coal particles that had been passed through the electrostatic separator and collected onto insulating filters. The observations suggest bipolar charging of individual particles and patches of charge on the particles which may be associated with particular maceral types or with mineral inclusions. A preliminary investigation was performed on eletrostatic separation of unburned carbon particles from flyash. Approximately 25% of the flyash acquired positive charge in the copper tribocharger. This compares with 75% of fresh ground coal. The negatively charged material had a slightly reduced ash content suggesting some enrichment of carbonaceous material

  8. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromiec, J.P.; Wesolowski, W.; Brzeznicki, S.; Wroblewska-Jakubowska, K.; Kucharska, M. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C{sub 12}, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, and PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  9. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Power plant ash and slag waste management technological direction when Kansk-Achinsk brown coal is burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today resource efficiency technology development in all industries where conventional raw material is being replaced by local natural resources and industrial waste is an essential matter. Along with that most producing operations are overload with wide range of waste produced during technological process. Thermal power stations are real world evidence. Their main waste is ash and slag which accumulated in great amounts in often overfull ash dumps. The goal of present work is to find perspective ash dump waste utilization methods. The study will be based on experimentally obtained data: elementary compound and properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal. Research methods: experimental, chemical silicate analysis, mineralogical forms identification within samples by using ASM X-ray diffraction analysis. Experiments resulted with the following conclusions: silica is ash main component, and ash has the form of ore concentrate analogy in a number of elements. We think that ASM main properties which make it useful for utilization are: high content of calcium oxide; high ash sorption properties; ASM radiation safety class which makes them safe to be used in materials, goods, and structures production for residence and public buildings construction and reconstruction; sufficiently high content of individual elements.

  11. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  12. Mathematical modelling of stability of closing slopes in large-scale surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloss, K. (Stavebni Geologie, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1990-05-01

    Describes methods of modelling stability of slopes of the Krusne Hory mountains in North Bohemian brown coal mines using the finite element method and a large IBM computer, with output on a Digigraph plotter. Briefly discusses results for the Merkur, Jansky and Jiretin mines, illustrating their geological profiles with diagrams of finite element networks. 4 refs.

  13. Fire fighting at longwall face 67 of the Stara Jama brown coal mine in Zenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elezovic, V.; Bijelic, V.; Slijepcevic, S.

    1984-10-01

    A case is described of fire fighting at a 100 m long fully mechanized longwall. The fire occurred in the upper end of the longwall working a 9 m thick foot slice of a 18 m thick coal seam, i.e. beneath the goaf of the roof slice which had been outmined by the same sublevel working method. The mine fire was detected by the presence of CO in the outlet stream of mine air. Operation of the longwall was continued without interruption. The longwall crew worked using respirators. In order to extinguish the fire in the goaf, the suction type ventilation for the longwall (495 m/sup 3//min) was substituted by compressive ventilation. Two blowers were used for this purpose (2x250 m/sup 3//min). The pressure of mine air prevented the outflow of CO and enabled operations at the longwall to be continued without interruption. Fire fighting lasted nearly 2 months. A 50 m long zone, endangered by the fire, was outmined.

  14. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  15. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  17. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Bloomfield coal tract, Dawson County, eastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Bloomfield coal tract in Dawson County, Montana, contains about 420 million tons of recoverable coal reserves within the Pust coal bed. About 136 million tons of coal within the tract is Federally owned, of which 98 million tons has been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study has been conducted in the potential lease area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Shallow ground-water resources in the tract are limited to sandstone and coal aquifers in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age). These shallow aquifers have small values of hydraulic conductivity; yields to wells generally range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute. Water from shallow sandstone and coal aquifers is used primarily for livestock watering and domestic supply. Chemical analyses indicate that water from most shallow aquifers is dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and sulfate and bicarbonate anions. Surface-water resources in the tract consist primarily of small reservoirs used for livestock watering. All streams in the tract are ephemeral, making them unreliable as a source of livestock water. Mining of the Pust coal bed would cause certain impacts on local water resources. About 15 stock and domestic wells and 13 small stock reservoirs would be destroyed by mining. Shallow coal and sandstone aquifers would be permanently removed from parts of the tract. Leaching of soluble salts from mine spoils may cause a long-term degradation of the quality of water in shallow aquifers in or near the coal tract. Impacts on the local water resources could be mitigated by development of alternative ground-water supplies from deeper aquifers in the Fort Union and in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Fox Hills Formations. Reservoirs destroyed by mining could be reconstructed during mine reclamation. (USGS)

  18. Comparative Studies on the Combustion Kinetics of Chars Prepared from Brown and Bituminous Coals under Air (O_2/N_2) and Oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Wada, Nozomi; Nozawa, Sohey; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Oomori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of a solid-gas reaction model which can describe the combustion and gasification mechanism for air (O_2/N_2) and oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) conditions. Loy Yang brown coal was used as a sample after pyrolysis, together with Newlands coal as bituminous coal for comparison of coal ranks. By carrying out the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) run under non-isothermal conditions, chemical reaction rates of partial oxidation reaction and gasification reaction were esti...

  19. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  20. Landscape transformation of surface-mined areas in North Bohemian coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencova, H.; Kaspar, J. [MUS Coal Mining Company j.s.c., Most (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    Northern Bohemia is the area worst affected by opencast brown coal mining but also the area with good reclamation of damaged land. MUS Coal Mining Company focuses reclaiming activity on restoration of forests, parks or water landscapes to agricultural use. This paper presents two case studies of post-mining activities. First, at the Most opencast mine after early closure, where a lake of 325 ha will be created. Secondly, reclamation of Velebudice overburden waste dump where the main reclamation objective was to establish a hippodrome (82 ha). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Research on 3D Modeling and Visualization of Coal Pillars for Surface Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-jing; MAO Shan-jun; YAO Ji-ming; JIANG Yun-feng

    2006-01-01

    In order to safely exploit coal resource, protection coal pillars must be prepared in coal mines. Some correlative parameters of protection coal pillar are calculated by Drop face and Drop line methods. Models of protecting surface objects and coal pillars are established by TIN modeling and object-oriented technique. By using ACCESS2000as the database and the VC++ and OpenGL as the language, the calculation of protective coal pillars is realized and the 3D-visulizaiton system for protected objects on ground surface and for coal pillars is developed. The system can obtain the data of characteristic points on the surface interactively from the digitized mine topography map,constructing 3D model automatically. It can also obtain the interrelated parameters of the coal seam and drill hole data from existing geological surveying database to calculate the location, surface area and the total coal columns. The whole process can be computed quickly and accurately. And the 3D visualization system was applied in a mine, showing that the system solve the problem of complex calculation,not only realized the automatic 3D mapping and visualization of coal pillars for buildings protection , but also greatly improves the working efficiency.

  2. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 2: Combustion of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a vortex furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper continues with the description of study results for an improved-design steam boiler vortex furnace, for the full-scale configuration of which the numerical modeling of a three-dimensional turbulent two-phase reacting flow has been performed with allowance for all the principal heat and mass transfer processes in the torch combustion of pulverized Berezovsk brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin. The detailed distributions of velocity, temperature, concentration, and heat flux fields in different cross sections of the improved vortex furnace have been obtained. The principal thermoengineering and environmental characteristics of this furnace are given.

  3. Watermanagement - related and ecological demands on brown-coal mining. A statement of position; Wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologische Forderungen fuer den Braunkohlenabbau. Positionspapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This statement of position aims to identify influences exerted before, during and after brown-coal open-pit mining activities and to assess them in general terms from a water-management and ecological viewpoint. The form chosen is that of individual, concise postulates. Each of these is followed by an explanation. To illustrate the great variety of potentially arising problems, the major German brown-coal mining districts Lausitz, eastern Germany, and Lower Rhine are dealt with. A particular characteristic of the eastern German and Lausitz mining districts is that as the demand structure abruptly collapsed early in the 90s, closures became necessary on a large scale without preparatory measures having been taken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem vorliegenden Positionspapier wurde der Versuch unternommen, die Beeinflussungen vor, waehrend und nach dem Abbau von Braunkohle im Tagebaubetrieb inhaltlich zu erfassen und aus wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologischer Sicht verallgemeinernd zu bewerten. Dabei ist die From einzelner kurzgefasster Forderungen gewaehlt worden. Jede dieser Forderungen ist durch eine Erlaeuterung untersetzt. Um die Vielfalt der auftretenden Probleme zu verdeutlichen, werden beispielhaft in einem Anhang die grossen deutschen Braunkohlenreviere in der Lausitz, in Mitteldeutschland und am Niederrhein vorgestellt. Fuer das Mitteldeutsche und das Lausitzer Revier ist besonders anzumerken, dass mit dem schlagartigen Zusammenbruch der Bedarfsstruktur am Anfang der 90er Jahre in grossem Umfang Stillegungen ohne entsprechende Vorarbeiten notwendig wurden. (orig.)

  4. Experiments for the development of a circulating pressurized gasification plant (brown coal feeding and combustion). Combustion exeriments. Coal feeding experiments. Final report; Verfahrenstechnische Versuche fuer die Entwicklung einer zirkulierenden Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung (Braunkohleeintrag und -verbrennung). Verbrennungsversuche. Kohleeintragsversuche. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Combustion experiments with moist raw LAUBAG and MIBRAG coal were carried out in the pressurized gasification pilot plant at Friedrichsfeld. The following parameters wre investigated: Ignition and combustion behvaviour of the moist brown coal in a pressurized gasification plant; Emission ratings of CO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and dust contents of standard coal; Combustion efficiencies at furnace temperatures over 850 C as determined by ash analysis; Measurements of the temperature distribution in the fluidized bed; Brown coal fly ash retention capacity of the hot gas filters; Analysis of ash turnover in order to maintain a stable circulation; Investigation of ash abrasion in circulating operation; Performance tests of secondary systems, e.g. feeding systems, ash removal systems for fly ash and bed ash, and measurement of the thermodynamic data in the ash cooler. [Deutsch] In der Druckwirbelschicht-Versuchsanlage Friedrichsfeld sind Verbrennungsversuche mit rohfeuchter LAUBAG- und rohfeuchter MIBRAG-Kohle durchgefuehrt worden. Bei genereller Verwendung des Aufbaus der Versuchsanlage Friedrichsfeld waren folgende Betriebs-/Auslegungswerte zu ermitteln: Ermittlung des Zuend- und des Ausbrandverhaltens der feuchten Braunkohle in der zirkulierenden Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung; Bestimmung der Emissionswerte wie CO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} und Staubgehalt fuer die Auslegungskohle; Bestimmung der Ausbrandwerte in der Asche bei einer Feuerraumtemperatur von ueber 850 C; Messung der Temepraturverteilung in der Wirbelschicht; Verhalten der Heissgasfilter bei Beaufschlagung mit Braunkohleflugasche; Untersuchung des Aschehaushaltes zur Erhaltung eines stabilen Zirkulationsbetriebes; Untersuchung des Ascheabriebverhaltens im Zirkulationsbetrieb; Pruefung der Funktionstuechtigkeit von Nebenanlagen wie Bekohlungseinrichtungen, Entaschungseinrichtungen fuer Flug- und Bettasche sowie Ermittlung der thermodynamischen Daten im vorhandenen Aschekuehler. (orig./HS)

  5. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  6. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act,...

  7. Effects of surface chemistry on the porous structure of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Radovic, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Selective presaturation and saturation transfer {sup 129}Xe NMR experiments were performed on a high volatile C bituminous coal and an anthracite. The experiments detect the movement of xenon atoms among different regions of the internal surface, and to the external surface of the coal particles. The results indicate that adsorbed xenon atoms can move to the external surface of the bituminous coal significantly faster than in the anthracite. The results are interpreted in terms of the porous structure of the coals.

  8. Dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP) and proline from the surface of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus inhibit bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Rempt, M; Gebser, B; Grueneberg, J; Pohnert, G; Weinberger, F

    2012-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that polar and non-polar surface extracts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus collected during winter from the Kiel Bight (Germany) inhibited bacterial attachment at natural concentrations. The present study describes the bioassay-guided identification of the active metabolites from the polar fraction. Chromatographic separation on a size-exclusion liquid chromatography column and bioassays identified an active fraction that was further investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This fraction contained the metabolites dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), proline and alanine. DMSP and proline caused the anti-attachment activity. The metabolites were further quantified on the algal surface together with its associated boundary layer. DMSP and proline were detected in the range 0.12-1.08 ng cm(-2) and 0.09-0.59 ng cm(-2), respectively. These metabolites were tested in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1000 ng cm(-2) against the attachment of five bacterial strains isolated from algae and sediment co-occurring with F. vesiculosus. The surface concentrations for 50% inhibition of attachment of these strains were always vesiculosus were also tested, but proved to be the least sensitive. This study shows that DMSP and proline have an ecologically relevant role as surface inhibitors against bacterial attachment on F. vesiculosus.

  9. Micro-CT experimental of the thermal cracking of brown coal%褐煤热破裂的显微CT实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟巧荣; 赵阳升; 胡耀青; 冯增朝; 徐素国

    2011-01-01

    Using μCT225kVFCB high precision micro-CT system and a small moveable argon furnace, thermal cracking of brown coal from Pingzhuang mining in Inner Mongolia municipality was studied under different temperature.The results show that for brown coal,the big cracks( >800 μm) occupy leading position at about 100 ℃ ,the medium cracks ( 100 ~ 400 μm) are more important than others at about 200 ℃, the micro-cracks ( < 100 μm)become dominant above 300 ℃ ;threshold temperature of thermal cracking is 300 ℃, more or less;when temperature is lower than 300 ℃, the formation and evolution of crack and pore result mostly from thermal cracking, above 300 ℃, micro-cracks and pores produce mainly because coal pyrolysis produce and release oil gas, and turn coal skeleton into char gradually with temperature.%采用μCT25kVFCB型高精度显微CT试验系统并配以微型气氛炉,研究了内蒙古平庄褐煤热破裂随温度的变化关系.研究结果表明,褐煤在l00℃左右时,大裂隙(>800μm)占主导地位;200℃左右时,中等裂隙(100~400μm)占主导地位;300℃之后微裂隙(<100μm)占主导地位;热破裂的阈值为300℃左右;在300℃之前孔隙裂隙的产生发展主要是因为热破裂,300℃之后,微裂隙和孔隙的产生主要是因为煤体发生热解化学反应,油气逸出,固体骨架逐渐转变为半焦体.

  10. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  11. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quyn, Dimple Mody; Li, Chun-Zhu [CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 36, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-08-25

    A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a bench-scale quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor in order to study the volatilisation of Na, Ca, and Mg during devolatilisation and gasification and their roles in the reactivity of chars. It was found that the majority of Na was volatilised at 900 {sup o}C under all conditions and that a Na retention limit was achieved in the char with the progress of CO{sub 2} gasification. In some cases, the presence of CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation enhanced the Na retention in the char. In contrast, the retention of Ca (and Mg) was unaffected by CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation at 900C but decreased drastically upon nascent char gasification. The fundamental differences in volatilisation between the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species are discussed in this paper.

  12. Changes in char reactivity due to char-oxygen and char-steam reactions using Victorian brown coal in a fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Yonggang Luo; Chunzhu Li; Yonggang Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study was to examine the influence of reactions of char–O2 and char–steam on the char reactivity evolution. A newly-designed fixed-bed reactor was used to conduct gasification experiments using Victorian brown coal at 800 °C. The chars prepared from the gasification experiments were then collected and subjected to reactivity characterisation (ex-situ reactivity) using TGA (thermogravimetric analyser) in air. The results indicate that the char reactivity from TGA was generally high when the char experienced intensive gasification reactions in 0.3%O2 in the fixed-bed reactor. The addition of steam into the gasification not only enhanced the char conversion sig-nificantly but also reduced the char reactivity dramatical y. The curve shapes of the char reactivity with involve-ment of steam were very different from that with O2 gasification, implying the importance of gasifying agents to char properties.

  13. Estimation of potentially toxic elements contamination in anthropogenic soils on a brown coal mining dumpsite by reflectance spectroscopy: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350-2500 nm reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD, the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63. Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively, 2.0 ˂ RPD ˂ 2.5 were obtained. The PLSR model for predicting Mn (R2cv = 0.44, RMSEPcv = 116.43, RPD = 1.45 presented an inadequate model. Overall, SVMR models for the Vis-NIR spectra could be used indirectly for an accurate assessment of PTEs' concentrations.

  14. Estimation of potentially toxic elements contamination in anthropogenic soils on a brown coal mining dumpsite by reflectance spectroscopy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Asa; Borůvka, Luboš; Vašát, Radim; Saberioon, Mohammadmehdi; Klement, Aleš; Kratina, Josef; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350-2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR) with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv) and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD), the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv) = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63). Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv) ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively, 2.0 ˂ RPD ˂ 2.5) were obtained. The PLSR model for predicting Mn (R2cv) = 0.44, RMSEPcv = 116.43, RPD = 1.45) presented an inadequate model. Overall, SVMR models for the Vis-NIR spectra could be used indirectly for an accurate assessment of PTEs' concentrations.

  15. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  16. Fractal characteristics of surface crack evolution in the process of gas-containing coal extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; Wang Enyuan; Ou Jianchun; Li Zhonghui; Wei Mingyao; Li Xuelong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,simulated experiment device of coal and gas outburst was employed to perform the experiment on gas-containing coal extrusion.In the experiment,coal surface cracks were observed with a highspeed camera and then the images were processed by sketch.Based on the above description,the paper studied the fractal dimension values from different positions of coal surface as well as their changing laws with time.The results show that there is a growing parabola treen of crack dimension value in the process of coal extrusion.Accordingly,we drew the conclusion that extruded coal crack evolution is a process of fractal dimension value increase.On the basis of factal dimension values taken from different parts of coal masses,a fractal dimension of the contour map was drawn.Thus,it is clear that the contour map involves different crack fractal dimension values from different positions.To be specific,where there are complicated force and violent movement In coal mass,there are higher fractal dimension values,i.e.,the further the middle of observation surface is from the exit of coal mass,and the lower the fractal dimension value is.In line with fractal geometry and energy theory of coal and gas outburst,this study presents the relation between fractal dimension and energy in the process of extruding.In conclusion,the evolution of crack fractal dimension value can signify that of energy,which has laid a solid foundation for the quantification research on the mechanism of gas-containing coal extrusion.

  17. Brown spider venom toxins interact with cell surface and are endocytosed by rabbit endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Sene, Reginaldo Vieira; Paludo, Katia Sabrina; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Trindade, Edvaldo S; Franco, Célia Regina C

    2010-09-15

    Bites from the Loxosceles genus (brown spiders) cause severe clinical symptoms, including dermonecrotic injury, hemorrhage, hemolysis, platelet aggregation and renal failure. Histological findings of dermonecrotic lesions in animals exposed to Loxosceles intermedia venom show numerous vascular alterations. Study of the hemorrhagic consequences of the venom in endothelial cells has demonstrated that the degeneration of blood vessels results not only from degradation of the extracellular matrix molecule or massive leukocyte infiltration, but also from a direct and primary activity of the venom on endothelial cells. Exposure of an endothelial cell line in vitro to L. intermedia venom induce morphological alterations, such as cell retraction and disadhesion to the extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the venom toxins and the endothelial cell surface and their possible internalization, in order to illuminate the information about the deleterious effect triggered by venom. After treating endothelial cells with venom toxins, we observed that the venom interacts with cell surface. Venom treatment also can cause a reduction of cell surface glycoconjugates. When cells were permeabilized, it was possible to verify that some venom toxins were internalized by the endothelial cells. The venom internalization involves endocytic vesicles and the venom was detected in the lysosomes. However, no damage to lysosomal integrity was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect evoked by L. intermedia venom on endothelial cells is not mediated by venom internalization.

  18. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Numerical modeling for analyzing thermal surface anomalies induced by underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessling, Stefan; Kessels, Winfried; Wuttke, Manfred W. [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Kuenzer, Claudia [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, IPF, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstr. 27-29, A-1040 Wien (Austria)

    2008-05-07

    Coal seams burning underneath the surface are recognized all over the world and have drawn increasing public attention in the past years. Frequently, such fires are analyzed by detecting anomalies like increased exhaust gas concentrations and soil temperatures at the surface. A proper analysis presumes the understanding of involved processes, which determine the spatial distribution and dynamic behavior of the anomalies. In this paper, we explain the relevance of mechanical and energy transport processes with respect to the occurrence of temperature anomalies at the surface. Two approaches are presented, aiming to obtain insight into the underground coal fire situation: In-situ temperature mapping and numerical simulation. In 2000 to 2005, annual temperature mapping in the Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) coal fire area showed that most thermal anomalies on the surface are closely related to fractures, where hot exhaust gases from the coal fire are released. Those fractures develop due to rock mechanical failure after volume reduction in the seams. The measured signals at the surface are therefore strongly affected by mechanical processes. More insight into causes and effects of involved energy transport processes is obtained by numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior of coal fires. Simulations show the inter-relation between release and transport of thermal energy in and around underground coal fires. Our simulation results show a time delay between the coal fire propagation and the observed appearance of the surface temperature signal. Additionally, the overall energy flux away from the burning coal seam into the surrounding bedrock is about 30-times higher than the flux through the surface. This is of particular importance for an estimation of the energy released based on surface temperature measurements. Finally, the simulation results also prove that a fire propagation rate estimated from the interpretation of surface anomalies can differ from the actual

  20. Feasibility study of highwall mining in north surface mine of Yima Coal Corporation,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoming Cheng; Sijing Wang; Meifeng Cai

    2003-01-01

    Yima Coal Corporation is considering to adopt highwall mining method with auger machine to recover coal from north surface pit that has reached final highwall position. The major geomechanical issues associated with auger mining are highwall and pillar stability. Based on the field investigation and laboratory test results of mechanical parameters, numerical modeling is carried out to assess the stability of highwall and pillar. Field measurements of highwall deformation have been used to validate and ensure the confidence for the development of realistic models. The results of numerical modeling show that the mining method is feasible for mining the seam of 10 m thickness in north surface coal mine.

  1. Multilayer adsorption mechanism of coal surface adsorption to three oxygen molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; LI Zhi-gang; WANG Xin-yang; SUN Yan-qiu

    2008-01-01

    Compared chemical bonds change situation of coal surface and oxygen mole-cules before and after coal surface adsorption to three oxygen molecules,after adsorption each oxygen molecule's chemical bond got longer,but had not broken,the coal surface's chemical bonds changed a little.It proves that the coal surface adsorption to five oxygen molecules is the physical adsorption and is the multilayer adsorption according to the optimized geometry structure.The oxygen molecule's bond length that adsorbed by the side chain of coal surface changes most from 1.258 2×10 10 m to 1.316 8×10 10 m,which indicates this oxygen molecular to be the liveliest.The analysis of charge population reveals that how many electrons shift in the atom is directly proportional to the change of chemical bonds.The more electrons shift in the atom,the more molecule chemical bond changes.In the adsorption state,which is composed of coal surface and five oxygen molecules,the vibration frequency of oxygen molecules drops off,and the adsorption energy reached by calculation is 202.11 kJ/mol.

  2. Multilayer adsorption mechanism of coal surface adsorption to three oxygen molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; LI Zhi-gang; WANG Xin-yang; SUN Yan-qiu

    2008-01-01

    Compared chemical bonds change situation of coal surface and oxygen mole-cules before and after coal surface adsorption to three oxygen molecules, after adsorption each oxygen molecule's chemical bond got longer, but had not broken, the coal surface's chemical bonds changed a little. It proves that the coal surface adsorption to five oxygen molecules is the physical adsorption and is the multilayer adsorption according to the op-timized geometry structure. The oxygen molecule's bond length that adsorbed by the side chain of coal surface changes most from 1.258 2×10-10 m to 1.316 8×10-10 m, which indi-cates this oxygen molecular to be the liveliest. The analysis of charge population reveals that how many electrons shift in the atom is directly proportional to the change of chemical bonds. The more electrons shift in the atom, the more molecule chemical bond changes. In the adsorption state, which is composed of coal surface and five oxygen molecules, the vibration frequency of oxygen molecules drops off, and the adsorption energy reached by calculation is 202.11 kJ/mol.

  3. Comparative investigations into pyrolysis of biomass and brown coal. Material balance and heat requirement in correlation with fuel properties; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Pyrolyse von Biomasse und Braunkohle. Stoffbilanzen und Waermebedarf in Korrelation mit Rohstoffeigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, D.; Klinger, M.; Krzack, S.; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Prediction of product distribution and composition for biomass and coal pyrolysis using thermodynamic simulation software is actually not possible or works not deficiently. Consistent data for pyrolysis product distribution and composition are a basic requirement for the implementation of pyrolysis in models representing thermochemical conversion of biogenous and fossil fuels as well as for the creation of detailed material and energy balances and the evaluation of such processes. Investigations into the pyrolysis behaviour of different biomass materials (wood, straw, silage) and German brown coals (Lusatia, Rhineland) in dependence on process temperature have been done in a lab scale device. Based on the obtained results, material and heat balances have been created taking all pyrolysis products into consideration. To obtain additional information about pyrolysis heat requirement investigations using a TG-DSC thermogravimetric analyser have been carried out. Differences between biomass and brown coal are found especially within the distribution of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon to the pyrolysis products. For the herbaceous biomass a heat release was detected regarding to the energy balance, while spruce wood possesses a relatively constant endothermic heat of reaction in the overall temperature range. This arises from the release of volatile components produced during cellulose decomposition. In the case of brown coal pyrolysis the products show a lower chemically bonded energy than the raw material. The obtained tendencies could be partly confirmed with the DSC investigations. (orig.)

  4. Conversion of the compensation measures for the utilization of a FFH area of the brown coal open mining Cottbus North; Umsetzung der Kompensationsmassnahmen fuer die Inanspruchnahme eines FFH-Gebietes durch den Braunkohletagebau Cottbus-Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstgraser, Christoph [gerstgraser - Ingenieurbuero fuer Renaturierung, Cottbus (Germany); Arnold, Ingolf; Dingethal, Heidemarie [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the year 1981, the open mining Cottbus-North (Brandenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) produces brown coal. Presently, 5 million tons of brown coal are produced. This brown coal is used in the power generation at the coal-fired power station Jaenschwalde. Within this area of mining there is the pond's group Lakoma. This pond's group consisted of 22 ponds with a total area of 69 ha. These ponds served for breeding of fishes and accommodated protected animal species. In December 2003, the pond's group Lakoma was suggested as a FFH area by the country Brandenburg. With the planning approval procedure for waters, a FFH area was completely eliminated in the approach of an open mining. A licensing procedure came to the result that a removal of these ponds was permissible with consideration of the public interest, if a reconciliation for the plants and animals is carried out. These compensation measures were realized within short time. Thus the open mining Cottbus-North could be continued according to plan.

  5. Wetlands and coal surface mining: a management handbook with particular reference to the Illinois Basin of the Eastern Interior Coal Region. Research report September 1983-September 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardamone, M.A.; Taylor, J.R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    1984-09-01

    The report outlines management operation for protecting wetlands during the surface mining of coal, particularly for the portion of the Eastern Interior Coal Region that is found in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. The main issues addressed in this manual include: basic information for identifying wetlands; wetland values, and methods used for values assessment; how coal mining can affect wetlands; a method for addressing wetland protection needs and some prevention and mitigation actions; reclamation alternatives, including wetland restoration and the creation of wetlands as alternative ecosystems on mined areas; and general legal and regulatory information concerning wetland protection and surface mining of coal.

  6. FeCl3的负载对褐煤热解提质中有机硫迁移转化的影响%Effects of FeCl3 Addition on Transformation of Organic Sulfur During the Pyrolysis Upgrading of Ximeng Brown Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常丽萍; 秦政; 王美君; 张玉龙

    2012-01-01

    The removal of organic sulfur and/or water from low-quality coals is the key and foundation in their clean and effective utilization. Ximeng brown coal containing rich organic sulfur was selected as the experimental sample. Effects of the methods and amounts of FeCl3 added into coal on the transformation and release of sulfur were studied in the fixed bed pyrolysis-gas chromatographic analysis apparatus. The results show that methods and amounts of iron added in coal obviously affected the sulfur releasing temperature and the ratio in gases and char. The iron added in coal through mechanical mixing method was mainly dispersed on the surface of coal and had the role of reducing the sulfur released to gas and retaining it in char by formation of Fe1-xS. When iron was added by the method of modified impregnation, it was evenly loaded in coal and ion-exchange occured with the organic functional groups in coal matrix. The action of iron on the transformation of sulfur in the upgrading process of brown coal by pyrolysis changed with the Fe content in impregnation solution. Low content iron promoted the release of sulfur by improving the pyrolysis reactivity of coal, while the role of high loading content iron was mainly to retain sulfur in the char by the reaction between iron and organic sulfur in coal and H2S in gas. Effect of FeCl3 added to coal by different method on the release of COS from the coal pyrolysis primarily presented a promotive action, but the influencing extent was different owing to the distribution of FeCl3 in coal for different methods.%有机硫的脱除与褐煤的提质是低品质煤清洁有效利用的关键.以富含有机硫的锡盟褐煤为研究对象,分别用机械混合和改进的浸渍法负载FeCl3,对其进行固定床热解提质实验研究,以期获得该过程中有机硫的变迁行为及其释放规律.实验结果显示:FeCl3的负载方式及负载量对锡盟褐煤热解提质过程中硫的迁移转化具有较大的影

  7. Applicability of surface directional wells for upper Silesia Basin coal seams’ drainage ahead of mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jura Bartłomiej; Skiba Jacek; Wierzbinski Krystian

    2014-01-01

    Methods of exploitation drainage, which is presently applied in polish hard coal mines in Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland), are not effective enough, high risk of methane hazard can be observed, and produc-tion capacity of the mining plant is not fully used. Methane hazard, which may occur during planned coal exploitation, is presented in this paper. Following parameters are taken into consideration in the fore-casts:coal extraction parameters, geological and mining conditions, deposit’s methane saturation degree and impact of coal exploitation on the degasification coefficient of the seams, which are under the influ-ence of relaxation zone. This paper presents the results of the analysis aiming to verify applicability of drainage ahead of mining of the coal seams by using surface directional wells. Based on the collected data (coal seams’ structural maps, profiles of the exploratory wells, geological cross-sections), the lab tests of drilling cores and direct wells’ tests, static model of the deposit was constructed and suitable grid of directional wells from the surface was designed. Comparison of forecasted methane emission volume between the two methods is investigated. The results indicated the necessity of performing appropriate deposit’s stimulations in order to increase effectiveness of drainage ahead of mining.

  8. First test results of the pilot plant for the pressure loaded vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals. A pilot plant for 5 t/h dry coal and till 6 bar dryer pressure; Erste Testergebnisse von der Versuchsanlage zur Druckaufgeladenen Dampfwirbelschicht-Trocknung (DDWT) von Braunkohlen. Versuchsanlage fuer 5 t/h Trockenkohle und bis 6 bar Trocknerdruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porsche, T.; Thannhaeuser, L.; Hoehne, O.; Martin, J.S. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Apart from other promising possibilities for the improvement of the efficiency of fossil fuelled power stations such as the improvement of the steam parameters and optimization of the equipment technology the preliminary drying of coal possesses a very high potential. This results from a more effective combustion of the dried coal in the power station boiler and from the energetic use of the condensation enthalpy of the coal water vapour during processing the power station. Especially, if the vapour steam is on a high level of pressure, the applied evaporation enthalpy completely can be led back into the power station process. Thereby, improvements of the net efficiency of power stations of about 4 to 5 % are attainable. Starting from October 2008, Vattenfall Europe AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) established a pilot plant for a vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals at the site Schwarze Pumpe. The plant is laid out for a dryer performance of 5 t/h dry brown coal. This plant enables tests with a dryer system pressure between 1 and 6 bar. After start-up in the third quarter 2008, the operation of the pilot plant begun. Extensive tests of the plant and components were accomplished, and the procedure proof for DDWT of Lausitz brown coals was furnished. So far, up to 4 t/h dry coal were produced with the accomplished test campaigns. A dryer system pressure of up to 4.5 bar started. The target is to transfer the results and experiences from the test operation into planning and construction of a 250 MW{sub e}l Oxyfuel demonstration power station with upstream coal pressure drying process which is established by Vattenfall Europe AG at the location Jaenschwalde until 2015.

  9. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  10. Surface Movement Regularity of Super-Wide Mining Face With Top-Coal Caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Run-hou

    2005-01-01

    No.4326 super-wide panel of Wangzhuang Coal Mine ( in which the fully-mechanized top-coal caving longwall mining method was used) was monitored for dynamic characteristic of surface movement. The dynamic surface movement in and after mining was predicted by using the Mining Subsidence Prediction System. The results indicate that after mining, the surface above the super-wide panel reaches a state of full subsidence, making the No.309national highway above the panel be located on the flat bottom of the subsidence basin so that the influence of mining activity in both sides of 4326 panel on the national highway is the smallest.

  11. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  12. Fundamental research on surface science of coal in support of physical beneficiation of coal; Annual technical program report, September 1, 1988--August 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, R.J.; Keller, D.V. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to obtain the basic surface chemical data, and to develop the relevant surface chemical theory, that will provide a foundation for the oil agglomeration and froth flotation processes of coal beneficiation. Contact angles of liquids in gas, on coal, and components of surface energy of coal due to acidic and basic behavior in hydrogen bonding; Adsorption of alcohols on coal; Early results in the liquid bridge theory of coal aggregate stability and pyrite rejection; and Oil-water-solid (OWC) contact angles have been measured on particles of ground coal, using a microscope in an oxygen-free glove box. See Figure 2. The coal had been wet-ground, and stored in sealed containers, under water, until needed for measurement. It was dried, and a small amount was placed in the depression of a hollowed-out microscope slide. A small amount of decane was added, to wet out the coal, and then a droplet of water. Angles were measured either with rotatable crosshairs connected to an external degree scale, or by photographing (or using and advance optical imaging system) and measuring at leisure. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  13. 铁元素对褐煤热解及气化特性的影响%Impact of Iron-loading on the Pyrolysis and Gasification Features of the Brown Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利; 王冬梅; 尹丰魁; 余江龙

    2011-01-01

    综述了铁元素对褐煤热解及气化的影响方面的研究进展,在褐煤中植入铁元素对褐煤热解和气化的半焦产物、气体产物的影响,分析了铁在褐煤热解和气化过程中的迁移和转化,并与褐煤中植入的其他金属元素产生的影响进行了简单对比.%Poly-generation system based on coal pyrolysis and gasification is one of the options of clean and efficient utilization of coal in China. In this paper, an overview of current status and progress of studies on the effects of iron loading on the pyrolysis and gasification features of brown coals upon heating has been provided with the changes in char and gaseous products because of iron-loading were summarized. The transformation of iron species during pyrolysis and gasification processes is discussed. The effect of iron-loading is also compared with that of other metals loaded into the brown coal.

  14. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  15. Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and surface anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zeyang; Zhu Hongqing; Xu Jiyuan; Qin Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical studies on the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and their surface anomalies. Based on the single-particle reaction–diffusion model, a formula to estimate oxygen consumption rate at high temperature controlled by oxygen transport is proposed. Daily fluctuant atmospheric pressure was imposed on boundaries, including the abandoned gallery and cracks. Simulated results show that the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on coal fires and surface anomalies depend on two factors: the fluctuant amplitude and the pressure difference between inlet(s) and outlet(s) of the air ventilation system. If the pressure difference is close to the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations greatly enhance gas flow motion and tempera-tures of the combustion zone and outtake(s). If the pressure difference is much larger than the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations exert no impact on underground coal fires and surface anomalies.

  16. Experiments on the gas production of brown coal degraded by exogenous methanogens%外源产甲烷菌降解褐煤产气实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涵; 林海; 董颖博; 隋梦琪; 李洋子

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the ability of exogenous bacteria to degrade brown coal, methanogens were enriched from anaerobic sludge and domesticated using brown coal as the single carbon source. After domestication, the lag time of initial gas production is shortened from 12 to 6 days and the CH4 production increases by 29.2% in 30 days. The generated biogas is composed of CH4 and a little CO2, no heavy hydrocarbons are detected. Experiments on gas production influencing factors demonstrate that the best initial pH for the culture medium is 7.0 and the maximum gas production is 1.9 times and 2.4 times higher than that at pH 6.4 and pH 7.4, respectively. The particle size of coal is one of factors influencing the gas production: the general trend is the smaller the particle size, the bigger the gas production, but the variation of gas production is not significant with decreasing particle size. Gas produced by the culture medium accounts for around 50% of the total gas production and it is likely caused by the addition of L-cysteine (0.5 g/L) and yeast extract (1 g/L) to the medium.%为研究外源菌降解褐煤产气能力,从厌氧消解污泥中提取产甲烷菌群,以褐煤为碳源进行菌种驯化,开展产气实验,并对驯化后菌群的产气影响因素进行实验研究.驯化实验发现:驯化后该菌群初始产气时间由驯化前的12 d缩短为6d,且30d内产气总量增加了29.2%;经检测,生成气体主要为CH4和少量CO2,未检测到重烃气.产气影响因素实验表明:该菌群最佳产气初始培养基pH值为7.0,产气量分别约为初始pH值为6.4、7.4时的1.9倍和2.4倍;煤的粒径也是影响产气量的因素之一,表现为粒径越小,产气量越大,但产气量随粒径变小变化不明显;培养基本身产气量约占总产气量的50%,原因可能是其中添加了微量L-半胱氨酸(0.5 g/L)和酵母浸出液(1 g/L).

  17. Improvement in the adsorption properties of semicoke from the power-cum-technological processing of kansk-achinsk brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz' min, G.V.; Mozhaeva, V.I.; Kim, S.T.; Kalyuzhnyi, V.V.; Nikolaeva, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, a study has been performed on the progressive activation of the semicoke of Irsha-Borodino coal at burn-offs from 11 to 48%, and experimental samples of carbonaceous adsorbents have been obtained. The parameters of the porous structure of the samples obtained have been studied and it has been shown that with an increase in the degree of burn-off of the semicoke the total volume of micropores and mesopores rises from 135*10/sup -6/ to 779*10/sup -6/ m/sup 3//kg. The increase in the total volume of the pores takes place mainly through the volume of the mesopores. 4 refs.

  18. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  19. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Horse Creek area, Sheridan and Moorehead coal fields, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Horse Creek area of the Sheridan and Moorhead coal fields, 16 miles east of the Decker Coal Mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federally owned coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrologic data collected from private wells, observation wells, test holes, and springs indicate that the aquifers are primarily coal and sandstone beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel of valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are mostly limited to a few stock ponds receiving discharge from springs in the higher ports of the area. Two stock wells, one spring, and three stock ponds receiving discharge from springs supply most of the water used within the Horse Creek basin; the only use is watering of livestock. Mining of the Anderson and Dietz coal beds would destroy one stock well and two ponds receiving discharge from springs, and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. Although mining would alter existing hydrologic systems, alternative deeper water supplies are available. (USGS)

  20. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Corral Creek area, Hanging Woman Creek coal field, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Corral Creek area of the Hanging Woman Creek coal field, 9 miles east of the Decker coal mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to study assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected indicate that aquifers are coal and sandstone beds within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel in valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are limited to a few spring-fed stock ponds in the higher parts of the area and the intermittent flow of Corral Creek near the mouth. Most of the stock ponds in the area become dry by midsummer. Mining of the Anderson coal bed would remove three stock wells and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. The alluvial aquifer beneath Corral Creek and South Fork would be removed. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several shallow wells, alternative ground-water supplies are available that could be developed to replace those lost by mining. (USGS)

  1. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does...

  2. Assessment, management rehabilitation of surface water losses due to longwall coal mining subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawkins, A.P. [Coffey Geosciences Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Subsidence due to longwall coal mining has generated notable effects on surface water and groundwater above numerous longwall coal mines in Queensland and NSW. This paper deals with the methods which can be used to assess, predict and rehabilitate the effects of longwall surface subsidence on surface water bodies. Aspects discussed cover the subsidence model, hydrological and hydrogeological assessment, hydrogeochemical changes and subsidence rehabilitation issues. The paper concludes that longwall surface subsidence can significantly affect the mine's local environment. However, with sufficient baseline data and a thorough assessment of site specific issues, longwalls can be planned to account for subsidence effects on surface water, and possible deleterious effects can be mitigated. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Fe对胜利褐煤焦结构和气化反应性能的影响%Effect of iron on Shengli brown coal char structure and its influence on gasification reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐学军; 宋文武; 刘亮

    2015-01-01

    酸洗褐煤负载不同含量的Fe催化剂在固定床反应器上进行热解,然后采用FT-IR、Raman spectra、TPD和TG研究Fe催化剂对煤焦官能团、碳微晶结构、表面活性位和气化反应性的影响。 FT-IR结果表明,催化热解作用下煤焦中-OH、-CH3、-CH2活性官能团数量增加。 Raman光谱测试结果显示,随着Fe含量的增加,IG/Ial由0.095减少到0.087,ID3/Ial由0.090增加至0.097,表明在Fe催化作用下部分大芳香环结构转变为小芳香环结构。 TPD实验结果表明,活性位数量随着煤焦中Fe含量升高而不断增加。在3%含Fe量时煤焦活性位数量随着吸附温度的升高而增加,800℃后煤焦表面活性位数量开始降低。750℃条件下CO2吸附量随着吸附时间的延长而增加,45 min后煤焦达到饱和吸附状态。煤焦-水蒸气等温气化实验表明,煤焦气化反应性与活性位数量有密切的关系,Fe催化剂主要通过增加煤焦表面活性位数量提高煤焦气化反应性。%Acid-washing brown coal samples loaded with different content of iron catalyst were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of iron on coal char functional group, carbon crystallite structure, surface active site and gasification reactivity were investigated by FT-IR, Raman spectra,TPD and TG. FT-IR results reveal that the numbers of -OH、-CH3、-CH2 active functional groups increase significantly during catalytic pyrolysis. Raman spectra results show that IG/Ial reduces from 0. 095 to 0. 087 and ID3/Ial increases from 0. 090 to 0. 097 with the increase of iron loading, respectively. It means that partial large polyaromatic ring structures transform into small polyaromatic ring structures under the catalytic action of iron. TPD experimental results indicate that the numbers of active sites increase with the increase of iron loading. With 3% Fe loading, the numbers of active sites rise with the increase of adsorption temperature until 800℃, and then start to

  4. WATER RESERVOIRS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AS A RESULT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF “KONIN” AND “ADAMÓW” BROWN COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Gilewska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-exploitation opencast pits constitute a final stage of mining activities and turning them into public utility facilities is taking place now by their water reclamation. They constitute basins without outflows with the depth of 15 to 69 m and areas ranging from 2.5 to 692 ha. The bottoms of these basins are situated in pyrite-containing Miocene formations. Products of Fe2S weathering comprise sulphuric acid and iron compounds – sulphate II and sulphate III. This study presents the basic parameters of the reservoirs constructed in the final opencast pits of the “Konin” and “Adamów” brown coal mine,s as well as the properties of the formations making up the bottoms of two water reservoirs under construction: Lubstów and Władysławów. It is evident from the performed investigations that these formations are characterised by very acid reaction and very high exchangeable acidity. The total sulphur content ranges from 446 to 962 mg·kg-1 of the ground and that of sulphate sulphur – from 71 to 187 mg·kg-1 of the ground. The chemism of these grounds will exert influence on the quality of water accumulating in the opencast pits during the initial period of their spontaneous flooding. Together with the increase of the capacity of these reservoirs, the contact of waters with boulder clays of the Warta River glaciation abounding in calcium compounds will increase and concentrations of calcium ions in the waters of the reservoirs will also grow.

  5. Quartz in coal dust deposited on internal surface of respirable size selective samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Michael; Kusti, Mohannad; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to quantify quartz mass in coal dust deposited on the internal cassette surface of respirable size-selective samplers. Coal dust was collected with four different respirable size-selective samplers (10 mm Dorr-Oliver nylon [Sensidyne, St. Petersburg, Fla.], SKC Aluminum [SKC Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.], BGI4L [BGI USA Inc., Waltham, Mass.], and GK2.69 cyclones [BGI USA Inc.]) with two different cassette types (polystyrene and static-dissipative polypropylene cassettes). The coal dust was aerosolized in a calm air chamber by using a fluidized bed aerosol generator without neutralization under the assumption that the procedure is similar to field sampling conditions. The mass of coal dust was measured gravimetrically and quartz mass was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods, Method 7603. The mass fractions of the total quartz sample on the internal cassette surface are significantly different between polystyrene and static-dissipative cassettes for all cyclones (p quartz mass on cassette internal surface and coal dust filter mass was observed. The BGI4L cyclone showed a higher (but not significantly) and the GK2.69 cyclone showed a significantly lower (p quartz mass fraction for polystyrene cassettes compared to other cyclones. This study confirms previous observations that the interior surface deposits in polystyrene cassettes attached to cyclone pre-selectors can be a substantial part of the sample, and therefore need to be included in any analysis for accurate exposure assessment. On the other hand, the research presented here supports the position that the internal surface deposits in static-dissipative cassettes used with size-selective cyclones are negligible and that it is only necessary to analyze the filter catch.

  6. Atlas of wetlands in the principal coal surface mining region of western Kentucky. Reference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Taylor, J.R.; Benson, K.B.; Hill, P.L. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    This reference document provides information on the location of wetlands in the Western Kentucky Region where coal surface mining is an important industry, principally Muhlenberg, Hopkins, and Ohio Counties. The wetlands and fish and wildlife data are presented on U. S. Geologic Survey 1:24,000 scale Quad maps and tables. The discussion focuses on historical information on the wetlands, occurrence of selected species in various kinds of wetlands, and environmentally important factors affecting the biota through surface mining activities.

  7. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: An intermediate surface gravity, dusty brown dwarf in the AB Dor Moving Group

    CERN Document Server

    Gizis, John E; Liu, Michael C; Harris, Hugh C; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Burgasser, Adam J; Kirkpatrick, J Davy

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of $12.2 \\pm 0.4$ parsecs. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers \\& Liu (2013) near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age $\\sim 100-125$ Myr, $M \\approx 0.018~M_\\odot$, and $\\log g \\approx 4.5$; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are therefore a result of the lower surface gravity than ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find $T_{eff} \\approx 1300 $K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges...

  8. Control of pyrite surface chemistry in physical coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, G.H.; Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-05-19

    In Part I, Surface Chemistry of Coal Pyrite the mechanisms responsible for the inefficient rejection of coal pyrite were investigated using a number of experimental techniques. The test results demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of coal pyrite is related to the surface products formed during oxidation in aqueous solutions. During oxidation, a sulfur-rich surface layer is produced in near neutral pH solutions. This surface layer is composed mainly of sulfur species in the form of an iron-polysulfide along with a smaller amount of iron oxide/hydroxides. The floatability coal pyrite increases dramatically in the presence of frothers and hydrocarbon collectors. These reagents are believed to absorb on the weakly hydrophobic pyrite surfaces as a result of hydrophobic interaction forces. In Part III, Developing the Best Possible Rejection Schemes, a number of pyrite depressants were evaluated in column and conventional flotation tests. These included manganese (Mn) metal, chelating agents quinone and diethylenetriamine (DETA), and several commercially-available organic depressants. Of these, the additives which serve as reducing agents were found to be most effective. Reducing agents were used to prevent pyrite oxidation and/or remove oxidation products present on previously oxidized surfaces. These data show that Mn is a significantly stronger depressant for pyrite than quinone or DETA. Important factors in determining the pyrite depression effect of Mn include the slurry solid content during conditioning, the addition of acid (HCl), and the amount of Mn. The acid helps remove the oxide layer from the surface of Mn and promotes the depression of pyrite by Mn.

  9. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and evapotranspiration, relief, slope and density of drainage channels; (B) Factors contributing to... coal mining operation may affect this alluvial valley floor or waters that supply the alluvial valley... alluvial valley floor that would be affected by the surface coal mining operation is of such small...

  10. Law of surface movement for multi-coal seam strip mining 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-ya; ZHANG Hong-mei

    2014-01-01

    It is an important part of green mining to control the disasters of coal mining which have caused irreversible damages to buildings and ecological environment. Strip mining is one of the efficient measures to control surface subsidence and mining damage. However, the research on the laws of the surface subsidence are still deficient in multi-coal seam strip mining at present. Based on the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (short for FLAC3D) numerical simulation software, the laws of the surface subsidence and horizontal movement were systematically studied for different depths, different mining widths, different distances between seams, different mining thickness, different parameters between seams and the special relations of the upper pillar and the lower pillar in the vertical direction in multi-seam strip mining. The function relation between the maximum subsidence and the maximum horizontal movement with the depth, the mining width, the seam distance, mining thickness, different parameters between seams and the partial offset are summarized respectively. Finally the formula integrating the surface maximum subsidence value and the maximum horizontal movement was deduced. The results can be used for reference theory and measure in forecasting the surface displacement in multi-coal seam strip mining.

  11. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Research on forced gas draining from coal seams by surface well drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dongmei; Wang Haifeng; Ge Chungui; An Fenghua

    2011-01-01

    Surface drilling was performed at the Luling Coal Mine, in Huaibei, to shorten the period required for gas draining. The experimental study was designed to reduce the cost of gas control by efficiently draining gas from the upper protected layer. The structural arraignment and technical principles of pressure relief via surface drilling are discussed. Results from the trial showed that gas drained from the surface system over a period of 10 months. The total amount of collected gas was 248.4 million m3. The gas draining occurred in three stages: a growth period; a period of maximum gas production; and an attenuation period. The period of maximum gas production lasted for 4 months. During this time the methane concentration ranged from 60% to 90% and the average draining rate was 10.6 m3/min. Combined with other methods of draining it was possible to drain 70.6% of the gas from middle coal seam groups. The amount of residual gas dropped to 5.2 m3/ton, and the pressure of the residual gas fell to 0.53 MPa,thereby eliminating the outburst danger in the middle coal seam groups. The factors affecting pressure relief gas draining by surface drilling were analysed.

  13. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  14. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: AN INTERMEDIATE SURFACE GRAVITY, DUSTY BROWN DWARF IN THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of 12.2 ± 0.4 pc. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers and Liu near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age ∼100-125 Myr, M ≈ 0.018 M {sub ☉}, and log g ≈ 4.5; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are, therefore, a result of surface gravity that is lower than that of ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find T {sub eff} ≈ 1300 K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges for such substellar models in matching the observed optical and infrared spectra. W0047+68 shows that cloud thickness is more sensitive to intermediate surface gravity than in most models. We also present a trigonometric parallax of the dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich.

  15. Microstructure & performance of laser cladding on pick surface of coal mining machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui-lai; ZHAO Fang-fang; ZHANG Shou-xin; QI Xiang-yang

    2006-01-01

    Laser cladding of 316 L steel powders on pick substrate of coal mining machine was conducted, and microstructure of laser cladding coating was analyzed. The micro-hardness of laser cladding coating was examined. The results show that microstructure of laser cladding zone is exiguous dentrite, and there are hard spots dispersible distribution in the laser cladding zone. Performances of erode-resistant, surface micro-hardness and wear-resistant are improved obviously.

  16. 褐煤本源菌在煤层生物气生成中的微生物学特征%Performance of indigenous bacteria during the biogenic gas generation from brown coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宽; 秦勇

    2011-01-01

    为探明微生物菌群在褐煤生物气生成过程中的作用机制,利用厌氧手套箱为操作平台,从云南昭通盆地新鲜褐煤样品中富集培养本源产甲烷菌群,并通过褐煤生物气生成模拟实验,研究了产气过程中发酵细菌、产氢产乙酸菌数量和纤维素酶、辅酶F420活性的变化特征.结果表明:在生物气产生过程中,发酵细菌始终保持着较高活性(大于7.5×106个/mL),产氢产乙酸菌数量和增殖速率明显小于发酵细菌,但其数量变化趋势与发酵细菌相似,两者在营养生态位上显示出明显的承继关系;纤维素酶始终保持较高的活性(0.018~0.023mg/(mL.h));辅酶F420活性会受到产酸发酵菌所产生的酸性物质的抑制,其最低活性值为峰值的55.91%~67.61%;辅酶F420活性在褐煤生物气产出过程中经历了两个高峰期,指示着褐煤的煤层气生成过程具有阶段性.%In order to verify the functional mechanism of microbial community in biogenic gas generation progress from brown coal,we used anaerobic glove chamber as the experimental platform to enrich and cultivate active methanogen flora from freshly collected brown coal samples from Zhaotong basin,Yunnan Province,China.A simulating experiment of biogenic gas from brown coal was conducted with these indigenous bacteria.The amounts of fermentation and syntrophic acetogenic bacteria,and the activities of cellulase and coenzyme F420 were analyzed during the experiment.The results show that the fermentation bacteria kept quite active(≥7.5×106/mL) throughout the biogas generation process;and both the amount and breeding rate of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria were smaller than that of fermentation bacteria.But the amounts of both kinds of bacteria had the same changing trend,which shows significant inherited food chain-related relationship.The activities of cellulase remained fairly(0.018-0.023 mg/(mL·h));while those of coenzyme F420 could

  17. 褐煤本源茵生气特征及其作用机理%Generation and mechanism of gas from brown coal under action of parent bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宽

    2012-01-01

    ,产甲烷菌和辅酶F420。活性受到酸性物质的抑制。随后,产氢产乙酸菌成为优势茵,它们利用发酵细菌代谢产物产生乙酸和氢,两者之间具有食物链关系。辅酶F420活性在静止期后增长迅速,并在产气高峰期达到最大,体现本源产甲烷茵对褐煤底物的良好适应性,是评价产气量高低的有效指标。通过改变生气条件,研究底物类型、褐煤粒度、矿井水和煤矸石对褐煤生物气生成的影响。结果表明:不同配比的酵母浸出液、甲醇和乙酸钠溶液对生物气生成具有抑制或激活作用,较小粒度褐煤有利于提高生气率,不同比例矿井水的添加能够有效增加次生生物气产量。煤矸石本身不能作为基质被厌氧细菌利用。%Elucidating the characteristics and mechanism of the reaction of microorganisms and organic matter in coal to produce bio-gas is a very important foundation to the further understanding of the genesis of coalbed gas and the in- novation of coalbed gas exploration. So the brown coal in Zhaotong basin was selected as the research object to study the generation of secondary biogenic coalbed gas, and then discussed its generation mechanism. The results show that, the brown coal samples have active anaerobic bacteria, in which cellulose decomposition bacteria are in the majority and sulfate-reducing bacteria are very few. Local methanogen are successfully enrichment cultivated and they are mainly G+ bacillus, and the individual sizes have large differences. Based on that, the local bac- teria and brown coal samples were selected as bacterial sources and substrates to study the generation of secondary bio- genie gas from the brown coal. The results prove that, after resting period, the local anaerobic bacteria could use the brown coal to produce a large amount of biogenic gas. Secondary biogenic coalbed gas has two generation periods. The substrate that is biodegraded to produce gas in the first period is

  18. The structural and surface properties of natural and modified coal gangue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, Beata; Kityk, Andriy V; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    A novel application of coal gangue as inexpensive adsorbents is considered in this study. The structural and surface properties of natural and modified gangue were studied via nitrogen adsorption. Four types of samples were studied: natural, modified with H2NO3 and H2O2 and calcined at 250 °C and 600 °C. The specific surface area and porosity of the samples were determined using various methods. The raw material is mainly mesoporous with relatively small specific surface area. The chemical modification enlarged the total pore volume and the specific surface area. The calcination at 250 °C enlarged slightly the pore volume and lowered the specific surface area, but did not cause significant changes in the structural properties. The calcination at 600 °C resulted in a significant increase in pore volume and a decrease in specific surface area. These results suggest that the coal gangue studied here could be used as inexpensive adsorbent in industrial wastewater pretreatment.

  19. Utilization of selected industrial waste through co-pyrolysis with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavla Licakova; Jaroslav Buchtele [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Centre of Environmental Technologies

    2007-07-01

    Difficultly recyclable selected organic waste is possible to process by its co-pyrolysis with coal into the products with high use value. The research subject was to analyse and compare carbonizates yields forming by co-pyrolysis of waste rubber and brown coal mixtures and waste cotton and black coal mixtures. Mixtures were prepared with variable proportion of materials. According to the obtained results both procedures show as technically viable. Addition of rubber to brown coal came to increase specific surface area of activated carbon. The results obtained show that it is possible to prepare by co-pyrolysis of mixtures brown coal with waste rubber granular material with appropriate properties for preparation of sorbent by its sequential activation. The pyrolysis products yields of black coal with the products yields of co-pyrolysis of coal with 30 and 60 % wt. addition of the waste cotton were evaluated and compared. Addition of cotton to black coal came to increase gas volume and tar. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Investigations on electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Song, Ting; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Su, Hao; Deng, Jian-Bo; Zhu, Xing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Using full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis along with spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker methods, we study the electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy. The alloy with Li2AgSb and Cu2MnAl structures are compared in terms of magnetic properties, and the electronic structures in two structures are also discussed. According to the calculated electronic states, it finds that the Zr2CoAl with Li2AgSb structure is half-metallic ferromagnet with an integral magnetic moment of 2.00μB , meanwhile we also notice the d-d and p-d hybridizations are responsible for the formation of minority-spin gap, furthermore, the fat-bands are applied to discuss the mixture between d and p electrons in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The Fermi surfaces related to the valence bands are constructed, and it is found that the spin-up valence bands 26, 27 and 28 across the Fermi energy dominate the nature of electrons. By mapping the system onto a Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we obtain the exchange coupling parameters, and observe that the Zr(A)-Co(C) and Zr(A)-Zr(B) interactions provide a major contribution for exchange interactions. Based on the calculated exchange coupling parameters, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 287.86 K at equilibrium, and also the dependence of Curie temperature on lattice constant related to the tunable Curie temperature in Zr2CoAl alloy is studied. Finally, we report the optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy, and present the photon energy dependence of the absorption, the optical conductivity and the loss function.

  1. Exploitation technology of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells in the Huainan coal mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jia-zhang; SANG Shu-xun; CHENG Zhi-zhong; HUANG Hua-zhou

    2009-01-01

    Exploitation technology of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells is a new method for exploration of gas and coalbed methane exploitation in mining areas with high concentrations of gas, where tectonic coal developed. Studies on vertical surface well technology in the Huainan Coal Mining area play a role in demonstration in the use of clean, new energy re-sources, preventing and reducing coal mine gas accidents and protecting the environment. Based on the practice of gas drainage engineering of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells and combined with relative geological and exploration en-gineering theories, the design principles of design and structure of wells of pressure relief coaibed methane in vertical surface wells are studied. The effects of extraction and their causes are discussed and the impact of geological conditions on gas production of the vertical surface wells are analyzed. The results indicate that in mining areas with high concentrations of gas, where tectonic coal developed, a success rate of pressure relief coalbed methane in surface vertical well is high and single well production usually great. But deformation due to coal exploitation could damage boreholes and cause breaks in the connection between aquifers and bore-holes, which could induce a decrease, even a complete halt in gas production of a single well. The design of well site location and wellbore configuration are the key for technology. The development of the geological conditions for coalbed methane have a sig-nificant effect on gas production of coalbed methane wells.

  2. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  3. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  4. Improved analytic methods for coal surface area and pore size distribution determination using 77 K nitrogen adsorption experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gongda; Wang Kai; Ren Tingxiang

    2014-01-01

    77 K nitrogen adsorption was the most widely used technique for determining surface area and pore size distribution of coal. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model are com-monly used analytic methods for adsorption/desorption isotherm. A Chinese anthracite coal is tested in this study using an improved experimental method and adsorption isotherm analyzed by three adsorp-tion mechanisms at different relative pressure stages. The result shows that the micropore filling adsorp-tion predominates at the relative pressure stage from 6.8E?7 to 9E?3. Theoretically, BET and BJH model are not appropriate for analyzing coal samples which contain micropores. Two new analytic procedures for coal surface area and pore size distribution calculation are developed in this work. The results show that BET model underestimates surface area, and micropores smaller than 1.751 nm account for 35.5%of the total pore volume and 74.2%of the total surface area. The investigation of surface area and pore size distribution by incorporating the influence of micropore is significant for understanding adsorption mechanism of methane and carbon dioxide in coal.

  5. In-situ coal gasification as a progressive coal utilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, E.V.; Saltykov, I.F.

    1988-02-01

    Describes the Podzemgaz coal gasification station at Angren that was put into operation in 1961. It exploits a 15 m thick and 120-250 m deep seam of brown coal. Technology of in-situ coal gasification is described and its results are compared in regard to cost and efficiency with the results of conventional surface mining. Air blowing is used for most in-situ coal gasification in USSR. Trials using air enriched in oxygen for this purpose were conducted in 1953 and 1957 but did not find wider application. A station using oxygen enrichment technology is planned for Angren at the Apartak section, as cheaper oxygen production methods have emerged. A new concept for in-situ coal gasification using membrane technology (molecular sieves) is set out. This technology assures total chemical and power utilization of coal, yielding not only coal gas but also liquid nitrogen, hydrogen, a mixture of both these gases for ammonia production, and carbonic acid. Prospective site selection for in-situ coal gasification stations is discussed and conditions required for the respective coalfields are outlined.

  6. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  7. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic evaluation of surface waters from a coal exploration region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Cynthia Silva; Dos Santos, Débora Lemes; Bernardes, Hélio Vieira; Bellagamba, Bruno Corrêa; Duarte, Anaí; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; Lehmann, Mauricio; da Silva, Juliana; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Coal mining generates a considerable amount of waste, which is disposed of in piles or dams near mining sites. As a result, leachates may reach rivers and streams, promoting the wide dispersion of contaminants in solution and as particulate matter. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic action of surface waters collected around a thermoelectric power plant and the largest mining area in Brazil (Candiota). Four sites in Candiota stream were selected, and samples were collected in winter and summer. Water samples were analyzed using the comet and CBMN assays in V79 and HepG2 cells. Furthermore, genotoxicity of water samples was evaluated in vivo using the SMART in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements were quantified. The results indicate that water samples exhibited no genotoxic and mutagenic activities, whether in vitro or in vivo. On the other hand, surface water samples collected in sites near the power plant in both summer and winter inhibited cell proliferation and induced increased frequencies of V79 cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis. The cytotoxicity observed may be associated with the presence of higher concentration of inorganic elements, especially aluminum, silicon, sulfur, titanium and zinc at sites 1 and 2 in the stream, as well as with the complex mixture present in the coal, in both seasons. Therefore, the results obtained point to the toxicity potential of water samples with the influence of coal mining and combustion processes and the possible adverse effects on the health of exposed organisms.

  8. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, William; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  9. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  11. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  12. ROLE OF SURFACE WOUNDS AND BROWN ALGAL EPIPHYTES IN THE COLONIZATION OF ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM (PHAEOPHYCEAE) FRONDS BY VERTEBRATA LANOSA (RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Caroline M; Scrosati, Ricardo A

    2009-06-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. forms extensive beds in wave-sheltered, rocky intertidal habitats on the northwestern Atlantic coast. This fucoid seaweed is host to an obligate red algal epiphyte, Vertebrata lanosa (L.) T. A. Chr. [=Polysiphonia lanosa (L.) Tandy], and two facultative brown algal epiphytes, Elachista fucicola (Velley) Aresch. and Pylaiella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. Although V. lanosa can occur throughout most of the length of host fronds, it largely predominates in midfrond segments. The two brown algal epiphytes are restricted to distal segments. Through field experiments conducted in Nova Scotia, Canada, we tested the hypothesis that surface wounds are required for the colonization of distal segments of host fronds by V. lanosa. Distal tissues normally have a smooth surface because of their young age (A. nodosum fronds grow apically). By creating small wounds that mimicked grazing wounds distributed elsewhere on host fronds, we demonstrated that V. lanosa can colonize distal frond segments during the growth and reproductive season (summer and autumn). Approximately half of the artificial wounds were colonized by V. lanosa during this time. The experimental exclusion of both brown algal epiphytes from distal frond segments did not affect colonization by V. lanosa. Thus, we conclude that the absence of surface irregularities on distal segments of host fronds, specifically small wounds, is the main factor explaining the absence of V. lanosa there. We propose that further experimental work clarifying epiphyte distribution in host beds will enhance our ability to understand the functional role of epiphytes in intertidal ecosystems.

  13. Preparation of activated carbon with low ash content and high specific surface area from coal in the presence of KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Qiang(解强); CHEN Qing-ru(陈清如); GONG Guo-zhuo(宫国卓); ZHANG Xiang-lan(张香兰); XU De-ping(许德平)

    2003-01-01

    An activated carbon with ash content less than 10% and specific surface area more than 1 600 m2/g was prepared from coal and the effect of K-containing compounds in preparation of coal-based activated carbon was investigated in detail in this paper. KOH was used in co-carbonization with coal, changes in graphitic crystallites in chars derived from carbonization of coal with and without KOH were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, activation rates of chars with different contents of K-containing compounds were deduced, and resulting activated carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K and iodine numbers. The results showed that the addition of KOH to the coal before carbonization can realize the intensive removal of inorganic matters from chars under mild conditions, especially the efficient removal of dispersive quartz, an extremely difficult separated mineral component in other processes else. Apart from this, KOH demonstrates a favorable effect in control over coal carbonization with the goal to form nongraphitizable isotropic carbon precursor, which is a necessary prerequisite for the formation and development of micro pores. However, the K-containing compounds such as K2CO3 and K2O remaining in chars after carbonization catalyze the reaction between carbon and steam in activation, which leads to the formation of macro pores. In the end an innovative method, in which KOH is added to coal before carbonization and K-containing compounds are removed by acid washing after carbonization, was proposed for the synthesis of quality coal-based activated carbon.

  14. Ozone treatment of coal- and coffee grounds-based active carbons: Water vapor adsorption and surface fractal micropores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Takayoshi; Ando, Junichi [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Research Inst., Ebina, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    Characteristics of the adsorption iostherms of water vapor on active carbons from coal and coffee grounds and those ozonized ones from the surface fractal dimension analysis are discussed. The upswing of the adsorption isotherms in the low relative pressure of coffee grounds-based active carbon, of which isotherms were not scarcely affected on ozonization, was attributed to the adsorption of water molecules on the metallic oxides playing the role of oxygen-surface complexes, which formed the corrugated surfaces on the basal planes of micropore walls with the surface fractal dimension D{sub s} > 2. On the other hand, coal-based active carbon with D{sub s} < 2, which indicated the flat surfaces of micropore walls, showed little effect on the upswing even on ozonization, even though the adsorption amounts of water vapor were increased in the low relative pressure.

  15. Modelling of the simultaneous photodegradation of Acid Red 97, Acid Orange 61 and Acid Brown 425 using factor screening and response surface strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

    2010-08-15

    In this paper the influence of seven variables that could be relevant in the photodegradation of three textile dyes - Acid Red 97, Acid Orange 61 and Acid Brown 425 - has been studied with the aim of determining the most efficient conditions for this process. The type and concentration of catalyst, the presence and concentration of H(2)O(2), the stirring, the pH and the dye concentration have been studied as variables. In the first stage the more basic variables were analyzed using a screening methodology (saturated fractional factorial design) and it was concluded that the most influential variable was the presence of H(2)O(2). In the second stage, a central composite design was used to establish a response surface for the behavior of the photodegradation. In this stage the concentration of Acid Brown 425 was fixed and the degradation was carried out without catalyst. The most remarkable aspects of the experiment are that brown dye is always the most persistent in the solution and that a catalyst is not needed to degrade the dyes quickly. A second-order equation is needed to model this process. The response surface obtained could be useful for reducing the time and money needed to treat effluent wastewater.

  16. Groundwater flow evaluation through backfilling materials of a surface coal mining site of Northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Ojeda, C.; Martínez-Morales, M.; Ortíz-Flores, G.

    2013-05-01

    Surface coal mining at the Allende-Piedras Negras aquifer system requires the complete dewatering and removal of the aquifer. The aquifer contains several geologic layers of variable hydraulic conductivity. Backfilling material is composed of a mixture of permeable and impermeable layers and it was initially considered as impermeable. Exploratory drillings, pumping tests and a geophysical survey were performed in the backfilling materials and the surrounding unaltered materials in order to evaluate the natural groundwater flow modification due to the mining activities. Results of geophysical survey evidenced a saturated water table within the back filling material which was verified by exploratory drilling. Pumping tests showed that unaltered materials have a mean hydraulic conductivity of 34.5 m/day while the backfilling of 5.3 m/day. Although the mining activities reduce the hydraulic conductivity by almost an order of magnitude, it was corroborated the existence of a groundwater flow through the backfilling materials.

  17. ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A SURFACE COAL MINE USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

  18. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautama, R.S.; Kusuma, G.J.; Lestari, I.; Anggana, R.P. [Bandung Inst. Teknologi (Indonesia). Dept. of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption on carbon models of coal surface: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Chu, Wei; Huang, Xia; Sun, Wenjing; Jiang, Chengfa; Liu, Zhongqing

    2016-07-01

    Injection of CO2 into coal is known to improve the yields of coal-bed methane gas. However, the technology of CO2 injection-enhanced coal-bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery is still in its infancy with an unclear mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption (AAD). To simulate coal surfaces, different six-ring aromatic clusters (2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, and 7 × 7) were used as simplified graphene (Gr) carbon models. The adsorption and desorption of CH4 and/or CO2 on these carbon models were assessed. The results showed that a six-ring aromatic cluster model (4 × 4) can simulate the coal surface with limited approximation. The adsorption of CO2 onto these carbon models was more stable than that in the case of CH4. Further, the adsorption energies of single CH4 and CO2 in the more stable site were -15.58 and -18.16 kJ/mol, respectively. When two molecules (CO2 and CH4) interact with the surface, CO2 compels CH4 to adsorb onto the less stable site, with a resulting significant decrease in the adsorption energy of CH4 onto the surface of the carbon model with pre-adsorbed CO2. The Mulliken charges and electrostatic potentials of CH4 and CO2 adsorbed onto the surface of the carbon model were compared to determine their respective adsorption activities and changes. At the molecular level, our results showed that the adsorption of the injected CO2 promoted the desorption of CH4, the underlying mechanism of CO2-ECBM.

  20. Classification of stream basins in southeastern Ohio according to extent of surface coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from streams grenadine 35 basins in the southeaster-Ohio coal region to evaluate and categorize the effect of surface coal mining on stream quality. The study area is underlain by rocks of Pennsylvanian age, the most important coal-producing formations of which are the Allegheny and Monogahela Formations. The study area contains 276 data-collection sites, each of which was sampled four times over a 3-year period. Water and bed-material samples were collected. Each site was classified as 'abandoned,' reclaimed,' unmined,' or mixed,' depending on the proportion of the drainage basin disturbed by mining, and if mined, on the present condition of the mine. Of the 130 sites in the Monogahela Formation, 18 percent were classified as abandoned, 2 percent as reclaimed, 10 percent as unmined, and 70 percent as mixed. Of the 146 sites in the Allegheny Formation, 14 percent were classified as abandoned, 11 percent as unmined, and 75 percent as mixed. Streams draining the carbonate-bearing Monogahela Formation have a significantly greater buffering capacity than streams draining the Allegheny Formation. THere are significant differences in specific conductance; pH; alkalinity; acidity; hardness; total and dissolve manganese, and aluminum; dissolved nickel, zinc, and sulfate; and dissolved solids among mining-disturbance types in the Allegheny Formation. However, in stream draining the Monogahela Formation, only hardness, sulfur, dissolved solids, and dissolved manganese are significantly different among mining-disturbance types. Discriminant-function analysis of water-quality data was used to classify each 'mixed' site into one of four categories: Abandoned, reclaimed, unmined, or uncertain. In addition, observations in each of the first three categories were classified as strongly, moderately, or weakly characteristic of that category. The discriminant function was based on specific conductance, pH, acidity, dissolved sulfate, dissolved

  1. Land and natural resource information and some potential environmental effects of surface mining of coal in the Gillette area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, William Richard; Hadley, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Campbell County, along the east margin of the Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming, contains more coal than any other county in the United States. The principal deposit is the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed. The bed is 50-100 feet (15-30 meters) thick over large areas, lies less than 200 feet (60 meters) deep in a north-south trending strip nearly 100 miles (161 kilometers) long and 2-3 miles (3-5 kilometers) wide, and contains an estimated 15 billion tons (13.6 billion metric tons) of sub-bituminous, low-sulfur coal that is presently considered to be accessible to surface mining. Extensive mining of this deposit has the potential for causing a variety of environmental impacts and has been a matter of much public concern and debate in recent years. An integrated program of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and related studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in central Campbell County provides basic information about the land and its resources, including (1) characteristics of the landscape, (2) properties of rocks and surface materials, (3) depth and thickness of coal, (4) streamflow, (5) depth to ground water, (6) quality of ground water, (7) sediment yield, (8) concentrations of trace elements in soils, rocks, coal, vegetation, and water, and (9) current land use. The data are used to analyze and predict some of the potential environmental effects of surface mining, such as the extent of land disturbance, nature and degree of landscape modification, and disruption of surface-water and ground-water systems. Advance knowledge and understanding of these and other problems are useful in the planning and regulation of future leasing, mining, reclamation, and related activities.

  2. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  3. Coal markets in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  4. Optimum crushing level of blasted rock at the Prokop'evsk surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemba, V.I.; Starkov, V.L.; Ustyuzhanin, V.S.

    1987-06-01

    Explains that improving the quality of rock crushing using blasting energy increases the efficiency of excavators and other mining equipment, reduces the energy required for scooping and loading tasks and hence reduces the cost of excavating and transporting rock. Investigations performed in surface mines in the Southern Urals and the Kuzbass coal sections showed that changing the mean linear dimensions of the lumps of blasted rock from 0.2 to 0.8 m increased the power consumption of a EhKG-4,6 excavator from 0.12 to 0.3 kWh/m/sup 3/ and that of loading from 0.1 to 1.56 kWh/m/sup 3/. Uses actual values for the efficiency and costs of blasting, excavation and transporting operations (presented in tabular form) as the basis for a comparative evaluation with the aim of determining how to achieve maximum cost-efficiency and, taking all factors into account, calculates that for the Prokop'evsk surface mine the optimum lump size is 0.4 m.

  5. Geochemistry and Modes of Occurrence of Hazardous Trace Elements in the No.11 Coal Seam, Antaibao Surface Mine, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dangyu; QIN Yong; WANG Wenfeng; ZHANG Junying; ZHENG Chuguang

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of seventeen hazardous trace elements including As, Pb, Hg, Se, Cd, Cr, Co,Mo, Mn, Ni, U, V, Th, Be, Sb, Br and Zn in the No.11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi Province were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS).Comparisons with average concentrations of trace elements in Chinese coal show that the concentrations of Hg and Cd in the No. 11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine are much higher. They may be harmful to the environment in the process of utilization. The variations of the trace elements contents and pyritic sulfur in vertical section indicated that: (a) the concentrations of As, Pb, Mn, and pyritic sulfur decrease from roof to floor; (b) the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Mo are higher in roof,floor and lower in coal seam; (c) the concentration of Br, Sb, and Hg are higher in coal seam and lower in roof and floor; (d) the concentrations of Mo, V, Th and Al vary consistently with the ash yield.Cluster analysis of trace elements, pyritic sulfur, ash yield and major elements, such as Al, Fe, P, Ca shows that: (a) pyritic sulfur, Fe, As, Mn, Ni, Be are closely associated and reflect the influence of pyrite; (b) Mo, Se, Pb, Cr, Th, Co, Ca and Al are related to clay mineral, which is the main source of ash; (c) U, Zn, V, Na, P maybe controlled by phosphate or halite; (d) Hg, Br, Sb and Cd may be mainly organic-associated elements which fall outside the three main groups. The concentration distribution characteristics of trace elements in coal seam and the cluster analysis of major and trace elements showed that the contents of trace elements in the No. 11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine, are mainly controlled by detrital input and migration from roof and floor.

  6. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that

  7. Studies of the coal facies in Eastern Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, Lyudmila; Ivanova, Ariadna; Zhernova, Halina [O. Gonchar str., 55b, Kiev 01054 (Ukraine)

    2004-04-23

    This article is a short review concerning the knowledge of petrographic compositions and origins of the diverse age coals in the eastern Ukraine regions, i.e. the Carboniferous age coals of the Dnieper-Donets Basin and the same age coals of the Donets Basin one as well as the Paleogene coals of Dnieper Brown Coal Basin. It was concluded that the coal-forming conditions depend on the geotectonic situations of the above basins.

  8. Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung

    2011-05-15

    In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

  9. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi ryegrass, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation was also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the South. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi ryegrass in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greenhouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 11 references, 7 tables.

  10. Nitrogen fixation (Acetylene Reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for nitrogen fixing capacity on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi rye, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation were also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the south. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi rye in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greehouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 7 tables.

  11. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  12. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  13. Impact of surface coal mining and reclamation on the hydrogeology at Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine No. 1, Mahaska County, Iowa. [MS thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangl, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    The groundwater effects of surface mining at ICP No. 1 can be classified primarily as water quality and water quantity effects. The water quantity effects are: the loss of groundwater saturation in spoil materials that were initially removed from over the coal and later replaced; the dewatering of high permeability geologic strata up gradient of mining area; the increase in porosity and possibly permeability in refilled spoil materials; and the change in groundwater gradients in mined areas and near the sediment pond. The water quality effects are: the generation of slightly mineralized enclaves near the sediment pond and spoil accumulations; the generation of thin zones of highly mineralized water near the base of reclaimed spoil probably due mostly to remnant acid mine water; and reduction of water quality in coal seams as a result of dewatering at the time of mining and subsequent oxidation of their pyrite content. Most effects of water quantity loss in and around the mine are not permanent. Water quality disturbances of the fringe areas of reclaimed mine areas will be very slow in attenuating because of the slow groundwater flow through these materials. Adulterated groundwaters in high permeability areas such as the flood plain alluvium will be more quickly attenuated than those in the mine spoil areas, but these enclaves also have the potential to effect much larger areas due to more rapid groundwater movement. Reduced pH and alkalinity were observed in very restricted areas near the east side of the sediment pond.

  14. Surface tension of a coal extract in an organic solvent; Sekitan chushutsu seibun no kaigo to hyomen choryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The behavior and properties of associated bodies were studied through measurement of surface tension considering acetone-soluble fraction relatively light among various solvent extracts of coal. In experiment, the acetone-soluble fraction was extracted from the substances extracted from Upper Freeport coal as standard specimen using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide (CS2) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and it was dissolved into NMP after drying. Surface tension was measured by Wilhelmy method. The experimental results are as follows. Equilibrium surface tension is equal to the surface tension of pure solvent in a low concentration range of solution, and decreases with an increase in concentration approaching a fixed value at 0 in log concentration, nearly showing an S curve. Adsorption of species with non-polar aromatic ring of the acetone-soluble fraction on a solution surface probably decreases surface tension. Change with time in surface tension is observed which suggests fast initial reaction and slow subsequent reaction. 4 figs.

  15. Development of tools for managing the impacts on surface due to changing hydrological regimes surrounding closed underground coal mines (ECSC Coal RTD programme, contract 7220-PR-136)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veschkens, M. [ISSeP, Liege (Belgium); Unland, W.; Kories, H. [DMT, Am Technologiepark, Essen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper demonstrates how box model approach and FE and box mixed model approach allow to better understand and model water flows in complex mined coal measures and interactions between shallow aquifers and flooded coal measures. Benefits of these approaches are illustrated on the basis of case studies in Liege and Ruhr coal basins. (authors)

  16. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  17. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1992-12-15

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption of various alcohols on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed during the July--September period. The alcohols include ethanol, methanol, isobutanol, t-butanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, and 2-methyl-l-pentanol. Amounts of equilibrium adsorption of alcohols (ALCO) on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal are 1 - 230 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mg-ALCO/g-coal, whereas equilibrium concentrations of alcohols are 3--40 ppM. Relations between equilibrium loadings of alcohols on the coal and equilibrium concentrations of alcohols in aqueous solutions are shown to be linear.

  18. Isolation of rhodotorula mucilaginosa from coal and the characteristics as coal surface modifier%煤炭中胶红酵母的分离及对煤的表面改性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立艳; 朱书全; 卢瑶; 王中奇; 杨哲

    2012-01-01

    以神华宝日希勒褐煤为分离源,筛选分离得到一株能够有效改变煤表面特性的菌株SMC221,并研究其对肥煤和尾煤的作用特性.菌株鉴定结果表明SMC221为胶红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa).与传统疏水性草分枝杆菌相比,SMC221对煤表面的改性作用更强:SMC221可选择性地吸附于煤表面,在pH值3~5时,肥煤与SMC221细胞之间发生强烈的静电相互作用,肥煤疏水性变大,浮选选择性增强;对尾煤则是通过菌体架桥作用促使尾煤向不稳定体系转移.菌体细胞对煤的附着正交试验表明,影响附着量的因素依次为:pH值>煤样粒度>接触时间>菌液浓度,其中pH值决定了细胞与煤表面带电性的差异;当SMC221浓度为150×10-6时,肥煤浮选回收率为75%,尾煤絮凝回收率为94%.%A strain designated SMC221 which was screened and separated from Shenhua Baorixile lignite can effectively change the coal surface characteristics. The characteristics which interacted with fat coal and trail coal were evaluated. Strain identification results show that the strain SMC221 is Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Compared to traditional hy-drophobic Mycobacterium phlei,SMC221 has stronger surface improving effects. The results of zeta potential and contact angle of coal samples show that SMC221 can selectively adsorb onto the surface of coal. In the pH range of 3 ~5 , the strong electrostatic between fat coal and SMC221 cell caused the fat coal to be more hydrophobic, which could enhance the flotation efficiency of fat coal. The effect of SMC221 cell on trail coal is to make the coal aggregate transfer to an unstable system such as compact floes through bacteria bridges. Cell adsorbing capacity on the coal surface was measured through orthogonal experiment, and the results show that the order of influence factors is pH> coal particle size>contact time >concentration of bacilli. The pH determines the charging difference between cell and surface of

  19. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Hiller, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N. [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  20. Evaluation of three constructed soil areas after surface coal mining in Lauro Muller, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, M.L.; Almeida, J.A.; Souza, L.S. [University of Estado Santa Catarina, Lages (Brazil)

    2003-12-01

    The present work evaluated chemical characteristics, clay content and mineralogy, and the spatial variability for some of these characteristics in three constructed soil areas after surface coal mining in Lauro Muller, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The selected areas present differences in their topographic soil construction. The first area, Juliana Mine (MJ), was constructed in 1996 with materials that had been removed and stored separately before mining, as laid down in the rehabilitation plan. The second, Apertado Mine (MA), was constructed in 1996 with solum removed from an adjacent hilltop. The third area, Rio do Meio Mine (MRM), was only submitted to topographical reconstitution in 1983 with a mixture of coal pyrite residues and rock fragments from several soil layers. Soil samples were collected in a grid system, at three depths, and analyzed for pH, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Al and H + Al contents, and electric conductivity. Heavy metals and clay mineralogy were also analyzed in some selected samples. Representative analyses of pre-mining conditions, carried out in two soil profiles, were utilized for comparisons with the constructed soils. Values of the chemical soil characteristics and clay contents in all areas presented a high variability among the sampled points. The soil construction process utilized in MJ caused the highest uniformity of characteristics and provided the most adequate conditions for the establishment of vegetal species. In MA, the addition of pyrite coal material to the superficial soil is causing. a continuous soil acidification, as well as high salt concentrations. In the MRM area, which had been abandoned and exposed to pyrite coal deposition on the surface layer for an extended period, the soil is very acid and has already suffered intensive leaching of salts, Al, H + Al, and clay contents were the only tested variables that presented a defined model for semi-variance, with a range of 50-70 m.

  1. Surface and bulk characterization of an ultrafine South African coal fly ash with reference to polymer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, E. M.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Mathebula, C. L.; Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Doucet, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    South African coal-fired power stations produce about 25 million tons of fly ash per annum, of which only approximately 5% is currently reused. A growing concern about pollution and increasing landfill costs stimulates research into new ways to utilize coal fly ash for economically beneficial applications. Fly ash particles may be used as inorganic filler in polymers, an application which generally requires the modification of their surface properties. In order to design experiments that will result in controlled changes in surface chemistry and morphology, a detailed knowledge of the bulk chemical and mineralogical compositions of untreated fly ash particles, as well as their morphology and surface properties, is needed. In this paper, a combination of complementary bulk and surface techniques was explored to assess the physicochemical properties of a classified, ultrafine coal fly ash sample, and the findings were discussed in the context of polymer application as fillers. The sample was categorized as a Class F fly ash (XRF). Sixty-two percent of the sample was an amorphous glass phase, with mullite and quartz being the main identified crystalline phases (XRD, FTIR). Quantitative carbon and sulfur analysis reported a total bulk carbon and sulfur content of 0.37% and 0.16% respectively. The spatial distribution of the phases was determined by 2D mapping of Raman spectra, while TGA showed a very low weight loss for temperatures ranging between 25 and 1000 °C. Individual fly ash particles were characterized by a monomodal size distribution (PSD) of spherical particles with smooth surfaces (SEM, TEM, AFM), and a mean particle size of 4.6 μm (PSD). The BET active surface area of this sample was 1.52 m2/g and the chemical composition of the fly ash surface (AES, XPS) was significantly different from the bulk composition and varied considerably between spheres. Many properties of the sample (e.g. spherical morphology, small particle size, thermal stability) appeared

  2. Application of response surface methodology to assess the combined effect of operating variables on high-pressure coal gasification for H2-rich gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Fermoso Domínguez, Javier; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Arias Rozada, Borja; González Plaza, Marta; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification was performed by means of a high-pressure fixed bed gasifier fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode, using oxygen and steam as gasifying agents. The main aim of the paper was to assess the combined effects of the operating variables (temperature, oxygen and steam concentrations) on high-pressure coal gasification. To this end a face centered central composite design (FCCCD) based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The response variables studied w...

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  4. Suppression of power-coal dust at an open stockpile of the Neryugrinsk surface mine using artificial snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uskov, V.I.; Safonov, M.V.; Kupin, A.N.; Kruglova, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses complex dust suppression scheme at the open coal stockpile of the Neryungrinsk surface mine (winter temperature -50 C and lower) based on application of artificial snow and removal of dusty air for subsequent purification. The system consists of eight ejectors mounted at the top of the discharge structure with diffusers inclined at 60-80 degrees. Water consumption through type GEhF-200 hydroejector and type FKEh sprinkler is equal to 30-50 l/min at 10-20 MPa. Description of the equipment and mode of operation is given. States that up to 60% efficiency in dust suppression can be achieved. 5 refs.

  5. Hydrologic data collected in and around a surface coal mine, Clay and Vigo counties, Indiana, 1977-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Linda L.; Eikenberry, Stephen E.

    1982-01-01

    Few data are available for evaluating water-quality and other hydrologic properties in and around surface coal mines, particularly in areas where material having a high potential for acid-production is selectively buried. This report contains hydrologic data collected in an active coal mining area in Clay and Vigo Counties, Indiana, from September 1977 through February 1980. Methods of sampling and analysis used in collecting the data also are summarized. The data include field and laboratory measurements of water at 41 wells and 24 stream sites. Variables measured in the field include water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, ground-water levels, and streamflow; and in the laboratory, concentrations of major ions, alkalinity, hardness, trace elementsl, organic carbon, phosphorus, and dissolved solids. Other variables measured in the laboratory include ferrous iron concentration of water samples from selected wells, percent sulfur by weight and the potential acidity of core samples of reclaimed cast overburden, concentrations of elements absorbed on streambed materials, concentrations and particle size of suspended sediment in water, and populations and Shannon diversity indices of phytoplankton in water. Dissolved-solids concentrations and pH of ground water ranged from 173 to 5,130 milligrams per liter and from 6.1 to 8.9, respectively, and of surface water, from 120 to 4,100 milligrams per liter and from 6.1 to 8.8 respectively. 

  6. Impacts of coal dust from an active mine on the spectral reflectance of Arctic surface snow in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Dierssen, Heidi; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Schmitt, Carl; Chlus, Adam; Hermanson, Mark; Painter, Thomas H.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2017-02-01

    Light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow such as dust and black carbon influence the radiative forcing at the Earth's surface, which has major implications for global climate models. LAPs also significantly influence the melting of glaciers, sea ice, and seasonal snow. Here we present an in situ study of surface snow near an active coal mine in the Norwegian Arctic. We couple measurements of spectral hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) with measurements of LAPs characterized in two ways, as refractory black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer and the total light absorption of LAPs measured with the Light Absorption Heating Method. The Snow Ice and Aerosol Radiation model was constrained by LAP measurements. Results were compared to observed spectral albedo measurements. Modeled and observed albedos were similar at the cleaner and more remote sites. However, the modeled spectral albedos do not fully account for the low spectral albedo measured next to the mine. LAP measurements also showed a large variation in particle sizes (tenths to tens of microns) related to transport distance of the particles from the mine. Here we find that LAPs from coal dust reduce the spectral HDRF by up to 84% next to the mine and 55% 0.5 km downwind of the mine. The coupling of extreme LAP observations (1 ng g-1 to 4863 ng g-1) with HDRF measurements from 350 to 2500 nm has facilitated the development of spectral band pairs, which could be used in the future to remotely assess LAPs in Arctic snow.

  7. Investigations of the surface tension of coal ash slags under gasification conditions; Untersuchungen zur Oberflaechenspannung von Kohleschlacken unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, Tobias

    2011-10-26

    In the context of CO{sub 2}-emission-induced global warming, greenhouse gases resulting from the production of electricity in coal-fired power plants gain increasing attention. One possible way to reduce such emissions is to gasify coal instead of burning it. The corresponding process is referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and allows for the separation of CO{sub 2} before converting a synthesis gas into electrical energy. However, further improvements in efficiency and availability of this plant technology are needed to render the alternative generation of electricity sensible from an economic point of view. One corresponding approach introduces hot gas cleaning facilities to the gasification plant which guarantee a removal of slag particles from the synthesis gas at high temperatures. The development of such filters depends on the availability of data on the material properties of the coal ash slags to be withdrawn. In this respect, the surface tension is a relevant characteristic. Currently, the surface tension of real coal ash slags as well as of synthetic model systems was measured successfully by means of the sessile drop and the maximum bubble pressure method. With regard to the sessile drop technique, those experiments were conducted in a gasification-like atmosphere at temperatures of up to 1500 C. Furthermore, the pressure inside the experimental vessel was raised to 10 bar in order to allow for deriving the influence of this variable on the surface tension. In contrast, maximum bubble pressure trials were realised at atmospheric pressure while the gas atmosphere assured inert conditions. For performing sessile drop measurements, a corresponding apparatus was set up and is described in detail in this thesis. Three computer algorithms were employed to calculate surface tensions out of the photos of sessile drops and their individual performance was evaluated. A very good agreement between two of the codes was found while the third one

  8. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  9. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  10. Devolatilization and ignition of coal particles in a two-dimensional fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; Siemons, R.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    In a two-dimensional (15 × 200 × 400 mm) high-temperature fluidized bed, devolatilization ignition and combustion phenomena of single coal particles have been studied. The particles, with diameters of 4–9 mm, were selected from three coal types of widely different rank: brown coal, bituminous coal,

  11. Effective synthesis route for red-brown pigments based on Ce - Pr - Fe - O and their potential application for near infrared reflective surface coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sriparasara Radhika; Kalarical Janardhanan Sreeram; Balachandran Unni Nair

    2014-01-01

    New cerium-based ceramic pigments, displaying Ce2Pr0.2FexO4.3+y stoichiometry, were obtained at low temperature using a sol-gel method. The powder precursor dissolved in 80% ethylene glycol was precipitated using ammonia and the obtained gel calcined at 800°C for 2 h to yield homogeneous and crystalline particles with a diameter of around 150 nm. The oxide was composed of cerium in its +4 oxidation state and Pr in its +3 oxidation state. The oxides with varying Fe content had an intense red-brown colour, with bandgap energy of around 2.2 eV at 0.1 mol% Fe doping. The near infra red reflectance from these pigments, a measure of their ability to reflect rather than absorb heat waves from sunlight was found to be 82.7%, even in the absence of a white reflective base. Such high near infra red reflectance from these pigments qualify them for being ideal cool pigments for surface coating applications.

  12. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Jungbin

    2016-11-11

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  13. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Andrade, Marcos; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Osipov, Sergey; Ren, Xinrong

    2016-11-01

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  14. 石莼与褐煤低温共热解热重分析及动力学%Thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolytic kinetic study onco-pyrolysis of brown coal and ulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓晗; 何选明; 戴丹; 张杜; 曾宪灿

    2015-01-01

    将不等量的生物质石莼(SC)加入到褐煤(AL)中进行低温干馏实验,实验表明:随石莼的掺混比增加,热解油产率呈先增加后减少的趋势,在石莼掺混比为30%时热解油产率达到最大值12.50%,热解油中烷烃含量在原有基础上增加了23.54%,在一定程度上提高了热解油品质.利用热重分析仪对石莼、褐煤单独热解及30%最佳掺混比的混合样共热解的热解特性进行了研究,结果表明:石莼的加入使褐煤初始热解温度提前,失重速率变快,在 300~700℃之间,实验所得混合样的残重量小于单独热解残重量的理论加权值,表明石莼的添加一定程度上促进了热解反应的进行.混合热解符合一级动力学方程模型,指前因子A和活化能Ea存在补偿效应,共热解时的A和Ea与褐煤单独热解相比均减小.%The low-temperature pyrolysis experiments of brown coal(AL),ulva(SC) and their blends were performed. The results show that pyrolysis oil appears to decrease after the increase trend with SC ratio increasing. When SC ratio is 30%,the yield of pyrolysis oil rises to the highest of 12.50 %. The content of alkanes in pyrolysis oil increased by 23.54% on the basis of original content,improving the quality of pyrolysis oil to a certain degree. The pyrolysis characteristics of SC,AL and the blend was studied by thermogravimetric analyzer. Results show that the presence of SC lowers the initial pyrolysis temperature and fasters the weight loss of AL. The residual weight of blend is less than the calculated value at 300—700℃,indicating the promoting effect of SC on the pyrolysis process. The co-pyrolysis reactions were in accordance with first order kinetic equation model. There exists compensation effect between activation energy(Ea) and pre-exponential factor(A). BothEa andA of co-pyrolysis decrease compared with those of AL pyrolysis alone.

  15. Coal facies studies in Denmark and Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Henrik I. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Department of Reservoir Geology, Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2004-04-23

    Coal of Jurassic age occurs onshore Denmark and in the Danish North Sea, whereas coal of Carboniferous and Miocene age only occurs in the Danish North Sea and onshore Denmark, respectively. The Lower-Middle Jurassic coals are the most widespread and best documented. Onshore Denmark the coals are of low rank while the Jurassic coals in the North Sea are thermally mature and hydrocarbon generating in the Soegne Basin. The Jurassic coals have a maximum thickness of similar2 m and were formed in coastal plain mires and in inland fresh water mires. The Miocene brown coals, up to similar2 m thick, were formed in an overall deltaic setting. Lower Carboniferous and Palaeogene coals occur in northern Greenland, Middle Jurassic coals in northeast Greenland, and Cretaceous coals in western Greenland. The Middle Jurassic low rank coals have been investigated in detail. The up to similar3.5-m-thick coal seams accumulated in coastal mires and they may have an extraordinary resinite-enriched composition. Only a single Cretaceous coal seam has been investigated with regard to the depositional environment; the seam records drowning of a peat mire. The Lower Carboniferous and Palaeogene coals have not been investigated.

  16. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features.

  17. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Evaluation of rope shovel operators in surface coal mining using a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vukotic Ivana; Kecojevic Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Rope shovels are used to dig and load materials in surface mines. One of the main factors that influence the production rate and energy consumption of rope shovels is the performance of the operator. This paper presents a method for evaluating rope shovel operators using the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model. Data used in this research were collected from an operating surface coal mine in the southern United States. The MADM model consists of attributes, their weights of importance, and alter-natives. Shovel operators are considered the alternatives. The energy consumption model was developed with multiple regression analysis, and its variables were included in the MADM model as attributes. Preferences with respect to min/max of the defined attributes were obtained with multi-objective opti-mization. Multi-objective optimization was conducted with the overall goal of minimizing energy con-sumption and maximizing production rate. Weights of importance of the attributes were determined by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The overall evaluation of operators was performed by one of the MADM models, i.e., PROMETHEE II. The research results presented here may be used by mining professionals to help evaluate the performance of rope shovel operators in surface mining.

  19. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  20. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-18 to 2013-10-02 (NODC Accession 0117699)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117699 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-12-23 to 2014-02-04 (NODC Accession 0116979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116979 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-03-08 to 2010-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108156 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2008-01-22 to 2009-01-11 (NODC Accession 0109930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109930 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-18 to 2013-10-31 (NODC Accession 0117689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117689 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  7. 第一代鲁奇炉在褐煤加压气化中的运行状况及技术改进%Running Condition and Technology Improvement in Brown Coal Pressure Gasification of the First Generation of Lurgi Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝文

    2012-01-01

    The running conditions and problems of the first generation of Lurgi Furnace for ammonia preparation by using of low - quality brown coal pressurized gasification was introduced. The main problems and corresponding technology improvements of the first generation of Lurgi Furnace since 1972 have been summarized. The problem and developing trend of Lurgi Furnace was alanalyzed and outlooked.%介绍了国内首套自行设计利用劣质褐煤加压气化制氨工艺鲁奇炉运行的状况及出现的问题。总结了自1972年以来,第一代鲁奇炉在运行中存在的主要问题及相应的技术改造状况,并对鲁奇炉运行存在的问题及发展方向进行了分析和展望。

  8. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  9. Experimental study on the variation law of coal temperature during excavation in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Shan PAN; Lian-Man XU; Zhong-Hua LI; Guo-Zhen LI

    2013-01-01

    By testing the temperature of the coal and the stress of the working surface,we got the variation law of coal temperature and coal stress during the excavation.The result shows that the activities of mining affect the coal temperature,the fluctuation of coal temperature and the coal stress is synchronous.During the smooth change of crustal stress,the coal temperature basically keeps unchanged,when the dynamic phenomenon appears,the coal temperature changes,as well the coal stress.Therefore,we can use the online coal temperature monitoring system to test the coal temperature of the working surface continuously,and it can provide basic information for forecasting coal mine power disaster before it happens.

  10. Porosity characteristics of chars from Shengli brown coal gasification under H2O/O2 atmospheres%H2O/O2气氛下胜利褐煤气化半焦的孔隙特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加亮; 王永刚; 王芳; 张锟俊; 王会; 张书

    2015-01-01

    Shengli brown coal was gasified by using a laboratory entrained flow reactor at 900℃under the atmospheres of H2O,O2 and their mixture,and pore structure features were investigated. The shapes of adsorption isothermal curves obtained from the chars under various atmospheres were Type II and the shapes of the adsorption loop curves were Type H3. There was a relatively continuous and integral pore system of chars with similar pore structures. Pore diameter distribution was influenced by reaction atmosphere. The quantity of macropores of char was less under all three atmospheres; the order of mesoporesfrom more to less was H2O>O2>H2O+1%O2,and the order of micropores was the reverse. The specific surface area of char presented the trend of increasing at first,then maintaining steady with the increase of H2O. The specific surface area of char during gasification under H2O+1%O2 mixture atmosphere increased by more than 30 times. It increased linearly with the increase of O2 at low concentration of oxygen. The relational expression for conversion versus ratio of micropore volume and total pore volume,and conversion versus specific surface area was X=0.196(Vm/V)+45.651,X=0.037S+48.066.%采用实验室气流床反应器,在H2O、O2及其混合气氛,900℃条件下进行了胜利褐煤气化实验,研究了气化半焦的孔隙结构特征。结果表明,在所有气氛下,半焦的吸附等温线均属于第II类型,吸附回线为H3型,褐煤气化半焦具有连续的较完整的孔体系,孔隙结构类似。反应气氛影响气化半焦的孔径分布,半焦中的大孔在3种气氛下均较少,中孔从多到少的顺序是:H2O>O2>H2O+1%O2,微孔与之相反。在水蒸气气氛下,随水蒸气浓度增加,半焦的比表面积先增大后趋于稳定。添加1%O2后,比表面积提升30多倍。低浓度O2气氛下,随O2浓度的增加,比表面积呈线性增长。褐煤转化率与微孔容积和总孔容积的比值以及比

  11. Basic properties of Japanese and foreign coals selected for liquefaction. 1. A consideration of the method for proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.

    1984-10-01

    The use of thermogravimetry for the proximate analysis of coals is compared with the Japanese Standard method (JIS M8812). The thermogravimetric method was found to be applicable to a wide range of brown coals, lignites and bituminous coals providing a rapid and simple method requiring only a small sample and giving a direct determination of fixed carbon.

  12. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  13. Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis: clinical features, a possible role for complement inhibitor therapy, and reduced RBC surface glycophorin A as a potential biomarker of venom exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Gehrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The venom of Loxosceles reclusa (Brown Recluse spider can cause a severe, life-threatening hemolysis in humans for which no therapy is currently available in the USA beyond supportive measures. Because this hemolysis is uncommon, relatively little is known about its clinical manifestation, diagnosis, or management. Here, we aimed to clarify the clinical details of envenomation, to determine the efficacy of the complement inhibitor eculizumab to prevent the hemolysis in vitro, and to investigate markers of exposure to Brown Recluse venom. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a 10-year chart review of cases of Brown Recluse spider bite-mediated hemolysis at our institution. We also designed an in vitro assay to test the efficacy of eculizumab to inhibit hemolysis of venom exposed red blood cells. Finally, we compared levels of CD55, CD59 and glycophorin A on venom exposed versus venom-naïve cells. RESULTS: Most victims of severe Brown Recluse spider mediated hemolysis at our institution are children and follow an unpredictable clinical course. Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis is reduced by 79.2% (SD=18.8% by eculizumab in vitro. Erythrocyte glycophorin A, but not CD55 or CD59, is reduced after red blood cells are incubated with venom in vitro. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our laboratory data and clinical observations indicate that L. reclusa venom exposure results in non-specific antibody and complement fixation on red blood cells, resulting in complement mediated hemolysis that is curtailed by the complement inhibitor eculizumab in vitro. Glycophorin A measurement by flow cytometry may help to identify victims of L. reclusa envenomation.

  14. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  15. Support of the business management of opencast brown coal mining with an enhanced variability of deposits based on mine surveyoral data management; Unterstuetzung der Betriebsfuehrung von Braunkohlentagebauen mit hoher Lagerstaettenvariabilitaet auf Grundlage des markscheiderischen Datenmanagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipfer, Anja [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH, Zeitz (Germany). GIS/Risswerkfuehrung

    2012-04-15

    A variable manifestation of the deposit is a particular challenge for the operational management for the continuous supply of coal in a specified range. Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (Zeitz, Federal Republic of Germany) supports the planning and production process by a GNSS controlled dredging. The storage of all operating conditions at the database level is the basis for the different evaluations. The verification of the data separaed by waste and coal enables a statement to the recoverability of the seams under consideration of a impact mapping and production data. This is an aid for the continuous improvement of the extraction planning and management.

  16. 伊犁盆地ZK0161井褐煤中铀及其它元素的地球化学研究%Geochemistry study of its uranium and other element of brown coal of ZK0161 well in Yili Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建业; 狄永强; 张卫国; 刘善德

    2011-01-01

    用数理统计的方法,对伊犁盆地洪海沟ZKO161井的中下侏罗统11、12号煤层中的铀等59种常量、微量元素的地球化学行为进行了初步探讨.认为元素在灰分的分布和元素在内在水分及固定碳中的分布大体呈互为相反数关系,而和元素-挥发分相关系数则呈同步性变化.ZK0161井煤中u以后生铀为主,分别以可溶态和有机吸附态或结合态形式出现在12号煤和11号煤顶部的煤中内在水和煤有机质中.%The research of geochemistry of 59 kinds constant elements and trace elements in brown coal of ZK0161 well, which located at Honghaigou area in Yili Basin of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, was completed by means of mathematical statistics methods. The results show that the correlation coefficients of ash-elements is each or-ther's opposite number with one of inherent moisture, and has synchronous changes with one of volatile-elements. Uranium in coal of ZK0161 well is mainly epigenetic one and may be respectively in the form of soluble existed in the internal water and organic absorbed or organic phase existed in organic matter on the top of No. 11,12 coal seams.

  17. Failure characteristics of surface vertical wells for relieved coal gas and their influencing factors in Huainan mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hongjie; Sang Shuxun; Fang Liangcai; Huang Huazhou; Ren Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from through-hole and logging, we studied the failure characteristics of surface drainage wells for relieved coal gas in Huainan mining area and its influencing factors. The results show that the damaged positions of drainage wells are mainly located at the thick clay layer in the low alluvium and the lithological interface in the upper section of bedrock in west mining area. The failure depth of casing is 244-670 m and concentrates at about 270-460 m deep. These damaged positions are mainly located in the bending zone according to three zones of rock layers in the vertical section above the roof divided. Generally, the casing begins to deform or damage before the face line about 30-150 m. Special formation structure and rock mass properties are the direct causes of the casing failure, high mining height and fast advancing speed are fundamental reasons for rock mass damage. However, the borehole configuration and spacing to the casing failure are not very clear.

  18. Ecological relationships of fauna and flora on a pre-law coal surface-mined area in Perry County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-law coal surface-mined lands in Pyramid State Park, Perry County, Illinois, were examined 1976-1980 to determine changes in fauna and flora from that on the area in 1954-1960. Vegetative development on naturally revegetated spoils reflected diverse habitat conditions with interspersion of cover types; some of oldest spoils displayed inhibited succession while others exhibited early flood plain forest development. Ground and overstory species richness and overstory density increased since mid 1950's and ground cover domination by therophytes in 1954-1956 shifted to phanerophytes and hemicryptophytes in 1976-1978. Thirty vegetative compositional and structural parameters indicated that ground cover was limited by subcanopy rather than large scattered trees. Aquatic vegetation communities developed but hydrosphere was not well represented; emergent vegetation was limited by morphology of basins. Although isolated sites exhibited deleterious conditions, vegetation was not generally inhibited by physico-chemical factors. The 29 mammals reflected an increase in species richness. Abundance of early successional forms decreased while occupants of shrub/forest increased. Past habitat enhancement influenced wildlife distribution; and plantations attracted woodland fauna. Leveled spoil crests, valleys and clearings with fescue retarded succession and provided open areas and edges for others.

  19. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  20. Approach to increasing the quality of pressure-relieved gas drained from protected coal seam using surface borehole and its industrial application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingke Liu; Fubao Zhou; Jianlong Wang; Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    During mining of lower protective coal seam, a surface borehole can efficiently extract not only the pressure-relieved gas from the protected layer, but also the gas from the mining layer gob. If the distance between the borehole and gob is too large, the quantity of gas drained from the protected layer decreases substantially. To solve this problem, a mathematical model for extracting pressure-relieved gas from a protected coal seam using a surface borehole was established, based on the radial gas flow theory and law of conservation of energy. The key factors influencing the quantity of gas and the drainage flow network using a surface borehole were presented. The results show that the quantity of pressure-relieved gas drained from the protected layer can be significantly increased by increasing the flow resistance of the borehole bottom. Application of this method in the Wulan Coal Mine of the Shenhua Group significantly increased the flow of pure gas and the gas concentration (by factors of 1.8 and 2.0, respectively), thus demonstrating the remarkable effects of this method.

  1. Development of new bond release criteria for surface coal mines in the eastern and interior coal provinces of the United States. Open file report (final) 18 jul 77-18 jul 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, W.M.; Fritz, E.L.; Schad, J.A.; Nagle, W.F.

    1978-09-18

    This study involved a review of bonding and bond release practices in the States of the eastern and midwestern coal provinces. Data was collected from regulatory authorities and site visits to document the bonding and release procedures in the States related to achieving successful reclamation. The regulations related to PL95-87 were reviewed. The analysis included suggested modified or new bond release criteria based on a review of applicable bond release inspection techniques, a conceptual graduated bonding system, and incentive procedures for reclamation of surface mine sites to alternative or higher land uses.

  2. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  3. Regional Studies Program. Biological aspects of surface coal mine reclamation, Black Mesa and San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.B.

    1977-08-01

    This report discusses case study data on surface mine reclamation accumulated at selected mines in the Southwest, specifically the Black Mesa Mine in Arizona and the Navajo Mine located south of Fruitland, New Mexico, in the San Juan Basin. Experimental results have made it apparent that reclamation of disturbed lands cannot begin and end with planting seed. The report therefore considers hydrologic, edaphic, and biotic factors, as well as land use and management, as important aspects of land reclamation. Recommendations are made to initiate, broaden, and intensify research studies in plant succession, productivity, species selection, and attendant soil characteristics, along with grazing practices and land use potential.

  4. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  5. Use of response surface methodology to investigate the effects of brown and golden flaxseed on wheat flour dough microstructure and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codină, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of brown flaxseed and golden flaxseed on the water absorption and the rheological parameters of wheat flour. The rheological properties were evaluated by the Mixolab. The optimum parameters were identified for high quality flaxseed-wheat composite flour bread. Each predictor variable was tested at five levels. The microstructure of dough was assessed by epifluorescence light microscopy. The substitution of 4.81/100 g for brown flaxseed and 5.07/100 g for golden flaxseed was found optimal. At the optimum level of brown and golden flaxseed, the water absorption of 55.07/100 g, dough development time of 1.28 min and dough stability of 10.04 min was observed. In terms of protein quality the optimum values were 0.41 N m for C2 and 0.69 for C1-2, and in terms of starch characteristics they were 1.56 N m for C3, 1.14 for C3-2, 1.33 N m for C4, 0.20 for C3-4, 1.97 N m for C5 and 0.60 for C5-4.

  6. Basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-ren; SUN Yan-qiu; ZHAO Qing-fu; DENG Cun-bao; DENG Han-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Discussed latest research results of basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion in detail, with quantum chemical theory and method and experiment systematically studied chemical structure of coal molecule, adsorption mechanism of coal surface to oxygen molecule and chemical reaction mechanism and process of spontaneous combustion of organic macromolecule and low molecular weight compound in coal from microcosmic view, and established complete theoretical system of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion.

  7. Reserch process geomigration during underground gasification and coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of subsoil water in the over- and subcoal deposits during underground combustion of brown coal can vary under coals thermal development product and pollution. Analysis of the substances-contaminants migratory in water is one of the main issues of further implementation of technologies UCG and UCC.

  8. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  9. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  10. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in topsoils from Middle Jiu Valley surface coal exploitations sourrounding area (Gorj County, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Corneanu, Gabriel; Lacatusu, Anca-Rovena; Cojocaru, Luminita; Butnariu, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Middle Jiu Valley is one of the largest surface coal exploitation area in Romania. The coal exploitation area is a dense populated one, along the valleys are villages and the inhabitants produce for their own consumption fruits and vegetables, in their personal gardens, or cereals in the fields, nearby the villages. There was considered to be of great interest to investigate the heavy metals and radionuclides content in gardens and cropfield soils from the villages sourrounding the Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) and coal surface exploitation, as well as in crude /cultivated sterile soil or ash. The topsoil samples (104) were harvested from population gardens (58), cropfields sourronding Thermo Electric Power Plants (24), crude sterile dumps (7), cultivated sterile dumps (9) and ash dumps (6). The content in radionuclides in soil was performed by Duggan (1988) method. Radionuclide activity was expressed in Bqkg-1, confidence level 95%. The total content of heavy metals in soil (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co) was measured with flame atomic mass spectrometry. The content in heavy metals was expressed in mgkg-1. Soil analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs-137, of Cernobal provenance. In the cropfields radionuclides content in topsoil is lower than in gardens, due to the deepper soil mobilisation. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th-234, Pb-210, U-235 and in few locations for Ra-226. The soil content for all analysed metals was over the normal limits in most samples, in few cases with values close to allert limits. Concentrations between allert and intervention limits were registered in samples collected from 15-20 km North of TEPP Turceni, in population gardens.

  11. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  12. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1996; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  13. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2000; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  14. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1997; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  15. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  16. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  17. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  18. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1999; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  19. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  20. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2001; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  1. Effect of Surfactant/Silica and Hydrothermal Time on the Specific Surface Area of Mesoporous Materials from Coal-Measure Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qisheng; LI Shuiping

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous materials with the highest surface area were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment from coal-measure kaolin using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. The effect of several factors on surface area of products also had been discussed. The products were characterized by FTIR, HRTEM and N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm plot methods. There was typical structure as Si-O, Si-OH and Si-O-Si of mesoporous materials in the framework of synthesized materials; the pore size distributions of the products showed a sharp peak at 3.82 nm. The effect of hydrothermal treatment time and the amount of template on the specific surface area of mesoporous materials was important, when the Surf/Si = 0.135, and hydrothermal time = 12 h, and the surface area of the product reached up to 1 070 m2/g, which was higher than other products.

  2. Operation corrosion test of austenitic steel bends for supercritical coal boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizner J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion tests of both annealed and not annealed bends of HR3C and S304H steels in operation conditions of black and brown coal combustion boilers in EPRU and EDE. After a long-term exposure, the samples were assessed gravimetrically and metallographically. The comparison of annealed and unannealed states showed higher corrosion rates in the annealed state; corrosion of the sample surface did not essentially differ for compression and tensile parts of the beams. Detailed assessment of both steels is described in detail in this study.

  3. Crossing point temperature of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xuyao; Deming Wang; James A. Milke; Xiaoxing Zhong

    2011-01-01

    A further understanding of the self-heating of coal was obtained by investigating the crossing point temperature (CPT) of different ranks of coal. The tests were carried out using a self-designed experimental system for coal self-heating. 50 g (±0.01 g) of coal particles ranging from 0.18 mm to 0.38 mm in size were put into a pure copper reaction vessel attached to the center of a temperature programmed enclosure. The temperature program increased the temperature at a rate of 0.8 ℃/min. Dry air was permitted to flow into the coal reaction vessel at different rates. The surrounding temperature and the coal temperature were monitored by a temperature logger. The results indicate that CPT is affected by coal rank, moisture, sulfur,and the experimental conditions. Higher ranked coals show higher CPT values. A high moisture content causes a delay phenomenon during the self-heating of the coal. Drying at 40 ℃ decreases the effects of moisture. The reactivity of sulfur components in the coal is low under dry and low-temperature conditions.These components form a film that covers the coal surface and slightly inhibits the self-heating of the coal.The flow rate of dry air, and the heating rate of the surroundings, also affect the self-heating of the coal. The most appropriate experimental conditions for coal samples of a given weight and particle size were determined through contrastive analysis. Based on this analysis we propose that CPTs be determined under the same, or nearly the same conditions, for evaluation of the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  4. Possibilities of working thick brown coal seams in the Stara Jama mine of Zenica mines by sublevel working methods applying self-advancing Westfalia-Luenen powered supports, type B. S. 2. 1 and I. B. S. 2. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijelic, V.; Ivkovic, M.; Slijepcevic, S.; Krizan, D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the properties of 9 exploitable coal seams of Zenica colliery. Two of them have been intensively exploited over many years. It outlines the development of working methods from room and pillar up to fully mechanized longwall mining. As final result of the efforts made in order to improve the productivity of longwall mining a modified type of Westfalia-Luenen self-advancing powered support is described. The results achieved with this support are shown in a table. (9 refs.) (In Serbo-Croatian).

  5. Application of techniques to identify coal-mine and power-generation effects on surface-water quality, San Juan River basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous analytical techniques were applied to determine water quality changes in the San Juan River basin upstream of Shiprock , New Mexico. Eight techniques were used to analyze hydrologic data such as: precipitation, water quality, and streamflow. The eight methods used are: (1) Piper diagram, (2) time-series plot, (3) frequency distribution, (4) box-and-whisker plot, (5) seasonal Kendall test, (6) Wilcoxon rank-sum test, (7) SEASRS procedure, and (8) analysis of flow adjusted, specific conductance data and smoothing. Post-1963 changes in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, specific conductance, suspended sediment concentration, or suspended sediment load in the San Juan River downstream from the surface coal mines were examined to determine if coal mining was having an effect on the quality of surface water. None of the analytical methods used to analyzed the data showed any increase in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, or specific conductance in the river downstream from the mines; some of the analytical methods used showed a decrease in dissolved solids concentration and specific conductance. Chaco River, an ephemeral stream tributary to the San Juan River, undergoes changes in water quality due to effluent from a power generation facility. The discharge in the Chaco River contributes about 1.9% of the average annual discharge at the downstream station, San Juan River at Shiprock, NM. The changes in water quality detected at the Chaco River station were not detected at the downstream Shiprock station. It was not possible, with the available data, to identify any effects of the surface coal mines on water quality that were separable from those of urbanization, agriculture, and other cultural and natural changes. In order to determine the specific causes of changes in water quality, it would be necessary to collect additional data at strategically located stations. (Author 's abstract)

  6. 磷素对水稻根表红棕色铁膜的影响及营养效应%Effect of Phosphorus on Reddish Brown Iron Plaque on Root Surface of Rice Seedlings and Their Nutritional Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅友强; 杨旭健; 吴道铭; 沈宏

    2014-01-01

    红棕色铁膜颜色加深;随着根系溶液中铁浓度的增加,根表DCB-Fe浓度逐渐增加,最大值为36.50 mg·g-1。最后进一步对磷铁比处理形成的根表红棕色铁膜水稻根系和地上部磷、铁吸收量进行测定,研究结果发现,根表红棕色铁膜的加深有利于水稻根系和地上部磷、铁的吸收。【结论】内源磷信号并不能诱导根表红棕色铁膜的形成,仅外源磷缺乏才能诱导根表红棕色铁膜的形成,根表红棕色铁膜的形成与根系周围环境中磷铁比有关,而根表DCB-Fe的形成仅与溶液中铁浓度有关。形成的根表红棕色铁膜在根系周围充当营养库的功能,有利于植物对磷、铁的吸收利用。%Objective]Phosphorus (P) deficiency could significantly induce the formation of reddish brown iron plaque on the surface of rice roots. However, it remains unclear how P induces the formation of reddish brown iron plaque on root surface.[Method] In this study, 24 rice varieties of different origins were used to measure the iron plaque on their root surface. Rice seedlings were firstly cultivated for 21 days hydroponically, and then submitted to P-deficient solution and 0.1 mmol·L-1 Fe2+solution, respectively. The parameters including root length, root surface area, root and shoot dry weight and content of iron plaque were determined after treatments. Based on the above parameters, a rice variety (Tianyou 998) was screened with higher amount of iron plaque. In the following experiments, effects of different nutrient deficiencies (N deficiency, P deficiency, K deficiency, and their interactive treatments, etc.), root-split treatments (root system was divided into two parts, both two parts were treated with P supply treatments, one part was treated with P-deficient treatment, and the other was with P supply treatment, or both two parts were treated with P-deficient treatment) and different P/Fe treatments (1﹕1, 1﹕3, 1﹕5, 1﹕8) on the

  7. Study on Surface Dynamic Behavior and Critical Surface Tension of Coal with Different Metamorphic Grades%不同变质程度煤表面动态行为与临界表面张力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谦; 郭玉森; 赖永明; 林璐瑶

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同变质程度煤表面动态行为和临界表面张力,利用悬滴法恒温27 ℃测试不同浓度下的烷基糖苷( APG)溶液表面张力,以及利用躺滴法动态连续跟踪测量模式研究不同浓度下的APG溶液在煤表面接触角随时间的变化情况. 研究结果表明:水在煤表面形成接触角较大,且接触角变化不明显;随着APG溶液浓度的增大,溶液在煤表面形成的接触角变小,同时接触角的变化幅度也在增大,当APG溶液浓度超过临界胶束浓度时,接触角进一步减小,但变化幅度减小;接触角余弦值与临界表面张力的相关性显著,且呈负相关关系;随着煤样变质程度的提高,临界表面张力先减小后增大.%In order to study the dynamic behavior and critical surface tension of coal with different metamorphic grades, the pendant drop method was used to test the surface tension of alkyl glucoside ( APG ) solution in different concentrations at the constant temperature of 27 ℃, and the dynamic continuous tracking measurement mode of the sessile drop method was used to study the change of the surface contact angle of APG solution in different concentrations with time. The results showed that the contact angle of water on coal surface was relative large, but its change was not obvious;with the increase of APG concentration, the contact angle of APG on coal surface decreased while the change magnitude of the contact angle increased, when APG concentration exceeded the critical micelle concentration, the contact angle further reduced, so did its change magnitude; the cosine value of the contact angle was significantly correlated with the critical surface tension, they were in a negative correlation;with the increase of the metamorphic grade of coal, the critical surface tension first decreased and then increased.

  8. 3D geological modeling of surface coal mine based on AutoCAD%基于AutoCAD的露天煤矿三维地质建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金金; 白润才; 刘光伟; 赵浩

    2011-01-01

    3D geological modeling of surface coal mine is a core component of Digital Mine. The establishment of 3D geological model provides decisions for the estimation and design of Open Pit Coal Mine, and the models have an important guiding significance during the mine' s production and provide more important information for the designers. This paper, by taking specific surface coal mine for example, introduces the technique of 3D geological modeling of surface coal mine based on AutoCAD, builds 3D 3D geological model, displays the 3D geological updates 3D geological model, simulation mining, geological modeling of the mine, applies it in engineering, establishes model in any direction, builds the drilling database, modifies and and so on. The establishment of 3D geological model enables mining engineers in a real three - dimensional environment and in the approach of "human - computer interaction", so as to realize the mining design and mining plan, and so on.%露天煤矿三维地质模型的建立是矿山数字化的核心组成部分.三维地质模型的建立,对矿山的经济评价、采矿设计和生产管理都具有重要的指导意义.以具体露天煤矿为例,介绍了基于AutoCAD的三维地质建模技术,建立了该矿的三维地质模型并将其应用于工程实际,实现了该矿的三维地质模型建立和可视化显示,以及钻孔数据库的建立、模型的修改与实时动态更新、模拟开采等功能,使矿山工程技术人员在一个真三维环境中,利用三维可视化模拟开采技术,以“人机交互”的方式进行露天矿开采设计、生产计划编制等.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2011-07-22 to 2011-12-06 (NODC Accession 0108094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108094 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2009-04-17 to 2009-10-18 (NODC Accession 0109931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109931 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Gulf of Guinea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2010-03-08 to 2010-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108093 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Gulf of Guinea, Gulf...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2012-02-15 to 2012-08-27 (NODC Accession 0109926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109926 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Combustion of Lausitz brown coal under oxyfuel. Process conditions in a 0,5 MW{sub th} combustion plant; Verbrennung von Lausitzer Braunkohle unter Oxyfuel. Prozessbedingungen in einer 0,5 MW{sub th}-Feuerungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Helge; Jentsch, Norbert; Burboeck, Martin; Panzenboeck, Helmut; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2008-07-01

    For climate policy reasons, future coal-fired power stations are to be built on the basis of the CCS technology (CCS = Carbon Capture and Storage). Thereby, the oxyfuel process combines the advantages of a simple process design at the combustion with the highest separation potential of carbon dioxide. In order to test the oxyfuel process, in the year 2005 an existing 0.5 MW{sub th} test facility of the Centre for Power Technology (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) was selected and extended by substantial components of the oxyfuel process such as for example oxygen supply, flue gas condenser. Subsequently, the oxyfuel process was examined within a test period of two years. The most important cognitions of this test period are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  14. Investigating the Integration of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and a Gas Turbine System with Coal Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    conceptually integrate the hybrid power system with existing and imminent coal gasification technologies. The gasification technologies include the Kellogg...Brown Root (KBR) Transport Reactor and entrained coal gasification . Parametric studies will be performed wherein pertinent fuel cell stack process...dependent variables of interest. Coal gasification data and a proven SOFC model will be used to test the theoretical integration. Feasibility and

  15. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  16. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  17. The characterization of organomineral components of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Palacios, J.M.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1990-04-01

    A methodology of characterizing organomineral components of As Pontes and Meirama Spanish brown coals is developed. Analytical electron microscopy provided indirect evidence for the association of alkaline-earth elements to the organic matter of coal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy yielded information on the nature of bonding of inorganic elements to carboxyl groups. Quantitative results were obtained by methods implying extraction or oxidative leaching followed by analysis of cations. The resulting set of procedures leads to a comprehensive characterization of this type of coal components, and deserves interest due to their role in combustion and gasification of low-rank coals. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The effect of biomass on pollutant emission and burnout in co-combustion with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruczek, H.; Raczka, P.; Tatarek, A. [Wroclaw Technical University, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents experimental and numerical results on the co-combustion of different types of biomass with hard and brown coal. The main aim of this work was to assess the impact of the cocombustion of biomass in brown and hard coal-fired systems on the combustion process itself and on the level of pollutant formation and its dependence on combustion temperature stoichiometry. The experimental results obtained have shown that in general biomass addition leads to decreased NO and SO{sub 2} emissions, except with the hard coal Bogdanka. In addition, the biomass has a beneficial effect on the burnout of the coal/biomass mixture. To help to account for this effect, the behaviour of coal and biomass, the coal/biomass mixture and of fuel-N was studied by thermal analysis, in nitrogen and in air. The results obtained have shown that gas phase interactions are dominant in the combustion of biomass/coal mixtures.

  19. Using radar interferometry and SBAS technique to detect surface subsidence relating to coal mining in Upper Silesia from 1993-2000 and 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádudvari Ádám

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented research ERS1-2 and Envisat ASAR archive data were used for the periods 1993 – 2000 and 2003 – 2010. The radar images were acquired over Upper Silesia in southern Poland. DinSAR (Differential InSAR and SBAS (Small Baseline Subset methods were applied for the detection of the most subsided areas. The DinSAR images were layer stacked for an image using 26 interferometry pairs of ERS1-2 SAR and 16 pairs from Envisat ASAR images in an ascending-descending orbit combination. The stacking of these images showed the most subsided parts of these cities even under low coherent areas, but the results are less precise. In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, intensive underground coal exploitation has resulted in several surface deformations under Bytom (~8-17 km2, Piekary Śląskie (~9-15 km2, Ruda Śląska (~32-42 km2 and Katowice (~20-23 km2 with 25-40 cm of subsidence (in general in the studied time periods. The SBAS technique has also shown that coal mining caused subsidence in the cities of Bytom, Katowice, and Piekary Śląskie of 5-7 cm/yr. The presented SBAS method did not work for low coherent areas, e.g. dense forested areas. DInSAR data also pointed to several decreasingly less active mining areas, which relate to the mine closures in Bytom and Ruda Śląska, which is also verified by the time series analysis.

  20. On the role of brown coal in the intended 'energy strategy 2030' of the Federal State of Brandenburg; Zur Rolle der Braunkohle in der vorgesehenen ''Energiestrategie 2030'' des Landes Brandenburg. Kurzstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Loreck, Charlotte

    2011-12-12

    At the beginning of 2012 the state of Brandenburg continues its energy strategy 2020 and intends to adopt the energy strategy 2030. The climate protection goal (reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by 40% up to 2020 compared to 1990) almost has been achieved in 2010. A new coal power plant in Brandenburg is energy efficiently not necessary, and climate policy is absurd. The climate protection targets of Brandenburg are supported by strong guidelines at the level of the European Union and Germany. The climate protection target of Brandenburg in 2030 is a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by 75% compared to the year 1990. Brandenburg should not weaken its targets based on the study by AT Kearney / Decision Institue (2011) because the key assumptions and calculations can not be verified. Rather, a more transparent discussion with participation of the public should find out with what measures the climate protection target for 2030 can be achieved, and how a target deviation can be minimized.

  1. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  3. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  4. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  5. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Basinas, P. [Center for Research & Technology Hellas, Ptolemais (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM (meat and bone meal) and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  6. Information on the situation of the German coal minig industry. January - September 1995; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-21

    The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: production, stocks, productivity, employees, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht liefert aktuelle Informationen zur Lage des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus fuer den Berichtszeitraum. Daten ueber den Steinkohlenbergbau sowie ueber den Braunkohlenbergbau geben Auskunft ueber: Produktion, Bestaende, Leistung, Beschaeftigte, Absatz, Ein- und Ausfuhr von Kohle und Kohleprodukten. (orig.)

  7. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations of co-combustion of hazelnut hull and coal blends: Data-driven modeling and response surface optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukada, Musa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the thermogravimetric behaviour of the co-combustion of hazelnut hull (HH) and coal blends using three approaches: multi non-linear regression (MNLR) modeling based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) (1), optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM) (2), and probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature (3). The response variable was predicted by the best-fit MNLR model with a predicted regression coefficient (R(2)pred) of 99.5%. Blend ratio of 90/10 (HH to coal, %wt), temperature of 405°C, and heating rate of 44°Cmin(-1) were determined as RSM-optimized conditions with a mass loss of 87.4%. The validation experiments with three replications were performed for justifying the predicted-mass loss percentage and 87.5%±0.2 of mass loss were obtained under RSM-optimized conditions. The probabilistic uncertainty analysis were performed by using Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. 气相色谱法分析褐煤提质低温热解气中含硫化合物的研究%Study on sulfur compounds in low-temperature carbonization of brown coal by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新涛; 李香兰; 张永发; 孙亚玲

    2013-01-01

    Using TXS-Ⅱ sulfur analyzer quantitatively analyzed the sulfur compounds in low temperature carbonization gas. The result showed that the method of eliminating H2 S and COS of high concentration by desulfurizer and using TCP column to analyze the compositions of sulfur compounds by quantitative analysis, leads to a smaller measured value, because the desulfurizer will absorb some organic sulfur. Four different chromatographic columns were made to check their effects in desulfurization. After a series of exploration, a gas chromatography analysis method of simplicity and accuracy to determine the sulfur compounds in low temperature carbonization gas was established. Besides, the sulfur compounds in low temperature carbonization gas of different brown coal were analyzed by this method, providing a data base for desulfurization of pyrolysis gas.%采用TXS-Ⅱ硫分析仪对褐煤提质过程中的低温热解气进行含硫化合物定量分析研究,结果表明:(1)将气样通过脱硫剂脱除高浓度的H2S和COS之后再进行定量,因脱硫剂吸收有机含硫化合物,测定结果偏小;(2)制备了4种新的色谱分离柱,考查了这些色谱柱对有机含硫化合物的分离效果,最终建立了简便、准确检测低温热解气中含硫化合物的气相色谱分析方法,利用该方法分别对3种褐煤的低温热解过程中的气体进行了含硫化合物分析,为低温热解气的脱硫提供了依据.

  9. New capabilities in the process control and automisation of brown coal power plants for the enhancement of environmental benignity and efficiency. Development and use of the MODI expert system and modern control processes. Final report; Neue Faehigkeiten bei der Prozessfuehrung und Automatisierung von Braunkohlekraftwerken zur Steigerung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit und Effizienz. Entwicklung und Einsatz des Expertensystems MODI und Moderner Regelungsverfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, R.

    1996-04-26

    The present study deals with the development and use of an expert system for monitoring and diagnosing selected technological segments (MODI diagnosis system) and with the use of modern control processes in a 500 MW block of Boxberg brown coal power plant. The diagnosis system is examined with regard to knowledge acquisition, knowledge implementation, and knowledge documentation given characteristic disorders. The result of the research and development work is a knowledge-based system for process diagnosis which operates in real-time. The experience gained through the elaboration of the knowledge base for the water-steam cycle will serve as a basis for extending the diagnosis system to all segments of the power plant. After an overview of the state of the art the present report briefly explains the theoretical basics of process diagnosis. It then gives a detailed account of how the knowledge base develops. In effect this provides a comprehensive, instructive documentation of the knowledge base. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Diese Dokumentation befasst sich mit der Entwicklung und dem Einsatz eines Expertensystems zur Ueberwachung und Diagnose ausgewaehlter technologischer Abschnitte (Diagnosesystem MODI) und mit dem Einsatz moderner Regelungsverfahren an einem 500 MW Braunkohlekraftwerksblock des Standortes Boxberg. Es werden dabei fuer das Diagnosesystem die Gebiete Wissenserfassung, Wissensimplementierung sowie Wissensdokumentation am Beispiel charakteristischer Stoerungen betrachtet. Ergebnis der Forschung und Entwicklung ist ein in Echtzeit arbeitendes wissensbasiertes System zur Prozessdiagnose. Auf die bei der Erstellung der Wissensbasis gewonnenen Erfahrungen im Wasser-Dampf-Kreislauf kann bei der Ausdehnung der Diagnose auf den gesamten Kraftwerksbereich aufgebaut werden. Nach einem Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik erfolgt eine kurze Erlaeuterung der theoretischen Grundlagen der Prozessdiagnose. Anschliessend wird detailliert der Vorgang der Entstehung der

  10. Modeling the temperature in coal char particle during fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Mirko Komatina; Simeon Oka [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-05-15

    The temperatures of a coal char particle in hot bubbling fluidized bed (FB) were analyzed by a model of combustion. The unsteady model includes phenomena of heat and mass transfer through a porous char particle, as well as heterogeneous reaction at the interior char surface and homogeneous reaction in the pores. The parametric analysis of the model has shown that above 550{sup o}C combustion occurs under the regime limited by diffusion. The experimental results of temperature measurements by thermocouple in the particle center during FB combustion at temperatures in the range 590-710{sup o}C were compared with the model predictions. Two coals of different rank were used: lignite and brown coal, with particle size in the range 5-10 mm. The comparisons have shown that the model can adequately predict the histories of temperatures in char particles during combustion in FB. In the first order, the model predicts the influence of the particle size, coal rank (via porosity), and oxygen concentration in its surroundings. 53 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  12. 12th international conference on coal science. Coal - contributing to sustainable world development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The theme of the conference was: coal - contributing to sustainable world. Papers dealt with combustion, coal cleaning, surface analysis, coal sustainability and research, metallurgical coke, structural studies, ash utilization, SEM analysis, liquefaction, pulverized coal injection, power plant emissions, analytical techniques, gasification, thermal analysis, weathering, self-heating and dust explosion, low rank coal gasification, geochemistry and trace elements, petrographic studies, CO{sub 2} mitigation, low rank coal pyrolysis, gas sorption, pyrolysis, synthesis gas, low rank coal drying, biomass pyrolysis, gas cleaning, underground gasification, activated carbon, pyrolysis and char reactivity, gasification model studies, agglomerated and slurry fuels, co-pyrolysis, and tar products and effluents. The poster papers are also included. The papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Clean Coal Centre Coal Abstracts database.

  13. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  14. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  15. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  16. Recovery of clean coal from polymer flocculated raw coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, B.K.; Chen, Z. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (US)

    2004-11-01

    The recovery of fine clean coal from waste streams using column flotation is recognized as an efficient and economical technique. However, due to the low percent solids (around 3% by weight) found in these fine waste slurries, the flotation columns have low capacities and are, thus, underutilized. In this study, a 3% (by weight) solids suspension of Upper Freeport coal was flocculated with polymers and concentrated to 10% (by weight) solids. The flocculated slurry was then floated using 250 g/t No. 2 fuel oil and 250 g/t MIBC, which provided a clean coal with 12% ash at an 80% yield. The results showed that flocculated coal could be floated effectively. Zeta potential and contact-angle data showed that the presence of polymer on the surface of the coal did not affect its hydrophobicity, and in some cases it improved the hydrophobicity as indicated by larger contact angles.

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-08-28

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  18. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  19. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  20. Estimation of water-coal surface interaction during heat treatment of coal by use of FTir and DSC; FTir to DSC wo mochiita sekitan-mizu kan sogo sayo no teiryoteki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Mae, K.; Morozumi, F.; Kusakawa, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-10-30

    The authors have recently presented a method to estimate the strength distribution of hydrogen bondings in coal using FTir and DSC. The method was applied to estimate the strength of coal-water interaction in two different coals and to estimate the enthalpy change deriving from the change in hydrogen bondings during the desorption of water. The estimated enthalpy change was compared with the total enthalpy change estimated by DSC measurement to examine the importance of hydrogen bondings during the desertion of water. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  1. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by coal and coal fly ash particles samples in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Silva, Luis F O; Civeira, Matheus S; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Machado, Miriana; Villela, Izabel Vianna; Hartmann, Andreas; Premoli, Suziane; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to coal and coal ashes can cause harmful effects in in vitro and in vivo systems, mainly by the induction of oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects using the V79 cell line treated with coal and coal fly ash particles derived from a coal power plant located in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Two coal samples (COAL11 and COAL16) and two coal fly ash samples (CFA11 and CFA16) were included in this study. COAL16 was co-firing with a mixture of fuel oil and diesel oil. The comet assay data showed that exposure of V79 cells to coal and coal fly ash particles induced primary DNA lesions. Application of lesion-specific endonucleases (FPG and ENDO III) demonstrated increased DNA effects indicating the presence of high amounts of oxidative DNA lesions. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay analysis showed that exposure of V79 cells to high concentrations of coal and coal fly ash particles induced cytotoxic effects (apoptosis and necrosis) and chromosomal instability (nucleoplasmic bridges, nuclear buds, and micronucleus (MN) formation). These results may be associated with compounds contained in the surface of the particles as hazardous elements, ultrafine/nanoparticles, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which were detected in the samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines; Metodologia para el Seguimiento y Evaluacion de Superficies Restauradas en Minas de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to establish a control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines, ash dumps,... etc. to be applied especially in locations with limited availability of ton soil, and to be used by mining companies to establish an internal quality control of the reclamation carried out. This methodology has been developed based on the evaluation of the results obtained from the reclamation that Endesa carries out at the Puentes mine. An operating and simplified method which may be adopted by smaller sites has been developed. This project has been carried out during the period 1994-1996 and includes a study about the physicochemical conditions of reclaimed surfaces, soil organisms study and about vegetation productivity associated to micorrizae. The conclusions and recommendations obtained include reclamation techniques (study and management of the deposit dumped, top soil management, addition of basic correctors, fertilization, top soil and maintenance works) and reclaimed surface control techniques (physicochemical soil conditions, soil organisms and vegetation). (Author)

  3. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  4. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  5. Przydatność węgla brunatnego z kopalń Turów i Konin jako ściółki w uprawie hydroponicznej [Utility of brown coal from Turów and Konin mines as the seedbed in hydroponic cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In experiments with 5 vegetables and 5 decorative species – coal from both mines proved to be appropriate as the seedbed. Both types of coal stimulated root growth and maintained iron in soluble form. In general, better and earlier crops were obtained in hydroponic cultures than in pots filled either with soil or with coal watered with nutrient solution.

  6. A forest for Leipzig - a chance for man and environment after revegetation of the abandoned brown coal mines south of Leipzig; Wald fuer Leipzig - eine Chance fuer Mensch und Umwelt nach Rekultivierung des Braunkohlen-Tagebaus im Suedraum von Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, C.

    1995-02-01

    The City of Leipzig is located in an area which is highest contaminated by immissions and environmental destruction among the regions of the former German Democratic Republic. The destruction of environment by surface mining especially in the area south of the town has extremely restricted the attractivity of Leipzig. The recultivation concept of the former surface mining area includes the creation of a new landscape with large lakes and forests that which offers the opportunity to improve the living conditions in the area of Leipzig as well as the image of the town sustainably. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Stadt Leipzig liegt in einem der am hoechsten durch Immission und Umweltzerstoerung belasteten Raeume der ehemaligen DDR. Die Umweltzerstoerung durch den Bergbau in unmittelbarer Umgebung der Stadt, insbesondere im Suedraum Leipzigs, hat auch die Attraktivitaet der Stadt stark eingeschraenkt. Die im Rahmen der Sanierungsvorhaben des Bergbaus geplante Rekultivierung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft, verbunden mit der Anlage einer grossflaechigen Seen- und Waldlandschaft, bietet die Moeglichkeit, die Lebensbedingungen im Leipziger Raum und damit das Image der Stadt spuerbar zu verbessern. (orig.)

  7. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  8. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  9. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  10. [Compositions and structure characterizations of coal tar refined soft pitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xue-Fei; Lai, Shi-Quan; Cheng, Jun-Xia; Lu, Yi-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    High temperature coal tar was used as raw materials, and was distilled to 280 degrees C for getting coal tar soft pitch. Then refined soft pitch was obtained by solvent extracting and subsequent settlement method. Its soft point was 32 degrees C; the group compositions consisted of 53.67% heptane soluble, 39.47% heptane insoluble but toluene soluble, 6.86% toluene insoluble and 0.06% quinoline insoluble. The relative average molecular weight was about 292. Its average molecular formula was C22.22 H16.32 N0.12 S0.06 O0.33; the total content of heteroatom was less than 1. IR analytic results showed that its heteroatom O existed in the R-O-R and Ar-O-R structure; its heteroatom N existed in the R-NH-R and -N=, with the latter being primary. Its average structure was obtained by improved Brown-Lander model: five-membered condensed rings. UV analysis indicated that the majority was linear arrangement, and the minority was surface arrangement; namely, the chemical structure of the samples was mainly the cata-condensed structure, while the minority was peri-condensation.

  11. 近距离薄煤层条带开采引起地表变形模拟分析%Simulation Analysis of Surface Deformation by Strip Mining in the Short- Distance Thin Coal Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传团; 潘志存; 张学豪

    2012-01-01

    近距离薄煤层条带开采是“三下”开采中控制覆岩移动变形和地表沉陷的有效方法之一,提高煤炭资源回收率,同时减少煤矿开采对矿区环境、地表破坏的影响,具有重要的理论意义和应用价值。本文采用数值模拟方法研究了近距离薄煤层条带开采引起的地表变形特征,结果表明:当采出率为50%时条带方案选取采40m留40m时最为合适。%The strip mining in short - distance thin coal seam is one of the effective methods controlling displacement deformation of overlying strata and surface subsidence in coal mining under buildings and railroads and water bodies. The method has a great theoretical significance and application value by increasing recovery rate of coal resources and cutting down the effect of coal mining on environment and surface of mining area. The numerical simulation method is adopted to study the surface deformation characteristics by the strip replacement mining in short - distance thin coal seam. Such conclusions are drawn as follows: the strip project of forty meters mining with forty meters reserving is quite suitably selected while half of mining rate.

  12. Liquefaction and/or solubilization of Spanish coals by newly isolated microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monistrol, I.F.; Laborda, F. (Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia Parasitologia)

    1994-11-01

    A screening procedure has been set up for isolating microorganisms capable of liquefying coal. Spanish coals were used in the tests, namely a brown lignite from Galicia, sub-bituminous coal from Teruel and hard coal from Minas Figaredo S.A. (Asturias). Among the isolated strains several microorganisms proved capable of liquefying untreated lignite. When lignites were pretreated a more intense and rapid liquefaction was achieved, chelating agents being among the best pretreatment. None of the isolated microorganisms could satisfactorily liquefy sub-bituminous and hard coals in solid media. On the other hand, some fungi grew specifically on the untreated coals, engulfing them and in many cases a soft slurry was obtained. Several of the isolated microorganisms were able to solubilize all three untreated Spanish coals in liquid media. Coal solubilization was measured spectrophotometrically at 300, 400 and 450 nm. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  14. Experimental Study on the Residual Strength of Coal Under Low Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Kang, Hongpu

    2017-02-01

    In underground coal mining, coal rib failure of longwall entries is almost certain due to the relative weakness of coal and the presence of high mining-induced stresses. To maintain the coal's capability of sustaining large loads after failure and substantial deformation, it is crucial to understand its post-peak behavior and subsequently, its residual strength. In this study, triaxial compression tests were performed on a total of 51 coal specimens that were classified into two groups based on the existence of calcite grains. Particular emphasis was given to evaluating the residual strength of the coal specimens. It was found that the presence of calcite grains has significant effect on the brittleness of the coal. Coal specimens containing calcite grains have lower frictional strength than specimens without calcite grains. The tests demonstrated that splitting is completely suppressed when the confinement exceeds 10 % of the coal's unconfined compressive strength. The Coulomb and Hoek-Brown failure criteria satisfactorily fit the coals' the peak strength data over the entire confining stress range. The Hoek-Brown failure criterion satisfactorily fits the residual strength data. The parameter m for residual strength is significantly greater than that of the peak strength for both groups of coal. It was also found that as the confinement increases, the increase in residual strength is greater than the increase in peak strength.

  15. Modifications to the surface chemistry of low-rank coal-based carbon catalysts to improve flue gas nitric oxide removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M.T.; Rubio, B. [Departamento de Energia y Medio Ambiente, Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), C/Maria de Luna, 12, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Mayoral, C.; Andres, J.M. [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), C/Maria de Luna, 12, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2001-10-25

    The effectiveness of carbons as low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will depend upon their physical and chemical properties. Surface functional groups containing oxygen are closely related to the catalytic activity of carbons. These groups are expected to change the interaction between the carbon surface and the reactants through a variation in adsorption and reaction characteristics. This paper presents a more detailed study of the effects of either gas-phase sulfuric acid or oxygen oxidation treatments on the catalytic NO reduction by low-rank coal-based carbon catalysts. Raw and treated carbons were characterized by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} surface areas, TPD and ash content. NO removal capacity of carbons was determined by passing a flow containing NO, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} through a fixed bed of carbon at 150C and 4s of residence time, the effluent concentration being monitored continuously during the reaction. The effects of varying the type and conditions of the treatment on the physicochemical features of carbons were studied. The gas-phase sulfuric acid treatment (corresponding to a first step SO{sub 2} removal) markedly enhanced carbon activities for NO removal. On the contrary, oxygen oxidation enhanced NO removal capacity of chars to a lower extent. Therefore, the carbons studied could be used in a combined SO{sub 2}/NO removal process, because the use and regeneration of the carbon in the first step is beneficial for the performance in the second one.

  16. Structure-Based Predictive Model for Coal Char Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Hadad; Joseph Calo; Robert Essenhigh; Robert Hurt

    1998-04-08

    Progress was made this period on a number of separate experimental and modelling activities. At Brown, the models of carbon nanostructure evolution were expanded to consider high-rank materials with initial anisotropy. The report presents detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations with non-zero initial layer length and with statistically oriented initial states. The expanded simulations are now capable of describing the development of nanostructure during carbonization of most coals. Work next quarter will address the remaining challenge of isotropic coke-forming coals. Experiments at Brown yielded important data on the "memory loss" phenomenon in carbon annealing, and on the effect of mineral matter on high-temperature reactivity. The experimental aspects of the Brown work will be discussed in detail in the next report.

  17. 78 FR 63463 - Intent To Prepare a Regional Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... 78801. 2. Wednesday, December 4, 2013, at the Railroad and Heritage Museum, 315 W. Avenue B, Temple... and lignite mining within defined geographic regions in Texas. The REIS would facilitate future... Wildlife Service, Office of Surface Mining, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Railroad Commission...

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  19. Heavy metal contamination of brown seaweed and sediments from the UK coastline between the Wear river and the Tees river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, L

    2001-04-01

    The concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Ag were determined in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and intertidal surface sediments from coastal locations of northeast England. Levels of heavy metals similar to those of polluted areas of the British coastline were detected. There is evidence of contamination (especially with Zn and Pb) in sediments from sites affected by colliery spoil and from the Wear estuary. The pelitic fraction ( < 63 microm) is usually more enriched in heavy metals, but it represents a very small percentage of the bulk samples. The fine-grained sand is a very important repository of contaminants especially where particles of colliery spoil, secondary mineral, and amorphous phases are present. Aqua regia-extracted Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments are significantly correlated with those in seaweed. Despite the closure of all base metal and coal mines, and the cessation of many industrial activities in the region, sediments and brown algae are contaminated with heavy metals. The control site (Holy Island) and the Tees estuary appear to be the least affected.

  20. 采动影响下煤层气地面井的经济和安全效益分析%Analysis on Economic and Safety Benefits of Surface Coal-bed Methane Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦海滨; 付军辉; 孙海涛

    2014-01-01

    This PaPer described the calculation method for the economic indicators such as the investment cost of the surface coal-bed methane wells( the wells under the mining influence),the sales revenues and so on,and analyzed the safety benefits of this Project. By taking Sihe Mine of Jincheng Anthracite Mining GrouP Co. ,Ltd. ,as an examPle,the PaPer gave a systematical analysis on the economic and safety benefits of the surface coal-bed methane wells under the mining influence,and the results showed that the direct annual economic return rate of the surface coal-bed methane wells under the mining influence can reach 3. 87% after gas extraction,and the indirect economic benefits and safety benefits after gas extraction were more substantial. The analysis results can Provide a basis for the coal-bed methane develoPment by surface wells.%介绍了采动影响下的煤层气地面井(采动影响井)投资成本、销售收入等经济指标的计算方法,并对该项目的安全效益进行了分析。以晋煤集团寺河矿为实例,对其采动影响井的经济效益、安全效益进行了系统分析,结果表明:采动影响井抽采后直接经济年收益率可达3.87%,且抽采后间接的经济、安全效益均较为可观。分析结果可为采动区地面井煤层气开发提供依据。

  1. Application of response surface methodology to modeling and optimization of removal of Bismarck Brown and Thymol Blue by Mn-Fe2O4- NPs-AC: Kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Bagheri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on the rapid ultrasound-assisted removal of Bismarck Brown (BB and Thymol Blue(TB dyes from aqueous solutions using Mn-Fe2O4 nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Mn-Fe2O4- NPs-AC as a low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent. The adsorbent was characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD. The effect of variables such as initial concentration of BB, initial concentration of TB, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and sonication time on the removal percentages of BB and TB dyes were simultaneously investigated by central composite design(CCD under response surface methodology(RSM. It was shown that the adsorption of BB and TB follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation, while the Langmuir model explains equilibrium data. Isotherms had also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG0, enthalpy (ΔH0 and entropy (ΔS0 of adsorption. The negative value of ΔG0 indicates the feasibility and spontaneity of the adsorption process. The positive ΔH0 suggests the endothermal nature of the adsorption. The positive values of ΔS0 reflects the affinity of Mn-Fe2O4- NPs-AC towards BB and TB dyes. A small amount of the adsorbent was able to remove more than 99.0% of both dyes rapidly with high adsorption capacity in binary-component system( 70.3 mg/g for BB, and 48.48 mg/g for TB.

  2. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  3. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  4. Pyrite Formation in Organic-rich Clay, Calcitic and Coal-Forming Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordana DEVI(C); Petar PFENDT; Branimir JOVAN(C)I(C)EVI(C); Zoran POPOVIC

    2006-01-01

    The early diagenetic characteristics of pyrite formation processes in a Miocene freshwater sequence of mixed sediments (coal fragments in clays, sandstones or shales) alternating with continuous brown coal layers was investigated. Based on abundant minerals, the following main sedimentary environments were distinguished: the illite-montmorillonitic (I-M), calcitic (Ct) and coal-forming environment (CL). For these hydrogeochemically differing environments the effects of limiting factors on the pyrite formation process (availability of sulphate and Fe, amount of organic matter and participation of organic sulphur) were assessed by correlation analysis. Significant differences in the effects of these limiting factors in the particular environments were observed. These differences were explained taking in account the different oxidative activity, Fe-complex and surface complex forming properties of hnmic substances in dependence of pH of environment and the abundance of sorptionally active clay minerals. In environments having a relatively low pH and containing clay minerals (I-Mand CL-environments) the oxidative activity of humic substances (Hs) on pyrite precursors was greatly prevented however pyrite formation depended on reactive Fe availability as the consequence of complex formation. On the contrary, in environments with a relatively high pH, as it was the calcitic,the oxidative activity of Hs was greatly enhanced, thus oxidizing the sulfur precursors of pyrite. The oxidation degree of organic matter was probably also a consequence of the differing activity of the humic electron-acceptors.

  5. (Industrial dermatoses among the Belthatow brown coal miners)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszyncka-Kuczynska, W.

    1981-01-01

    443 subjects were examined, 235 applying to the physician due to the occurrence of skin dermatoses (group I) and 208 workers referred for periodic examinations (group II). In group I skin dermatoses were found in 100, i.e. 85%, of the subjects and in group II in 99 i.e. 48% of the subjects. In both groups the most frequent dermatosis was feet skin inflammation, especially interdigital intertrigo. Oil acne was diagnosed in 15, ordinary acne in 23, pityriasis versicolor in 19. erythrasma in 10, and eczema and contact dermatitis in 7 subjects of the first group and 3 subjects of the other group. 204 subjects with feet skin pathologies underwent mycologic examinations and 36 subjects--also bacteriologic examinations. The results of those studies indicate that in 23% of the subjects, feet interdigital intertrigo results from mycologic infections. Bacterial infections may contribute to etiopathogenesis. Imidazole compounds are useful for the treatment and prevention of interdigital intertrigo.

  6. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  7. Geological classification of coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretsnaidr, P.

    1985-02-01

    A new classification of coal deposits developed by the author is evaluated. The classification considers only selected factors which characterize a coal deposit. Each factor is described by a number of points ranging from 0 to 10. Geologic structure (deposits with one or more seams or with seam groups) is described using from 1 to 10 points. Secondary deformation of a coal deposit (e.g. tectonics) and hydrogeology (aquifers, filtration properties, etc.) are described using a 10 point scale. Coal seam structure (with or without partings) is characterized using 1 to 5 points. Coal seam thickness and its stability (4 thickness classes from 0.4 to 1.0 m, 1 to 3 m, 3 to 10 m and above 10 m) is described using 0 to 5 points. Coal seam quality (ash content, calorific value and coking properties) is described using 0 to 5 points. Other factors are characterized using a 10 point scale. Use of this deposit classification is explained using four examples: the Merkur surface mine (uncomplicated conditions), the Nosek surface mine (relatively complicated conditions), the Slany deposit (with complicated conditions) and the Jan Sverma deposit (with extremely complicated conditions).

  8. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  10. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  11. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  12. Hydrologic and geochemical data for the Big Brown Lignite Mine area, Freestone County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Lignite mining in east and east-central Texas is increasing in response to increased energy needs throughout the State. Associated with the increase in mining activities is a greater need to know the effects of mining activities on the water quantity and quality of near surface aquifers. One of the potential hydrologic effects of surface coal mining is a change in the quality of groundwater associated with replacement of aquifer materials by mine spoils. The purpose of this report is to compile and categorize geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and hydrologic data for the Big Brown Lignite Mine and surrounding area in east-central Texas. Included are results of paste-extract analyses, constituent concentrations in water from batch-mixing experiments, sulfur analyses, and minerals or mineral groups detected by X-ray diffraction in 12 spoil material samples collected from 3 locations at the mine site. Also, common-constituent and trace-constituent concentrations in water from eight selected wells, located updip and downdip from the mine, are presented. Dissolved solids concentrations in water from batch-mixing experiments vary from 12 to 908 mg/L. Water from selected wells contains dissolved solids concentrations ranging from 75 to 510 mg/L. 10 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  15. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene in Jurassic sediments and a set of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the transformation of terrestrial cyclic terpenoids during diagenesis, constituting a general pathway for all terpenoids.

  16. RESEARCH OF LEVEL OF SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION ON COAL HEAPS GENESIS DANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the summary of information about the spontaneous combustion of brown coal mass on coal heaps. It describes the procedure “The evaluation of the degree of the danger for the genesis of the spontaneous combustion of coal on coal heaps”. The evaluation includes analysis of important influencing factors. The conclusion of this article contains definite text of the proposition. It will be verified in the last year of the solution of this project TA01020351 – program ALFA.

  17. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  18. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE "KONGORA" - TOMISLAVGRAD COAL FIELD (WEST HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available According to it's energy potential »Kongora« coal field is very important source of energy. Coal strech, spreading and laying and proportion between coal and barren give good presumption for a rentabile surface exploitation. The coal analyses, specially analysis of sulphur content showed, that content of harm component on the update technology level is in permissible limits, and exploitation in thermal power plants will not destroy environment (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Raw Coal Density Affected to Surface Zeta Potential of Muddy and Slime Particle%原煤密度对泥化及煤泥颗粒表面ξ电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晴; 闵凡飞; 刘令云; 李宏亮

    2011-01-01

    The muddy experiment on 50 -0.5 mm different density raw coal from Dingji Coal Preparation Plant of Huainan Mining Area was conducted. The X-ray diffractor and the electrophoresis experiment was individually applied to measure the raw coal mineral composition and the zeta potential on the micro particle surface of the slime. The results showed that the main mineral composition of the raw coal to be prepared would be including quartz, kaolinite, green mudstone and others. The muddy rate of the high density and medium density raw coal was high. In the muddy slime of the +1. 60 g/cmJ raw coal, the -0. 045 mm particles would be the majority and the -0. 025 mm micro particles would be over 90%. With the raw coal density increased and the slime particle reduced, the zeta potential on the micro particle surface of the muddy slime would be reduced in potential. The water hardness, the soluble salt in the raw coal and the particle surface property would have important influence to the zeta potential occurred on the slime micro particle. The zeta potential increased on the slime micro particle surface would cause the particles in the slime water in more stable dispersed state.%对淮南矿区丁集选煤厂50~0.5 mm不同密度级原煤进行了泥化试验,采用X-射线衍射 仪和电泳试验分别对原煤矿物组成和煤泥微细颗粒表面ξ电位进行了测定.结果表明:入选原煤中主要矿物成分有石英、高岭石、绿泥石等;高密度和中间密度级原煤泥化率大,+1.60g/cm3原煤泥化煤泥中-0.045 mm颗粒最多,其中约90%以上为-0.025 mm的微细颗粒;随着原煤密度的增大和煤泥粒度的减小,泥化煤泥微细颗粒表面ξ电位呈减小趋势,水的硬度、原煤中可溶性盐及颗粒表面性质对煤泥微细颗粒ξ电位产生重要影响,微细煤泥颗粒表面ξ电位增大会导致其在煤泥水中处于更加稳定的分散状态.

  20. 水蒸气对褐煤原位气化半焦反应性能及微观结构的影响%Effects of steam on the reactivity and microstructure of char from in-situ gasification of brown coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许修强; 王永刚; 陈国鹏; 陈宗定; 秦中宇; 戴谨泽; 张书; 许德平

    2015-01-01

    为了揭示水蒸气对半焦反应性和微观结构的影响,在自制两段新型反应器上依次进行了褐煤干燥、热解及“热”焦的水蒸气原位气化研究。利用TGA、BET和Raman光谱仪,对原位气化半焦进行反应性和微观结构解析。结果表明,在反应温度为600℃时,水蒸气对半焦转化率、反应性及微观结构影响很小。温度达到700~900℃,在半焦与水蒸气接触的前2 min,虽然半焦转化率变化不大,但其反应性、小环(3~5个芳环)与大环(≥6个环)体系之比及含氧官能团却急剧降低;大于2 min,半焦转化率逐渐增大,反应性、小环与大环之比及含氧官能团缓慢降低;而半焦孔结构在2 min 前后却具有基本一致的变化趋势。半焦与水蒸气接触的前2 min,小环与大环之比和含氧官能团急剧降低是导致反应性显著降低的重要因素,大于2 min,芳环体系的变化是导致反应性进一步降低的原因。%To examine the effects of steam on the char reactivity and its microstructure, experiments of drying and pyrolysis of brown coal as well as the in-situ gasification of"hot" char were carried out in a newly-designed two-stage reactor. The reactivity and microstructure of in-situ gasification char were characterized by TGA, BET and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The results show that at low temperature of 600 ℃, the steam has little effect on the conversion, reactivity and microstructure of char. When it reaches 700~900℃, there are different change trends before and after 2 min of reaction between char and steam. In the first 2 min, the reactivity, the ratio of small aromatic ring systems ( 3 ~5 rings ) to the large fused rings (≥6 rings ) and O-containing functional groups decrease dramatically although the char conversion varies little; after 2 min, however, char conversion increases gradually, char reactivity, the ratio of small to big aromatic ring systems and O-containing functional groups

  1. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  2. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  3. 30 CFR 772.11 - Notice requirements for exploration removing 250 tons of coal or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 250 tons of coal or less. 772.11 Section 772.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... requirements for exploration removing 250 tons of coal or less. (a) Any person who intends to conduct coal exploration operations outside a permit area during which 250 tons or less of coal will be removed,...

  4. Simulation of the interaction of methane, carbon dioxide and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Baisheng; Wang Longkang; Li Xiangchun; Wang Chao; Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Gas adsorption has an important influence on gas flow in a coal body. Research on the characteristics of coal and gas adsorption is the theoretical basis for studying gas flow in coal. In this paper, the interaction between methane, carbon dioxide and surface molecules of anthracite was simulated using the quantum chemistry method. Adsorption energy and adsorption configurations of different quantities of gas mole-cules absorbed on the coal surface were calculated. The results show that adsorption between coal and the two kinds of gas molecules is a physical adsorption process and there is an optimal configuration. Gas molecules are more easily adsorbed in the hydroxyl-containing side chain, while it is difficult for them to be adsorbed at the position of the benzene ring. Besides, carbon dioxide molecules are more readily adsorbed on the coal surface than methane molecules. The findings have an important signifi-cance in revealing the nature of gas adsorption in coal.

  5. Coal face and stockpile ash analyser for the coal mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsaru, M; Dixon, R; Rojc, A; Stehle, R; Jecny, Z

    2001-09-01

    A portable nucleonic instrument was developed for the determination of coal ash on the coal face or the surface of coal stockpiles. The instrument employs the backscattered gamma-gamma technique. There are two gamma-ray sources used in this instrument: a 1.1 MBq 133Ba source as the primary source of radiation and a 37 kBq 137Cs for gain stabilization. The instrument is commercially available.

  6. SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBUSTION OF BOSNIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  7. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  8. Stylistic Analysis of Robert Browning's Poem "Patriot into Traitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumtaz; Irshad, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    The stylistic analysis of Robert Browning's poem "Patriot into Traitor" is done by using graphological, phonological, morphological and lexico-syntactic patterns. This analysis is helpful in decoding the underlying meanings of the poem. It clearly brings to surface what the poet really wants to impart.

  9. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  10. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam.

  11. Projects for introduction of coal-water fuel technique in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papayani, F.A.; Switly, Y.G.; Vlasov, Y.F.; Titov, Y.V.; Khilko, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Dramatic reduction in oil and gas supplies to Ukraine and the lack of its own developed oil production industry considerably raise the significance of coal in the fuel and energy complex of the country. Higher consumption of coal and simultaneous deterioration of its quality, however, come into conflict with environmental regulations, which is most strongly pronounced in such industrial-developed, densely-populated areas as the Donbas. Combustion problems with gas and candle coals are associated with the combustion efficiency and ecology, whereas in the case of brown and lean coals as well as anthracites, a combustion technique is the primary concern, which accounts for quite a limited application of the above coals for power generation. The abundant resources of brown, lean and hard coals in Ukraine create favorable conditions for wide introduction of coal-water fuel (CWF) produced primarily from the above ranks into the national heat and power industry. On the other hand, these coals are the least investigated in terms of a CWF technique. Small studies have been undertaken, but larger studies on a pilot scale are, for the present, economically impossible given the current situation in the Ukraine coal industry.

  12. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  13. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia

    1995-03-01

    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  15. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. In Vitro Prevention of Browning in Plantain Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent C. Onuoha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The in vitro propagation of plantain (Musa paradisiaca is still faced with lots of challenges such as blackening or browning of tissues prior to culture due to the oxidation of phenolic compound by polyphenolic oxidase enzyme present in the tissue when excised. Approach: Understanding browning processes in plantain and possible ways of minimizing it during excision of explants with particular emphasis on the use of antioxidants was purposed. Tissues were surfaced sterilized with 0.1% (w/v HgCL2 for 1-6 min to get a pure culture and then treated for 2 h with different concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mg mL- of potassium citrate and citrate (K-C: C as an antioxidant to check browning while sterile distilled water was used as control. Results and Conclusion: The result showed that contamination free culture (100% was achieved in the explants treated with HgCL2 for 6 min. Also the various concentration of K-C: C prevented browning within 2 h before culturing the tissues inferring that browning in young plantain excised tissue can be greatly reduced by presoaking or pretreatment with antioxidant solution of potassium citrate-citrate before culturing them.

  17. 地面抽采与井下抽采煤层气成本分析研究%Study on Cost Analysis of Coal Bed Methane from Surface Borehole Gas Drainage and Underground Mine Gas Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成

    2013-01-01

    为对比研究地面抽采煤层气成本与井下抽采瓦斯成本,以焦坪矿区下石节井田地面煤层气试验井储层测试参数和历史排采数据为基础,利用目前国际上较为先进的煤层气储层数值模拟软件CBM-SIM,对煤层气井的产能和抽采效果进行了预测分析,进而研究分析了在达到同样抽采效果的前提下,地面抽采与井下抽采煤层气的成本费用.结果显示:为了使瓦斯含量降至1 m3/t以下,地面抽采需要12.5a,成本9.09元/t;井下抽采成本16元/t,地面抽采成本远远低于井下抽采.%In order to compare and study the cost of the coal bed methane from the surface borehole gas drainage and the underground mine gas drainage,based on the reservoir measured parameters of the surface coal bed methane test well and the historical gas drainage data of Xiashijie Minefield in Jiaoping Mining Area as a base,with the application of the international advanced coal bed methane reservoir numerical simulation software CBM-SIM,a prediction analysis was conducted on the production capacity and the gas drainage effect of the coal bed methane well.On the premise of same gas drainage effect reached,the cost of the surface borehole gas drainage and underground mine gas drainage were studied and analyzed.The results showed that in order to make the gas content reduced to below 1 m3/t,the surface gas drainage would need 12.5 year,the cost would be 9.09 RMB/t.The underground mine gas drainage cost would be 16 RMB/t and the surface gas drainage cost would be far less than the underground mine gas drainage cost.

  18. Water produced with coal-bed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas produced from coal beds (coal-bed methane, CBM) accounts for about 7.5 percent of the total natural gas production in the United States. Along with this gas, water is also brought to the surface. The amount of water produced from most CBM wells is relatively high compared to conventional natural gas wells because coal beds contain many fractures and pores that can contain and transmit large volumes of water. In some areas, coal beds may function as regional or local aquifers and important sources for ground water. The water in coal beds contributes to pressure in the reservoir that keeps methane gas adsorbed to the surface of the coal. This water must be removed by pumping in order to lower the pressure in the reservoir and stimulate desorption of methane from the coal (fi g. 1). Over time, volumes of pumped water typically decrease and the production of gas increases as coal beds near the well bore are dewatered.

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  1. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  7. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  8. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  9. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  12. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-16

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2016.

  13. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-30

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2015.

  14. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  15. Permeability variation characteristics of coal after injecting carbon dioxide into a coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xiaoming; Li Quanzhong; Wang Yanbin; Gao Shasha

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the optimization of carbon dioxide injection parameters and the development of the drainage system can be provided by identifying the permeability change characteristic of coal and rock after injection of carbon dioxide into the coal seam. Sihe, Yuwu, and Changcun mines were used as research sites. Scanning electron microscopy and permeability instruments were used to measure coal properties such as permeability and surface structure of the coal samples at different pH values of carbon dioxide solution and over different timescales. The results show that the reaction between minerals in coal and carbonate solution exhibit positive and negative aspects of permeability-the dissolution reaction between carbonate minerals in coal and acid solution improves the conductivity of coal whilst, on the other hand, the clay minerals in the coal (mainly including montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite) exhibit expansion as a result of ion exchange with the H+in acid solution, which has a negative effect on the per-meability of the coal. The permeability of coal samples increased at first and then decreased with immer-sion time, and when the soaking time is 2–3 months the permeability of the coal reached a maximum. In general, for coals with permeabilities less than 0.2 mD or greater than 2 mD, the effect on the permeabil-ity is low;when the permeability of the coal is in the range 0.2–2 mD, the effect on the permeability is highest. Research into permeability change characteristics can provide a theoretical basis for carbon diox-ide injection under different reservoir permeability conditions and subsequent drainage.

  16. Liquefaction/solubilization processes of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization have been studied in this work. The first one is the mechanisms implicated on coal transformation. During coal solubilization, fungal cells produced extracellular peroxidase, esterase and some times phenol oxidase enzymes which appear to be involved in solubilization. Moreover, the analysis of liquefaction/solubilization products was done. In this regard, a reduction on the average size of humic acids derived from lignite was observed, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. Finally, microorganisms showed a specific adherence to the coal surface, that seems to promote the microbial attack to coal. (orig.)

  17. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  18. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  19. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  20. Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, E. [GeoBioTec, Geobiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoengineering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Li, Z.; Ward, C. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flores, D. [Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    Serrinha is the largest coal waste pile resulting from mining activities in the Douro Coalfield, Portugal. The exploitation of anthracite in tens of small mines caused some environmental impacts, as is the case of the coal waste piles that exist in old mines and adjacent areas. The Serrinha waste pile is essentially made up of 2 million tonnes of shales and carbonaceous shales, deposited in a topographical depression over about 30 years. Despite the environmental restoration accomplished in the Serrinha waste pile, some environmental problems seem to persist. In this study a petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization was done in order to recognize and understand these problems. The materials studied were coal waste, sediments and waters from the drainage system and decanting basins, soils from the surrounding areas, leachates from waste material and neoformed minerals formed at the bottom of the waste pile. The main lithologies (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenite) and coal from the Douro Coalfield were also analyzed. Petrographic analysis shows some evidence of weathering (on organic and inorganic matter) related to the time of exposure to the weathering agents and the easy access of air within the waste pile (due to both the poor compaction and the heterogeneity of the material). Mineralogically, the composition of coal waste material has contributions from both the coal and the associated lithologies. R-type cluster analysis of the waste pile material allows two distinct clusters to be identified. In the first cluster a sulfide fraction is represented by the association of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, while Fe clustered with Al, Co, and Ti indicates that some of the Fe and the other elements are likely associated with silicate minerals such as clays. The second cluster, represented by Cr, V, Zr, Rb, REE, Mn, Li and Ba, probably represent a silicate fraction, perhaps detrital accessory minerals. The waste pile material, leachates, soils

  1. Radiocesium Adsorption By Zeolitic Materials Synthesized From Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remenárová Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown coal fly ash derived from the combustion of brown-coal in power plant ENO Nováky (Slovak Republic was used as raw material for synthesis of zeolitic materials ZM1 and ZM3 by hydrothermal alternation with 1M NaOH and 3M NaOH, respectively. Fly ash and synthesized products were characterized using XRF and SEM-EDX analysis. Subsequently, zeolitic materials were tested as sorbents to remove Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions using radiotracer technique. Sorption of cesium by both types of zeolitic materials obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacities Qmax at pH 6.0 calculated from Langmuir isotherm were 1203 ± 65 μmol Cs+/ g for ZM1 and 1341 ± 66 μmol Cs+/ g for ZM3. The results showed that alkali treated fly ash can be used as effective sorbent for radiocesium removal from contaminated solutions

  2. X-ray emission from the young brown dwarfs of the Taurus molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N.; Briggs, K. R.; Güdel, M.; Guieu, S.; Franciosini, E.; Palla, F.; Dougados, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Ménard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Audard, M.; Telleschi, A.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We report the X-ray properties of young (~3 Myr) bona fide brown dwarfs of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC). Methods: The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the TMC (XEST) is a large program designed to systematically investigate the X-ray properties of young stellar/substellar objects in the TMC. In particular, the area surveyed by 15 XMM-Newton pointings (of which three are archival observations), supplemented with one archival Chandra observation, allows us to study 17 brown dwarfs with M spectral types. Results: Half of this sample (9 out of 17 brown dwarfs) is detected; 7 brown dwarfs are detected here for the first time in X-rays. We observed a flare from one brown dwarf. We confirm several previous findings on brown dwarf X-ray activity: a log-log relation between X-ray and bolometric luminosity for stars (with L* ≤ 10 L_⊙) and brown dwarfs detected in X-rays, which is consistent with a mean X-ray fractional luminosity =-3.5 ± 0.4; for the XEST brown dwarfs, the median of log(L_X/L_*) (including upper limits) is -4.0; a shallow log-log relation between X-ray fractional luminosity and mass; a log-log relation between X-ray fractional luminosity and effective temperature; a log-log relation between X-ray surface flux and effective temperature. We find no significant log-log correlation between the X-ray fractional luminosity and EW(Hα). Accreting and nonaccreting brown dwarfs have a similar X-ray fractional luminosity. The median X-ray fractional luminosity of nonaccreting brown dwarfs is about 4 times lower than the mean saturation value for rapidly rotating low-mass field stars. Our TMC brown dwarfs have higher X-ray fractional luminosity than brown dwarfs in the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. Conclusions: The X-ray fractional luminosity declines from low-mass stars to M-type brown dwarfs, and as a sample, the brown dwarfs are less efficient X-ray emitters than low-mass stars. We thus conclude that while the brown dwarf atmospheres observed here are

  3. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R M; Furlong, M W

    1981-05-01

    Colorado School of Mines is engaged in an experimental program to develop comprehensive models for the effects of coal composition upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, for the effects of mineral matter additives (disposable catalysts) upon kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, and for the kinetics and mechanisms of the hydrogenation of coal derived products such as preasphaltenes, and asphaltenes. Experimental work was completed on a suite of bituminous coals, thus completing the initial phase of the coal reactivity study. Eleven of the 14 coals of the suite were successfully run in duplicate. Conversion to THF solubles was correlated well by pseudo-second order kinetics. The resulting kinetic rate constants correlated with H/C ratio, mean-max vitrinite reflectance, and a specially-defined fraction of reactive macerals. The data did not correlate well with O/C ratios of the parent coals. Computer-derived statistical fits of various kinetic models were limited in their effectiveness at fitting the experimental data. Experimental work on the first phase of the disposal catalyst studies was completed. Statistical significance testing of the experimental data showed: fractional conversion and yield of light hydrocarbon products increased with time; and mineral properties of the additives were more significant in increasing overall conversion than the additive surface areas. The relative effects of the additives are given.

  4. Thermal reactions of polymer chains with coal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Straka; J. Nahunkova [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics

    2003-07-01

    The thermal decompositions of polyethylene, polystyrene and polyamide 6 in the presence of coal was studied by DSC and TGA methods and reactions of these polymers with coal were described. Tars and cokes obtained were characterized and mass balance of the process expressed. Polyethylene decomposes by a free radical mechanism and the major products are 1-alkenes, {alpha},{omega}-alkadienes and n-alkanes. In the presence of coal, formed unsaturated products are adsorbed on the inner surface of coal and semicoke. Maximum weight losses of the coal-polyethylene mixture occur at higher temperature in comparison with that from the decomposition of polyethylene alone. Further, thermal reactions of coal with polystyrene were studied. In the range of 410 490{sup o}C a thermal degradation of coal proceeded, simultaneously, with decomposition of polystyrene. Because coal is a strong H-donor, unsaturated products of polystyrene decomposition (mainly styrene) was hydrogenated by coal. Some aromatic products of polystyrene decomposition reacted with the coal tar structures and new aromatics were formed. That is why the conversion time of polystyrene decomposition was much higher in the presence of coal. The yields of tar from copyrolysis with styrene polymers are higher in comparison with pyrolysis of coal alone. Also composition of tar is changed. Finally, reactions of coal with polyamide 6 were investigated. During the thermal degradation of coal the decomposition of polyamide 6 occurs and {epsilon}-caprolactam and the cyclic dimer are formed. The {epsilon}-caprolactam formation is promoted by water and hydrogen from coal degradation as due to high content of hydrogen coal acts as a strong H- and water donor. Under high-temperature conditions of copyrolysis beside a-caprolactam mainly carbon oxides, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, simple aromatics and stable oil are formed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  6. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  7. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  8. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  9. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  10. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  11. Forward and Inverse Modeling of Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Jonathan

    Ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), here defined as the L, T, and Y spectral classes, consist of the lowest mass stars and the substellar brown dwarfs. Over 1200 are currently known, from effective temperatures of 2400 K down to "room temperature" objects of 300 K. Observations of UCDs show tremendous diversity in their spectral characteristics. However, factors such as metallicity, non-solar C/O ratios, surface gravity, vertical mixing efficiency, cloud levels, and cloud thickness remain largely unexplored within atmosphere models. This leads to a very limited understanding of the physical and chemical causes of brown dwarf diversity. One of the main motivations of this proposal is to greatly expand the kinds of modeling efforts that we envision for UCD science to obtain fundamentally new insights from the spectra of several hundred objects. First, we will expand our self-consistent grids of combined atmosphere and evolution models. With this traditional approach we can test the sensitivity of synthetic spectra of changes in parameters like surface gravity, cloud thickness, partial cloudiness, cloud particle size, and vertical mixing efficiency. Second, we will use powerful retrieval techniques to invert the model-to-data comparison problem. These Bayesian techniques allow the inference of P-T profile structure and molecular abundances, directly from the data. The first target populations are benchmark brown dwarfs, which have a well-studied main sequence companion, and where metallicity, age, and even mass can be independently constrained. The second is the 500+ UCDs across all spectral types that have NIR spectra already in hand in the SpeX spectral library. The third population is brown dwarfs that are variable in emission. This work is directly relevant to the NASA Astrophysics Theory (ATP) program. The proposed falls within the ATP scope of "Stellar Astrophysics and Exoplanets," which specifically includes brown dwarfs. The current proposal both facilitates "the

  12. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  13. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  14. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  15. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  16. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Maddingley, Isolated from Coal-Seam Gas Formation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Bradbury, Mark I; Midgley, David J; Hendry, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium sp. Maddingley was isolated as an axenic culture from a brown coal-seam formation water sample collected from Victoria, Australia. It lacks the solventogenesis genes found in closely related clostridial strains. Metabolic reconstructions suggest that volatile fatty acids are the main fermentation end products.

  18. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  19. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  20. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  1. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  2. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  3. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  5. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  6. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  7. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  9. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  10. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  11. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Meeting processing challenges in clean coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Barnwal, J.P. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The paper identifies some of the major challenges facing processing for clean coal utilization today. Some of the ongoing research at Southern Illinois University in the areas of plant optimization, fine coal cleaning and dewatering, fine coal-water slurry combustion, development of multiple products and mine-mouth utilization for lower grade products, and co-management of coal processing wastes and coal combustion byproducts underground, or as a cover material suitable for vegetation in surface mine reclamation is approaching commercialization. Additional research has been initiated recently in low cost desulfurization for SOx reduction, and/or reducing scrubbing costs. An integrated approach to evaluating processing unit operation for enhancing overall profitability of a mining complex is paying dividends. The approach is a good tool to assess role of processing for clean coal utilization in any setting. The authors have attempted to demonstrate its use for Indian coals. They plan to develop a computer program for making this integrated assessment approach more user friendly. 33 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  14. Effect of several structural features in coal on its tendency to reduce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' eva, E.A.; Bakirova, E.V.; Lesnikova, E.B.; Larina, N.K.; Zharova, M.N.; Dzhalyabova, L.V.

    1981-07-01

    Relationship between the tendency of coal to be reduced and the nature and quantity of the ether and organo-mineral bonds in the structure of coals is studied. The purpose of the study was to determine the intensity of the reaction during coal hydrogenation. Sodium borhydrate was used as a reducing agent because of its selective action on carbonyl groups and because of the possibility of describing the nature of hydrolyzed bonds in coal which form carbonyl groups. By hydrolysis of hard and brown coals and subsequent selective reduction, the effect of various carbonyl groups and organo-mineral bonds formed as a result of the destruction of ether groupings and carbon to carbon cross linkages were demonstrated. (17 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Study of oxidative desulphurization process of coal with different metamorphism degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SPYSH'YEV; V GUNKA; YPRYSIAZHNYI; K SHEVCHUK; A PATTEK-JANCZYK

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative desulphurization process of coal with different metamorphism degrees treated by an air-steam mixture has been studied.It has been shown that the pyrite present in black coal and anthracite is oxidized with the sulphur dioxide formation,and the process chemical mechanism does not depend on the quality of organic matter.The medium-metamorphized coal,capable of turning into a plastic state and cake in the range of investigated temperatures ( 350 ~ 450 ℃ ),is desulphurized with the greatest difficulty.The chemical mechanism dealing with the transformations of pyritic sulphur present in brown coal differs from similar processes taking place in black coal and anthracite,because FeS2 is converted with hydrogen sulphide formation at desulphurization.

  16. Hydrogen production by coal plasma gasification for fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvita, V. [Max-Planck-Institute, Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany); Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Research Department of Plasmotechnics, 22 Zvereva str., 050100 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-11-15

    Coal gasification in steam and air atmosphere under arc plasma conditions has been investigated with Podmoskovnyi brown coal, Kuuchekinski bituminous coal and Canadian petrocoke. It was found that for those coals the gasification degree to synthesis gas were 92.3%, 95.8 and 78.6% correspondingly. The amount of produced syngas was 30-40% higher in steam than in air gasification of the coal. The reduction of the carbon monoxide content in the hydrogen-rich reformate gas for low-temperature fuel cell applications normally involves high- and low-temperature water gas shift reactors followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. It is shown that the carbon monoxide content can be reduced in one single reactor, which is based on an iron redox cycle. During the reduction phase of the cycle, the raw gas mixture of H{sub 2} and CO reduces a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sample, while during the oxidation phase steam re-oxidizes the iron and simultaneously hydrogen is being produced. The integration of the redox iron process with a coal plasma gasification technology in future allows the production of CO{sub x}-free hydrogen. (author)

  17. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  18. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  19. Evaluation of a novel fine coal dry cleaning process at Greenfields Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratton, R.; Luttrell, G.; Kasindorf, H.; McGraw, G.; Robbins, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining and processing operations have in the past and continue to create large tonnages of fine coal and waste particles. While technological advances in wet processing has made it possible to efficiently recover coal fines, difficulties associated with dewatering make these fine particles unattractive economically for most coal markets. A novel system has been developed for cleaning fine raw coal utilizing a multistage dry classification process that removes the clay particles that are typically much smaller than the majority of the clean coal particles and that reduces the product surface moisture to as low as 1%. In this article, the novel dry coal-cleaning process under license to Greenfields Coal Company was evaluated. The classification process offers a viable alternative to traditional wet processing and dewatering of the fine particles, especially for operations recovering abandoned impoundments where a sufficient water source and/or a waste slurry disposal site are unavailable. This article presents the separation performance and operating results obtained from field testing with a 2t/hr pilot-scale unit located at an abandoned impoundment in southern West Virginia.

  20. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  1. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  2. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  3. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  4. Behavior of South Yakutsk coals during prolonged stockpiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkulin, I.Ya.; Gebler, I.I.; Tager, A.N.; Panteleev, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    When brought to the surface, coal starts to react with atmospheric oxygen, leading to irreversible structural changes in the coal substance and a gradual change in every property. Above all, oxidation causes a deterioration in caking capacity and coking properties, which largely determine the technological value of coals as a raw material for the production of metallurgical coke. These problems are very acute for the South Yakutsk coalfield, which holds major reserves of high-grade coking coals and is starting to be developed in certain areas such as Neryungrinsk. Limiting stockpiling periods have been established on the basis of special research and practical experience for various types of coals from the well-known USSR coalfields (Donbas, Kuzbas, Karaganda), but no such information is available on South Yakutsk coals apart from some references to their unusually high oxidation resistance. Coals can oxidize at various rates after their extraction, depending on many factors including rank, petrographic constitution, degree of comminution during mining and conditions at the stockpile (temperature, humidity, etc.). During stockpiling, the smaller coal particles oxidize more rapidly than the larger, by reason of their greater specific surface area; hence, the caking capacity of the fines (<1 mm) from a homogeneous vitrinite coal is always below that of the lump coals.As the ambient temperature and humidity of the stockpile are raised, oxidation proceeds more rapidly. It is greatly inhibited at subzero temperatures. As a result of experiments, it was found that: (1) coals in the South Yakutsk coalfield are exceptionally resistant to oxidation; (2) it is possible to establish substantial reserves in the stockyards of coal cleaning and processing undertakings; and (3) samples of South Yakutsk coals remain representative (for normal standard analytical and testing purposes) over a storage period up to 1 year.

  5. Induced polarization signature of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Revil, André; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Deming

    2017-03-01

    Coal seam fires are a worldwide disaster of both ecological and economic importance. Their remote detection from the ground surface or using airborne techniques is required for developing efficient strategies to extinguish them. We investigate here the use of time-domain-induced polarization to localize coal seam fires. For laboratory experiments, we first introduce a modified time-domain-induced polarization methodology to quickly acquire and invert the secondary voltage distribution mapped after the shutdown of the primary current. A set of sandbox experiments is conducted in which coal is embedded into humidified sand. Raw coal alone generates significant induced polarization anomalies, above those shown by the sand. Even higher induced polarization anomalies are detected in presence of a coal seam fire. We postulate that the higher chargeability is due to the pyrolysis, which may enhance electronic polarization or the polarization associated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the material. The position of the coal seam fire is well recovered inside the tank by inverting the secondary voltages in term of a source current density distribution. We also collected field data over a recognized coal seam fire in Colorado, USA. A chargeability anomaly (˜800 mV V-1) and a resistivity anomaly (˜1 Ohm m) are observed at the position of the coal seam fire. We propose a normalized burning front index (a scaled normalized chargeability) to image and localize, without ambiguity, the position of the coal seam fire in the subsurface. The 3-D reconstructed target is located below a negative self-potential anomaly (similarly to what is observed in laboratory experiments) and a temperature anomaly recorded at a depth of 30 cm.

  6. The CIS coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The presentations (overhead/viewgraphs) include: the impacts of EU environmental legislation on Russian coal market (A. Sankovski); how Caterpillar and Cat dealers create value in the global mining industry (D. Mohr); new coal preparation technology and application in the Russian coal market (D. Morris); UK demand outlook and import growth (G. Parker); new technologies in blasting operations and services (J. Petzold and others); a global bank's view of the coal sector (M. Seleznev); ELGA coal deposit, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (M. Tsikanov); Russia's economic outlook (P. Forrest); Renaissance Capital (investment bank) (R. Edwards); Russian coal for Korean gencos (S. Kim); and coking coal in Ukraine (V. Khilko).

  7. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  8. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  9. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.-G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene to Jurassic sediments and a set of of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. Aromatized derivatives were the major components, consisting of one or two aromatic ring species with the abietane and occasionally pimarane skeletons. The saturated structures were comprised primarily of the abietane and pimarane skeletons having from three to five carbon (C1, C2, etc.) substituents. Kaurane and phyllocladane isomers were present in only minor amounts. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids as saturated and partial or fully aromatized forms were also common in these samples, but only traces of sesterterpenoids and triterpenoid derivatives were found. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the

  10. Failure probability analysis of coal crushing induced by uncertainty of influential parameters under condition of in-situ reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立松; 闫相祯; 杨秀娟; 田中兰; 杨恒林

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainties of some key influence factors on coal crushing, such as rock strength, pore pressure and magnitude and orientation of three principal stresses, can lead to the uncertainty of coal crushing and make it very difficult to predict coal crushing under the condition of in-situ reservoir. To account for the uncertainty involved in coal crushing, a deterministic prediction model of coal crushing under the condition of in-situ reservoir was established based on Hoek-Brown criterion. Through this model, key influence factors on coal crushing were selected as random variables and the corresponding probability density functions were determined by combining experiment data and Latin Hypercube method. Then, to analyze the uncertainty of coal crushing, the first- order second-moment method and the presented model were combined to address the failure probability involved in coal crushing analysis. Using the presented method, the failure probabilities of coal crushing were analyzed for WS5-5 well in Ningwu basin, China, and the relations between failure probability and the influence factors were furthermore discussed. The results show that the failure probabilities of WS5-5 CBM well vary from 0.6 to 1.0; moreover, for the coal seam section at depth of 784.3-785 m, the failure probabilities are equal to 1, which fit well with experiment results; the failure probability of coal crushing presents nonlinear growth relationships with the increase of principal stress difference and the decrease of uniaxial compressive strength.

  11. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. I - Humic Substances and Chemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After open coal mining, soils are “constructed”, which usually contain low levels and quality of organic matter (OM. Therefore, the use of plant species for revegetation and reclamation of degraded areas is essential. This study evaluated the distribution of carbon (C in the chemical fractions as well as the chemical characteristics and humification degree of OM in a soil constructed after coal mining under cultivation of perennial grasses. The experiment was established in 2003 with the following treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactilon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. In 2009, soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.03 m layer and the total organic carbon stock (TOC and C stock in the chemical fractions: acid extract (CHCl, fulvic acid (CFA, humic acid (CHA, and humin (CHU were determined. The humic acid (HA fraction was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the laser-induced fluorescence index (ILIF of OM was also calculated. After six years, differences were only observed in the CHA stocks, which were highest in T1 (0.89 Mg ha-1 and T4 (1.06 Mg ha-1. The infrared spectra of HA in T1, T2 and T4 were similar to T6, with greater contribution of aliphatic organic compounds than in the other treatments. In this way, ILIF decreased in the sequence T5>T3>T4>T1>T2>T6, indicating higher OM humification in T3 and T5 and more labile OM in the other treatments. Consequently, the potential of OM quality recovery in the constructed soil was greatest in treatments T1 and T4.

  12. HST Spectral Mapping of L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs Reveals Cloud Thickness Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Apai, Daniel; Buenzli, Esther; Burrows, Adam; Reid, Iain N; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with ...

  13. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  14. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  15. 78 FR 41946 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale Maysdorf II North, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... and coal bed natural gas wells have been drilled on the tract. The estimate of the bonus value of the... production of the natural gas when the wells are bought out by the coal lessee. Most of the surface estate of... mineable seam. The average total coal thickness is approximately 69 feet and the range of...

  16. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  17. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  18. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  19. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  20. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  1. 76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...-way as required by typical mining practices. The total mineable stripping ratio of the coal in bank... to be offered consists of all reserves recoverable by surface mining methods in the following... reserves in the Wyodak- Anderson coal zone currently being recovered in the adjacent, existing mine. On...

  2. Planning of excavation of seams characterized by complicated structure with the aim of coal mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, Yu.I.; Pushkin, S.P. (Kievskii Inzhenerno-Stroitel' nyi Institut (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Discusses use of mathematical modeling for optimization of surface mining in mines with a complicated coal deposit structure and changing coal quality. The modeling is aimed at stabilizing coal quality, especially ash content. Surface mines with bucket wheel excavators for overburden removal and mining and locomotives and railroad cars for mine haulage are modeled. The mines supply 2 classes of coal: with 47% ash and with 55%. The modeling is aimed at determining optimum advance rates of the bucket wheel excavators. Effects of mine haulage system, coal yard capacity, coal seam structure, fluctuations of coal quality in a coal deposit, requirements for optimum geometry of the working faces, benches and other elements that influence slope stability are considered. 2 refs.

  3. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  4. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  5. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  6. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Mineral and Mineral Process Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Selective flocculation tests were run on three types of coal and three additives in tests on a new hydrophobic agglomeration process using hydrophobic latices. The coals differed widely in surface wettability. The additives were hydrophobic latexes, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant, and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte. The results show that coal wettability is very important in selective flocculation. UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated hydrophobic coal particles only, while the polyelectrolyte flocculated all the coal samples and minerals that were tested. Tests of oil agglomeration using kerosene emulsified with surfactants of various ionic properties show that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated, if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. The hydrophobic latex and emulsified oils also significantly increase filtration rate and reduce filter cake moisture content.

  7. 78 FR 59424 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI On September 6, 2013, Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) filed with the Surface Transportation Board a petition...

  8. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid and L-cysteine on the inhibition of enzymatic browning of yacon, using Response Surface Methodology. The yacon pre-treated with anti-browning agents in concentrations of 15.0 mM for ascorbic acid, 7.5 mM for citric acid and 10.0 mM for L-cysteine was used for the processing of flour. Yacon flour presented an attractive color and good sensory properties, without residual aroma. The contents of FOS and phenolic compounds obtained in yacon flour were 28.60 g.100 g- 1 and 1.35 g.100 g- 1. Yacon flour can be considered as a potential functional food, especially due to high levels of FOS, which allows for its use in formulation of various foods.

  9. Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories. The information reported is for Apr-Jun 1993. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the PETC Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. The objective of the kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion task is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. This data base on the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals will permit identification of important fuel-specific trends and development of predictive capabilities for advanced coal combustion systems. The objective of the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion task is the establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of inorganic material during coal combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of inorganic species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition. In addition, optical diagnostic capabilities are being developed for in situ, real-time detection of inorganic vapor species and surface species during ash deposition. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. 燃煤电站锅炉碳化硅质卫燃带表面结渣行为%Slagging Behavior on Surface of Carborundum-based Refractory Liner in a Coal-fired Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金桥; 鄢晓忠; 陈冬林

    2011-01-01

    采用扫描电镜、能谱分析仪和X射线衍射等方法对燃煤电站锅炉SiC质卫燃带上结渣的渣样进行了测试,并就渣样的形貌、结晶物相转化特性及其渣样成分分布进行了分析研究.结果表明:煤颗粒的不充分燃烧造成碱性金属阳离子向SiC耐火板侧发生扩散,但难以穿过耐火板表层的SiO2保护膜,从而与SiC质卫燃带通过机械结合的方式相互黏结在一起;方晶石和鳞石英易与耐火板发生熔融冶金结合,形成较强的黏结作用,但是耐火板处熔融的片状鳞石英和方晶石含量较少,因此渣、板之间总体的黏结作用较弱.%In order to study the coal ash slagging behavior on surface of carborundum-based refractory liner in a coal-fired boiler, slag samples taking from the liner were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction(XRD), during which the specific morphology, phase transformation and component distribution were analyzed. Results show that the in- complete combustion of pulverized coal makes alkaline metal ion diffuse to the refractory liner, which then sticks on the liner mechanically, because it is hard to permeate through the SiO2 protective film covering the liner. Metallurgical bonding lies between the cristobalite/tridymite and the liner, and the bonding be- tween plate-like tridymite and the liner is very strong. Since the content of plate-like tridymite in the slag is very little, so the comprehesive bonding force is relatively weak between the slag and the liner.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of coal grinding in terms of coal water slurry preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal Water Slurry (CWS is a specific form of solid fuel. It occurs in the form of finely ground coal particles and water. Depending on the use, the content of combustible matter is from 40 to 70% by weight. The attractiveness of the fuel is primarily its properties, i.e. liquid form, high energy efficiency (for water evaporation 4% energy is used – for CSW with 70% concentration of coal, decreased environmental impurities (lower NOx emission and reduced risk of explosion. The advantages of CWS fuels, the possibility of independence from petrochemical fuels, wide availability of coal and emphasis on the use of cleaner technologies are the driving force for development of slurry fuel technologies. The major parameters characterizing the fuel suspension are: solid phase concentration (share of coal in the slurry expressed as either weight or volume fraction of dry coal, time stability (resistance to delamination and separation of the dispersed phase from the continuous phase and viscosity, determining the flow of suspension. The mentioned parameters are dependent on the susceptibility of coal for production of aqueous suspensions (slurrability, conditioned by natural properties of coal, such as: coalification degree, petrographic composition and surface properties. They are also dependent on the slurry fuel preparation process: particle size, solid phase concentration, used additives (stabilizing and dispersion agents and modification of primary coal properties (ash removal, change of surface properties. Preparation of sustainable, high concentrated CWS fuel coal is promoted by the hydrophobic nature of the coal surface, characteristic for coals of higher coalification. A great technological problem is to obtain a highly concentrated coal slurry fuel from less coalified hydrophilic steam coals. The paper presents the results of lab scale research on the CWS prepared from Polish steam coal by wet grinding in mill drum and vibrating. The milling

  12. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  13. Coal: ditching the dirt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.

    2006-01-01

    At the time when the British government is considering building new nuclear power plants, this article gives an overview of how the coal industry has been developing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase combustion efficiency which make coal a more attractive power source that should not be overlooked. Technologies mentioned include integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed combustion, low NOx burners, and combustion control. Research is under way on capturing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Use of fly ash in cement manufacture help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Clean coal technologies in the UK are supported by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, the World Coal Institute and the Coal Research Forum. 3 photos. 3 figs.

  14. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  15. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  16. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  18. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. CLEANER ENERGY FROM COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-MilenaTĂTAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing demand for coal, particularly in the developing world, the use of low emission coal technologies becomes increasingly important if international targets on climate change are to be achieved. The two principal avenues for reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power generation are through use of high efficiency, low emission power plantsand carbon capture, use and storage.

  20. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and

  1. Attachment of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells on coal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu-Yu Chen; Skidmore, D.R.

    1988-03-01

    Attachment of the thermophilic microorganism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was studied on Kentucky No. 9 coal, an Ohio coal mixtures, Ohio No. 6, a European coal designated as Sulzer coal, activated carbon and iron pyrite to define the effects of initial cell density, prior acid leaching, pyrite content, and surface area on rate and extent of preleaching attachment. The results showed that the rate of preleaching attachment was so high that equilibrium was reached in less than 5 min in most cases. Attached cells increased in number with increasing initial cell density. Prior nitric acid leaching of coal reduced the extent of cell adsorption while hydrochloric acid leaching did not affect cell attachment. Some adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuir model. The specific adsorption (cells/cm/sup 3/ coal) increased with increasing surface areas measured by nitrogen adsorption. Pyrite gave the highest extent of cell attachment based on per unit surface area comparison. Adsorption isotherms of a pyrite-selective chemical adsorbate revealed that preleaching attachment of cells was affected further by altered surface properties of the coals and that the concept of selective attachment of cells on pyrite surfaces was also supported. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  3. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  4. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  5. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  6. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  7. Improving radar interferometry for monitoring fault-related surface deformation: Applications for the Roer Valley Graben and coal mine induced displacements in the southern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro Cuenca, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radar interferometry (InSAR) is a valuable tool to measure surface motion. Applying time series techniques such as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), InSAR is able to provide surface displacements maps with mm-precision. However, InSAR can still be further optimized, e.g. by exploiting spati

  8. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  9. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql (EPA); (Bangladesh); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  10. East coast coal still making history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    2006-09-15

    The Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources offered several small surface strip mine leases for bids, but discontinued the practice because of complaints from the public. Pioneer Coal Ltd. is planning a surface coal mine and reclamation project at Prince mine, Point Aconi, Cape Breton. Although the environment assessment application for the mine received provincial approval in 2005, the $1.6 million development still faces public opposition. In New Brunswick, NB Coal Limited is operating the Salmon Harbour Mine at Minto. The annual production of about 150,000 tons is consumed by the Grand Lake thermal generating station. The mine was to be shut down in 2004, but the economic costs are favourable; so despite a strip ratio of 56 to 1, it is planned to continue mining the seam until 2010. The Xstrata Donkin Mine Development Alliance and three partners are conducting a feasibility study of development of the Donkin coal resource block in Cape Breton. The block contains an estimated 200 million tonnes of metallurgical and thermal coal. 1 photo.

  11. Important fossil source contribution to brown carbon in Beijing during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Bosch, Carme; Andersson, August; Desyaterik, Yury; Sullivan, Amy P.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; He, Kebin; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) constitutes a substantial fraction of fine particles and affects both human health and climate. It is becoming clear that OA absorbs light substantially (hence termed Brown Carbon, BrC), adding uncertainties to global aerosol radiative forcing estimations. The few current radiative-transfer and chemical-transport models that include BrC primarily consider sources from biogenic and biomass combustion. However, radiocarbon fingerprinting here clearly indicates that light-absorbing organic carbon in winter Beijing, the capital of China, is mainly due to fossil sources, which contribute the largest part to organic carbon (OC, 67 ± 3%) and its sub-constituents (water-soluble OC, WSOC: 54 ± 4%, and water-insoluble OC, WIOC: 73 ± 3%). The dual-isotope (Δ14C/δ13C) signatures, organic molecular tracers and Beijing-tailored emission inventory identify that this fossil source is primarily from coal combustion activities in winter, especially from the residential sector. Source testing on Chinese residential coal combustion provides direct evidence that intensive coal combustion could contribute to increased light-absorptivity of ambient BrC in Beijing winter. Coal combustion is an important source to BrC in regions such as northern China, especially during the winter season. Future modeling of OA radiative forcing should consider the importance of both biomass and fossil sources. PMID:28266611

  12. Important fossil source contribution to brown carbon in Beijing during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Bosch, Carme; Andersson, August; Desyaterik, Yury; Sullivan, Amy P.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; He, Kebin; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-03-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) constitutes a substantial fraction of fine particles and affects both human health and climate. It is becoming clear that OA absorbs light substantially (hence termed Brown Carbon, BrC), adding uncertainties to global aerosol radiative forcing estimations. The few current radiative-transfer and chemical-transport models that include BrC primarily consider sources from biogenic and biomass combustion. However, radiocarbon fingerprinting here clearly indicates that light-absorbing organic carbon in winter Beijing, the capital of China, is mainly due to fossil sources, which contribute the largest part to organic carbon (OC, 67 ± 3%) and its sub-constituents (water-soluble OC, WSOC: 54 ± 4%, and water-insoluble OC, WIOC: 73 ± 3%). The dual-isotope (Δ14C/δ13C) signatures, organic molecular tracers and Beijing-tailored emission inventory identify that this fossil source is primarily from coal combustion activities in winter, especially from the residential sector. Source testing on Chinese residential coal combustion provides direct evidence that intensive coal combustion could contribute to increased light-absorptivity of ambient BrC in Beijing winter. Coal combustion is an important source to BrC in regions such as northern China, especially during the winter season. Future modeling of OA radiative forcing should consider the importance of both biomass and fossil sources.

  13. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  14. National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

  15. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. II - Physical Compartments and Carbon Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils constructed after mining often have low carbon (C stocks and low quality of organic matter (OM. Cover crops are decisive for the recovery process of these stocks, improving the quality of constructed soils. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on total organic C (TOC stocks, C distribution in physical fractions of OM and the C management index (CMI of a soil constructed after coal mining. The experiment was initiated in 2003 with six treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactylon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. Soil samples were collected in 2009 from the 0.00-0.03 m layer, and the TOC and C stocks in the physical particle size fractions (carbon in the coarse fraction - CCF, and mineral-associated carbon - MAC and density fractions (free light fraction - FLF; occluded light fraction - OLF, and heavy fraction - HF of OM were determined. The CMI components: carbon pool index (CPI, lability (L and lability index (LI were estimated by both fractionation methods. No differences were observed between TOC, CCF and MAC stocks. The lowest C stocks in FLF and OLF fractions were presented by T2, 0.86 and 0.61 Mg ha-1, respectively. The values of TOC stock, C stock in physical fractions and CMI were intermediate, greater than T5 and lower than T6 in all treatments, indicating the partial recovery of soil quality. As a result of the better adaptation of the species Hemarthria and Brizantha, resulting in greater accumulation of labile organic material, the CPI, L, LI and CMI values were higher in these treatments, suggesting a greater potential of these species for recovery of constructed soils.

  16. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  17. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Based Coal Ash Impoundments Safety Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E. J.; Nieto, A.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-01-01

    Coal ash impoundments are inevitable production of the coal-fired power plants. All coal ash impoundments in North Carolina USA that tested for groundwater contamination are leaking toxic heavy metals and other pollutants. Coal ash impoundments are toxic sources of dangerous pollutants that pose a danger to human and environmental health if the toxins spread to adjacent surface waters and drinking water wells. Coal ash impoundments failures accidents resulted in serious water contamination along with toxic heavy metals. To improve the design and stability of coal ash impoundments, the Development of a Coal Ash Impoundment Safety Monitoring System (CAISM) was proposed based on the implementation of a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the ability to monitor the stability of coal ash impoundments, water level, and saturation levels on-demand and remotely. The monitoring system based on a robust Ad-hoc network could be adapted to different safety conditions.

  18. Coal India Limited - technology strategy to meet the challenges of future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, S.M.P.; Misra, S.B.C.

    1989-08-01

    The production increases of the next 5 and 10 years are challenges to Coal India. Organized and planned efforts are called for. Coal India is well aware of it and has started gearing itself up to meet the challenges right now. The proposed strategy is as follows: development and adoption of new technologies through indigenous means and by import wherever necessary; upgradation of technology; wider application of new/upgraded technologies already established; commercialization of technologies established with R D work; and R D work. The major areas where work on this strategy has been taken up are: coal exploration; shaft sinking, mine development and mine construction; underground mining; opencast mining; coal handling dispatch; coal beneficiation; coal combustion utilization; slurry pipeline transport of coal; environmental management; and electronics for coal sector, including surface telecommunication network, data base management (computer), and mining electronics, safety, communication and industrial electronics. This paper briefly describes the work being done in each of these areas.

  19. Study of the mechanisms by which microorganisms solubilize and/or liquefy Spanish coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Fernandez, M.; Luna, N.; Monistrol, I.F. [Campus Universitario Alcala de Henares (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-11-01

    Cell-free culture filtrates of fungi were tested on their capacity to solubilize different Spanish coals. Two kinds of cell-free culture filtrates were used: a non-coal induced cell-free culture filtrate (NCI) and a coal induced cell-free culture filtrate (CI). Either of them was able to solubilize hard coal, subbituminous coal and most efficiently lignite. In most of the culture filtrates the measured pH values were approximately neutral, even acidic in some cases. The agent(s) for coal solubilization that was present in NCI was heat stable (100{degree}C) but the active substance(s) in CI was thermosensitive. Microorganisms were observed by electron microscopy to grow on the coal surface and cover it. A fibrilar extracelluar polymer which could facilitate not only the adhesion to the coal particle but microbial attack too, was produced by the microorganisms. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...