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Sample records for brown coal seam

  1. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    control. From the brown coal seam dating, the coal appears to have accumulated during a considerable part of the allocated 30 Ma Cenozoic time period. These brown coal carbon isotope and palynological data appear to record a more gradual atmospheric carbon isotope change compared to the marine record.

  2. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  3. Economic assessment of utilizing protective properties of level coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.; Gainutdinov, I.A.

    1982-12-01

    Increasing mining depth negatively influences mining efficiency and safety. At depths to 600 m 10% of coal comes from seams prone to rock bursts. At depths exceeding 600 m proportion of coal from seams prone to rock bursts increases to 40%. Investigations carried out in Ukrainian coal mines show that coal losses (due to rock burst hazard) in level seams mined by a longwall system amount to 4.6 Mt per year. Cost of rock burst prevention and repairs after rock bursts amounts to 12 million rubles per year. About 68% of coal from level coal seams comes from long coal pillars mined by a longwall system. In level coal seams prone to rock bursts this proportion is 40% lower (proportion of longwall mining is reduced due to increased rock burst hazards). Only 10% of coal seams prone to rock bursts are mined using a system of stress relaxation by cutting another overlying or underlying coal seam (utilizing protective properties of a coal seam). A method for economic analysis of protective properties of coal seams in seam groups is described. Using the method the optimum order of mining coal seams in a seam group is determined. Examples of the method's use are analyzed. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Mining adjacent inclined coal seams of varying thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    In the Donbass coal basin a large number of thin coal seams located near other thicker coal seams are left. It is suggested that coal output from the Donbass could be increased by 100% and cost of mining could be lowered by 0.4-1.1 roubles per 1 ton of coal if thinner coal seams were also mined. Mining methods in the Donbass are analyzed from the point of view of reducing the cost of mining and increasing coal production. Recommendations on methods of mining thin inclined coal seams are given. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  5. The Middle Miocene Yallourn coal seam - The last coal in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R.; Wallace, M.W.; Gallagher, S.J.; Wagstaff, B.E.; Chung, Li [School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne (Australia); Cartwright, I. [Earth Sciences Department, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Blackburn, D.T. [David Blackburn Environmental Pty. Ltd. 4 Egmont Terrace Erindale SA 5066 (Australia)

    2007-04-02

    The 100-m thick Middle Miocene Yallourn brown coal seam was the last of the major Latrobe Valley Group seams to form in the Gippsland Basin (southeastern Australia) and the final major coal to form in Australia. Coal deposition coincided with the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. During this warm period of relatively high sea-levels, high water tables and relatively high subsidence rates, a 565 km{sup 2} area of alternating eutrophic and ombrogenous peat swamp developed at the western end of the Latrobe Valley to form the Yallourn Seam. Stratigraphic units of the seam contain a high sclerophyll plant component and abundant charcoal, suggesting seasonal dry periods alternated with wet warm conditions characterised by abundant rushes and dense kauri forests. Iron content in parts of the Yallourn Seam is relatively high, and a strong correlation exists between the iron distribution and the abundance of proteoid roots (mainly Proteaceae) - an indicator of seasonal dry periods. The contemporaneous carbonates of the Wuk Wuk Marl were deposited in a high-productivity, upwelling, warmer water (subtropical) environment. A new carbon isotope profile at 1 m intervals through the Yallourn Seam shows a poor relationship between {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes and coal colour, but some correlation with Gymnosperm abundance. The {delta}{sup 13}C record also correlates well with long-term secular changes in climate, the presence of global carbon maxima CM2-CM4, and with the deep-sea {delta}{sup 13}C marine organic record. Thick coal seam development ended near the end of the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. The termination of coal seam deposition in Latrobe Valley was primarily the result of tectonic compression, uplift and development of adjacent highland relief, and erosion at the end of the Miocene. (author)

  6. Geochemistry and mineralization of Novaky coal seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbich František

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization and geochemistry of the most important Slovak coal deposit in Novaky was intensively studied in the past. The favourable geological conditions create rich mineral association. There are different minerals in the deposit and they are responsible for the enhanced content of some elements in the coal. The summary of notions about geochemistry and mineralization of the coal seam with the emphasis on the main harmful elements – sulphur and arsenic – and their spacial distribution are studied in this paper.

  7. Love-type seam-waves in washout models of coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitzke, M.; Dresen, L.

    1986-12-01

    The propagation of Love seam-waves across washouts of coal seams was studied by calculating synthetic seismograms with a finite-difference method. Seam interruption, seam end and seam thinning models ere investigated. The horizontal offset, the dip of the discontinuities and the degree of erosion served as variable parameters. Maximum displacement amplitudes, relative spectral amplitudes and phase and group slowness curves were extracted from the synthetic seismograms. Both seam interruption and seam thinning reduce the maximum displacement amplitudes of the transmitted Love seam-waves. The degree of amplitude reduction depends on the horizontal offset and the degree of erosion. It is four times greater for a total seam interruption than for an equivalent seam thinning with a horizontal offset of four times the seam thickness. In a seam cut vertically, the impedance contrast between the coal and the washout filling determines the maximum displacement amplitudes of the reflected Love seam-waves. They diminish by a maximum factor of four in oblique interruption zone discontinuities with a dip of maximum 27/sup 0/, and by a maximum factor of ten in a seam thinning with a degree of erosion of at least 22%.

  8. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  9. Determination of the Technological Parameters of Borehole Underground Coal Gasification for Thin Coal Seams

    OpenAIRE

    Falshtynskyi, Volodymyr S.; Dychkovskyi, Roman O.; Vasyl G. Lozynskyi; Pavlo B. Saik

    2013-01-01

    In this article the characteristics of the criteria of borehole underground coal gasification for thin coal seams are defined. The thermal and material balance calculations for coal seam gasification processes are also explained. The construction, method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification for area No 1 (located in the field of Solenovsk coal deposits) are also described. The parameters of borehole underground coal gasification for the Solenovsk coal mi...

  10. Assessment of reliability and efficiency of mining coal seams located above or below extracted coal seams with support coal pillars. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1981-04-01

    Mining thin (under 1.1 m) coal seams located above or below extracted thicker coal seams in which coal support pillars were left is one of the ways of increasing coal output without major investment in Donbass coal mines. It is planned that by 1985 25 thin coal seams will be mined in the Donbass. Investigations show that mining thin coal seams with gradients up to 12 degrees by a system of raise faces without leaving coal pillars is economical using mining systems available at present. This mining scheme is economical also in the case of coal seams located in zones of geologic dislocations. Using integrated mining systems (coal cutter, powered supports and face conveyor) in this coal seams would reduce mining cost from 0.2 to 0.3 rubles/t. Using automated integrated mining systems is economical in working faces with coal output exceeding 900 t/d. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  11. Study on gas permeability coefficient measurement of coal seam by radial flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuchuan

    2017-08-01

    For the accurate measurement of the coal seam permeability coefficient, the application range of the coal seam permeability coefficient was studied under various gas flow conditions with the guidance of the coal seam gas flow theory. Adopting the radial flow method, the measurement and calculation of the permeability coefficient of the coal seam C13-1 in Xinji No.1 Coal Mine shows that the permeability coefficient of the original coal seam C13-1 is less than 0.1, and the coal seam is difficult to extract.

  12. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  13. Morphogenetic classification of coal seam washouts in Donbass mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, V.F.; Vashchenko, V.I.

    1982-09-01

    The paper evaluates washout types in coal seams in Donbass mines. Five washout types are characterized: trough-shaped, V-shaped or U-shaped, lentil-shaped, consisting of groups of small lentils and discontinuous washouts which consist of a number of coal and rock partings. Each of the 5 washout types is shown in a scheme. The following aspects of coal seam washouts are discussed: dimensions, shape, angle of inclination of trough walls, washout dimensions in relation to coal seam thickness, rock types filling washout zones. Effects of seam washouts on longwall mining are analyzed. Morphogenetic characteristics of 5 washout groups are given. Investigations show that trough-shaped, U or V-shaped washouts are of epigenetic origin and lentil-shaped, discontinuous washouts consisting of a number of rock and coal partings and washouts with groups of rock lentils are of syngenetic origin. Washout classification is shown in a table. Classification is aimed at optimizing the mining system in washout zones. It considers washout dimensions, washout dimensions in relation to coal seam thickness and rock type filling the washout (sandstone, agrillite or aleurite). System for coding information on washouts is described.

  14. Determination of the Technological Parameters of Borehole Underground Coal Gasification for Thin Coal Seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr S. Falshtynskyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the characteristics of the criteria of borehole underground coal gasification for thin coal seams are defined. The thermal and material balance calculations for coal seam gasification processes are also explained. The construction, method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification for area No 1 (located in the field of Solenovsk coal deposits are also described. The parameters of borehole underground coal gasification for the Solenovsk coal mine on the model of rock and coal massif are detailed too. The method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification during a standard installation are also described in detail. Interpretations based on the conducted research and investigation are also presented.

  15. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  16. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    2009 Palaeoenvironment of Seam I in the Marathousa Lignite Mine, Megalopolis Basin. (Southern Greece); International Journal of Coal Geology 78 233-248. Suárez-Ruiz I, Jimenez A, Iglesias J, Laggoun-Defarge F and Pradot J G 1994 Influence of. Resinite on Huminite Properties; Energy &Fuels 8 1417-1424. Sun S and ...

  17. Computational Modeling of the Degassing of Coal Seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenin, I. M.; Krainov, A. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    A physico-mathematical model of methane desorption and filtration in an undisturbed coal seam in the vicinity of a degassing well is proposed. The results are presented on calculations of the change in the specific methane release from this well and in the average content of methane in the coal mass in its vicinity in a degassing time of up to 6 years. A good agreement between the results of calculations of the model and the engineering formulas has been obtained.

  18. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  19. THE UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES OF METHANE PRODUCED FROM UNDERGRAUND COAL SEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan AYDIN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A few coal mines use coalbed methane recovered from coal seams. As well as being unable to use gas means waste of an economically valuable source, it contributes to global warming. Gases recovered from coal mines can be used for various applications as an alternative source to natural gas or such as generation of power related to methane concentration. In cases the sale and/or use of gas would not be profitable, the best way for decreasing gas emissions is to destroy methane via flaring. In this study, the utilization technologies of methane are defined in detail and the examples being in practice are given.

  20. Love waves in coal seams disturbed by faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnicka, B. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland))

    1988-01-01

    Describes application of Love waves to exploration of rock body structures lying in front of working faces, in order to obtain early information on disturbances present in a deposit structure, especially on faults. Models of a vertical fault, a fault with a throw as high as the seam thickness or with an inclined throw of half the seam thickness were constructed. Theoretical seismograms and amplitude spectra are presented and discussed. Observation times were 25-40 ms. Maxima in amplitude spectra were within the frequency range of 150-300 Hz. Investigation of amplitude distribution using models allows the actual amplitude distribution to be foreseen which in turn facilitates wave identification when microtectonics of coal seams is investigated. 6 refs.

  1. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  2. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  3. Hydrothermal-mechanical dewatering of brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    There are enormous reserves of brown coal in the world. In Australia, brown coal is used to generate most of electricity in the states of Victoria and South Australia. Brown coal is characterised by very high moisture content (around 60 wt% on a wet basis). Therefore, boilers used in the power station are very large and have low thermal efficiency, leading to high cost and large emissions of green house gas. High moisture content also makes brown coal uneconomical for transport...

  4. New Hope Coal Australia: leaders in thin seam coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    New Hope Corporation Ltd.'s coal activities in Queensland are conducted under the business name of New Hope Coal Australia and comprise open-cut mines in the West Moreton coal fields, 40 km west of Brisbane. The company gained an award for its reject co-disposal system and another for its organic overburden conditioning programme. Walloon coal from the Jeebropilly and New Oakleigh open-cut mines has characteristics which are making it increasingly popular as power plant fuel. The article describes operations at these mines and also at Swanbank and Acland. Other projects with which New Hope is involved are mentioned. 4 photos.

  5. Features of the calculation of Love waves in coal seams with smooth thickness variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, V.N. (Moskovskii Gornyi Institut (USSR))

    1989-06-01

    Explains that mathematical modeling of the propagation of seam waves and of their interaction with nonhomogeneous seams is useful for monitoring and forecasting the state of a coal seam, and discusses ways of producing such models. Using the example of the propagation of Love polarization waves along an axis and based on the solution to the Helmholtz equation for the horizontal component of plastic wave displacement in the WKB approximation method, produces a variance equation and formulae for the displacement of Love polarization waves in a coal seam with a smooth thickness variation. Examines the influence of the interchange of energy between the seam and the surrounding rock on the dynamic parameters of the seam waves. Proves that the wave number of the seam waves has a small imaginary part that depends on the product of thickness into the current frequency if the derived thickness along the horizontal coordinate is not zero. 9 refs.

  6. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  7. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-09-01

    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  8. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ash content (A%) ranges from 10.92% to 30.01%. Fixed carbon (FC%) content varies from ... The present study is based on the adsorption isotherm experiments carried out under controlled P-T conditions for determination of actual gas adsorption capacity of the coal seams. This analysis shows that the maximum ...

  9. A method of working a coal seam which has coal and gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Y.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Mochseev, M.A.; Petukhov, I.M.; Saratikyants, S.A.; Voronin, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to reduce expenditures on the working of an outburst-prone formation. This is achieved by using the method of working a coal seam which is prone to coal and gas outbursts; this method involves local safety excavation in the protection formation and opening air passage and ventilation workings; the ventilation working proceeds through the formation which is prone to gas and coal outbursts, while the local protection excavation in the protection formation is performed on both sides of the air passage working simultaneously with the ventilation working which is connected occasionally to the air passage working by blind shafts.

  10. Floral assemblage of the `D` coal seam (Cretaceous): implications for banding characteristics in New Zealand coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, S.D.; Moore, T.A.; Newman, J. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1995-09-01

    Two complete vertical sections were studied from the uppermost Cretaceous `D` coal seam near Greymouth, New Zealand. The thickest and most concentrated vitrain bands occur in the paleomire centre and bands are thinner and less abundant at the paleomire margin. Botanical analysis of the vitrain bands indicates they formed entirely from the secondary xylem (wood) of gymnosperms. Palynomorphs indicate that there is no consistent correlation between conifer pollen abundance and the degree of vitrain banding. However, maximum preservation of vitrain bands coincides with an inferred transition from a rheotrophic mire (as indicated by Phyllocladidites mawsonii pollen) to an acidic and possibly ombrotrophic system (as indicated by the abundance of Gleicheniaceae spores). This suggests that the presence/absence of gymnosperm secondary xylem as vitrain bands is controlled at least in part by mire chemistry.

  11. Behaviors of overlying strata in extra-thick coal seams using top-coal caving method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidents such as support failure and excessive deformation of roadways due to drastic changes in strata behaviors are frequently reported when mining the extra-thick coal seams Nos. 3–5 in Datong coal mine with top-coal caving method, which significantly hampers the mine's normal production. To understand the mechanism of strata failure, this paper presented a structure evolution model with respect to strata behaviors. Then the behaviors of strata overlying the extra-thick coal seams were studied with the combined method of theoretical analysis, physical simulation, and field measurement. The results show that the key strata, which are usually thick-hard strata, play an important role in overlying movement and may influence the mining-induced strata behaviors in the working face using top-coal caving method. The structural model of far-field key strata presents a “masonry beam” type structure when “horizontal O-X” breakage type happens. The rotational motion of the block imposed radial compressive stress on the surrounding rock mass of the roadway. This can induce excessive deformation of roadway near the goaf. Besides, this paper proposed a pre-control technology for the hard roof based on fracture holes and underground roof pre-splitting. It could effectively reduce stress concentration and release the accumulated energy of the strata, when mining underground coal resources with top-coal caving method.

  12. Schemes for development and mining of level coal seams without leaving support coal pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.; Taratuta, N.K.

    1982-07-01

    Methods are illustrated for longwall mining without leaving support pillars for strata control. Comparative evaluations in Soviet coal mines show that with increasing mining depth coal losses associated with support pillars increase. Use of support pillars also increases rock burst hazard and increases cost of support repairs in mine roadways. Proportion of coal from longwall mining without leaving coal support pillars increased from 36 % in 1976 to 52% in 1980. Two variants of longwall mining without support pillars are analyzed: with repeated use of longwall gate roads and without their repeated use. Comparative investigations show that longwall mining with the repeated use of the gates (one of the gate roads) is used in coal seams with the most convenient mining and geological conditions, whereas the second system is used under more difficult conditions. Schemes with repeated use are designed for thin coal seams, at a depth not exceeding 600 m, under conditions of stable roof and floor (when the floor consists of less stable rocks absence of water influx is the condition). Repeated use of gate roads is economical when, in spite of repeated gate road use, cost of support repair and maintenance is low. Fifteen schemes for longwall mining with and without repeated use of gateroads are compared. The results of evaluations are shown in a table. Recommendations on the most economical mining schemes are made.

  13. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko

    2007-01-01

    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  14. Stimulation of commercial coal seam methane production aimed at improving mining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Lukyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The relevance of the current research is due to the urgent need to revise the existing normative bases and procedures involved in intensive development of coal-methane deposits and commercial production of coal seam methane. The article presents the analysis of data on coal production volume and amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere in Kuzbass. There is a need to develop the exploration techniques that would allow implementing pre-mining gas drainage of coal seams and provide the companies with the guidance on coal seam methane drainage in very gassy coal mines. Commercial production of methane should become an integral part of economy and energy balance of the Russian Federation, which, in its turn, would enhance environmental protection due to reducing methane emissions, the largest source of greenhouse effect.

  15. Research of the electrical anisotropic characteristics of water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ben-Yu; Yue, Jian-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Water flooding disasters are one of the five natural coal-mining disasters that threaten the lives of coal miners. The main causes of this flooding are water-conducting fractured zones within coal seams. However, when resistivity methods are used to detect water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams, incorrect conclusions can be drawn because of electrical anisotropy within the water-conducting fractured zones. We present, in this paper, a new geo-electrical model based on the geology of water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams. Factors that influence electrical anisotropy were analyzed, including formation water resistivity, porosity, fracture density, and fracture surface roughness, pressure, and dip angle. Numerical simulation was used to evaluate the proposed electrical method. The results demonstrate a closed relationship between the shape of apparent resistivity and the strike and dip of a fracture. Hence, the findings of this paper provide a practical resistivity method for coal-mining production.

  16. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-10-01

    The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM

  17. Geochemical Characteristics of the Bismuth and Antimony Occurrence in Some Coal Seams in the Lublin Coal Basin (LCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzentny, Henryk R.; Róg, Leokadia

    2017-06-01

    The study included 24 samples of coal with 7 cores, boreholes (7 coal seams), made by the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw at the site of a Chelm field and 6 coal samples taken from 2 decks in the Lublin Coal mine "Bogdanka" S.A. in LCB. Based on performed tests found generally low levels of Sb and Bi in coal. In the vertical profile of the LCB contents of Bi and Sb in coal generally increases from coal seams younger to older age. Content of Bi in coal from roof part coal seams is usually higher, and ash content in the coal content of Sb are generally lower than in the carbon of the middle part decks. The content of Bi in the lateral coal deposits is unlikely to vary, and the gap in the coal content of Bi between the sampling regions coal do not exceed 1.7 g / Mg. In contrast gap Sb content in coal on the extent LCB is from 1.7 g / Mg of 5.8 g / Mg. The biggest influence on the content of Bi and Sb in coal from the LCB is probably organic matter in which these elements are scattered and do not form their own minerals.

  18. Some special features of Love channel waves in fine-band coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, V.N.; Vartanov, A.Z.

    1987-07-01

    Explains that Love waves which have a displacement vector which is orthogonal to the wave vector and tangential edge of a waveguide are commonly used to determine the condition of coal seams and examines the propagation of Love channel waves in a waveguide with a non-uniform vertical axis which is an approximation of a fine-band coal seam. Uses the asymptotic solution to Helmholtz's wave equation to produce dispersion wave equations for channel waves in fine-band seams and presents formulae for calculating displacement. Uses a mathematical example to demonstrate how the Love channel waves change in the waveguide (illustrated by means of seisomographs) simulating the effect of the non-uniform nature of coal seams on the waves. 6 refs.

  19. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2013-07-30

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2-3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam.

  20. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  1. Development of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic detection of coal seam interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, D. D.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1976-01-01

    A pattern recognition system is presented for determining the thickness of coal remaining on the roof and floor of a coal seam. The system was developed to recognize reflected pulse echo signals that are generated by an acoustical transducer and reflected from the coal seam interface. The flexibility of the system, however, should enable it to identify pulse-echo signals generated by radar or other techniques. The main difference being the specific features extracted from the recorded data as a basis for pattern recognition.

  2. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  3. The possibilites of coal seam underground excavation in Republic of Macedonia with high productive excavation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents mining and geology properties of coal deposits in R.Macedonia predetermined for underground exploitation. Also it will be shown the way of coal seams preparation and development for underground excavation with longwall mining methods. Based on mining and geology properties of coal and it’s caloric value it will be observed the possibilities for application on the longwall mining which is among excavation methods with highest production and capacity applied in the contemp...

  4. Geomechanics of subsidence above single and multi-seam coal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Suchowerska Iwanec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of surface subsidence due to the extraction of underground coal seams is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This task is further compounded by the growing trend for coal to be extracted from seams either above or below previously extracted coal seams, a practice known as multi-seam mining. In order to accurately predict the subsidence above single and multi-seam longwall panels using numerical methods, constitutive laws need to appropriately represent the mechanical behaviour of coal measure strata. The choice of the most appropriate model is not always straightforward. This paper compares predictions of surface subsidence obtained using the finite element method, considering a range of well-known constitutive models. The results show that more sophisticated and numerically taxing constitutive laws do not necessarily lead to more accurate predictions of subsidence when compared to field measurements. The advantages and limitations of using each particular constitutive law are discussed. A comparison of the numerical predictions and field measurements of surface subsidence is also provided.

  5. Innovative Extraction Method for a Coal Seam with a Thick Rock-Parting for Supporting Coal Mine Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As thick rock partings delay the efficient mining of coal seams and constrain the sustainable development of coal mines, an innovative extraction method for a coal seam with thick rock parting was proposed. The coal seams were divided into different sub-zones according to the thickness of rock parting and then the sub-zones were mined by separately using three mining schemes involving full-seam mining, combined mining using backfill and caving (CMBC, and reducing height mining. Afterwards, the study introduced the basic mechanism and key devices for the CMBC and analysed the working state of the backfill support in detail. Moreover, the method for calculating the length of the backfill zone was proposed to design the length of backfill zone and the influences of four factors (including bulking coefficient of rock parting on the length of the backfill zone were also explored. By taking the No. 22203 panel, Buertai mine, Inner Mongolia, China as an example, the mined coal resource by using the CMBC extraction method will increase by 1.83 × 106 tons and the recovery ratio will rise from 56.2% to 92.4% compared with mining of the 2-2 upper coal seam alone. Moreover, by applying CMBC, a series of environmental and ecological problems caused by rock parting is reduced, which can improve the environment in mined areas. The research can provide technological guidance for mining panels of a coal seam with a thick rock parting and the disposal thereof under similar conditions.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Coal Loading by Cutting Drum in Flat Seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling work of a coal shearer work in low longwall coal seams where the wall height does not exceed 1.5 m. In such conditions, an important issue is the process of loading the ore from shearer cutting drum on an armored face conveyor and selection of appropriate kinematic parameters to avoid choking. Discrete element method was used to model coal seam. This method allows for efficient simulation of physical systems composed of many separate components. Methods and algorithms based on existing theoretical models were developed to imitate coal cutting process. Main focus of analysis was put on coal stream movement for different variants of the shearer construction and kinematic parameters.

  7. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  8. Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implications for methane production and acid gas sequestration into coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaojun; Bustin, R. Marc; Chikatamarla, Laxmi

    2007-10-01

    Sequestration of CO2 and H2S into deep unminable coal seams is an attractive option to reduce their emission into atmosphere and at the same time displace preadsorbed CH4 which is a clean energy resource. High coal seam permeability is required for efficient and practical sequestration of CO2 and H2S and recovery of CH4. However, adsorption of CO2 and H2S into coals induces strong swelling of the coal matrix (volumetric strain) and thus reduces significantly coal permeability by narrowing and even closing fracture apertures. Our experimental data on three western Canadian coals show that the adsorption-induced volumetric strain is approximately linearly proportional to the volume of adsorbed gas, and for the same gas, different coals have very similar volumetric strain coefficient. Impacts of adsorption-induced swelling on stress and permeability around wellbores were analytically investigated using our developed stress and permeability models. Our model results indicate that adsorption-induced volumetric strain has significant controls on stress and permeability of producing and sequestrating coal seams and consequently the potential of acid gas sequestration. Coal seams may undergo >10 times enhancement of permeability around CH4-producing wellbores due to a reduction in effective stress as a result of coal shrinking caused by methane desorption accompanying a reduction in reservoir pressure. Injection of H2S and CO2 on the other hand results in strong sorption-induced swelling and a marked increase in effective stress which in turn leads to a reduction of coal seam permeability of up to several orders of magnitude. Injection of mixtures of N2 and CO2 such as found in flue gas results in weaker swelling, the amount of which varies with gas composition, and provides the greatest opportunity of sequestering CO2 and secondary recovery of CH4 for most coals. Because of the marked swelling of coal in the presence of H2S, even minor amounts of H2S result in a marked

  9. In-situ coal seam and overburden permeability characterization combining downhole flow meter and temperature logs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Julia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The planning and design of any coal mine development requires among others a thorough investigation of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological subsurface conditions. As part of a coal mine exploration program we conducted heat pulse vertical flow meter testing. The flow data were combined with absolute and differential temperature logging data to gain information about the hydraulic characteristics of two different coal seams and their over- and interburden. For the strata that were localised based on geophysical logging data including density, gamma ray and resistivity hydraulic properties were quantified. We demonstrate that the temperature log response complements the flow meter log response. A coupling of both methods is therefore recommended to get an insight into the hydraulic conditions in a coal seam and its overburden.

  10. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sedláček

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  11. Disintegration of brown coal using alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydra, J.; Skalicka, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations carried out by the Institute of Geology and Geotechnics of the Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia are discussed. The investigations were aimed at determining the optimum conditions for in situ solution mining of brown coal using alkaline solutions. Twelve brown coal samples with carbon content ranging from 64.5 to 90.7% were treated with sodium hydroxide solution with concentration ranging from 1 to 5%. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (15%) and ethanolamine (5%) also were investigated. Proportion of the 3 compounds in water was the following: 500 ml sodium hydroxide, 100 ml ethanolamine and 20 ml hydrogen peroxide. Effects of coal grain size on its disintegration in the alkaline solution also were analyzed. Conditions of in situ solution mining were simulated in the laboratory. Investigations showed that the optimum coal grain size was 2 mm, in which case disintegration efficiency depended on carbon content in coal. The lower the carbon content was, the more efficient was the alkaline disintegration. Alkaline solutions did not influence brown coal with carbon content higher than 85%. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide was 3%. Addition of hydrogen peroxide and ethanolamine did not influence disintegration. When alkaline solution was pumped 96 h long into a borehole, it penetrated coal to a depth of 2 mm causing swelling of the borehole walls but not coal disintegration. 8 references.

  12. Influence of a Large Pillar on the Optimum Roadway Position in an Extremely Close Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mining practice in an extremely close coal seam, theoretical analysis was conducted on the vertical stress distribution of the floor strata under a large coal pillar. The vertical stress distribution regulation of a No. 5 coal seam was revealed. To obtain the optimum position of the roadway that bears the supporting pressure of a large coal pillar, numerical modeling was applied to analyze the relation among the stress distribution of the roadway surrounding the rock that bears the supporting pressure of a large coal pillar, the plastic zone distribution of the roadway surrounding the rock, the surrounding rock deformation, and the roadway layout position. The theoretical calculation results of the stress value, stress variation rate, and influencing range of the stress influencing angle showed that the reasonable malposition of the No. 5 coal seam roadway was an inner malposition of 4 m. The mining practice showed the following: the layout of No. 25301 panel belt roadway at the position of the inner malposition of 4 m was reasonable, the roadway support performance was favourable without deformation, and ground pressure was not obvious. The research achievement of this study is the provision of a reference for roadway layouts under similar conditions.

  13. Characterization of Coal Quality Based On Ash Content From M2 Coal-Seam Group, Muara Enim Formation, South Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frillia Putri Nasution

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muara Enim Formation is well known as coal-bearing formation in South Sumatra Basin. As coal-bearing formation, this formation was subjects of many integrated study. Muara Enim Formation can be divided into four coal-seam group, M1, M2, M3, and M4. The M2 group comprising of Petai (C, Suban (B, Lower Mangus (A2, and Upper Mangus (A1. Depositional environments of Group M2 is transitional lower delta plain with sub-depositional are crevasse splay and distributary channel. The differentiation of both sub-depositional environments can be caused the quality of coal deposit. One of quality aspects is ash content. This research conducted hopefully can give better understanding of relationship between depositional environments to ash content. Group M2 on research area were found only Seam C, Seam B, and Seam A2, that has distribution from north to central so long as 1400 m. Coal-seam thickness C ranged between 3.25-9.25 m, Seam B range 7.54-13.43 m, and Seam C range 1.53-8.37 m, where all of coal-seams thickening on the central part and thinning-splitting to northern part and southern part. The ash content is formed from burning coal residue material. Ash contents on coal seam caused by organic and inorganic compound which resulted from mixing modified material on surrounded when transportation, sedimentation, and coalification process. There are 27 sample, consists of 9 sample from Seam C, 8 sample from Seam B, and 10 sample from Seam A2. Space grid of sampling is 100-150 m. Ash content influenced by many factors, but in research area, main factor is existence of inorganic parting. Average ash content of Seam C is 6,04%, Seam B is 5,05%, and Seam A2 is 3,8%. Low ash content influenced by settle environment with minor detrital material. High ash content caused by oxidation and erosional process when coalification process. Ash content on coal in research area originated from detritus material carried by channel system into brackish area or originated

  14. Experimental study on fracturing coal seams using CaO demolition materials to improve permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, methane gas disasters in underground coal mines are a major problem which seriously threatens safe mining. This study employed soundless chemical demolition for fracturing coal seams with low permeability. Additionally, the fracturing theory and failure mechanisms of soundless chemical demolition agents were investigated. Materials such as CaO, naphthalene-based water reducer, sodium gluconate and silicate cement were used to prepare the novel soundless chemical demolition agent, whose optimum proportion was discovered to be 90:3:5:7 by carrying out orthogonal experiments. The innovative demolition agent cracked briquettes and the maximum width of cracks reached 16.33 mm, showing significant potential for improving the permeability of coal seams.

  15. Effects of torpedo blasting on rockburst prevention during deep coal seam mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Wojtecki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB, coal seams are exploited under progressively more difficult geological and mining conditions (greater depth, higher horizontal stress, more frequent occurrence of competent rock layers, etc.. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants in coal seams are the most important factors responsible for the occurrence of rockburst hazards. Longwall mining next to the mining edges of neighbouring coal seams is particularly disadvantageous. The levels of rockburst hazards are minimised via the use of rockburst prevention methods. One active prevention method is torpedo blasting in roof rocks. Torpedo blastings are performed in order to decrease local stress concentrations in rock masses and to fracture the roof rocks to prevent or minimise the impact of high-energy tremors on excavations. The estimation of the effectiveness of torpedo blasting is particularly important when mining is under difficult geological and mining conditions. Torpedo blasting is the main form of active rockburst prevention in the assigned colliery in the Polish part of the USCB. The effectiveness of blasting can be estimated using the seismic effect method, in which the seismic monitoring data and the mass of explosives are taken into consideration. The seismic effect method was developed in the Czech Republic and is always being used in collieries in the Czech part of the coal basin. Now, this method has been widely adopted for our selected colliery in the Polish part of the coal basin. The effectiveness of torpedo blastings in the faces and galleries of the assigned longwall in coal seam 506 has been estimated. The results show that the effectiveness of torpedo blastings for this longwall was significant in light of the seismic effect method, which corresponds to the in situ observations. The seismic effect method is regularly applied to estimating the blasting effectiveness in the selected colliery.

  16. Effects of brown coal treatment with hydrogen peroxide on brown coal wax yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarova, O.V.; Shevchenko, A.G.; Ruban, I.V.; Ksenofontov, V.G.; Turovskii, N.A. (Institut Fiziko-Organicheskoi Khimii i Uglekhimii AN UkrSSR (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Studies preliminary treatment of brown coal with 30% hydrogen peroxide. Experiments employed 0.1-0.2 mm fractions of brown coal and were carried out at ambient temperature for 30 min with a coal:oxidizer ratio of 1:6. Sample demineralization met the requirements of ISO 602. Spectral resonance methods were employed to find that the oxidation processes of brown coal and of anthracite are similar; two spectra are presented. Coal extraction employed petroleum ether. Pre-treatment increased the wax yield from 4.3% to 10.5% in terms of coal organic mass. Wax elemental compositions are presented. Six IR spectra are shown and discussed: of initial coal wax, of pre-treated coal wax, of initial coal, of pre-treated coal, of initial coal residue (after its extraction) and of pre-treated coal residue. The 1,020 cm{sup -1} band was observed to suggest the formation of phenol structures during oxidation. The 1,610 cm{sup -1} band of aromatic structures with carboxylic groups increased its intensity. The wax hydrogen content doubled and H/O increased by 1/3-1/4. 12 refs.

  17. Differentiation of Victorian brown coal lithotypes as revealed by thermally desorbable biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Johns, R.B. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia))

    1991-01-01

    TD/GC/MS analyses of a profile of Victorian brown coal lithotypes are reported. Specifically, weight loss on TD, triterpenoid and diterpenoid hydrocarbons, and trimethylnaphthalene isomers are considered as lithotype differentiators. In this initial use of biomarkers released by thermal desorption to characterise lithotypes, evidence is reported for differences in angiosperm/gymnosperm contributions, variation in higher plant inputs and for distinct variations of bacterial biomass content of the lithotypes. Trimethylnaphthalenes also differentiate coal seams in the samples reported in this study. 4 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  18. Thermodynamic study of brown-coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, P.; Holub, R.; Schoengut, S.; Schoengut, J.

    1988-04-01

    Describes a method for calculating and assessing results of partial adiabatic oxidation of brown coal from the North Bohemian brown-coal field, which may in future act as a source of raw material for production of energy and synthesis gas. Calculations assume idealized fluid and burner generators and reaction parameters were selected to cover a range of operational values (these parameters include pressure, temperature, gasification ratio, water content, ash content and degree of coal conversion). After describing mathematics involved, concludes that thermodynamic analysis shows burner generator to have some advantages over fluid generator for production of synthesis gas, and vice versa for production of energy gas. However, final conclusions must await experimental evidence with regard to degree of conversion and composition of gas mixture; also, validity of this assessment is limited by the fact that no account was taken of the possibility of using reaction heat for production of steam or of any energy consumption involved. 10 refs.

  19. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  1. Selection of an Appropriate Mechanized Mining Technical Process for Thin Coal Seam Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanized mining technical process (MMTP related to the control method of the shearer is a vital process in thin coal seam mining operations. An appropriate MMTP is closely related to safety, productivity, labour intensity, and efficiency. Hence, the evaluation of alternative MMTP is an important part of the mining design. Several parameters should be considered in MMTP evaluation, so the evaluation is complex and must be compliant with a set of criteria. In this paper, two multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE, were adopted for this evaluation. Then, the most appropriate MMTP for a thin coal seam working face was selected in China.

  2. A 90 m-thick coal seam in the Lubstow lignite deposit (Central Poland): palynological analysis and sedimentary environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, E. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland). Faculty of Geology

    2008-07-01

    A 90 m-thick brown coal seam, the result of organic matter deposition in a fault-trough, is exploited in an open cast mine at Lubstow (Central Poland). Palynological analysis was conducted in order to determine which plants were the source of organic matter forming such a thick coal bed. The pollen spectrum is dominated by the gymnosperm pollen Inaperturopollenites, produced by trees closely related to the extant genera Taxodium and Glyptostrobus, the dominant constituents of swamp forests in SE North America and SE Asia today. However the lack of xylites and preserved tissues in the coal does not support the conception of a swamp forest as the peat-producing community. There is also significant percentage of angiosperm pollen in the coal, mainly from the groups: Castaneoideapollis, Tricolporopollenites exactus and T. pseudocingulum. The plants producing these pollen were probably the main constitutent of the peat-producing community. The community shows signs of a shrub swamp with local tree islands and a low water table. Evidence for this also includes the detrital type of coal, the lack of preserved plant tissues and the presence of fungal remains. The characteristics show the existence of aerobic zones at the time of peat production. The peat was probably derived from angiosperms. Dome-shaped forms in the upper part of the deposit are the remains of tree islands. As detritus accumulation is very on the surfaces of present-day tree islands, a similar rate of deposition may have taken place during peat production at Lubstow. This, combined with subsidence in the fault-through, explains the great thickness of the coal bed.

  3. High resolution reflection seismic mapping of shallow coal seams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngadi, SB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsidence and collapse of unmapped shallow coal mine workings poses a risk to the public and hampers the development of valuable property. A high-resolution reflection seismic survey was conducted to determine whether it is possible to map...

  4. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  5. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  6. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kamiński, Paweł; Klich, Jerzy; Tajduś, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground gasification enables them to

  7. Study on Resources Assessment of Coal Seams covered by Long-Distance Oil & Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Wei; Hou, Hanfang

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources covered by construction projects plays an important role in reducing the overlaying of important mineral resources and ensuring the smooth implementation of construction projects. To take a planned long-distance gas pipeline as an example, the assessment method and principles for coal resources covered by linear projects are introduced. The areas covered by multiple coal seams are determined according to the linear projection method, and the resources covered by pipelines directly and indirectly are estimated by using area segmentation method on the basis of original blocks. The research results can provide references for route optimization of projects and compensation for mining right..

  8. An analysis of the coal-seam gas resource of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFall, K.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Brandenburg, C.F.

    1988-06-01

    A detailed geologic analysis of the Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado shows that nearly 84 Tcf (2.4 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) of coal-seam gas is in place in three target coal groups. The Cameo coal group contains the most coalbed methane with 65 Tcf (1.8 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/). The more areally limited Coal Ridge and Black Diamond coal groups contain significantly less gas, 10 and 9 Tcf (280 x 10/sup 9/ and 255 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/), respectively. The areas of highest methane concentration are in the east-central portion of the Piceance basin. These areas coincide with thick deposits of high-rank coal at significant depths and their associated higher gas contents. Also, these areas appear to have been structurally (tectonically) altered, leading to enhanced permeability to gas and water. Thus, the east-central basin area appears favorable for coalbed methane production. This study relied on extensive well data to correlate and map the subsurface extent of the Cretaceous coals of the Piceance basin. Newly derived correlations of coal-rank/depth with gas content were used along with estimates of coal volume to determine gas in place.

  9. Assessment of the impact of an overlying coal seam edge using seismic profiling of refracted Pwave velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreder, Zbigniew; Barnaś, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of seismic profiling along the sidewalls of two headings of a longwall in a coal-seam at a depth of about 850 and 870 metres in a coal mine in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. The seismic profiles were located in a zone of impact of the same overlying edge of the coal-seam located about 40 m above. This study was interesting from that point of view since there were no other geological and mining factors present which could disturb the impact of the coal seam edge. The profiling of refracted P-wave velocity changes was carried out according to the Dubinski method. This method is used for the assessment of relative stress in a coal seam in the side wall of the excavation. The results obtained on both seismic profiles are very similar, which demonstrates the small impact of the overlying edge of the coal seam in both headings of a longwall. It should be emphasised that at greater exploitation depths, the calculated reference velocity is less reliable than the measured reference velocity. Presumably, the method of calculating seismic anomaly requires updating under such conditions, but additional evidence should be collected.

  10. Facies conditions of the 2. Lusatian seam horizon in the area East of Peitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, R.; Liskow, C.

    1988-07-01

    Characterizes the Miocene brown coal deposit in the area Peitz, Jaenschwalde and Guben (GDR) by methods of paleobotany and paleogeography. Results of macropetrographic facies analysis and geophysical borehole measurements were employed in the study. Geologic profiles of the region as well as maps of seam distribution were drawn up. The analysis proves that prehistoric river meanders divide the brown coal moor into a northern and a southern section. A description of the paleoenvironment and the sedimentation process is given. A correlation between coal facies and technological coal quality is pointed out. The study is being used to develop a geologic seam model for this brown coal mining area. 9 refs.

  11. Structure instability forecasting and analysis of giant rock pillars in steeply dipping thick coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Sun, Huan; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Ming; Cao, Jian-tao; Cui, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Structure stability analysis of rock masses is essential for forecasting catastrophic structure failure in coal seam mining. Steeply dipping thick coal seams (SDTCS) are common in the Urumqi coalfield, and some dynamical hazards such as roof collapse and mining- induced seismicity occur frequently in the coal mines. The cause of these events is mainly structure instability in giant rock pillars sandwiched between SDTCS. Developing methods to predict these events is important for safe mining in such a complex environment. This study focuses on understanding the structural mechanics model of a giant rock pillar and presents a viewpoint of the stability of a trend sphenoid fractured beam (TSFB). Some stability index parameters such as failure surface dips were measured, and most dips were observed to be between 46° and 51°. We used a digital panoramic borehole monitoring system to measure the TSFB's height (Δ H), which varied from 56.37 to 60.50 m. Next, FLAC3D was used to model the distribution and evolution of vertical displacement in the giant rock pillars; the results confirmed the existence of a TSFB structure. Finally, we investigated the acoustic emission (AE) energy accumulation rate and observed that the rate commonly ranged from 20 to 40 kJ/min. The AE energy accumulation rate could be used to anticipate impeding seismic events related to structure failure. The results presented provide a useful approach for forecasting catastrophic events related to structure instability and for developing hazard prevention technology for mining in SDTCS.

  12. An Innovative Approach for Gob-Side Entry Retaining in Thick Coal Seam Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchao He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gob-side entry retaining (GER is a popular non-pillar mining technique regarding how to reserve a gateroad for the use of next panel mining. When used in thick coal seams, the conventional entry retaining method requires a huge amount of filling materials and may cause entry (gateroad accidents. Thus, an innovative non-pillar longwall mining approach is introduced. First, structural and mechanical models were built to explore the mechanism of the new approach. The modeling results indicate that effective bulking of the gob roof and reasonable support of the entry roof were key governing factors in improving entry stabilities and reducing roof deformations. Accordingly, a directional roof fracturing technique was proposed to contribute to gob roof caving, and a constant resistance and large deformation anchor (CRLDA cable was used to stabilize the entry roof. Subsequently, the evolutionary laws of the roof structure and stresses were explored using numerical simulation. It was found that the structure of the surrounding rocks around the retained entry changed significantly after roof fracturing. The stress-bearing center was transferred to the gob area, and the entry roof was in a low stress environment after adopting the approach. Finally, the approach was tested on a thick coal seam longwall mining panel. Field monitoring indicates that the retained entry was in a stable state and the index of the retained entry met the requirement of the next mining panel. This work provides an effective and economical approach to non-pillar longwall mining in thick coal seams.

  13. Dermatoses of Belchatow brown coal mine employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszczynska-Kuczynska, W.

    1981-09-01

    Evaluates the results of examinations carried out in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine on skin diseases. Influence of working conditions specific for brown coal mines on the development of some dermatoses is analyzed. From 1978 to 1979 443 miners were examined. Two groups of miners were examined separately: 1. 235 miners who contacted the firm physician due to skin problems and 2. 208 miners who underwent a periodic examination. In group 1 skin dermatoses were found in 86% of all cases, and in group 2 in 48%. Foot skin inflammation, particularly interdigital intertrigo, was the most common dermatosis. Oil acne (occupational disease of coal miners) was diagnosed in 15 cases, common acne in 23 cases, pytiriasis versicolor in 19 cases, erythrasma in 10, eczema and other contact dermatitis in 10 cases. Investigations show that 23% of the foot interdigital intertrigo is caused by mycotic infections. Dermatoses of the skin of miners' feet are caused mainly by rubber protective boots. (10 refs.) (In Polish)

  14. Production of gas from coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the post-injection period of an ECBM pilot site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Krzystolik, P.; Wageningen, N. van; Pagnier, H.; Jura, B.; Skiba, J.; Winthaegen, P.; Kobiela, Z.

    2009-01-01

    A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the scope of the RECOPOL project, funded by the European Commission. About 760 tons CO2 were injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2 was

  15. Robotic complex for the development of thick steeply-inclined coal seams and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Malakhov, Yu V.; Neogi, Biswarup; Chakraborty, Pritam; Banerjee, Dipesu

    2017-09-01

    Proposal for the formulation of robotic complexes for steeply inclined coal seams as a basis of the supportive-enclosing walking module and power support with a controlled outlet for mining industry has been represented in this literature. In mining industry, the available resource base reserves and mineral deposits are concentrated deep down the earth crust leading towards a complicated geological condition i.e. abrupt ore bedding and steeply inclined strata with the high gas content and fire hazard of thick coal stratum, heading against an unfavorable and sometimes human labor life risk during subversive mining. Prevailing towards the development of effective robotic complexes based on the means of “unmanned technologies” for extraction of minerals from hard-to-reach deposits and make sure the safety of underground staff during sublevel mining technology.

  16. A New Tree-Type Fracturing Method for Stimulating Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is used widely to stimulate coalbed methane production in coal mines. However, some factors associated with conventional hydraulic fracturing, such as the simple morphology of the fractures it generates and inhomogeneous stress relief, limit its scope of application in coal mines. These problems mean that gas extraction efficiency is low. Conventional fracturing may leave hidden pockets of gas, which will be safety hazards for subsequent coal mining operations. Based on a new drilling technique applicable to drilling boreholes in coal seams, this paper proposes a tree-type fracturing technique for stimulating reservoir volumes. Tree-type fracturing simulation experiments using a large-scale triaxial testing apparatus were conducted in the laboratory. In contrast to the single hole drilled for conventional hydraulic fracturing, the tree-type sub-boreholes induce radial and tangential fractures that form complex fracture networks. These fracture networks can eliminate the “blank area” that may host dangerous gas pockets. Gas seepage in tree-type fractures was analyzed, and gas seepage tests after tree-type fracturing showed that permeability was greatly enhanced. The equipment developed for tree-type fracturing was tested in the Fengchun underground coal mine in China. After implementing tree-type fracturing, the gas extraction rate was around 2.3 times greater than that for traditional fracturing, and the extraction rate remained high for a long time during a 30-day test. This shortened the gas drainage time and improved gas extraction efficiency.

  17. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Menefee Formation, San Juan Basin. Topical report, May 1988-May 1989. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crist, T.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Boyer, C.M.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a regional geologic assessment of the San Juan Basin Menefee Formation include stratigraphic cross-section and overburden, net coal thickness, coal rank, and gas-in-place maps. A geologic investigation was conducted of two microstudy areas which further examine the site-specific characteristics of the coal seams. Natural gas-in-place estimates for the Menefee Formation coal seams range between 22.0 and 34.2 Tcf.

  18. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  19. Recycling of coal seam gas-associated water using vacuum membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarpour, Farideh; Shi, Jeffrey; Chae, So-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas-associated water (CSGAW), which is a by-product of coal seam gas (CSG) production typically contains significant amounts of salts and has potential environmental issues. In this study, we optimized a bench-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process with flat-sheet hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the treatment of synthetic CSGAW (conductivity = 15 mS/cm). To study performance of the VMD process, we explored the effects of feed temperature (T(f) = 60, 70, and 80°C), feed flow rate (V(f) = 60, 120, and 240 mL/min), and vacuum pressure (P(v) = 3, 6, and 9 kPa) on water permeability through the PTFE membrane in the VMD process. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. T(f) = 80°C, V(f) = 240 mL/min, P(v) = 3 kPa), water permeability and rejection efficiency of salts by the VMD process were found to be 5.5 L/m(2)/h (LMH) and 99.9%, respectively, after 2 h filtration. However, after 8 h operation, the water permeability decreased by 70% compared with the initial flux due to the formation of fouling layer of calcium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, and potassium on the membrane surface.

  20. Origin of Minerals and Elements in the Late Permian Coal Seams of the Shiping Mine, Sichuan, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbing Luo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic layers in coal seams in southwestern China coalfields have received much attention given their significance in coal geology studies and their potential economic value. In this study, the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of C19 and C25 coal seams were examined, and the following findings were obtained. (1 Clay minerals in sample C19-r are argillized, and sedimentary layering is not observed. The acicular idiomorphic crystals of apatite and the phenocrysts of Ti-augite coexisting with magnetite in roof sample C19-r are common minerals in basaltic rock. The rare earth elements (REE distribution pattern of C19-r, which is characterized by positive Eu anomalies and M-REE enrichment, is the same as that of high-Ti basalt. The concentrations of Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf in C19-r are closer to those of high-Ti basalt. In conclusion, roof sample C19-r consists of tuffaceous clay, probably with a high-Ti mafic magma source. (2 The geochemical characteristics of the C25 coals are same as those reported for coal affected by alkali volcanic ash, enrichment in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and REE, causing the C25 minable coal seams to have higher potential value. Such a vertical study of coals and host rocks could provide more information for coal-forming depositional environment analysis, for identification of volcanic eruption time and magma intrusion, and for facilitating stratigraphic subdivision and correlation.

  1. Geochemistry and sedimentology of coal seams from the Permian Witbank Coalfield, South Africa: a means of identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairncross, B.; Hart, R.J.; Willis, J.P. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Economic Geology Research Unit)

    1990-12-30

    Sedimentological investigations of the coal-bearing Vryheid Formation (Karoo Sequence) in the Witbank Coalfield have revealed that coal-peat deposition was associated with both marine and non-marine palaeodepositional events. At the terminal stage of peat accumulation, swamps were inundated by marine transgressions which deposited mud and silt above the peat (coal) and these overlying sediments contain typical marine features: glauconite associated with marine ichnofossil assemblages. In similar stratigraphic positions elsewhere in the basin, the peat swamps were invaded by basinward-prograding non-marine fluvial systems which deposited coarse sand and gravel over the peat. These overlying sediments are coarse-grained arkosic strata. Geochemical analysis of the No. 2, No. 4 and No. 5 coal seams in the region was undertaken using instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. These analyses show that the geochemistry of the coal compliments the sedimentological interpretations. Elements which tend to be more concentrated in marine-derived sediments, e.g. boron, chlorine, lithium and bromine, occur in greater concentrations in the top of coals overlain by marine strata than in coals overlain by non-marine fluvial sequences. The latter do not show enrichments of these elements. Trace-element composition of the coal seams was further utilized as a means of identifying the seams using multivariant discriminant analysis. Each coal seam plots in a specific field thereby permitting its identification based on the trace-element content. If unknown areas of the coalfield are being explored, a knowledge of the palaeodepositional stratigraphic sequences together with quantitative geochemical analyses could permit rapid identification of the coals concerned. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Major and Trace Element Geochemistry of Coals and Intra-Seam Claystones from the Songzao Coalfield, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicic, mafic and alkali intra-seam tonsteins have been known from SW China for a number of years. This paper reports on the geochemical compositions of coals and tonsteins from three seam sections of the Songzao Coalfield, SW China, and evaluates the geological factors responsible for the chemical characteristics of the coal seams, with emphasis on the influence from different types of volcanic ashes. The roof and floor samples of the Songzao coal seams mostly have high TiO2 contents, consistent with a high TiO2 content in the detrital sediment input from the source region, namely mafic basalts from the Kangdian Upland on the western margin of the coal basin. The coals from the Songzao Coalfield generally have high ash yields and are highly enriched in trace elements including Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, rare earth elements (REE, Y, Hg and Se; some variation occurs among different seam sections due to input of geochemically different volcanic ash materials. The geochemistry of the Songzao coals has also been affected by the adjacent tonstein/K-bentonite bands. The relatively immobile elements that are enriched in the altered volcanic ashes also tend to be enriched in the adjacent coal plies, possibly due to leaching by groundwaters. The coals near the alkali tonstein bands in the Tonghua and Yuyang sections of the Songzao Coalfield are mostly high in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, REE and Y. Coal samples overlying the mafic K-bentonite in the Tonghua section are high in V, Cr, Zn and Cu. The Datong coal, which has neither visible tonstein layers nor obvious volcanogenic minerals, has high TiO2, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn concentrations in the intervals between the coal plies affected by mafic and alkaline volcanic ashes. This is consistent with the suggestion that a common source material was supplied to the coal basin, derived from the erosion of mafic basaltic rocks of the Kangdian Upland. Although the Songzao coal is generally a high-sulfur coal, most of the

  3. SULPHIDE MINERALIZATION IN UPPER WESTPHALIAN COAL SEAMS FROM THE EASTERN PART OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiarski Ireneusz

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically diversified sulphide mineralization has been found in No. 301 and 302 coal seams (Westphalian B. The main sulphide is pyrite which forms veinlets cross-cutting the sedimentary fabrics of the coal, encrusts the cellular structures and intergrowths with oxysulphides. Two generations of pyrites were observed: the preceding and the following the oxysulphides. Pyrite composition is stoichiometric, rare admixtures are up to(in wt.%: Mn - 0.19, Co - 0.48, Ni - 0.42 and As - 1.41. Iron oxysulphides contain up to 35.06 wt.% oxygen. Their composition varies between FeS2O and FeS2O3. Increased contents of As (up to 1.46 wt.% and Pb (up to 0.96 wt.% were detected.

  4. A Novel Acoustic Liquid Level Determination Method for Coal Seam Gas Wells Based on Autocorrelation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In coal seam gas (CSG wells, water is periodically removed from the wellbore in order to keep the bottom-hole flowing pressure at low levels, facilitating the desorption of methane gas from the coal bed. In order to calculate gas flow rate and further optimize well performance, it is necessary to accurately monitor the liquid level in real-time. This paper presents a novel method based on autocorrelation function (ACF analysis for determining the liquid level in CSG wells under intense noise conditions. The method involves the calculation of the acoustic travel time in the annulus and processing the autocorrelation signal in order to extract the weak echo under high background noise. In contrast to previous works, the non-linear dependence of the acoustic velocity on temperature and pressure is taken into account. To locate the liquid level of a coal seam gas well the travel time is computed iteratively with the non-linear velocity model. Afterwards, the proposed method is validated using experimental laboratory investigations that have been developed for liquid level detection under two scenarios, representing the combination of low pressure, weak signal, and intense noise generated by gas flowing and leakage. By adopting an evaluation indicator called Crest Factor, the results have shown the superiority of the ACF-based method compared to Fourier filtering (FFT. In the two scenarios, the maximal measurement error from the proposed method was 0.34% and 0.50%, respectively. The latent periodic characteristic of the reflected signal can be extracted by the ACF-based method even when the noise is larger than 1.42 Pa, which is impossible for FFT-based de-noising. A case study focused on a specific CSG well is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and also to demonstrate that signal processing with autocorrelation analysis can improve the sensitivity of the detection system.

  5. Applied paleobotany and brown coal petrology: plant texture as a basis for brown coal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W.

    1984-01-01

    A selection of 28 microscopic oil immersion photographs is provided showing major groups of plant tissue found in Tertiary brown coal deposits. These groups are bark tissue (peridermo-textit), leaf tissue (phyllo-textit), palm tree tissue and root tissue (rhizo-textit). Explanations on type of plants, cell structures of plants, and degree of coalification are also provided. Conclusions on the paleoenvironment are made. 25 references.

  6. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  7. Detection of Coal Fires: A Case Study Conducted on Indian Coal Seams Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    India produces majority of its electricity from coal but a huge quantity of coal burns every day due to coal fires and also poses a threat to the environment as severe pollutants. In the present study we had demonstrated the usage of Neural Network based approach with an integrated Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) inversion technique. The Self Potential (SP) data set is used for the early detection of coal fires. The study was conducted over the East Basuria colliery, Jharia Coal Field, Jharkhand, India. The causative source was modelled as an inclined sheet like anomaly and the synthetic data was generated. Neural Network scheme consists of an input layer, hidden layers and an output layer. The input layer corresponds to the SP data and the output layer is the estimated depth of the coal fire. A synthetic dataset was modelled with some of the known parameters such as depth, conductivity, inclination angle, half width etc. associated with causative body and gives a very low misfit error of 0.0032%. Therefore, the method was found accurate in predicting the depth of the source body. The technique was applied to the real data set and the model was trained until a very good correlation of determination `R2' value of 0.98 is obtained. The depth of the source body was found to be 12.34m with a misfit error percentage of 0.242%. The inversion results were compared with the lithologs obtained from a nearby well which corresponds to the L3 coal seam. The depth of the coal fire had exactly matched with the half width of the anomaly which suggests that the fire is widely spread. The inclination angle of the anomaly was 135.510 which resembles the development of the geometrically complex fracture planes. These fractures may be developed due to anisotropic weakness of the ground which acts as passage for the air. As a result coal fires spreads along these fracture planes. The results obtained from the Neural Network was compared with PSO inversion results and were found in

  8. An Innovative Support Structure for Gob-Side Entry Retention in Steep Coal Seam Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considered longwall working face No. 41101—located in a steeply inclined coal seam at the Awuzisu coal mine in Xinjiang, China—as an example in which macroscopic shear cracks had occurred in the cement-based filling body of the gob-side entry retention structure. A mechanical model of the support structure for the gob-side entry retention was first established. Then, field observations and laboratory tests were used to obtain the force exerted by the coal wall on the main roof, the relationship between the axial bearing capacity and compression ratio of the rubble inside the gob, the supporting force exerted by the rubble and filling body, and the thrust of the rubble on the filling body. The shear stress experienced by the roadside filling body of the gob-side entry retention in working face No. 41101 was calculated to be 15.89 MPa. To meet the needs of roadside support, an innovative roadside backfill–truss support structure was adopted, with a 60° angle of inclination used for the anchor bolts of the gob-side entry retention structure. In this way, the ultimate shear strength was improved by 107.54% in comparison with the cement-based filling body.

  9. Selection of development and working methods of coal seams in complicated mining and geological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, L.L.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Zel' vyanskii, M.Sh. (Donetskaya Proektnaya Kontora (USSR))

    1991-07-01

    Presents the design and technological patterns developed at the Donetsk Design Office for planning mining work in difficult mining conditions. The recommended patterns of working are based on the following principles. The most progressive panel development of mine-take and horizon layout methods are used. The main workings are driven as rock drifts with support pillars or they are driven in stress relaxed zones. Seams are worked with pillars or in a combined way. The pillarless technology is based on conducting workings with coal cutting along the excavated space or on repeated utilization of workings. Reduction in stone hoisting to the surface is achieved by execution of drifts that follow the longwalls. Variants of pillar systems with panel development of mine-take and horizon layout development are shown and described.

  10. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Mollah, Mamun

    2017-01-01

    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  11. Soft-bodied fossils from the roof shales of the Wigan four foot coal seam, Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.I.; Dunlop, J.A.; Eager, R.M.C.; Horrocks, C.A.; Wilson, H.M. [University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Petroleum Geology

    1999-05-01

    Exceptionally well preserved fossils are described from the Westhoughton opencast coal pit near Wigan, Lancashire, UK (uppermost Westphalian A, lower Modiolaris Chronozone, regularis faunal belt). The fossils occur within sideritic concretions in a 1.5-metre zone above the Wigan Four Foot coal seam. Arthropods dominate the fauna and include arachnids, arthropleurids, crustaceans, eurypterids, euthycarcinoids, millipedes and xiphosurans. Vertebrates are represented by a single palaeoniscid fish, numerous disarticulated scales and coprolites. Upright Sigillaria trees, massive bedded units and a general lack of trace fossils in the roof shales of the Wigan Four Foot coal seam suggest that deposition of the beds containing these concretions was relatively rapid. Discovery of similar faunas at the equivalent stratigraphic level some distance away point to regional rather than localized controls on exceptional preservation.

  12. Palaeochannels (stone-rolls) in coal seams: Modern analogues from fluvial deposits of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, B.; Stanistreet, I. G.; McCarthy, T. S.; Ellery, W. N.; Ellery, K.; Grobicki, T. S. A.

    1988-05-01

    Two varieties of fluvial sandstones are associated with coal seams in the Permian Witbank Coalfield of South Africa. The first comprises lenticular channel-fill sandstone, minor conglomerate and siltstone encased entirely within the coal seam. Medium- to coarse-grained arkosic sandstones are structured by planar cross-bedding and fine upwards into carbonaceous siltstone and overlying coal. These palaeochannel-fill deposits are 5 km wide in proximal basin areas and narrow down palaeoslope to less than 1 km in width. The second variety of channel fill consists of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone which occurs below the floor of the coal seam. These deposits form undulating ridges that occur either in sub-parallel groups or as isolated shoe-string type bodies at the coal-floor rock contact. Both features are referred to as stone-rolls in colliery terminology. These ancient deposits are compared with active and abandoned fluvial systems from the Okavango Delta in Botswana, southern Africa. Active channels are flanked by extensive peat swamps which effectively confine and stabilize the channel margins. Clastic sedimentation is therefore completely confined to the channels by the vegetation and deposition occurs by vertical aggradation. Recently abandoned channels in the Okavango Delta display a variety of well preserved bed-forms which alternate with scoured depressions along the thalweg producing an undulating topography to the channel floor. These features provide a modern analogue for the stone-rolls in the coalfield deposits. The subsequent channel abandonment, vegetation encroachment and peat formation over the sand bodies would form a coal seam superimposed on the irregular surface, provided channel abandonment was followed by subsidence, overlying sediment deposition, compaction and coalification of the peat. Although the Okavango rivers are narrower and transport finer-grained sand than their Permian counterparts, the mechanism of formation and style of

  13. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  14. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  15. Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Popp, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of

  16. The Complex Function Method Roadway Section Design of the Soft Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As for the sophisticated advanced support technique of vertical wall semicircle arch roadway in the three-soft coal seam, a design of flat top U-shape roadway section was put forward. Based on the complex function method, the surrounding rock displacement and stress distribution laws both of vertical wall semicircle arch roadway and of flat top U-shape roadway were obtained. The results showed that the displacement distribution laws in the edge of roadway surrounding rock were similar between the two different roadways and the area of plasticity proportion of flat top U-shape roadway approximately equals that of vertical wall semicircle arch roadway. Based on finite element method, the bearing behaviors of the U-type steel support under the interaction of surrounding rock in vertical wall semicircle arch roadway and flat top U-shape roadway were analyzed. The results showed that, from a mechanics perspective, U-type steel support can fulfill the requirement of surrounding rock supporting in flat top U-shape roadway and vertical wall semicircle arch roadway. The field measurement of mining roadway surrounding rock displacement in Zouzhuang coal mine working face 3204 verified the accuracy of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  17. Modeling of Contaminant Migration through Porous Media after Underground Coal Gasification in Shallow Coal Seam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Čapek, P.; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, DEC (2015), s. 188-197 ISSN 0378-3820 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gasification * transport phenomena modeling * transport parameters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.847, year: 2015

  18. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  19. Caving mining in coal seams lying beneath housing estates (high rise buildings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, A.; Gren, K.; Kowalski, A. (Kopalnia Murcki (Poland))

    1991-01-01

    Presents experience gained in extracting a coal seam by caving mining in the Murcki mine under a housing estate in a suburb of Katowice. Geological and mining conditions are described. Three 2.2 m high and 160 m long longwalls with a reach of 630-1,030 m were mined at a mean depth of 330 m in 1989 with a 40 m advance. Results of ground subsidence measurements at the mine surface are presented. The highest values measured were: subsidence 1.72 m, inclination 0.9%, extension 0.62% and compression 0.056. Discrepancy between calculated and measured values of deformations is discussed. Dependence of ground subsidence rate on longwall advance rate is considered. Final deflection of up to 12 storey high buildings out of plumb was 0.15% at the bottom part of the subsidence trough and 0.5-0.7% at the outskirts of the mining area. The measured ground deformation did not exceed the values for which the buildings were secured. 6 refs.

  20. Environmental and tectonic influences on the formation and distribution of carbonate nodules above the Springfield coal seam, southern Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillipson, S.E. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Roof Control Division, Pittsburgh Safety and Health Technology Center, P.O. Box 18233, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2005-11-10

    Carbonate nodules have been encountered for many years in the southern Illinois Basin, in parts of southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and southwestern Kentucky. The nodules occur as oblate spheroids of calcium carbonate that are isolated in the shale immediate roof of coal mines. They are common in the Springfield coal seam, known as the No. 5 seam in Illinois, and as the No. 9 seam in western Kentucky. Several different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of various semi-spherical objects in coal measure rocks. The distribution and association with rooted horizons suggest that carbonate nodules in black fossiliferous shale observed in the roof of a studied mine in the Springfield seam represent pedogenic carbonate paleosols, which formed in a caliche-favoring environment subsequent to Springfield mire deposition. This interpretation is supported by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope ratios of 0.710893+/-13 to 0.711035+/-12, which indicate a freshwater rather than seawater source. Petrographic examination of rock textures and mineral grains indicates that nodules collected from two Illinois Basin coal mines are composed of subangular grains of fine-grained, crystalline microspar. Although the carbonate is not ferroan, iron hydroxide stains interstices between microspar grains. The rounded, commonly pinched boundaries of nodules truncate commonly imbricated microspar grains. In contrast, concentric growth patterns are not observed except as defined by secondary, subhedral to euhedral pyrite crystals that form a diffuse, concentric replacement zone around the nodule's outer rind. Polished slickensides, with well-developed radial slickenlines, are developed at highly compacted margins in black shale or mudstone that commonly encases the carbonate nodules. Of the 450 carbonate nodules documented at a study mine in the southern Illinois Basin, the long axes of 36% are preferentially aligned parallel to regional structures such as anticline axes and drag

  1. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  2. Microwave treatment of a brown coal concentrate from Mugunsk coal for the manufacture of sponge iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Khaidurova; P.N. Konovalov; N.P. Konovalov [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russia)

    2008-04-15

    A technique for the production of a finely dispersed dry brown coal concentrate with the use of microwave energy is proposed to prepare a charge mixture for the manufacture of sponge iron. The advantages of this technique over analogous industrial processes are demonstrated. The results of experiments on the briquetting of the charge mixture of brown coal and iron ore concentrates without the use of an additional binding agent are described.

  3. Sensitivity of detection of fugitive methane emissions from coal seam gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitz, A. J.; Berko, H.; Wilson, P.; Jenkins, C.; Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that minimising methane emissions from the oil and gas sector is a key step in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Atmospheric monitoring techniques are likely to play an important future role in measuring the extent of existing emissions and verifying emission reductions. They can be very suitable for monitoring gas fields as they are continuous and integrate emissions from a number of potential point and diffuse sources that may vary in time. Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research have collected three years of continuous methane and carbon dioxide measurements at their atmospheric composition monitoring station ('Arcturus') in the Bowen Basin, Australia. Methane signals in the Bowen Basin are likely to be influenced by cattle production, landfill, coal production, and conventional and coal seam gas (CSG) production. Australian CSG is typically 'dry' and is characterised by a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source with an absence of C3-C6+ alkanes. The range of δ13C isotopic signatures of the CSG is similar to methane from landfill gas and cattle emissions. The absence of standard in-situ tracers for CSG fugitive emissions suggests that having a comprehensive baseline will be critical for successful measurement of fugitive emissions using atmospheric techniques. In this paper we report on the sensitivity of atmospheric techniques for the detection of fugitive emissions from a simulated new CSG field against a three year baseline signal. Simulation of emissions was performed for a 1-year period using the coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model TAPM at different fugitive emission rates (i.e. estimates of <1% to up to 10% of production lost) and distances (i.e. 10 - 50 km) from the station. Emissions from the simulated CSG field are based on well density, production volumes, and field size typical of CSG fields in Australia. The distributions of the perturbed and

  4. Data base for the analysis of compositional charateristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report, Part 6. Petrography and depositional environment of the Herrin (No. 6) seam in central, eastern and northwestern Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the petrography of the Herrin (No. 6) seam in the sampling areas and to relate the petrography to the sedimentology, conditions during peat deposition and to the paleobotany of the seam. Sixteen column samples of the Herrin (no. 6) seam from 9 mines in central, eastern and northwestern Illinois were described megascopically in terms of the lithotypes vitrain, clarain, duroclarain, clarodurain, durain and fusain. Ten of the columns were also analyzed petrographically. The columns were divided into subsections based on the maceral content. Two characteristic seam profiles were identified. Samples from northwestern Illinois and from central Illinois west of the peat-contemporaneous Walshville channel have a profile consisting of alternating subsections of relatively inertinite-rich lower subsections and inertinite-poor upper subsections. All coal columns studied terminate upward in n inertinite-poor subsection. The coal petrography is believed to have been controlled by fluctuations in the water table during peat deposition which were caused either by variation in rainfall or by changes in sea level. Prior to the marine transgression which ended peat accumulation, the water table in the swamp rose everywhere within the study area. The results of this work compare favorably with paleobotanical studies of the Herrin (No. 6) seam. 151 references, 41 figures, 13 tables.

  5. Community perspectives of natural resource extraction: coal-seam gas mining and social identity in Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a recent case study of community reaction to proposed coal-seam gas mining in eastern Australia, we illustrate the role of community views in issues of natural resource use. Drawing on interviews, observations and workshops, the paper explores the anti-coal-seam gas social movement from its stages of infancy through to being a national debate linking community groups across and beyond Australia. Primary community concerns of inadequate community consultation translate into fears regarding potential impacts on farmland and cumulative impacts on aquifers and future water supply, and questions regarding economic, social and environmental benefits. Many of the community activists had not previously been involved in such social action. A recurring message from affected communities is concern around perceived insufficient research and legislation for such rapid industrial expansion. A common citizen demand is the cessation of the industry until there is better understanding of underground water system interconnectivity and the methane extraction and processing life cycle. Improved scientific knowledge of the industry and its potential impacts will, in the popular view, enable better comparison of power generation efficiency with coal and renewable energy sources and better comprehension of the industry as a transition energy industry. It will also enable elected representatives and policy makers to make more informed decisions while developing appropriate legislation to ensure a sustainable future.

  6. Pyrolysis of brown coals of the Lelchitsy deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Falyushin, P. L.; Kraiko, V. M.; Dudarchik, V. M.

    2012-11-01

    Results of experimental studies on pyrolysis of brown coals of the Lelchitsy deposit, which were conducted on Laboratory setups in stationary and moving layers for producing high-caloric energy carriers, are presented. The yield of the pyrolysis products is determined; the chemical composition of solid, liquid, and gaseous products of thermochemical treatment is considered.

  7. U and Th in some brown coals of Serbia and Montenegro and their environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivotić, Dragana; Grzetić, Ivan; Lorenz, Hans; Simić, Vladimir

    2008-03-01

    dacite-andesite complex, representing the basement of the Bogovina basin, could be a potential source of U, especially at the bottom part of the Lower seam of the Bogovina East field. This study shows that brown coals in Serbia and Montenegro (soft to hard brown coals or lignite to sub-bituminous) contain low levels of U (5.30 mg/kg, average value and 2.10 mg/kg geometric mean value) and Th (1.80 mg/kg, average value and 1.12 mg/kg geometric mean value). There are some obvious differences in concentration of U and Th in coals from different basins in Serbia and Montenegro. The approximate value for U and Th release mainly from power plants was 644.33 t and 983.46 t, respectively within the period 1965-2000 for the studied mines in Serbia, and 23.76 t and 15.05 t for the Potrlica mine (Montenegro) within the period 1965-1997. The coals in Serbia and Montenegro show no identifiable unfavourable impact on the surrounding environment, due to low natural radioactive concentration of U and Th, but further investigations concerning human health should be performed. Preliminary research revealed that in some Serbian coals (and, particularly, parts of the coal seam) U and Th content are rather high. Such coals should be carefully studied, as well as U and Th concentrations in ash, fly ash, waste disposals, nearby soil and ground water. Further studies should include determination of the radioactivity of all these products, and estimation of possible health impact.

  8. Organic geochemistry of the Lower Suban coal seam, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia: Palaeoecological and thermal metamorphism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amijaya, H.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Littke, R. [University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrocarbons extracted from the Tertiary age coals from the Lower Suban seam, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia have been investigated using gas chromatography (GC) and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low rank (vitrinite-huminite reflectance about to 0.41-0.45%) coals from the Tambang Air Laya mine represent different maceral assemblages of an ideal succession of ombrogenous palaeo-peat development in a vertical section. High rank coals (vitrinite reflectance about to 1.42-5.18%) from the Suban mine have been thermally metamorphosed by an andesitic intrusion. Variations in the distributions of n-alkanes, isoprenoids and saturated and aromatic biomarkers in the low rank coals reflect variations in local source input and palaeomire conditions. Terpenoid biomarkers, such as cadinane- and eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids and oleanane- and ursane-type triterpenoids, indicate the predominance of angiosperm plants in the palaeomire, particularly Dipterocarpaceae. The distribution of hopanoids is affected by the organic facies of the coal and their maturity, and correlates with the palaeomire evolution as derived from petrological studies. Close to the igneous intrusion, rapid thermal stress has destroyed most of the biomarkers, but variations in n-alkane distributions, attributable to palaeomire conditions, remain. Reversals in the trends for molecular parameters based on aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkane distribution and pristane/phytane ratio) and aromatic hydrocarbons (methyl phenanthrenes) with coal rank are observed.

  9. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  10. Solid Coal Stability with Regards to Seam Thickness or Bench mined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovanský Stanislav

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problem of working unit stability, showing a limit state of a rock tension with the Mohr envelope known from a theory of failure, is described. It is obvious that a load of building units in mountain massives can be expressed easily either by simple or multiaxial compressions, and then, on the basis of individual states characteristics, individual conditions of stability can be observed. So we may understand that such building units can be broken even in case of a certain discharge, i.e. lowering of one of main tensions of both of them as well. Combined methods of discharge and surchage can be used too. Another reactive power of an enormous value is caused by pre-fault then. In the OKR district it means even 10% of the seam thickness with common conditions (e.g. saddle seams. An area of a contact between a seam, original rocks and seam thickness should be taken into consideration as serious conditions of rock bumps origin. If this contact area is wavy of the seam thickness is small (possibly both conditions are valid, there will be no risk of any rock bump.

  11. Briquetting of brown coal with hydrolized lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saranchuk, V.I.; Galushko, L.Ja.; Pashchenko, L.V.; Khazipov, V.A. [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    In present the briquetting of coal fines becomes one of priory directions in the solution of problem of provision of needs of people with solid fuel because of deficiency in energetic resources in Ukraine. One of possible ways of developing production of briquets as consumer fuel is the utilization of secondary material resources as additions, in particular, waste products of hydrolysis production-lignin.

  12. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  13. Electrocatalytic oxidation of brown coal from the Adamow mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M. (Zaklad Karbochemii PAN, Gliwice (Poland))

    1991-08-01

    Studies the possibility of electrocatalytic oxidation of brown coal and products obtained therefrom. Two cycles of experiments were performed with either external or internal power supply. The results were compared to electrocatalytic oxidation of n-hexane in a fuel cell. Reaction products were subject to extraction in methylene chloride and analyzed with the use of high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Conditions for tests and for analyses are described. Two figures and six tables are provided. It was found that alternating electrocatalytic reduction and oxidation of the Adamow brown coal yields aliphatic carboxylic acids C20-C33. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-hexane yields alcohols C1-C3. The tested method was found capable of producing oxygen-containing compounds and electricity without carbon dioxide release. 2 refs.

  14. Determining the hydraulic and fracture properties of the Coal Seam Gas well by numerical modelling and GLUE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarimarnani, Sara; Willgoose, Garry; Fityus, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is a form of natural gas that occurs in some coal seams. Coal seams have natural fractures with dual-porosity systems and low permeability. In the CSG industry, hydraulic fracturing is applied to increase the permeability and extract the gas more efficiently from the coal seam. The industry claims that it can design fracking patterns. Whether this is true or not, the public (and regulators) requires assurance that once a well has been fracked that the fracking has occurred according to plan and that the fracked well is safe. Thus defensible post-fracking testing methodologies for gas generating wells are required. In 2009 a fracked well HB02, owned by AGL, near Broke, NSW, Australia was subjected to "traditional" water pump-testing as part of this assurance process. Interpretation with well Type Curves and simple single phase (i.e. only water, no gas) highlighted deficiencies in traditional water well approaches with a systemic deviation from the qualitative characteristic of well drawdown curves (e.g. concavity versus convexity of drawdown with time). Accordingly a multiphase (i.e. water and methane) model of the well was developed and compared with the observed data. This paper will discuss the results of this multiphase testing using the TOUGH2 model and its EOS7C constitutive model. A key objective was to test a methodology, based on GLUE monte-carlo calibration technique, to calibrate the characteristics of the frack using the well test drawdown curve. GLUE involves a sensitivity analysis of how changes in the fracture properties change the well hydraulics through and analysis of the drawdown curve and changes in the cone of depression. This was undertaken by changing the native coal, fracture, and gas parameters to see how changing those parameters changed the match between simulations and the observed well drawdown. Results from the GLUE analysis show how much information is contained in the well drawdown curve for estimating field scale

  15. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells

  16. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Volume II. The program. [Tight gas basins; Devonian shale; coal seams; geopressured aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Brashear, J.P.; Doscher, T.M.; Elkins, L.E.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to assist public decision-makers in selecting among many choices to obtain new gas supplies by addressing 2 questions: 1) how severe is the need for additional future supplies of natural gas, and what is the economic potential of providing part of future supply through enhanced recovery from unconventional natural gas resources. The study also serves to assist the DOE in designing a cost-effective R and D program to stimulate industry to recover this unconventional gas and to produce it sooner. Tight gas basins, Devonian shale, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers are considered. It is concluded that unconventional sources, already providing about 1 Tcf per year, could provide from 3 to 4 Tcf in 1985 and from 6 to 8 Tcf in 1990 (at $1.75 and $3.00 per Mcf, respectively). However, even with these additions to supply, gas supply is projected to remain below 1977 usage levels. (DLC)

  17. Basin-wide groundwater vulnerability assessment: a GIS based DRASTIC approach to the problem of coal seam gas extracted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Navi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal seam gas (CSG production requires the extraction of large volumes of water. Discharges of the extracted water into the environment occur via authorised temporary permits or through accidental releases. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk to shallow groundwater aquifers from potential CSG water releases in Queensland, Australia. A GIS based methodology was used to identify vulnerable shallow aquifers by overlaying a series of risk factors, which increase the likelihood of flow from the ground surface into aquifers below. We identified where the vulnerable aquifers are located and estimate that about 10,000 people live in these areas. The GIS based exposure mapping approach applied here provides a useful ‘first-pass’ assessment of areas with CSG activity. Areas identified as potentially high risk should be prioritised for further detailed investigation.

  18. Differentiation of impregnation by non-impregnation of high volatile coal seams; Differenzierung der Anwendung der Traenkarbeit durch Traenkverzicht in fuer die Traenkung ungeeigneten Floezpartien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, B. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany). Gas and Fire Div.

    2004-07-01

    Water infusion into coal seams before winning is a measure as well for dust control as for fire and explosion prevention. The efficiency of water infusion in low volatile coal is much better as in high volatile coal. Highly efficient follow up dust control technologies in plough and shearer faces meanwhile let vanish the effect of water infusion in high volatile coal. So far water infusion no more is necessary in such seams. Underground trials have shown, that the effect of water infusion cannot be recognized any more, if highly efficient follow up dust control techniques are used. In present time water infusion in high volatile coal seams can be dropped, so far the limitations concerning low dust levels, set up by the mining authority, will be matched. By using further developed lab trials for testing coal samples on their behaviour concerning water infusion individual seams or even coal faces can be assessed concerning dropping water infusion. (orig.) [German] Das Traenken der Kohle vor der Gewinnung ist eine Massnahme zur Staubreduzierung sowohl aus der Sicht des Gesundheitsschutzes als auch des Brand- und Explosionsschutzes. Die Effektivitaet des Traenkens ist in hoch inkohlten Floezpartien jedoch hoeher als in niedrig inkohlten Floezpartien. Die hochwirksamen Staubbekaempfungsmassnahmen im Bereich der schneidenden und schaelenden Gewinnung lassen inzwischen den Traenkeffekt in den Hintergrund treten, so dass die Moeglichkeit gegeben ist, auf diese Massnahme in niedrig inkohlten Floezpartien zu verzichten. In Betriebsversuchen konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Wirksamkeit der Traenkung nicht mehr nachweisbar ist, wenn optimierte sekundaere Staubbekaempfungstechniken eingesetzt werden. Heute kann in stratigraphisch jungen Floezen bei der Gewinnung auf Traenkbarkeit verzichtet werden, wenn die Einhaltung bergbehoerdlicher Auflagen zur Sicherstellung der niedrigeren Staubbelastung gewaehrleistet ist. Die Weiterentwicklung der vorgeschalteten Laborversuche zur

  19. Testing the combustion qualities of coarse coal from the Moscanica coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, V.

    1987-04-01

    Presents the results of industrial combustion tests carried out in the Zenica power plant on coarse brown coal from the Moscanica surface coal mine. Describes tests carried out by specialists from the Thermal Engineering Department of the Mining Institute of Belgrade in accordance with standard control procedures laid down for steam boilers and furnaces. Coal from two defined seams was used as fuel in the horizontal crawling grate of a 2 MW sectional boiler. Describes how the quality of the coal from both seams was assessed and the effects of combustion measured. Ash slag and flue gas were analyzed. Concludes that coal from the main seam sampled was suitable as fuel in flat crawling grates but that coal from the second seam sampled could only be successfully utilized in furnaces with inclined mechanized grates, or, when pulverized, in boilers fueled by coal dust. 4 refs.

  20. Control Mechanism of Rock Burst in the Floor of Roadway Driven along Next Goaf in Thick Coal Seam with Large Obliquity Angle in Deep Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theoretical aspects combined with stress analysis over the floor strata of coal seam and the calculation model for the stress on the coal floor. Basically, this research presents the relevant results obtained for the rock burst prevention in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf in the exploitation of thick coal seam with large obliquity in deep well and rock burst tendency. The control mechanism of rock burst in the roadway driven along next goaf is revealed in the present work. That is, the danger of rock burst can be removed by changing the stress environment for the energy accumulation of the floor and by reducing the impact on the roadway floor from the strong dynamic pressure. This result can be profitable being used at the design stage of appropriate position of roadway undergoing rock burst tendency in similar conditions. Based on the analysis regarding the control mechanism, this paper presents a novel approach to the prevention of rock burst in roadway floor under the above conditions. That is, the return airway is placed within the goaf of the upper working face that can prevent the rock burst effectively. And in this way, mining without coal pillar in the thick coal seam with large obliquity and large burial depth (over a thousand meters is realized. Practice also proves that the rock burst in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf is controlled and solved.

  1. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the raton and vermejo formations, raton basin. Topical report, January 1991-June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.H.; Lombardi, T.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Coates, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The coalbed methane resources of the Raton basin were assessed through an analysis of public and proprietary data sources covering stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, coal rank, and gas content data. The total volume of methane contained in Raton and Vermejo Formation coal seams is estimated to range from 8.4 to 12.1 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), with a mean estimate of 10.2 Tcf. The highest coalbed methane resource concentration occurs in the deep trough around the town of La Veta. The second highest resource concentration occurs southeast of Vermejo Park. Successful development will need to consider favorable coal seam geometry, depth, and reservoir properties in addition to the in-place resource. The study recommends future research of complex parameters affecting coalbed methane producibility in the area.

  2. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  3. A Study on the gas productivity by using Experimental Results of Stress-induced Permeability Change in Coal Seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, I. O.; Kim, K. H.; Han, J. M.; Lee, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    the experimental results, we derived a correlation between the adsorption capacity and volumetric strain according to the pressure and temperature. From the sensitivity stuies on pressure and temperature change, it was experimentally identified that rate of change about CH4 production is decreased at deeper depth in coal seams.

  4. Rapid quality control for coal seams by gamma ray transmission technique

    CERN Document Server

    Raja-Sekhar, N; Nageswara-Rao, A S

    1999-01-01

    The quality of coal expressed as useful heat value (UHV) depends on various parameters such as fixed carbon, volatiles, ash and moisture. These factors have been assessed and the detailed dependence of UHV on these parameters has been studied for samples of coal from a local mine. The samples were subjected to collimated low energy gamma beams and correlation was obtained between the attenuation coefficient and UHV. The method is reliable, fast and non-destructive and can be used in the field for estimating UHV.

  5. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Mactaggart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG development beyond direct environmental impacts. Methods Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Results Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Conclusions Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The

  6. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.

  7. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  8. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  9. Origin and distribution of tonsteins in late permian coal seams of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinzhu; Ren, Y.-L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1982-01-01

    We have surveyed the areal and stratigraphic distribution of tonsteins in Late Permian coalfields of southwestern China over an area of several hundred thousand square kilometers. We studied the relationship between tonstein distribution and sedimentary environment. Based on mineralogical and petrographic data, we have concluded that these tonsteins originated as air-fall volcanic ashes. Following accumulation in the peat swamps, in situ alteration of the vitric and lithic components took place under acidic conditions, leading to the formation of kaolinite. Based on petrologic, mineralogic, and chemical analytical data, we have determined that the application of mineralogic and geochemical criteria for tonsteins may be useful in correlating coal beds, predicting coal qualities and reconstructing related sedimentary paleoenvironmental conditions. ?? 1982.

  10. Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

    2013-04-02

    Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields.

  11. Stability Control of Underground Roadways Subjected to Stresses Caused by Extraction of a 10-m-Thick Coal Seam: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Ma, Shuqi; Yu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of a 10-m-thick coal seam in one single lift using the longwall top coal caving method caused severe deformations in underground roadways in Majialiang coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. Field monitoring of stress changes in the roof and in the coal pillar, and deformation of the 14202 tailgate, were carried out. The deformation monitoring found that the maximum floor heave of the 14202 tailgate was 1.85 m when the monitoring point was 250 m behind the longwall working face, while the maximum roof subsidence and the maximum rib-rib convergence was 0.93 and 1.14 m, respectively. The deformation rate of the 14202 tailgate increased dramatically when the monitoring point was at distances of 100-150 m behind the longwall working face, which reflected the fact that the tailgate underwent sharply increased loads within this range. Field monitoring of stress changes and the displacement of the 14202 tailgate revealed that the impact range of the mining-induced stresses in longitudinal direction (the same as the mining direction) was from 60 m ahead of the longwall face to 250 m behind the longwall face. Additionally, the mining impact range in transverse direction was more than 45 m, indicating that the coal pillar width should be larger than 45 m to avoid significant influences of mining-induced stresses. This finding was applied to the 14103 tailgate, which was subjected to similar mining and geological conditions as the 14202 tailgate. A coal pillar with width of 56 m was adopted in the 14103 tailgate, and displacement monitoring showed that large deformation was successfully controlled. The field investigations in this study provide a basis for design of a proper coal pillar width of underground roadways when subjected to large stresses induced by mining of thick coal seams in a single lift.

  12. Assessment of Self-Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coal Seams - A Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, D. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method. All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario. W pracy omówiono możliwości wykorzystania metody elektro-chemicznej zwanej metodą określania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym do określania skłonności węgla do samozapłonu. Dla potrzeb eksperymentu zebrano 78 próbek węgla z trzynastu kopalni w obrębie Indyjskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Przeprowadzono 936 eksperymentów, w różnych warunkach prowadzenia procesu aby zapewnić standaryzację metody w celu jej szerszego zastosowania. Dla każdej próbki przeprowadzono 12 eksperymentów metodą badania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym. Wyniki skorelowano z własnościami danego węgla przez

  13. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the past. Further the evaluation of known surrounding abandoned mines aquifer systems, accumulated in the coal seam (underground accumulation of water and the evaluation of the effect of increasing the water level in the Kohinoor II mine, focusing on the enlargement of the central mine aquifers and the evaluation of the effects of changes in the way of pumping on the surrounding coal seam and its mining with continued safe brown coal mining at the nearby Bílina mine, that can be ensured for at least another 25 years.

  14. New interpretations of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, H.W.; Wolf, M.

    1987-05-01

    New ideas concerning the understanding of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany are discussed. These new interpretations are based on a significantly larger number of samples and refined procedures for analysis within the field of paleobotany, palynology, coal petrology and organic geochemistry than were available to P.W. Thomson and M. Teichmuller. The light and dark bands in the coal are mainly the result of different degrees of plant decomposition. The influence of the peat-forming plant communities plays a subordinate role in the petrographical composition of these particular strata of the Rhenish brown coal. 28 refs.

  15. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  16. Rock Deformation Behavior Near Excavations Under the Influence of High Tectonic Stress in Coal Seam V-12, "Severnaya" Mine, JSC "Urgalugol"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechishkin, Pavel; Razumov, Evgeny; Petrova, Olga; Kozlov, Alexey; Aushev, Evgeny

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to determination of roof bolt parameters in coal mine excavations when there is rather high tectonic stress. The work was complicated by the presence of considerable number of fractures in the adjacent rock of seam V-12 in "Severnaya" mine (JSC "Urgalugol") as well as variable stress field, low roof rock strength and heterogeneity, considerable rock shift during excavations development and maintenance. The article presents the results of horizontal and vertical stress measurements in the rock mass, physical and mechanical properties, roof rock structure and fracturing. According to the results of boreholes study by means of borehole endoscope the authors fully confirmed the forecasted parameters of areas with roof rock discontinuity, the boundaries of unstable rock. The article presents the measurement results of roof rock shift during development face advance. Based on the research, recommendations on excavations development and proper support using were given under conditions of seam V-12 in "Severnaya" mine (JSC "Urgalugol").

  17. Working adjacent seams separated by thin interbeddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I. (Donetskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Ugol' nyi Institut (Ukraine))

    1992-10-01

    Discusses problems related to working pairs of seams separated by thin interbeddings in Ukrainian black coal mines. Working pairs of seams in descending or ascending order is considered. Exemplary cases of working closely lying seams in five mines are studied. It was found that excavation of under- or overworked seams causes deterioration of the immediate roof and caving of draw roof. It is concluded that very close lying seams should not be worked in ascending order; pillarless working of the upper seam is indispensable in the case of working in descending order. Caving of unstable roofs can be prevented by roof bolting and consolidation by fluid injection. 4 refs.

  18. Assessment of Geogenic Contaminants in Water Co-Produced with Coal Seam Gas Extraction in Queensland, Australia: Implications for Human Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stearman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds in Australian coal seam gas produced water (CSG water are poorly understood despite their environmental contamination potential. In this study, the presence of some organic substances is identified from government-held CSG water-quality data from the Bowen and Surat Basins, Queensland. These records revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 27% of samples of CSG water from the Walloon Coal Measures at concentrations <1 µg/L, and it is likely these compounds leached from in situ coals. PAHs identified from wells include naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. In addition, the likelihood of coal-derived organic compounds leaching to groundwater is assessed by undertaking toxicity leaching experiments using coal rank and water chemistry as variables. These tests suggest higher molecular weight PAHs (including benzo[a]pyrene leach from higher rank coals, whereas lower molecular weight PAHs leach at greater concentrations from lower rank coal. Some of the identified organic compounds have carcinogenic or health risk potential, but they are unlikely to be acutely toxic at the observed concentrations which are almost negligible (largely due to the hydrophobicity of such compounds. Hence, this study will be useful to practitioners assessing CSG water related environmental and health risk.

  19. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Application of Biologically Activated Brown Coal in Cu(II Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beňová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters using different adsorbents is currently of great interest. Adsorption of cooper ions from aqueous solutions on biologically activated brown coal was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from brown coal by microorganisms activity. There were used soi microfungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. The equilibrium of the adsorption process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum capacity of the sorbents was determined.

  1. A physical method to analyse scattered waves from burnt coal seam and its application to estimate thickness of fire scars in central Borneo using L-Band SAR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetuko, J.; Tateishi, R.; Takeuchi, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Center for Environmental Remote Sensing

    2003-08-01

    A physical method was conducted to analyse scattered waves from burnt coal seam in order to estimate the thickness of fire scars. The model was composed of three media namely; air, burnt coal seam and peat. For computation purposes, the equivalent circuit of this model was conducted using a classical transmission line circuit method. The relationship between backscattering coefficient and thickness of burnt coal seam was defined in terms of the logarithm of the reflection coefficient (in power). The analysis result was confirmed by simulation using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The simulation was performed using a two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference model for scattered waves from a burnt coal seam. The model used the equations of scattered electromagnetic fields that were derived from Maxwell's equations. A Mur method was used to surround the simulation space and absorb the outward travelling waves. Analysis and simulation results were similar. Subsequently, the model was applied to estimate the thickness of burnt coal seam in central Borneo fire events, that occurred in 1997, using a Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) SAR data. Results showed that fire scars in the study area reached 0.52m in depth (thickness). This agrees with ground measurements.

  2. Parameters determining the carbon isotopic composition of coal and fossil wood in the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite seam (Styrian Basin, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Petrographical and geochemical data of gelified and ungelified fossil wood from the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite seam (Styrian Basin, Austria) provide evidence that the early diagenetic, aerobic degradation of wood by fungi may be followed by further decomposition under reducing conditions by the activity of anaerobic bacteria. Based on the molecular compositions of terpenoid hydrocarbons, the wood fragments in the lignite are identified as gymnosperms. The mean carbon isotope values found for gymnosperms and coals (-24.2 parts per thousand and -24.7 parts per thousand, respectively) confirm the results from biomarker analyses indicating that the peat-forming vegetation of the Oberdorf seam was dominated by gymnosperm taxa. The results obtained from the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite indicate that the carbon isotope ratios of the coals are primarily affected by varying contributions of different parts of whole-plant tissue, due to their different isotopic and molecular compositions (e.g. epicuticular leaf waxes, resins, wood) and their different decay-resistance against the early diagenetic changes involved in organic matter decomposition. Carbon cycling during anoxic decomposition of plant-derived organic matter is assumed to affect the {delta}-{sup 13}C values of coal. {delta}-{sup 13}C Values of wood and extracted cellulose are affected only to a minor extent.

  3. Preliminary results from field experiment of ECBM-CO{sub 2} in Japan. JCOP (Japan CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal seams project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    IW-1 is the first vertical injection well completed for the enhanced coal-bed methane carbon dioxide sequestration project JCOP in Japan. It is located in Ishikari coalfield of Hokkaido. The paper focuses on the micro-pilot studies using the single well IW-1 and reports on preliminary results. In-situ gas content of the lower seam was estimated at 22.3 ml/g. This high gas content was supported by results of an isotherm desorption experiment. Very low production rates of water and gases were observed during the initial production test. 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Chemical investigation of brown coals in regard to their intended application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharova, M.N.

    1984-11-01

    On the basis of the results of chemical analysis of Kansk-Achinsk and southern Urals brown coals, it was demonstrated that the reactivity of the organic matter during reduction depends on the structure of the coal. In hydrogenation, the depth of conversion is proportional to the content of hydrolized fragments in the structure. The formation of liquid products corresponds to the presence of alkyl bridge bonds and to solubility in active solvents. Biological activity of humic acids in brown coals is related to the presence of specific forms of oxygen bonding. 10 references.

  5. Brown coal planning in the State of Brandenburg. Braunkohlenplanung im Land Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenker, P. (Oberbergamt des Landes Brandenburg, Senftenberg (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    In an official declaration attention was drawn to the urgent need for an economic and ecological redevelopment of our state, a question that also includes the new energy policy and a reliable and ecologically compatible supply of energy. Brown coal plays a major role in the supply of energy. As regards the ecological aspect, brown coal mining is undergoing a considerable improvement, and seen in terms of the economy will definitely play an important part for many years to come. This is also evident from the main decisions reached with regard to the energy policy of Brandenburg, according to which the State Government will orient its political decisions to a yearly output of 60 Mt in the Brandenburg region of Lusatia in the year 2000. A further important precondition which will ensure that the brown coal mining industry of Brandenburg retains its significance in connection with the return to private ownership is the fact that licences for general working plans or brown coal mining plans are to be made available for the operation of the brown coal opencast workings. The State Mines Inspectorate of Brandenburg, on the one hand, is co-operating constructively with the brown coal technical committee in drawing up brown coal mining plans for the long-term opencast workings, and, on the other hand, is taking steps to ensure that the licences for the general working plans can be made available early in the second half of 1993 after relevant orders are issued by the Government of the State of Brandenburg. These short licensing procedures for this difficult and complex matter have only been made possible by the application of modern planning techniques in the form of simultaneous planning in the administrative sector. All planning will no longer be carried out consecutively but concurrently in order to ensure that the licences will be avialable by the end of 1993. This is an important precondition for the further operation of the long-term opencast workings in the State.

  6. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, D. Des. R.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Morgenstern, U.; Aravena, R.

    2016-08-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-DIC, δ37Cl, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. δ13C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (-58‰ to -49‰) and shallow coal measures underlying the alluvium (-80‰ to -65‰) are distinct. CO2 reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway in all aquifers, and it is controlled by SO4 concentrations and competition for reactants such as H2. At isolated, brackish sites in the shallow coal measures and alluvium, highly depleted δ2H-CH4 (coal measures (<200 m) or the alluvium was not observed. The study demonstrates the importance of understanding CH4 at different depth profiles within and between aquifers. Further research, including culturing studies of microbial consortia, will improve our understanding of the occurrence of CH4 within and between aquifers in these basins.

  7. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  8. Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Sri [Department of Mining Engineering, Moslem University of Indonesia, Jln. Urip Sumoharjo, Makassar (Indonesia); Oschmann, Wolfgang [Institute of Geosciece, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Applied Geoscience and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str.5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Anggayana, Komang [Department of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jln. Ganesa 10, I-40132 Bandung (Indonesia); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Dapartment of Analytical Enviromental Chemistry, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Thirteen Miocene coal samples from three active open pit and underground coal mines in the Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) were collected. According to our microscopical and geochemical investigations, coal samples from Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines yield high sulfur and pyrite contents as compared to the Embalut coal mine. The latter being characterized by very low sulfur (< 1%) and pyrite contents. The ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite contents of most of the coal samples from the Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines are high and positively related in these samples. Low contents of ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite have been found only in sample TNT-32 from Centra Busang coal mine. Pyrite was the only sulfur form that we could recognize under reflected light microscope (oil immersion). Pyrite occurred in the coal as framboidal, euhedral, massive, anhedral and epigenetic pyrite in cleats/fractures. High concentration of pyrite argues for the availability of iron (Fe) in the coal samples. Most coal samples from the Embalut coal mine show lower sulfur (< 1 wt.%) and pyrite contents as found within Centra Busang and Sebulu coals. One exception is the coal sample KTD-38 from Embalut mine with total sulfur content of 1.41 wt.%. The rich ash, mineral, sulfur and pyrite contents of coals in the Kutai Basin (especially Centra Busang and Sebulu coals) can be related to the volcanic activity (Nyaan volcanic) during Tertiary whereby aeolian material was transported to the mire during or after the peatification process. Moreover, the adjacent early Tertiary deep marine sediment, mafic igneous rocks and melange in the center of Kalimantan Island might have provided mineral to the coal by uplift and erosion. The inorganic matter in the mire might also originate from the ground and surface water from the highland of central Kalimantan. (author)

  9. Evidence of widespread wildfires in a coal seam from the middle Permian of the North China Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Zhao, Cunliang; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Kalkreuth,Wolfgang; Qin, Shenjun

    2017-01-01

    The North China Basin is the largest coal-bearing basin in China, and has an areal extent of 800,000 km2. We analyzed 138 coal samples and in situ pillar coal samples of the middle Permian from this basin by macropetrography, microscope, scanning electron microscope, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometer in order to study wildfires. High contents of inertinite (charcoal) and natural coke particles observed in coal samples indicate that vegetation in precursor mires and ...

  10. Research into methods of dust prevention in mechanised winning in thin coal seams. Investigacion de metodos de prevencion del polvo, en el arranque mecanizado de capas estrechas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fidalgo, M.; Alvarez Santullano, L.; Eguidazu Pujades, J.L.; Gonzalez del Valle, S.; Cordera Fernandez, J.V.; De Arriba de la Iglesia, J. (Instituto Nacional de Silicosis (Spain))

    1989-09-01

    Concerns the research work carried out jointly by HUNOSA and the National Institute of Silicosis regarding dust prevention on mechanised faces in thin coal seams using shearers with a drum diameter of less than 600 mm. This work was supported by the Directorate General for mines and Ocicarbon. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effects of induced vibrations on the explosion hazard in coal seams; Einfluss von induzierten Schwingungen auf die Schlaggefahr in einem Kohlefloez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guserle, S.

    2001-07-01

    The effects of induced vibrations on the explosion hazard in a coal seam is investigated. Vibration propagation in the seam is analyzed by two theoretical models, which take into account the vibration damping and the loss resulting from geometric dispersion, respectively. The results are compared with vibration amplitudes measured in model experiments. It is found that vibration induction will increase the explosion hazard in general but will reduce the intensity of explosions at the same time. [German] In dieser Arbeit wird der Einfluss einer Schwingungserregung auf die Schlaggefahr in einem Kohlefloez untersucht. Mittels zweier theoretischer Modelle wird die Schwingungsausbreitung im Floez analysiert. Ein Modell beruecksichtigt die Schwingungsdaempfung, das andere den Verlust infolge geometrischer Dispersion. Die Rechenergebnisse werden mit den in Modellversuchen gemessenen Schwingungsamplituden verglichen. In systematisch durchgefuehrten Modell-Versuchsreihen wird geprueft, wie die kritische Schlaglast und die Schlagheftigkeit (hier gemessen in Form der bei einem solchen Schlag freigesetzten elastischen Energie) von der Erregungsfrequenz, der Erregungsrichtung und der Steifigkeit des Modellnebengesteins abhaengen. Es zeigt sich, dass die Schwingungsinduzierung generell zu einer Erhoehung der Schlaggefahr, zum Teil aber zu einer erheblichen Reduktion der Heftigkeit eines solchen Schlages fuehrt. (orig.)

  12. Rock Deformation Behavior Near Excavations Under the Influence of High Tectonic Stress in Coal Seam V-12, “Severnaya” Mine, JSC “Urgalugol”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grechishkin Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of roof bolt parameters in coal mine excavations when there is rather high tectonic stress. The work was complicated by the presence of considerable number of fractures in the adjacent rock of seam V-12 in “Severnaya” mine (JSC “Urgalugol” as well as variable stress field, low roof rock strength and heterogeneity, considerable rock shift during excavations development and maintenance. The article presents the results of horizontal and vertical stress measurements in the rock mass, physical and mechanical properties, roof rock structure and fracturing. According to the results of boreholes study by means of borehole endoscope the authors fully confirmed the forecasted parameters of areas with roof rock discontinuity, the boundaries of unstable rock. The article presents the measurement results of roof rock shift during development face advance. Based on the research, recommendations on excavations development and proper support using were given under conditions of seam V-12 in “Severnaya” mine (JSC “Urgalugol”.

  13. Seam Pucker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Galuszynski, S

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available dog and the bottom fabric. Feeding of the upper fabric is obtained by the frictional force produced between the fabrics and through an advance of the seam. During this movement the feeding and seam advancing forces have to overcome some frictional... force (braking force) produced between the presser foot and the top fabric. Therefore there is a need for a high value of frictional force between feed dog and bottom fabric as well as between the fabrics. At the same time the frictional force created...

  14. Sequential simulation approach to modeling of multi-seam coal deposits with an application to the assessment of a Louisiana lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple ways to characterize uncertainty in the assessment of coal resources, but not all of them are equally satisfactory. Increasingly, the tendency is toward borrowing from the statistical tools developed in the last 50 years for the quantitative assessment of other mineral commodities. Here, we briefly review the most recent of such methods and formulate a procedure for the systematic assessment of multi-seam coal deposits taking into account several geological factors, such as fluctuations in thickness, erosion, oxidation, and bed boundaries. A lignite deposit explored in three stages is used for validating models based on comparing a first set of drill holes against data from infill and development drilling. Results were fully consistent with reality, providing a variety of maps, histograms, and scatterplots characterizing the deposit and associated uncertainty in the assessments. The geostatistical approach was particularly informative in providing a probability distribution modeling deposit wide uncertainty about total resources and a cumulative distribution of coal tonnage as a function of local uncertainty.

  15. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: II. Dexterity, protection and performance with padded gloves. Phase II report, number 2. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, G.; Sanders, M.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report investigates the effects of adding a layer of extra padding to the palm area of leather gloves typically worn by low seam coal miners.

  16. Identification and geochemical significance of some extractable components from Bosnian brown coal and their possible connection to Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.M.; Anderson, R.R.; Rohar, P.C.; Irdi, G.A.; Veloski, G.A. [Federal Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Audino, M.; Alexander, R. [Centre for Petroleum and Environmental Organic Geochemistry, Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Bosnian brown coal was crushed and then extracted with toluene in a Soxhlet extractor. The toluene extract was subjected to analysis by combined GC-MS using a Hewlett/Packard 5988A system and low-voltage high-resolution mass spectrometry (LVHRMS) using a modified Kratos MS-50. Petrographic results indicate that the coal is immature and would be classified as a brown coal. Many biological markers were identified. These findings may have implications related to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. (orig.)

  17. Do stable carbon isotopes of brown coal woods record changes in Lower Miocene palaeoecology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Dolezych, M.; Kool, J.; Burgh, J. van der; Bergen, P.F. van

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of fossil wood from the Miocene brown coal deposits in former East Germany are compared with palaeobotanical and sedimentological data to test the use of stable isotopes in determining palaeoenvironment. Significant differences in the chemical composition of samples

  18. Analysis of US underground thin seam mining potential. Volume 1. Text. Final technical report, December 1978. [In thin seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimental, R. A; Barell, D.; Fine, R. J.; Douglas, W. J.

    1979-06-01

    An analysis of the potential for US underground thin seam (< 28'') coal mining is undertaken to provide basic information for use in making a decision on further thin seam mining equipment development. The characteristics of the present low seam mines and their mining methods are determined, in order to establish baseline data against which changes in mine characteristics can be monitored as a function of time. A detailed data base of thin seam coal resources is developed through a quantitative and qualitative analysis at the bed, county and state level. By establishing present and future coal demand and relating demand to production and resources, the market for thin seam coal has been identified. No thin seam coal demand of significance is forecast before the year 2000. Current uncertainty as to coal's future does not permit market forecasts beyond the year 2000 with a sufficient level of reliability.

  19. FY 1998 report on the basic survey for coal resource development (Summary). New exploration technology survey and development (land area shallow seam exploration); 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa hokokusho. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (rikuiki senso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1998 results of the development of new exploration technology of coal resource. The detailed design was made based on the conceptual design of a high accuracy 3D geological modeling system in the FY 1997 equipment development. The expression of the reverse fault, excess folding, etc., which has been difficult, became possible, and high-level visualization of the geological model made became possible. The prototype model in Caroona district as survey field is easy of expression of fault, folding, etc. By the increase of data on test boring, made clear were geological characteristics of this area, especially the complicated geological state of Black Jack Formation groups of the coal-bearing formation. In explaining the reflection section, after roughly identifying 5 horizons from features of the total reflection patterns, reflection waves were explained from specified reflected waves, that is, the base of the Quaternary, the top of the Doona coal seam group, the base of the Clift coal seam group, and the top of the Hoskissons coal seam. By adopting the S-wave reflection method which is effective in converting in-situ numerical values such as the rock-mass related elastic modulus, compressive strength and rigidity ratio, an outlook for getting data of good quality was obtained in VSP survey. (NEDO)

  20. Disintegrative supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of brown coal using supercritical dichloromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie

    1997-12-31

    A Rhenish brown coal was extracted with dichloromethane under supercritical conditions. Extraction pressure and temperature increased rapidly after passing critical point of dichloromethane indicating the rapid disintegration of both solvent and coal. After fractionating the extract in hydrocarbon classes analyses using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were performed. Comparing these fractions with those from the original coal significant changes in hydrocarbon assemblages were obvious. The n-alkane distribution shifted from the higher homologues to those with lower carbon numbers indicating pyrolyis of paraffins. Pyrolysis was also indicated by the appearance of bibenzyl, napthaline and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues not existing in the original sample. Further some interesting reactions of the solvent were observed. First, the insertion of methylene groups (-CH{sub 2}-) into oxygen-hydrogen bonds of carboxyl groups or oxygen-carbon bonds of esters took place indicated by the appearance of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and hexyl esters of fatty acids not existing in the original brown coal. Second, methylated sulfur species like alkylated tri- and tetrasulfides were identified. Both classes of substances are supposed to be the reaction products of dichloromethane, which decomposes rapidly under supercritical conditions, and fatty acids or their methyl esters as well as cyclo-octasulfur (S{sub 8}), which are present in the brown coal. (orig.)

  1. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  2. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  3. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. CAPTO method application to the quality assessment of Slovak brown coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the principle and application of CAPTO (Controlled - atmosphere programmed - temperature oxidation method for the sulphur content valuation in coal. The principle of CAPTO consists in mixing the coal with an inert material (WO3 and oxidation of the sample by a linear increase of temperature to 1000oC. The evolved gases (CO2, H2O, SO2 and NO2 are analyzed by infrared sensors. The method enables the determination of different sulphur forms (sulphidic, elemental, sulphate, organic aromatic and organic non-aromatic, hydrogen, carbon and humidity. The results on Americal coal Illionois No. 6 and Slovakian brown coal Nováky serve as an illustration of the CAPTO method possibility.

  5. Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Area de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario - M5502JMA - Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-01

    Reported for the first time from the Sydney Coalfield, Canada, is a fragmentary fusain (R{sub o} = 2.51%) specimen, 41 cm long, of a medullosalean trunk or massive petiole that originated from the roof rocks of the banded bituminous Hub Seam (R{sub o} {proportional_to} 0.65%). Megascopic characteristics of the flat-preserved specimen include an irregular-cracked fusain surface with secretinite-rodlet structures and sclerenchymatous strands some of which still embedded in the shaly matrix, and locally preserved vitrain (R{sub o} 0.69%). Co-occurrence with a compression flora composed virtually of only the seed-fern taxon Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri (Hoffmann) is noted. The goal of this study is to provide a framework for the phytophysicochemical taphonomic history which includes the perspective on vitrinite/fusinite relationship, formation of fusinite, and on the significance the only fusinized identifiable plant-fossil specimen in the Sydney Coalfield. We use state-of-the-art solid-state FTIR, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H NMR CP/MAS techniques, and standard reflected-light microscopy and SEM methods as investigative tools. Results indicate that the fusinite is characterized by long and narrow xylem fibers, without fungal signals, and cell structures infilled with pyrite and carbonate. FTIR spectra of the fusinite and secretinite are similar particularly in respect to high absorbance of aromatic and low absorbance of aliphatic compounds, and absorbance of Si-O functionalities relating to kaolinite. {sup 13}C NMR experiments with direct carbon excitation quantify the aromatic to aliphatic ratio as being 20 {+-} 3:1. As part of the taphonomic history, the evidence favors a hot, > 400 C, directional surface-fueled flame palaeofire of local extent that charred trunks of growing arborescent seed ferns on only one side, and that these trunks were transported to comprise part of the roof rocks of the Hub Seam. (author)

  6. Identification of aliphatic biological markers in brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazai, I.; Alexander, G.; Essiger, B.; Szekely, T.

    1988-07-01

    Ten coal samples were subjected to solvent extraction and aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions were obtained by open column chromatography. The fractions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: n-alkanes, di- and triterpenoid hydrocarbons and (in lesser amounts) sterenes were found. The distribution of the biological markers found indicated the low rank of the samples, but contradictions in the composition of hopanoids were observed. Some compounds not previously reported in the literature were also present. 44 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Purification of highly polluted tip seepage water using brown coal coke. Reinigung hochbelasteter Deponiesickerwaesser mit Braunkohlenkoks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felgener, G. (Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)); Janitza, J.; Koscielski, S. (Inst. fuer Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of tests conducted over a long period of time on actual seepage water from five different household refuse tips was to ascertain whether brown coal coke, which is available as a mass product and therefore cheap, is suitable for use as an adsorptive purification agent on highly polluted tip seepage water. The present paper discusses the concept, treatment costs and the findings obtained from the tests. On the strength of the purification results it is shown that the treatment of tip seepage water can be effected successfully with brown coal coke and that the values obtained are even much lower than those stipulated in Appendix 31 of the general administrative regulations. (orig.).

  8. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  9. Reuse and recycling options for solid prescribed industrial wastes and brown coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum Hailu, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of detailed investigation of the possible use of stabilised sludge and brown coal fly ash as raw material ingredients for road construction and manufacture of building bricks. The thesis is organised into seven chapters including a general introduction chapter. A literature review of solid waste management practices employed in Australia and some selected countries are discussed (chapter 1) together with waste generation from power station...

  10. Degassification and methane drainage in thick and vertical coal seams worked by horizontal sublevel caving method; Drenaje y Desgasificacion de Grisu en Capas de Carbon Potentes y Verticales, Explotadas por subniveles Horizontales con sutiraje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The present trend of the working in spanish coal underground mines is directed towards the utilization, if the deposit characteristics permit it, of mining method by horizontal sublevels with caving. The application of this method involves an important coal volume in specific situations inside the workings cycle (shots, roof cavings, workings beginning, etc). Therefore, those considerable quantities of coal put into circulation, joined to high firedamp concentration desorbable of coal seam, produce in a instantaneous way large volumes of firedamp in the mine atmosphere with the consequent associated risk for the mine people, the stoppage of the works and its evacuation. These aforementioned risks could be avoided, or at least decreased to a great extent, through a methane capture before its circulation in openings caused by the mining works or by draining from accumulation rooms. During the last years, basically in EU countries, some researches have been accomplished about previous Degassification and methane capture in longwall faces of horizontal seams. In these researches have been studied the methane capture both from surface and from underground. In sublevel caving workings, substantially different from longwall faces workings, the techniques and capture systems utilized in the first one are not applicable to the second. The field works and measurements of this project have been mainly carried out in two mining companies located at the north of Spain, the Mina la Camocha S. A. and the S. A. Hullera Vasco Leonesa. Many methane capture tests by means of boreholes in coal seam have been carried out to determine the influence that capture boreholes exert in degassification of coal panel. Otherwise, many firedamp drainage tests in accumulation rooms have been also carried out, and a small-scale system that makes possible the capture in safe conditions have been defined and tested. (Author)

  11. The immersion freezing behavior of ash particles from wood and brown coal burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Sarah; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Prager, Andrea; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that ash particles from coal combustion can trigger ice nucleation when they interact with water vapor and/or supercooled droplets. However, data on the ice nucleation of ash particles from different sources, including both anthropogenic and natural combustion processes, are still scarce. As fossil energy sources still fuel the largest proportion of electric power production worldwide, and biomass burning contributes significantly to the global aerosol loading, further data are needed to better assess the ice nucleating efficiency of ash particles. In the framework of this study, we found that ash particles from brown coal (i.e., lignite) burning are up to 2 orders of magnitude more ice active in the immersion mode below -32 °C than those from wood burning. Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was shown to be the most efficient at nucleating ice. Furthermore, the influence of various particle generation methods on the freezing behavior was studied. For instance, particles were generated either by dispersion of dry sample material, or by atomization of ash-water suspensions, and then led into the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) where the immersion freezing behavior was examined. Whereas the immersion freezing behavior of ashes from wood burning was not affected by the particle generation method, it depended on the type of particle generation for ash from brown coal. It was also found that the common practice of treating prepared suspensions in an ultrasonic bath to avoid aggregation of particles led to an enhanced ice nucleation activity. The findings of this study suggest (a) that ash from brown coal burning may influence immersion freezing in clouds close to the source and (b) that the freezing behavior of ash particles may be altered by a change in sample preparation and/or particle generation.

  12. Proximate and The Calorific Value Analysis of Brown Coal for High-Calorie Hybrid Briquette Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam; Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Wati, Wa; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    A study has been conducted about the quality of young coal (brown coal ) briquettes from North Kolaka to determine the effect of varied adhesive on the proximate characteristics and calorific value. The young coal briquettes were made by using adhesives of starch, cassava starch and Castor oil plant starch at a concentration of 5 to 15% of the total mass. The grain size of young coal and the adhesive used were 60 mesh and 100 mesh, respectively. The samples were molded in a cylindrical mold with a diameter of 2.5 cm and a high of 6 cm, and with a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. After having been compacted, the young coal samples were then analyzed proximately i.e. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon, as well as their calorific values calculation. The results showed that the increase of the adhesive could tend to increased the water content and volatile matter, but reduced the ash content, and the fixed carbon tend to constant except coal briquettes using starch adhesive it were increased. The calorific value of the young coal briquettes increased for all kinds of adhesives when the adhesive increased. The calorific value per one gram ranged from 3162.7 cal/g to 4678.7 cal/g. The highest calorific value, 4678.7 cal/g, was observed at the adhesive of 15 % of starch. The characteristics of young coal can be used as a raw material for making high-calorie hybrid briquettes.

  13. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  14. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  15. Kerogen extract interrelationships of terpenoid biomarkers from a Jilin brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Johns, R.B. (University of Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Two samples of a Chinese brown coal taken from a depth profile in the Funan coal mine, Jilin Province, have been studied in detail to assess the interrelationships between the triterpenoid and diterpenoid biomarkers isolated from the solvent extracts, on thermal desorption at 350{degree}C and on flash pyrolysis at 600{degree}C. The thermally desorbed hydrocarbons are shown to be identical in distribution and in relative concentration to those found for the solvent extracts. Thermal desorption, when coupled with GC-MS analysis, provides a rapid and direct technique for studying diterpenes in sediments avoiding the limitations of extraction and followed by separation steps in analyses. Thermal desorption does not bring about isomerisation of maturity indicators and is, therefore, a reliable technique for use in maturation studies. Thermal desorption followed by pyrolysis at 600{degree}C allows the desorbable terpenes to be compared and contrasted with those held in the kerogen by covalent bonds. The results of thermal desorption analyses reported in this paper show that there can be significant differences in the concentrations of the same biomarkers both within and between closely related coals. The results suggest that maturation studies which have not differentiated between 'bound' and 'free' triterpenes in source rock shales may require reassessment. These immature coal samples have allowed it to be demonstrated that some diterpenoid biomarkers are held in the kerogen through acid sensitive functional groups. This is in contrast to the triterpenoid biomarkers which are resistant to demineralisation of the coal. On pyrolysis, these coals yield a suite of hopenes where the double bond position reflects the prior heat treatment of the coal. 24 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Managing land application of coal seam water: A field study of land amendment irrigation using saline-sodic and alkaline water on a Red Vertisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Marchuk, A; Raine, S R; Dalzell, S A; Macfarlane, D C

    2016-12-15

    Coal seam (CS) gas operations coproduce water with gas from confined CS aquifers. This CS water represents a potential agricultural resource if the water is able to be chemically amended to comply with management guidelines. Stoichiometric quantities of sulphur and gypsum amendments can be used to neutralise the alkalinity and reduce the sodicity of CS water respectively. These amendments can either be mixed in-line at a water treatment plant or applied directly to land prior to the application of CS water (a practice termed land amendment irrigation - LAI). This study compared the efficacy of LAI with in-line chemical amendment of CS water and irrigation with non-saline, non-sodic and non-alkaline (good quality) water under field conditions in southern Queensland. Soil chemical properties, soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chloride and alkalinity, as well as saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured to determine the impact of the irrigation treatments on soil chemical and physical conditions. Irrigation of lucerne pasture using solid-set sprinklers applied a total of 6.7 ML/ha of each treatment irrigation water to the experimental plots over a 10-month period. Alkalinity was neutralised using LAI, with no increase in soil alkalinity observed. Soil sodicity did not exceed threshold electrolyte concentration values under either CS water irrigation treatment. Soil chemical and physical properties were comparable for both LAI and in-line chemical amendment of CS water. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity was maintained under all irrigation treatments. Results showed that the constrained capacity of the irrigation system was unable to meet crop evapotranspiration demand. This resulted in accumulation of salt within the root-zone under the CS water treatments compared to the good quality water treatment. LAI successfully chemically amended Bowen Basin CS water facilitating its beneficial use for agricultural irrigation. Copyright © 2016

  17. Data preparation for digital modelling of the coal seams in the South Moravian Lignite Coalfield (Czech part of the Vienna Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Honěk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution data preparation for digital modelling and assessing the Kyjov Seam (Pannonian, zone B of the Vienna Basinstratigraphy and the Dubňany Seam (Pannonian, zone F is presented. The seams occur partly as unit seam and partly as seam splitin up to four benches. Almost 3000 holes were drilled in the area in the last 50 years. Data about lithological logs, laboratory resultsand other measurements were gathered, uniformed, and stored in digital database. Input data for modelling, which were the thicknessand average values of analytical parameters in set thickness in each data point (drill hole, were derived from the primary data storedin database by designed software. The thickness was defined in five ways in each drill hole. Firstly as the geological thickness to modelnatural geometry of the seam and secondly as deposit thickness to model only part of the seam with required quality. Deposit thicknesswas defined in four variants according to limit parameter of maximal average ash content value of 50, 40, 35, and 30 % in the seamin borehole.

  18. Influence of Small Furnaces Construction Type on TSP Emissions During Wood and Brown Coal Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří HORÁK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid fuel burning household heat sources are considered to be significant producers of total suspended particulates (TSP. In the year 2005, c. 35% of the total particulate matter emissions PM10 (in The Czech Republic came out from household heating [1]. However, low-power combustion devices cannot be considered as identical pollution sources because they can operate on different combustion principles and feature dramatically different emission factors. The article presents results of an experimental determination of particulate matter emissions including TSP dividing into PM10 and PM2.5 fractions from wood and brown coal combustion in five types of combustion devices.

  19. German planning atlas. Vol. 1: North Rhine Westphalia. No. 11. Brown coal 2 - ownership of brown coal deposits, resettlement, surface balance, coal, rock, and energy economy, future developments. Deutscher Planungsatlas. Bd. 1: Nordrhein-Westfalen. Nr. 11. Braunkohle 2 - Feldesbesitz, Umsiedlung, Grundwasser, Flaechenbilanz, Kohle-, Abraum- und Energiewirtschaft, kuenftige Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In map No. III of the atlas on the develpment of Rhenish coal mining, the ownership in brown coal deposits and planning, resettlement, ground water and an area balance are presented. Map No. IV discusses coal economy, rock economy, energy economy, structure and development. Details are described in the text.

  20. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?; Braunkohleausstieg NRW. Welche Abbaumengen sind energiewirtschaftlich notwendig und klimapolitisch moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, Dierk; Hermann, Hauke; Ritter, David; Vogel, Moritz; Winger, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  1. Modified Two-Step Dimethyl Ether (DME Synthesis Simulation from Indonesian Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study was conducted to investigate the performance of dimethyl ether (DME synthesis from coal. This paper presents a model for two-step DME synthesis from brown coal represented by the following processes: drying, gasification, water-gas reaction, acid gas removal, and DME synthesis reactions. The results of the simulation suggest that a feedstock ratio of coal : oxygen : steam of 1 : 0.13 : 0.821 produces the highest DME concentration. The water-gas reactor simulation at a temperature of 400°C and a pressure of 20 bar gave the ratio of H2/CO closest to 2, the optimal value for two-step DME synthesis. As for the DME synthesis reactor simulation, high pressure and low temperature promote a high DME concentration. It is predicted that a temperature of 300°C and a pressure of 140 bar are the optimum conditions for the DME synthesis reaction. This study also showed that the DME concentration produced by the two-step route is higher than that produced by one-step DME synthesis, implying that further improvement and research are needed to apply two-step DME synthesis to production of this liquid fuel.

  2. The generation of hydrocarbons from Victorian brown coals by hydrous pyrolysis as indicative of maturation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Johns, R.B. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    Hydrous pyrolysis over a temperature profile from 200{degree} to 300{degree}C of the Medium Light lithotype of Victoria brown coal Rosedale Field has been carried out in order to simulate geochemical transformations during early diagenesis of the solvent extractable fraction of the coal. Some unexpected product-precursor relationships are revealed. n-Alkanes are generated but at lower carbon numbers, and are derived from ether lipids probably of bacterial origin. Pristene is readily formed deriving also from bacterial phytanyl ethers. Prist-2-ene predominates with increasing temperature of reaction and the conversion of prist-1-ene appears to be driven not only by greater thermodynamic stability but also by acid catalysis of the coal surface. With temperature the aromatic fraction increases at the expense of polar constituents whilst the aliphatic fraction remains constant, but is increasingly composed of n-alkanes. Analysis of the data shows that bicyclic aromatics are generated and predominate over n-alkanes; this favoured pathway during maturation involves 8,14-seco-triterpenoid intermediates derived from higher plant triterpenes. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Composition of benzene fraction separated from alkaline hydrolysis product of bituminized non-weathered Shurabsk brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartsman, B.B.; Rumyantseva, Z.A.; Perednikova, Z.M.

    1987-01-01

    Componental composition is studied of benzene fraction obtained from hydrolysis of non-weathered bituminized Shurabsk brown coal. Benzene fraction was hydrolized with 3% methanol solution KOH and extracted with various polarity solvents. Chromato-mass spectral analysis indicates that benzene fraction of alkaline hydrolysis products contains about 2/3 neutral substances (aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic acid anhydrides, dibutylphthalates) and 1/3 benzene-, oxybenzene-carboxylic and aliphatic acids. Weathering brings about oxidation of aliphatic unsaturated and seemingly some saturated hydrocarbons forming organic coal mass as well as accumulation of benzene- and oxybenzene-carboxylic acids in alkaline hydrolysis of coal products. 10 refs.

  4. SPECIFIC INFLUENCE OF BIOMASS ON THE DESULPHURISATION PROCESS IN COMBUSTION OF BROWN COAL AND BIOMASS MIXTURE IN FLUIDISED BED BOILER

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, Svetlana; Ochman, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Thesis is focused on specific aspects of the desulphurisation processes of fluidised- bed boilers. The original goal of the study was to analyse the influence of several kinds of biomass to the quality of the desulphurisation process in combustion of the mixture of brown coal, biomass and limestone in fluidised-bed boilers.

  5. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: VI. Comparison bumping hazards with high and low profile helmets. Phase II report, number 6. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Wick, D.; Krohn, G.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report describes an experiment that was conducted to compare the relative bumping hazards of a low- and high-profile hard hat (helmet) in a low seam mining environment. The study was specifically designed to assess the effect of lowering the helmet profile on frequency of head impacts.

  6. {open_quotes}Experimental investigation of brown coal combustion with siumlated gas Turbine Exhaust Gas in a combined cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakaras, E.; Vourliotis, P.

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of this study is the experimental investigation of the brown coal combustion (brown coal with high sulphur content, e.g. {open_quotes}Megalopolis{close_quotes} lignite) in a lab-scale Atmospheric Fluidized Bed (AFB). The fluidizing gas and the oxidant medium is the Simulated gas Turbine Exhaust flue Gas - {open_quotes}Vitiated Air{close_quotes} (STEG - V.A.). The STEG simulates the exhaust flue gas from the turbine MS 9/1 (FA) produced by EGT - GEC Alsthom (/1/). According to the IFRF experiments, the lowest O{sub 2} level allowed for stable combustion is 10%, concentration which corresponds to 88.4 % burnout in the IFRF experimental furnace. For the improvement of the coal burnout the presence of an oxidation catalyst is considered necessary in order, first, to avoid the incomplete combustion of the coal and second, to decrease the CO and C{sub x}H{sub y} emissions. The catalysts, supplied by KAT-TEC (/4/), are perovskit-type with TiO{sub 2} and Pt as stabilisers. The purposes of the trials are: (1) To examine the possibility to achieve the combustion of low grade brown coal under these conditions. (2) The investigation of the burnout behaviour as well as the resulting O{sub 2} CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, C{sub x}H{sub y} and NO{sub x} emissions.

  7. Anomalous gold contents in brown coals and peat in the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Maslov, S.G.; Arhipov, V.S.; Belyaeva, A.M. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-02

    One hundred twenty-two samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and 1254 peat samples from the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method. Mean content of Au in Jurassic coals is 30+/-8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6+/-4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6+/-1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time. Negative correlation between gold and ash yield in coals and peat and highest gold concentrations were found in low-ash and ultra-low-ash coals and peat. Primarily this is due to gold's association with organic matter. For the investigation of mode of occurrence of Au in peat the bitumen, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances, humic acids, cellulose and lignin were extracted from it. It was determined that in peat about 95% of gold is combined with organic matter. Forty to sixty percent of Au is contained in humic acids and the same content is in lignin. Bitumens, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances contain no more than 1% of general gold quantity in peat. The conditions of accumulation of high gold concentrations were considered. The authors suggest that Au accumulation in peat and brown coals and the connection between anomalous gold concentrations and organic matter in low-ash coals and peat can explain a biogenic-sorption mechanism of Au accumulation. The sources of formation of Au high concentration were various Au-Sb, Au-Ag Au-As-Sb deposits that are abundant in the Southern and South-Eastern peripheries of the coal basin. (author)

  8. Dust measurement in thick seam mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Wu, H.W. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-12-01

    An Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded scoping study was undertaken to examine dust problems being faced by Australian thick seam longwall mine operators, evaluate options and recommended priorities for improvement. The study involved a number of stages. A detailed survey of six Australian thick seam mine operators was undertaken to identify individual mine issues. A comprehensive literature review on Australian and foreign developments, with emphasis on publications from the last ten years, was undertaken. Views and advice from recognised dust experts both within Australia and overseas were sought. Some approaches to assessment of dust compliance and analysis of trends exhibited were undertaken; and both analysis and evaluation were undertaken on some options for improvement. This paper describes results from the questionnaire survey and presents some potential thick seam longwall dust issue based on the analysis of dust survey results from both published US data and from Joint Coal Board (JCB) data. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Application of electrocatalytic oxidation of brown coal for anticorrosive coating of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M. (Zaklad Karbochemii PAN, Gliwice (Poland))

    1992-02-01

    Explains a method for preparing anticorrosive steel coatings. Brown coal was oxidized at 0.15 V and 0.5 A in a mixture with hydrogen peroxide (30%), sulfuric acid, ethanol and nickel nitrate. A sulfoxide inhibitor was further prepared as well as Epidain 5 epoxy resin and a rubber-asphalt composition. All components were used in 15 different mixtures. Steel plates were treated with the mixtures for 1 hour. Plates were further treated for 76 hours with 0.1% sulfuric acid and 0.021% NaCl solution. The mass loss of coating mixtures was measured and compared to that of Ketec standard coating. The surface protection factor reached as high as 75%. Nonlinear regression analysis and computer calculations were employed to determine the role of separate mixture components. Coefficients obtained by calculations are discussed. 10 refs.

  10. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: I. Comparison of 10/60 and standard self-rescue devices. Phase II report, number 1. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Krohn, G.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report compares a proposed 10/60 'piggyback' 02-generating, self-rescue unit with the standard CO self-rescue unit with respect to work task interference. A simulated low seam coal mine was constructed and workers performed locomotion, shoveling, cart pushing, and timbering tasks with the 10/60 and standard self-rescue units attached to their belts.

  11. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: V. Effect of reflectorized outer garments on detection and conspicuity of miners. Phase II report, number 5. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beith, B.; Sanders, M.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report details a study that was designed to assess the effect of retroreflective material on the detection and form recognition of workers in a mining environment. The study involves a one-fifth-scale simulation of the perceptual task found in underground low seam coal mines. Under this simulation, different configurations of retroreflective material are examined in various body positions at three different locations in the visual field.

  12. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin. Topical report, September 1986-September 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of geologic assessment, the natural gas in place in the Fruitland Formation coals of the San Juan Basin is estimated at 50 trillion cubic feet. The north-central portion of San Juan Basin contains the highest concentrations of coalbed methane for the Fruitland Formation coals. The area coincides with the thick deposits of high-rank coals. To provide a foundation for evaluating the coalbed methane in place on a township-by-township basis, the study delineates the subsurface geology of the Fruitland Formation coals. Four regional cross sections and detailed overburden, net coal isopach, and coal rank maps are included.

  13. The exploitation of brown coal at Megalopolis (Greece). L'exploitation de lignite de Megalopolis (Grece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In Greece, the exploitation of brown coal at Megalopolis makes it possible to feed fuel to a thermal power station which supplies not less than 16% of the electricity requirements of the country. A great effort has been made here to improve productivity, even when the progressive restoration of the site is given prominence. The operation of this site is expected to last another forty years. 3 photos.

  14. Quantum chemical investigation of the primary thermal pyrolysis reactions of the sodium carboxylate group in a brown coal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Baisheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Kefeng; Kang, Lixun

    2014-12-01

    The primary pyrolysis mechanisms of the sodium carboxylate group in sodium benzoate-used as a model compound of brown coal-were studied by performing quantum chemical computations using B3LYP and the CBS method. Various possible reaction pathways involving reactions such as unimolecular and bimolecular decarboxylation and decarbonylation, crosslinking, and radical attack in the brown coal matrix were explored. Without the participation of reactive radicals, unimolecular decarboxylation to release CO2 was calculated to be the most energetically favorable primary reaction pathway at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) level of theory, and was also found to be more energetically favorable than decarboxylation of an carboxylic acid group. When CBS-QBS results were included, crosslinking between the sodium carboxylate group and the carboxylic acid and the decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group (catalyzed by the phenolic hydroxyl group) were found to be possible; this pathway competes with unimolecular decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group. Provided that H and CH3 radicals are present in the brown coal matrix and can access the sodium carboxylate group, accelerated pyrolysis of the sodium carboxylate group becomes feasible, leading to the release of an Na atom or an NaCO2 radical at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) or CBS-QB3 level of theory, respectively.

  15. Behaviore of System Hanging – Coal Seam based on Theorie of Shock and Resonants system in the Antishocking Flight of OKR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovanský Stanislav

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available dissertation stems from the article [1], [2], [3] published in Acta Montanistica Slovaca (1999 and of the works [4], [5]. The accelerative harmonic force in the oscillation system was analysed. The following formula has been found to be valid for a possible origin of the shock of massif building units: ‡”‡”Ý+=nnHOttstt11(((ƒÕƒÕƒÕƒÐMoreover, implications for the practice have been defined: an output of the oscillation system of the building units as an seam shock prevention in the OKR (Ostrava-Karvina district model.

  16. Pressure combustion of Rhenish brown coal. Final report; Druckkohlenstaubverbrennung von rheinischer Braunkohle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayar, A.; Fielenbach, C.; Gross, R.; Holfeld, T.; Lockemann, S.; Severin, C.; Thulfaut, C.; Hillemacher, B.

    2003-07-01

    NOx formation and reduction in the coal combustion process was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The influence of coal grain size described in earlier publications was proved by the measurements at the DKSF test facility at Aachen. While no pressure dependence was established so far for lignite, measurements on Spitzbergen coal at 9 - 13 bar showed a decrease in NOx concentrations with increasing pressure. This effect will be investigated for Rhenish brown coal in further experiments. Modelling by the standard FLUENT code and by the user defined subroutines of the FLUENT code developed by the International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF), Ijmuiden, showed that the different predictions of flame temperatures have a decisive role in the modelling of NOx formation. A more accurate analysis of the NOx models as compared to ther measurements will be carried out in a melting chamber furnace with a stable flame. Additionally, measurements were carried out for investigating the kinetics of homogeneous gaseous phase reactions in flue gases, i.e. the thermal and additive-catalysed degradation of nitrous components was investigated. The kinetics of the process was also described by a code developed at Aachen University. On the base of a sensitivity analysis, a reduction of the detailed modelling of the reaction kinetics is achieved which permits 2D and 3D calculations on the decomposition of different flue gas components using a CFD code like FLUENT. The 1D and 2D calculations and the measurements were found to be in good agreement. [German] Im Rahmen des Forschungsschwerpunkts 3 wurde experimentell und theoretisch die NO{sub x}-Bildung und -Reduktion bei der Druckkohlenstaubverbrennung untersucht. Der zuvor beschriebene Einfluss der Kohlemahlung auf die Flamme konnte auch anhand der NO{sub x}-Messungen an der DKSF-Anlage Aachen bestaetigt werden. Waehrend mit Braunkohle im Staubfeuerungsbetrieb noch keine eindeutige Druckabhaengigkeit nachgewiesen werden

  17. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  18. Technique for working inclined and flat seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandt, F.F.; Kachaynik, G.V.; Kogach, M.S.; Kolokol' tsev, L.P.; Samoylov, Yu.A.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose of invention is to improve safety of mining operations and to reduce waste and losses of coal. In this method, overburden and seams are worked in a horizontal fashion, with construction of trenches. Each dissecting trench is cut to a depth of two layers. Excavation and extraction sections within the boundaries of each layer are worked from the trench to the point where the seam comes out at the upper layer. The excavation section is worked in two breakage faces, with extraction of the triangular prism situated in the given section to the side that is opposite to the trench and running to the roof of the mineral. After the prism has been recovered, the coal is placed on the shoulder of the upper platform and the given shoulder is reexcavated simultaneously with the breakage face in the back section.

  19. Organic geochemistry and coal petrology of Tertiary brown coal in the Zhoujing mine, Baise Basin, South China; 3. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-G.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Shashi City (China). Petroleum Geochemistry Unit)

    1991-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the Tertiary brown coal from Zhoujing mine have been characterized in detail. They are composed mainly of aromatic sesqui-, di-, sester- and triterpenoid hydrocarbons, with retene and simonellite as the predominant species. Secondary in abundance are mono- to pentaaromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons, derived from oleanane, ursane and lupane precursors, indicators of terrestrial sources. Minor species present are a tetraaromatic norhopane, undecyltoluene and perylene and most of the regular polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are found at trace levels only. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankowski, P; Zou, L; Hodges, R

    2004-10-18

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition.

  1. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvara, Frantisek, E-mail: skvaraf@vscht.cz [ICT Prague, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Department of Glass and Ceramics, 166 28 Prague 6, Technicka 5 (Czech Republic); Kopecky, Lubomir, E-mail: kopecky@fsv.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, 166 29 Prague 6, Thakurova 7 (Czech Republic); Smilauer, Vit, E-mail: vit.smilauer@fsv.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, 166 29 Prague 6, Thakurova 7 (Czech Republic); Bittnar, Zdenek, E-mail: bittnar@fsv.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, 166 29 Prague 6, Thakurova 7 (Czech Republic)

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M{sub n} [-(Si-O){sub z}-Al-O]{sub n}.wH{sub 2}O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ({sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al, {sup 23}Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2 kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the {sup 29}Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The {sup 23}Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H{sub 2}O){sub n} rather than Na{sup +}, thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr{sup 6+} are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 3+} are reported.

  2. Test with Rhein brown coal in 1-liter oven and fourth report on neutralization of coal and precipitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz

    1942-10-12

    A 1.5 liter sump oven, without stirrer, was used for preparation of Rhein coal with different grinding oils. Partial neutralization of the coal, by mixing sulfuric acid or sulfates with wet coal before drying, was sought. Oven precipitation was reduced by addition of street tar (high middle oil content) and Bruex tar (up to 350/sup 0/C) as well as by a mixture of Estonian slate tar oil and anthracitic tar oil in ratio of 80:20, but there was chalk-coke residue similar to caviar found when the oven was disassembled. Fifty percent neutralization of the coal by sulfuric acid as opposed to untreated coal gave some reduced vaporization and lower asphalt content. Iron sulfate catalyst also gave good results; magnesium sulfate, somewhat less. Though not unequivocally, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and FeSO/sub 4/ both apparently reduced precipitants. A mixture of magnesium sulfate with iron sulfate gave less favorable results over all. Untreated coal with the previous catalysts produced the undesirable caviar-precipitants. The results of the tests were questionable since exactness in components, viscosity, and other problems hindered reproducing the tests consistently. 2 tables.

  3. Development of basic engineering to investigate dust prevention methods in the mechanised winning of thin coal seams. Proyecto de desarrollo de la ingenieria basica para la investigacion de metodos de prevencion del pulvo en el arranque mecanizado de capas estrechas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fidalgo, M.; Alvarez Santullano, L.; Eguidazu Pujades, J.L.; Gonzalez del Valle, S.; Cordera Fernandez, J.V.; Arriba de la Iglesia, J.

    1990-02-01

    The article concerns research work carried out jointly by HUNOSA and the National Institute of Silicosis on dust prevention on mechanised faces where thin seams are cut by shearers with a drum diameter of less than 600 mm. Under these conditions, it is not possible to use the conventional dust suppression systems employed for high-output shearers with larger drum diameters where the large quantities of sprayed water are easily absorbed by the coal. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  5. Airbag Seams Leave Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbag seams left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.

  6. Studies of angiospermous woods in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insight into early coalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar

  7. Change of brown coal oxidation kinetic characteristics by promoting additives appending in the form of copper salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, K. B.; Mishakov, I. V.; Gromov, A. A.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Process of brown coal oxidation with 5%wt content of copper-salt additives of various nature (Cu (NO3)2, CuSO4 and Cu(CH3COO)2) was studied. The experiment has been performed by thermogravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 2.5°C/min to a maximum temperature of 600°C in the air. Analytical evaluation of oxidation process kinetic characteristics has been conducted based on the results of TGA. It has been established that addition of initiating agents leads to significant reduction in the initial ignition temperature of coal (ΔTi = 15÷40°C), shortening of the sample warm-up time to the ignition point (Δte = 6÷12 min) and reduction of the sample burning time (Δtf = 40÷54 min). The following series of additives activity affecting ignition temperature of coals has been established: Cu(CH3COO)2 > Cu(NO3)2 > CuSO4. Additionally, the opposite can be said about the effect of additives on residence time of the sample in its combustion area (CuSO4 > Cu(NO3)2 > Cu(CH3COO)2). According to mass spectrometric analysis, presence of NOx, SO2, CO2 (intense peaks at 190÷290°C) was recorded in oxidation products of modified samples, which is explained by partial or complete decomposition of salts.

  8. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  9. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Stanìk Frantiek

    2002-01-01

    Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves) based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from anothe...

  10. Molecular analysis of sulphur-rich brown coals by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: The type III-S kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Las Heras, F.X.C. de; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1992-01-01

    The molecular composition of five brown coals from three different basins (Maestrazgo, Mequinenza and Rubielos) in Spain was investigated by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography and flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In these techniques, the macromolecular material is thermally

  11. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  12. Quantum chemical investigation of the thermal pyrolysis reactions of the carboxylic group in a brown coal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyu; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Huifang

    2012-01-01

    Different reaction pathways of the carboxylic group in a brown coal model were investigated by applying density function quantum chemical theory, examining the possible cross-linking and decomposition reactions between the hydrogen bonded carboxylic group-carboxylic group and the carboxylic group-hydroxyl group during the thermal pyrolysis process. The results show that bimolecular dehydration and decarboxylation of hydrogen bonded carboxylic groups have distinctly lower activation barriers and therefore, proceed preferentially at low temperature. The esterification reaction between the hydrogen bonded carboxylic group and hydroxyl group, together with unimolecular decarboxylation of isolated single carboxylic groups were also possible at moderate temperature. Aryl-aryl coupling is thought to occur via radical pyrolysis and recombination at relatively high temperature.

  13. Thermogravimetric study of the combustion of Tetraselmis suecica microalgae and its blend with a Victorian brown coal in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Arash; Kassim, Mohd Asyraf; Yu, Jianglong; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-12-01

    The combustion characteristics of microalgae, brown coal and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres were studied using thermogravimetry. In microalgae combustion, two peaks at 265 and 485°C were attributable to combustion of protein and carbohydrate with lipid, respectively. The DTG profile of coal showed one peak with maximum mass loss rate at 360°C. Replacement of N2 by CO2 delayed the combustion of coal and microalgae. The increase in O2 concentration did not show any effect on combustion of protein at the first stage of microalgae combustion. However, between 400 and 600°C, with the increase of O2 partial pressure the mass loss rate of microalgae increased and TG and DTG curves of brown coal combustion shifted to lower temperature zone. The lowest and highest activation energy values were obtained for coal and microalgae, respectively. With increased microalgae/coal ratio in the blends, the activation energy increased due to synergy effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of coalified gymnosperm xylem tissue from Australian brown coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Bates, A.L.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    We report here on the use of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to contrast the average chemical composition of modern degraded gymnosperm woods with fossil gymnosperm woods from Australian brown coals (Miocene). We first established the quantitative nature of the NMR techniques for these samples so that the conventional solid-state 13C NMR spectra and the dipolar dephasing NMR spectra could be used with a high degree of reliability to depict average chemical compositions. The NMR results provide some valuable insights about the early coalification of xylem tissue from gymnosperms. Though the cellulosic components of wood are degraded to varying degrees during peatification and ensuing coalification, it is unlikely that they play a major role in the formation of aromatic structures in coalified woods. The NMR data show that gynmosperm lignin, the primary aromatic contribution to the coal, is altered in part by demethylation of guaiacyl-units to catechol-like structures. The dipolar dephasing NMR data indicate that the lignin also becomes more cross-linked or condensed. ?? 1989.

  15. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanìk František

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from another in their development by variability of seam thickness and seam quality within coal deposit etc. In addition to this, coal deposits are disturbed by tectonic failures and deformations. The system of evaluation of coal deposits is based on development of planar models of particular seams where calculation blocks are created and coal reserves contained in them are determined. Subsequently coal reserves of particular seams and of the whole deposit are determined. Natural limitation of seam model is given by determined minimum seam thickness and maximum ash content (i.e. content of inorganic component in coal. Basic model is structured according to detected main tectonic lines into tectonic blocks. According to further geological factors (e.g. erosion and contractual boundaries (e.g. demarcations, the deposit is structured into smaller units - calculation blocks. The whole system operates in a maximum automated regime with minimum manual interventions into solving procedure. The system enables rapid alternative calculations of coal reserves according to varying limit values of basic calculation parameters.

  17. Novel C-ring cleaved triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, F. X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-11-01

    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl/naphthyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C 8(14) bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings.

  18. Novel C-ring triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Las Heras, F.X. (Escola Univ. Politecnia de Manresa, Catalonia (Spain)); Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J.

    1991-11-01

    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C{sub 8(14)} bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings.

  19. Novel C-ring cleaved triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, F.X. de las; Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. (Escola Universitaria Politecnica de Manresa (U.P.C.), Manresa (Spain))

    1991-11-01

    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl/naphthyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C{sub 8(14)} bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings. 38 refs.

  20. Characterization of some coals and coal intercalations by high-resolution /sup 1/H (BR-24/MAS at 270 MHz) and /sup 13/ (CP/MAS) n. m. r. in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, H.; Scheler, G.; Kuenstner, E.

    1988-04-01

    High resolution /sup 1/H n.m.r. studies combining the BR-24 multiple-pulse method after BURUM and RHIM with fast magic-angle sample spinning (MAS), and high resolution solid-state /sup 13/C n.m.r. measurements with cross polarization (CP) and MAS have been used for investigating: a number of coals of different ranks; GDR soft brown coals characterized by textural differences; and typical intercalations to be found in such soft brown coals. The resolution level of /sup 1/H n.m.r. spectra achieved so far at a resonance frequency of 270 MHz permits determination of essential functional groups. The coalification series ranging from soft brown coal to anthracite shows an increase of the aromaticity values f/sub a//sup C/ and also an increase of the f..cap alpha../sup H/ values, which is analogous to the increases in reflectance and carbon content. There are marked differences between the functional groups to be found in detrital and xylite-containing soft brown coals. Tertiary (Miocene) brown coals from the 2nd Lower Lusatian seam (GDR) (i.e. unbedded, poorly bedded, bedded, xylite-containing unbedded, and gelified bedded coals) differ significantly due to variations in micropetrographical composition. Varying amounts of cellulose and lignin are contained in the xylites of the 2nd Lower Lusatian seam. /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H n.m.r. measurements are employed to determine the main constituents of substances such as pyropissite, retinite, fusite and 'monkey hairs' (fossilized rubber). 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia

    1995-03-01

    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Gelification of Victorian Tertiary soft brown coal wood. II. Changes in chemical structure associated with variation in the degree of gelification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.J.; Barron, P.F.

    1984-09-01

    The gross chemical structures of xylites and gelified soft brown coal woods, Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, as determined by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are compared with those of present-day wood-derived materials prepared from an angiosperm, Eucalyptus regnans, and a gymnosperm (conifer), Pinus radiata. Also examined are the changes in the gross chemical structures of soft brown coal woods with increase in their degree of gelification and the relationship between these changes and variations in their chemical composition and microscopic appearance. The Victorian xylites exhibit greater affinities with the present-day gymnosperm than the present-day angiosperm. The progressive removal of cellulose with increasing degree of gelification can be equated with an increase in huminite reflectance, elimination of humotelinite autofluoresence and changes in the relative proportions of the humotelinite submacerals. The lignin structure of xylite is also modified during the gelification process, including the progressive loss of methoxyl groups and evidence of minor oxidation.

  3. In-situ coal gasification as a progressive coal utilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, E.V.; Saltykov, I.F.

    1988-02-01

    Describes the Podzemgaz coal gasification station at Angren that was put into operation in 1961. It exploits a 15 m thick and 120-250 m deep seam of brown coal. Technology of in-situ coal gasification is described and its results are compared in regard to cost and efficiency with the results of conventional surface mining. Air blowing is used for most in-situ coal gasification in USSR. Trials using air enriched in oxygen for this purpose were conducted in 1953 and 1957 but did not find wider application. A station using oxygen enrichment technology is planned for Angren at the Apartak section, as cheaper oxygen production methods have emerged. A new concept for in-situ coal gasification using membrane technology (molecular sieves) is set out. This technology assures total chemical and power utilization of coal, yielding not only coal gas but also liquid nitrogen, hydrogen, a mixture of both these gases for ammonia production, and carbonic acid. Prospective site selection for in-situ coal gasification stations is discussed and conditions required for the respective coalfields are outlined.

  4. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A MINERAL-AND-ORGANIC FERTILISER PRODUCED FROM BROWN COAL ON THE OCCURRENCE AND INFECTIOUS POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the species composition and rate of entomopathogenic fungi occurrence in cultivable soil following the application of a mineral-and-organic fertiliser produced from brown coal. The material for testing consisted of soil samples collected in the second year of the experiment on two dates in 2015 (spring and autumn. The experiment was carried out on the following plots: control plot (no fertilisation; a plot fertilised with mineral fertilisers NPK presowing + N60 for top dressing; a plot fertilised with NPK presowing + manure; a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 1 t/ha NPK presowing + N20 for top dressing; and a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 5 t/ha NPK presowing + N40 for top dressing. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil of particular fertilisation experiment plots using insect traps (Galleria mellonella larvae as well as a selective medium. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Isaria fumosorosea, were isolated using two methods, from the soil samples collected from particular fertilisation experiment plots on two dates, i.e. spring and autumn. Fungus M. anisopliae s.l. proved to be the predominant species in the tested soil samples. The addition of the mineral-and-organic fertiliser, produced based on brown coal, to the soil at both applied doses contributed to an increase in the number of infectious units (CFUs of entomopathogenic fungi formed in relation to the control plot.

  5. Molecular simulation of CO2/CH4 adsorption in brown coal: Effect of oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yong; Zhao, Lianming; Lu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jing; Sang, Pengpeng; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Houyu; Guo, Wenyue

    2017-11-01

    The CO2/CH4 adsorption behaviors in brown coal at the temperatures of 298, 313, and 373 K and in the pressure range of 0.005-10 MPa were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD), density functional theory (DFT), and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The absolute adsorption isotherms of single-component CH4 and CO2 exhibit type-I Langmuir adsorption behavior showing a negative influence of temperature. For the binary CO2/CH4 mixture, brown coal shows super high selectivity of CO2 over CH4 at pressures below 0.2 MPa, which then decreases quickly and finally tends to be constant when the pressure increases. The high competitive adsorption of CO2 originates from the effects of (i) the large electrostatic contributions, (ii) the conducive micropore environment with pore sizes below 0.56 nm, and (iii) the stronger adsorption of CO2 with respect to CH4. These effects are strengthened by the high-density oxygen-containing, pyridine, and thiophene functional groups contained in brown coal, which provide abundant and strong adsorption sites for CO2, but show weaker affinity to CH4. Furthermore, the influence of various nitrogen- and sulfur-containing functional groups on the CO2 adsorption capacity was also investigated. The results indicate that the basicity of the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups has a large influence on the CO2 adsorption, while for the sulfur functional groups the determining factor is the polarity.

  6. Biomass as auxiliary fuel in brown coal power stations; Verwertung von Biomasse als Zusatzbrennstoff in Braunkohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, N.; Kakaras, E. [National Technical Univ. Athens (Greece). Thermal Engineering Section

    1998-12-31

    Greek lignite is characterized by a high water and ash content (water content between 56 and 60%, ash content between 11 and 18%), and its calorific value is between 3 200 and 6 000 KJ/kg. The varying coal quality considerably affects the generating performance, and at certain times the planned performance can only be achieved by adding diesel oil, respectively hard coal. In Greece, some 400 000 tons of olive kernel granulated material per year are obtained as by-product during olive oil production. Due to the calorific value of this granulated material with H{sub u} 16 740 KJ/kg, the high content of volatile matter of approximately 75% and an ash content of 17.2% (waterfree), the application of this fuel as additional fuel is interesting with a view to the increase of the calorific value, respectively the stabilizing of the firing. As an alternative to imported coal or oil the co-combustion of this indigenious biomass was examined. In this context, pyrolyse and combustion trials have been carried out at NTUA, Athens. Furthermore, various mixtures of lignite and olive kernel granulated material have been burnt in the Megalopolis Power Plant. This Contribution describes the results of the examination. (orig.) [Deutsch] Griechische Braunkohle ist durch einen hohen Wasser- und Aschegehalt (Wassergehalt 56 bis 60%, Asche 11 bis 18%) gekennzeichnet. Sie hat einen Heizwert von 3 200 bis 6 000 KJ/kg. Die Schwankung der Kohlequalitaet beeinflusst die erzeugte Leistung erheblich, und zu gewissen Zeiten ist es ohne Beimischung von Dieseloel bzw. Steinkohle unmoeglich, die erforderliche Leistung zu erreichen. In Griechenland fallen jaehrlich etwa 400 000 Tonnen Olivenkerngranulat bei der Olivenoelgewinnung als Nebenprodukt an. Der Heizwert dieses Granulats mit H{sub u}{proportional_to}16 740 KJ/kg, der hohe Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen von etwa 75% (w.f.) und der Ascheanteil von 17,2% machen diesen Brennstoff als Zusatzbrennstoff fuer die Erhoehung des Heizwertes bzw

  7. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiec, Jan P; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  8. Power plant ash and slag waste management technological direction when Kansk-Achinsk brown coal is burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today resource efficiency technology development in all industries where conventional raw material is being replaced by local natural resources and industrial waste is an essential matter. Along with that most producing operations are overload with wide range of waste produced during technological process. Thermal power stations are real world evidence. Their main waste is ash and slag which accumulated in great amounts in often overfull ash dumps. The goal of present work is to find perspective ash dump waste utilization methods. The study will be based on experimentally obtained data: elementary compound and properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal. Research methods: experimental, chemical silicate analysis, mineralogical forms identification within samples by using ASM X-ray diffraction analysis. Experiments resulted with the following conclusions: silica is ash main component, and ash has the form of ore concentrate analogy in a number of elements. We think that ASM main properties which make it useful for utilization are: high content of calcium oxide; high ash sorption properties; ASM radiation safety class which makes them safe to be used in materials, goods, and structures production for residence and public buildings construction and reconstruction; sufficiently high content of individual elements.

  9. Support of the business management of opencast brown coal mining with an enhanced variability of deposits based on mine surveyoral data management; Unterstuetzung der Betriebsfuehrung von Braunkohlentagebauen mit hoher Lagerstaettenvariabilitaet auf Grundlage des markscheiderischen Datenmanagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipfer, Anja [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH, Zeitz (Germany). GIS/Risswerkfuehrung

    2012-04-15

    A variable manifestation of the deposit is a particular challenge for the operational management for the continuous supply of coal in a specified range. Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (Zeitz, Federal Republic of Germany) supports the planning and production process by a GNSS controlled dredging. The storage of all operating conditions at the database level is the basis for the different evaluations. The verification of the data separaed by waste and coal enables a statement to the recoverability of the seams under consideration of a impact mapping and production data. This is an aid for the continuous improvement of the extraction planning and management.

  10. Tracing the Bulli and Balgownie seams across the Sydney Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, M.B.L.; Armstrong, M.; Cozens, S.; Byrnes, J. [New South Wales Department of Mineral Resources, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Mineral Resources commenced an audit of the State`s coal, coal seam methane and petroleum resources in 1992. One of the first areas examined was the central part of the Basin lying between the Southern, Western, Hunger and Newcastle Coalfields. Little has been published about the geology of this area and before attempting a resource assessment, it was necessary to produce a working model of the stratigraphy and sedimentology. This paper presents the preliminary results of that study. The geology of the upper part of the sequence is examined using east-west and north-south cross sections. A new model is presented dividing the upper coal measures into an alluvial plain facies and a deltaic facies. It is suggested that fluvial systems covered the Basin from Cape Horn seam time onwards but with several long hiatuses during which blanket coals developed. The Bulli, Balgownie and Cape Horn seams can be correlated with certainty across most of the Basin. These correlations are discussed and a stratigraphy for the Central Basin areas is proposed. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  12. Large herbivores in novel ecosystems - Habitat selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a former brown-coal mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøcher, Peder Klith; Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    After centuries of range contraction, many megafauna species are recolonizing parts of Europe. One example is the red deer (Cervus elaphus), which was able to expand its range and is now found in half the areas it inhabited in the beginning of the 19th century. Herbivores are important ecosystem engineers, influencing e.g. vegetation. Knowledge on their habitat selection and their influence on ecosystems might be crucial for future landscape management, especially for hybrid and novel ecosystems emerging in post-industrial landscapes. In this study, red deer habitat selection was studied in a former brown-coal mining area in Denmark. Here, natural settings were severely changed during the mining activity and its current landscape is in large parts managed by hunters as suitable deer habitat. We assessed red deer habitat preferences through feces presence and camera traps combined with land cover data from vegetation sampling, remote sensing and official geographic data. Red deer occurrence was negatively associated with human disturbance and positively associated with forage availability, tree cover and mean terrain height. Apparently, red deer are capable of recolonizing former industrial landscapes quite well if key conditions such as forage abundance and cover are appropriate. In the absence of carnivores, human disturbance, such as a hunting regime is a main reason why deer avoid certain areas. The resulting spatial heterogeneity red deer showed in their habitat use of the study area might be a tool to preserve mosaic landscapes of forest and open habitats and thus promote biodiversity in abandoned post-industrial landscapes. PMID:28505192

  13. Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in spoil heaps after brown coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldrian, P.; Trogl, J.; Frouz, J.; Snajdr, J.; Valaskova, V.; Merhautova, V.; Cajthaml, T.; Herinkova, J. [ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute for Microbiology

    2008-09-15

    Changes in the activity of extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase, chitinase, arylsulfatase and phosphatases) and the changes in microbial community and abiotic properties in the topsoil layer, as well as soil abiotic properties during primary succession were investigated in a brown coal mine deposit area near Sokolov, Czech Republic. The study considered the chronosequence of 4 post-mining plots, 4-, 12-, 21 - and 45-year old. The 4-year old site had no vegetation cover. Herbs and grasses (mainly Calamagrostis epigeios) were present on the 12-year old plot, shrubs (Salix caprea) occurred on the 21-year old plot and tree cover (Betula spp. and Populus tremuloides) developed on the 45-year old plot. Soil pH gradually decreased with site age, while the content of K, C and N peaked in the 21-year old site, being significantly lower in the 45-year old site and much lower in the 4- and 12-year old sites. Phosphatase activities were strongly affected by seasonality while the activities of all the other enzymes measured were more influenced by the effects of succession age and soil layer than by seasonality. Succession age was also the most important factor affecting the total and bacterial PLFA contents, followed by the effects of soil layer and season while for the fungal biomass content-related properties (ergosterol, fungal PLFA and the fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio), season was the most important. Activities of individual enzymes in the topsoil (0-5 cm depth) were significantly affected by both site age and season. Cellobiohydrolase and beta-xylosidase were more affected by site age while chitinase and phosphatases were more affected by season. Enzyme activity increased with succession age. Comparison of the effect of site and season on enzyme activity showed that season played a principal role in the enzyme activity of the entire 0-5 cm component of topsoil, as well the soil layers when evaluated separately.

  14. Unique Project of Single-Cutting Head Longwall Shearer Used for Thin Coal Seams Exploitation / Projekt Jednoorganowego Kombajnu ŚCIANOWEGO O Specjalnej Konstrukcji Przeznaczonego do Eksploatacji POKŁADÓW Cienkich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bołoz, Łukasz

    2013-12-01

    Problem of thin hard coal seams exploitation, including chosen data related with their resources in Poland, has been discussed in the introduction of the present study. On the basis of actually operated machines the assumptions, which should be satisfied by the longwall shearer used for exploitation of thin hard coal seams, have been made. A project of such longwall shearer combined with band conveyor and mechanized longwall support, including description of the machine operation technology and analysis of possible day output achievement, have been presented. Polska dysponuje stosunkowo dużymi zasobami surowców energetycznych, a ciągle rosnące zapotrzebowanie na energię skłania do ich racjonalnego wykorzystywania. Jedną z możliwości takiego racjonalnego gospodarowania zasobami naturalnymi jest eksploatacja węgla kamiennego z pokładów cienkich. W związku z wybieraniem coraz cieńszych pokładów węgla, zalegających bardzo głęboko, w trudnych warunkach górniczo-geologicznych napotyka się na duże problemy związane z uzyskaniem wymaganej wydajności wydobycia przy użyciu stosowanych aktualnie metod. Przyjmuje się, ze pokłady cienkie to takie o miąższości od 1.0 m do 1.5 m i właśnie ta niewielka wysokość wyrobiska ścianowego powoduje szereg ograniczeń związanych z efektywną eksploatacją węgla. Na podstawie dostępnych danych określono, że ilości węgla kamiennego w cienkich pokładach wynosi około 600 mln Mg. Znaczna część pokładów cienkich w ostatnich latach została przeklasyfikowana na nieprzemysłowe, co pozwala stwierdzić, że rzeczywista ilość węgla w pokładach cienkich jest znacznie większa. Na podstawie analizy wad i zalet jak i danych technicznych produkowanych obecnie maszyn, określono wytyczne i założenia do nowego rozwiązania maszyny urabiającej przeznaczonej do wydobywania węgla w ścianach niskich. Kombajn do eksploatacji cienkich pokładów powinien spełniać następujące wymagania (Bołoz, 2012

  15. Primary measures for the reduction of SO[sub 2] emissions from the brown coal fired power plants of Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakopoulos, D.; Kakaras, E.; Papageorgiou, N. (NTUA, Athens (Greece). Thermal Engineering Section)

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model concerning the computational simulation of SO[sub 2] reduction, with the dry additives method, inside brown coal fired furnaces is presented. The method has been applied for the case of the particular operating conditions of the Megalopolis I Thermal Power Plant furnace. The applied procedure consists of 3-D computational simulation of the brown coal combustion and the investigation of the dry additives particle trajectories along the furnace combined with the Shrinking core and the Pore tree models for the SO[sub 2] retention. The performance of the models is evaluated under varying residence time, particle's diameter, number and position of the injection location in the boiler. Advantage of this method is the fact that each one of the aforementioned models is applied for each particle position obtaining in this way realistic values of the governing variables such as SO[sub 2] concentration, flue gas temperature, H[sub 2]O and CO[sub 2] pressures. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Studies of angiospermous wood in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insights into the early coalification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassallo, A.M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms, which commonly dominated the ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of such swamps can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous wood from Australian brown coal with similar wood buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolsis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms). These two modern techniques are especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. The earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation and removal of cellulosic components and the concomitant selective preservation of lignin-derived components. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalification reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal of the lignin. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl-ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin, and this transformation leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross linked, as determined by dipolar-dephasing NMR studies. This cross linking is probably responsible for preventing the lignin phenols, which are freed from the lignin

  17. Prediction, prevention and fight automatic control in mining an outburst prone coal seam; Control Automatico de las Medidas de Prediccion, Prevencion y Lucha, para la Explotacion Mecanizada de una Capa Susceptible de desprendimientos Instantaneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Outburst are instantaneous catastrophic failure of the coal mine structure, characterised by emissions of large quantities of finely divided coal dust and gas from a coal face. In Spain, outbursts have represented a serious problem in the zone of Aller (Asturias), particularly in San Antonio mine. The main objective of the research work was to determine whether outburst precursory micro seismic activity could be discerned by monitoring the coal mining district of San Antonio. Micro seismic activity on the underground seismometer contains distinct style of events: natural events, stress events and outburst events. The correlation between the rate of extraction and the number of micro seismic activity has been analysed. A real time software was developed which would discriminate mining activity from background seismic noise. the algorithm used for event detection in based on comparing the short term average (STA) with the long term average (LTA) of the signal energy. (Author)

  18. Distributed Seams for Gigapixel Panoramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sujin; Summa, Brian; Tierny, Julien; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio

    2015-03-01

    Gigapixel panoramas are an increasingly popular digital image application. They are often created as a mosaic of many smaller images. The mosaic acquisition can take many hours causing the individual images to differ in exposure and lighting conditions. A blending operation is often necessary to give the appearance of a seamless image. The blending quality depends on the magnitude of discontinuity along the image boundaries. Often, new boundaries, or seams, are first computed that minimize this transition. Current techniques based on multi-labeling Graph Cuts are too slow and memory intensive for gigapixel sized panoramas. In this paper, we present a parallel, out-of-core seam computing technique that is fast, has small memory footprint, and is capable of running efficiently on different types of parallel systems. Its maximum memory usage is configurable, in the form of a cache, which can improve performance by reducing redundant disk I/O and computations. It shows near-perfect scaling on symmetric multiprocessing systems and good scaling on clusters and distributed shared memory systems. Our technique improves the time required to compute seams for gigapixel imagery from many hours (or even days) to just a few minutes, while still producing boundaries with energy that is on-par with Graph Cuts.

  19. AVO forward modeling for VTI coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.; Cui, R.; Liu, E. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Resource and Earth Science

    2009-04-15

    The article discusses the possibility of prospecting primary coal, tectonic coal, soft coal and vertical transverse-isotropic (VTI) coal by P- wave amplitude variation with offset (AVO) forward modeling. For thick coal bed, the P-wave AVO curves of primary coal, tectonic coal and soft coal were achieved by the Zoeppritz equation. For a thick VTI coal bed, its stiffness matrix was first calculated by effective media's theory; then the P-wave AVO curve of this coal was calculated by the propagation matrix method which is based on anisotropy theory. In this way the synthetic seismogram was attained by combining the seismic wavelet with AVO curves. At the same time, thin coal seams of AVO curves and a synthetic seismogram were simulated. It is shown that the coal roof's P-wave AVO of thick coal has the AVO character of class IV and the AVO gradient and intercept of the coal beds diverge from each other. For thin coal seams, the reflection waves are composite waves. In this case, the primary coal and tectonic coal's reflection amplitude is small and its AVO with obvious class IV, the VTI coal and soft coal's reflection amplitude is larger, and its AVO curves fluctuate acutely. In summary, the AVO technique could be used to identify primary coal, tectonic coal, soft coal and VTI coal. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  1. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  2. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M.; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols. PMID:27066076

  3. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS. Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  4. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  5. Estimation of potentially toxic elements contamination in anthropogenic soils on a brown coal mining dumpsite by reflectance spectroscopy: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350-2500 nm reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD, the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63. Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively, 2.0 ˂ RPD ˂ 2.5 were obtained. The PLSR model for predicting Mn (R2cv = 0.44, RMSEPcv = 116.43, RPD = 1.45 presented an inadequate model. Overall, SVMR models for the Vis-NIR spectra could be used indirectly for an accurate assessment of PTEs' concentrations.

  6. Estimation of potentially toxic elements contamination in anthropogenic soils on a brown coal mining dumpsite by reflectance spectroscopy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Asa; Borůvka, Luboš; Vašát, Radim; Saberioon, Mohammadmehdi; Klement, Aleš; Kratina, Josef; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350-2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR) with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv) and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD), the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv) = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63). Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv) ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively, 2.0 ˂ RPD ˂ 2.5) were obtained. The PLSR model for predicting Mn (R2cv) = 0.44, RMSEPcv = 116.43, RPD = 1.45) presented an inadequate model. Overall, SVMR models for the Vis-NIR spectra could be used indirectly for an accurate assessment of PTEs' concentrations.

  7. Improved schemes and methods of working closely lying flat seams. [USSR - Ukrainian SSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I. (DonUGI (USSR))

    1990-08-01

    Presents requirements that must be met in order to improve working of closely lying coal seams in the Ukraine. These requirements are: the working order should ensure effective utilization of protective seams for rock burst prevention, gas should be reduced by natural degassing during under- and overworking, and rock pressure should be controlled. A mixed order of seam working is recommended that combines the advantages of ascending and descending working order. Two working schemes that suit the requirements are presented: descending working order in a pillar system with countercurrent ventilation, and ascending working with combined system and concurrent ventilation. Three more improved schemes with air-flow freshening intended for deep highly methane bearing coal seams are considered to meet the requirements still better. Cost effectiveness of the working schemes is compared and an economic effect of 0.8-1.2 rubles/t is claimed. A method of seam grouping into winning and basic workings is recommended that allows the volume and maintenance cost of basic workings to be reduced by 30-40%. Application criteria of the working schemes are discussed. 7 refs.

  8. Comparative Study of Graphite-Supported LDI- and ESI-FT-ICR-MS of a Pyrolysis Liquid from a German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Philipp; Wolf, Bianca; Kroll, Marius M; Otto, Matthias

    2015-08-04

    Pyrolysis liquids from coal are complex mixtures of organic compounds with low to high molecular mass and low to high polarity. Compared to low-molecular-weight compounds, little information is available regarding high-molecular-weight compounds in pyrolysis liquids, although their characterization is important for the elucidation of degradation pathways. In this study, laser desorption ionization (LDI) using graphite powder as the support material has been used in conjunction with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) for the analysis of a pyrolysis liquid from brown coal. The acquired data is compared to previous results of the same sample using electrospray ionization (ESI). Using LDI, compounds with masses between 300 and 900 Da were detected by LDI. An evaluation of the spectra was based on the frequency of molecular formulas with a different number of heteroatoms. Hydrocarbon compounds and heteroatomic compounds containing oxygen and sulfur were found. A comparison to ESI results shows that the numbers of observed molecular formulas are virtually the same, but a higher quantity of molecular formulas with a low number of oxygen can be detected by LDI. The observation of molecular formulas without oxygen is a unique feature of the LDI spectra. A more detailed investigation was possible by the utilization of double bond equivalent plots versus carbon number, which revealed a prevalence of LDI for the ionization of compounds with higher DBE.

  9. Effect of Seams on Drape of Fabrics | Sukumar | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 3 (2009) > ... Sample without seam is a control sample and drape of seamed samples are ... This paper presents a fundamental drape analysis of seamed fabrics using drape meter.

  10. Automatic control in systems of the detection and prevention in mines with coal seams liable to sudden landslide. Control automatico de sistemas de prevision y lucha para la explotacion mecanizada de una capa susceptible de desprendimientos instantaneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vildes Cechini, E.; Gutierrez Peinador, V. (Escuela de Capataces, Mieres (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies an automatic system for the detection and analysis of microtremors which might be induced by the normal activity of coal mining on the terrain above, and the transmission of the acoustic waves which seem to precede a coal landslide caused by firedamp. Two networks of micro-seismic detection, one on the surface, the other underground, collect data which, once analysed, open up the possibility of establishing connections between mining activity and microtremors. Criteria could then be established to prevent such tremors without, however, claiming that prediction is as yet possible. The characteristics and technical specifications of the system used for both the surface and underground networks are described, together with an explanation of the method adopted and a review of the problems which the system presented in relation to its size and design.

  11. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaomin Du; Daiyong Cao; Deepak Mishra; Sergio Bernardes; Thomas R Jordan; Marguerite Madden

    2015-01-01

      Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation...

  12. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mikoláš; Jiří Varady; Jaroslav Bažant; František Žoček

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB) and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the pas...

  13. Coal excavation design for environmentally perspective by using multi-configuration GPR antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Eddy; Harminuke, R. R.; Hadi, Alek Al; Hendrajaya, Lilik

    2017-11-01

    Determining coal seam total moisture, thickness and fracture planes is of vital importance for coal exploitation. Determining the thickness of shallow coal outcrops is difficult and drill data is often needed to determine lateral coal seam thickness resulting in high exploration costs. Another difficulty is the lack of information about fracture plane orientations which increases the difficulty and cost of digging operations. Ground probing radar (GPR) measurements were carried out on the vertical wall of a coal outcrop to determine the applicability of GPR in mapping the distribution and continuity of lateral coal seam thickness, total moisture variation, and fracture planes. By using multi-configuration antennas, reflected waves were recorded giving information to a depth of about 3 m on coal seam thickness, interfaces with inter-burden layers, total moisture variations and fracture planes in coal seams. By comparing the GPR records with the conditions of the visible vertical coal outcrop it was also confirmed that the electromagnetic waves were most strongly reflected by coal seam interfaces with inter-burden layers in the form of compact-clays, by total moisture content variations in coal seams and fracture planes containing conductive minerals (i.e. hematite, magnetite, clays, and pyrite) and water.

  14. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  15. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  16. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  17. Testing Seam Concepts for Advanced Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, D. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Alberts, Samantha J.

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is considered the state of the art insulation for cryogenic propellant tanks in the space environment. MLI traditionally consists of multiple layers of metalized films separated by low conductivity spacers. In order to better understand some of the details within MLI design and construction, GRC has been investigating the heat loads caused by multiple types of seams. To date testing has been completed with 20 layer and 50 layer blankets. Although a truly seamless blanket is not practical, a blanket lay-up where each individual layer was overlapped and tapped together was used as a baseline for the other seams tests. Other seams concepts tested included: an overlap where the complete blanket was overlapped on top of itself; a butt joint were the blankets were just trimmed and butted up against each other, and a staggered butt joint where the seam in the out layers is offset from the seam in the inner layers. Measured performance is based on a preliminary analysis of rod calibration tests conducted prior to the start of seams testing. Baseline performance for the 50 layer blanket showed a measured heat load of 0.46 Watts with a degradation to about 0.47 Watts in the seamed blankets. Baseline performance for the 20 layer blanket showed a measured heat load of 0.57 Watts. Heat loads for the seamed tests are still begin analyzed. So far analysis work has suggested the need for corrections due to heat loads from both the heater leads and the instrumentation wires. A careful re-examination of the calibration test results with these factors accounted for is also underway. This presentation will discuss the theory of seams in MLI, our test results to date, and the uncertainties in our measurements.

  18. Coal-bed methane water effects on dill and essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumping water from coal seams decreases the pressure in the seam and in turn releases trapped methane; this is the most common and economic way of methane extraction. The water that is pumped out is known as coal-bed methane water (CBMW), which is high in sodium and other salts. In past 25 years, th...

  19. Literature survey on the advance detection of dykes in underground coal mine workings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, GA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available of velocity fields in coal seams. Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rocks. Rossmanith (ed) Balkema 1990. Rogers, P.G., Edwards, S.A., Young, J.A. & Downey, M. 1987. Geotomography for the delineation of coal seam structure. Geoexploration 24 (1987), Elsevier...

  20. Improved seam carving for stereo image resizing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yue, Bin; Hou, Chun-ping; Zhou, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    .... We extended seam carving algorithm to stereo images. The novelty of our method is that important objects are determined by jointly considering the intensities of gradients and visual fusion area...

  1. Electrical Resistivity Tomography for coal fire mapping over Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Bharti, A. K.; Pathak, V. K.; Kumar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Over the decades, coal fires are serious global concern posing grievous hazards to the valuable energy resources, local environments and human life. The coal seam and coal mine fires may be initiated due to improper mining activities, exothermic reactions, lighting, forest fire and other anthropic activities, which burn the coal and may continue underground for decades. The burning of concealed coal seams is a complex process involving numerous ill-defined parameters. Generally, the coal exhibits resistivity of 100 to 500Ωm at normal temperature conditions. During the pyrolysis process, at temperatures greater than 6500C coal became a good conductor with a resistivity of approximately 1 Ωm. The present study deals with the mapping of coal fire over Jharia coal field, India using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). A state-of-the-art 61-channel 64 electrode FlashRES-Universal ERT data acquisition system has been used for data acquisition in the field. The ERT data have been collected using Gradient array and processed in FlashRES Universal survey data checking program for removing noisy data. Then, filtered output data have been inverted using a 2.5D resistivity inversion program. Low resistivity anomalies over 80m-125m and 320m-390m along the profile are inferred to be active coal fire in seam- XVI at a depth of 25m -35m(Figure 1). High resistivity anomaly over 445m - 510m at a depth of 25m -35m has been delineated, due to void associated with complete combustion of seam- XVI coal, followed by char and ash formation resulting from the coal seam fire. Results prove the efficacy of the ERT study comprising Gradient array for coal fire mapping over, Jharia coal field, India.

  2. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  3. Radioactive elements in Paleozoic coals of Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Volostnov, A.V.; Varlachev, V.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    The geochemistry of radioactive elements was examined in the Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, Tunguska, and Gorlovo Paleozoic coal basins in Siberia. Quantitative analytical techniques (INAA, delayed neutron analysis, and XRF) were used to study 2600 samples of coals and their host rocks. The average U and Th concentrations in the coals are 2 and 3 ppm, respectively. The lateral and vertical variability of the distribution of radioactive elements was examined on the scale of coal basins, deposits, and individual coal seams. It was determined that elevated U and Th concentrations in coals are often related to rock blocks enriched in radioactive elements in the surroundings of the basins or are correlated with volcanic activity during coal accumulation. High concentrations of these elements in coal seams are restricted to zones near the tops of the seams and the soil zones, the boundaries of partings, or to beds enriched in pyroclastic material. Using the f-radiography method, it was determined that the main mechanism of U accumulation in coals is its sorption on the organic matter. Thorium is contained in both the mineral and the organic constituents of coals. An increase in the ash contents of coals with clarke radioactivity is associated with an increase in the contents of U and Th in the mineral matter.

  4. Provenance of coals recovered from the wreck of HMAV Bounty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, N.; Smith, A.H.V.; Crosdale, P.J. [Australian National Maritime Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Coal samples from HMAV Bounty were analysed using standard techniques to shed light on their provenance. Petrographic analysis indicated they were Carboniferous, with high vitrinite and liptinite content and a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of 0.99%. Palynological analysis indicated the samples were derived from the Middle Coal Measures, Westphalian B. Combining coal rank (vitrinite reflectance), age, knowledge of seam distributions and coalfield history indicates the most like source to be the Durham Coalfield, possibly the Hutton or Low Main Seams. These coals were mined along the valley of the Wear in the latter part of the 18th century.

  5. Analysis on the Initial Cracking Parameters of Cross-Measure Hydraulic Fracture in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial cracking pressure and locations are important parameters in conducting cross-measure hydraulic fracturing to enhance coal seam permeability in underground coalmines, which are significantly influenced by in-situ stress and occurrence of coal seam. In this study, stress state around cross-measure fracturing boreholes was analyzed using in-situ stress coordinate transformation, then a mathematical model was developed to evaluate initial cracking parameters of borehole assuming the maximum tensile stress criterion. Subsequently, the influences of in-situ stress and occurrence of coal seams on initial cracking pressure and locations in underground coalmines were analyzed using the proposed model. Finally, the proposed model was verified with field test data. The results suggest that the initial cracking pressure increases with the depth cover and coal seam dip angle. However, it decreases with the increase in azimuth of major principle stress. The results also indicate that the initial cracking locations concentrated in the second and fourth quadrant in polar coordinate, and shifted direction to the strike of coal seam as coal seam dip angle and azimuth of maximum principle stress increase. Field investigation revealed consistent rule with the developed model that the initial cracking pressure increases with the coal seam dip angle. Therefore, the proposed mathematical model provides theoretical insight to analyze the initial cracking parameters during cross-measure hydraulic fracturing for underground coalmines.

  6. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  7. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30...

  8. Influence of coal deposits on permafrost degradation in the shelf zone of arctic seas and methane emission into the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, B. A.; Gresov, A. I.

    2011-09-01

    Influence of coal beds on degradation (melting) of sea bottom Arctic shelf permafrost is investigated by means of mathematical modeling methods. Estimation of methane flux from thawing coal seam into water layer is presented

  9. Groundwater methane in a potential coal seam gas extraction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L. Atkins

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Methane was found in all geological units ranging between 0.26 and 4427 μg L−1 (median 10.68 μg L−1. Median methane concentrations were highest in chloride-type groundwater (13.26 μg L−1, n = 58 while bicarbonate-type groundwater had lower concentrations (3.71 μg L−1. Groundwater from alluvial sediments had significantly higher median methane concentrations (91.46 μg L−1 than groundwater from both the basalt aquifers (0.7 μg L−1 and bedrock aquifers (4.63 μg L−1; indicating geology was a major driver of methane distribution. Methane carbon stable isotope ratios ranged from –90.9‰ to –29.5‰, suggesting a biogenic origin with some methane oxidation. No significant correlations were observed between methane concentrations and redox indicators (nitrate, manganese, iron and sulphate except between iron and methane in the Lismore Basalt (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.001, implying redox conditions were not the main predictor of methane distribution.

  10. Petrography and rank of the Bhangtar coals, southeastern Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareek, H.S. (BH23, Meerut (India))

    1990-07-01

    In Bhutan, a potential coal deposit is exposed at Bhangtar in the 'landslide zone'. Nineteen coal seams are encountered in this area, and occur in the Lower Gondwana Supergroup preserved in between the Main Boundary Fault and the Thrust. The coal is low in moisture, {lt}1.76%, but the coal cores show moisture values of 3.16%. The ash content is up to 48.87% and increases substantially in the younger seams. The volatile content (on a pure coal basis) ranges from 23.38% to 41.02%. The sulphur content is less than 0.61%. The coals are non-coking. The amount of trace elements in the coal is quite low. The average petrographic composition of the Bhangtar coal is vitrinite - 31%, exinite - 2%, inertinite - 31%, and mineral and shaly matter - 36%, the vitrinite proportion decreases from the older to the younger seams, which are shaly. an age can be assigned to the Bhangtar coal. Based on oil reflectance, the rank of the coal is metalignitous to hypobituminous. The average microlithotype composition of the coal is vitrite - 30%, clarite - 1%, vitrinertite V - 14%, vitrinertite I - 11%, durite - 3%, fusite - 14%, and carbominerite - 27%. Vitrite decreases in proportion towards the younger seams, 'intermediates' show a concomitant increase, while durite and fusite remain constant. Carbonaceous shale contains fragmentary inertinite and vitrinite macerals and is interlayered with micro-bands of shaly coal which is characterised by abundant fragments of fusinite and vitrinite. The coal is very fragile and thus amenable to economic beneficiation. The coal is used as fuel in electric power plants. The Bhangtar coal is characteristically distinct from the Gondwana coals of India in petrography and rank, but correlates petrographically with the Kameng coals of Arunachal Pradesh, India. 18 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs., 3 plates.

  11. Analysis of stowing operations during working of steep seams by shield equipment sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minyafaeb, V.R.; Solodovnikov, V.F. (Donugi (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Presents the technology used and experience gained in mines of the Donbass in backfilling the space excavated in steep coal seams by shield equipment sets. Particularities that characterize such working conditions are analyzed e.g. mobility of the stowing material, pressure exerted by it on the roof and loads that can be carried by the backfill when it moves or remains immobile. Schematic diagrams and formulae for calculating uncovered roof surfaces in excavated spaces of longwalls are given. Factors that influence the phenomenon of creation of a dome of natural equilibrium (resistance to gliding over sidewall rock, coefficient of internal friction, grain size, seam thickness) are discussed. An example of deploying stowing equipment that consists of the EZM-2 pneumatic stowing machine, a loading belt, the DO crusher and the OB-600 tippler is presented. Recommendations are made that concern execution of backfill in spaces excavated by longwall mining. 5 refs.

  12. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-10-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower Gondwana coals of India - paleobotany, petrology and genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navale, G.K.B.

    1984-01-01

    The beginning of coal formation in the Lower Gondwana in India coincided, more or less, with the waning of the Late Palaeozoic Ice Age. Geological and palaeobotanical evidence suggest that temperate conditions existing at the time in Peninsular India were responsible for the develoment of a special flora dominated by Gangamopteris, Glossopteris and allied groups. Transformations in the vegetal material during diagenesis and categenesis, as inferred from biopetrological and rank investigations, reveal that the coal seams of the Karharbari Formation (basal portion of Lower Gondwana coals) experienced high oxidation resulting in excessive fusinization, probably due to rapid sedimentation, shallow basin condition and extensive microbiological action. It has also been surmized that the geothermal gradient during Lower Gondwana sedimentation was low throughout and that the coal seams attained only low rank. However, in the Damodar and Satpura Gondwana basins, where igneous intrusions occurred during the later phase of Lower Gondwana sedimentation, the rank of coal seams increased abnormally. 14 refs.

  14. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: IV. Incorporating coiled cord into cap lamp battery cords. Phase II report number 4. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, T.; Sanders, M.; Krohn, G.; Wick, D.; Volkmer, K.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report describes a study designed to evaluate a proposed modification in the cap lamp battery cord intended to reduce the incidence of snagging and catching of the cord. A three-phase evaluation was performed comparing a prototype with the standard, currently available cord.

  15. Performance of mesh seam welds in tailor welded blanks; Terado blank yo mash seam yosetsubu no tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchihara, M.; Takahashi, M.; Kurita, M.; Hirose, Y.; Fukui, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Formability, fatigue properties and corrosion behavior of mash seam welded steel sheets were investigated and the results were compared with laser weld. The stretch formability of mash seam weld and laser weld were same level. Mash seam weld however, showed slightly smaller formability in hole expansion test. The fatigue strength of mash seam welds was lower than that of laser welds in case of differential thickness joints. Corrosion was apt to initiate at weld in both mash seam and laser weld with E-coat. The corrosion resistance of welds was improved by using zinc coated steel. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of the reliability and effectiveness of plans for finishing off seams influenced by overlying or underlying workings without the use of pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Iu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    The pillar-less plan for finishing off seams using longwalls above thick pillars influenced by overlying or underlying workings earlier without the use of pillars on productive (thicker) seams is effective both from the point of view of its reliability and from the economic point of view (even when present techniques are used, as well as under complex mining-geological conditions. The system described is used on the Ukrainian Donbass mines in a total of 13% of the cases out of the overall number of contiguous, gently sloping and inclined coal seams of various thicknessess; the improvement in the amount of coal obtained can be said to have increased by a factor of 2.

  17. A Case Study of Damage Energy Analysis and an Early Warning by Microseismic Monitoring for Large Area Roof Caving in Shallow Depth Seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow depth coal seams are widely spread in Shendong mining area, which is located in the Northwestern region of China. When working face is advanced out of concentrated coal pillar in upper room and pillar goaf, strong strata behaviors often cause support crushing accidents, and potentially induce large area residual pillars instability and even wind blast disaster. In order to predict the precise time when the accident happens, guaranteeing life-safety of miner, microseismic monitoring system was for the first time applied in shallow coal seam. Based on damage mechanics correlation theory, the damage energy model is established to describe relationship between damage level and cumulative energy of microseismic events. According to microseismic monitoring data of two support crushing accidents, the damage energy model is verified and an effective early warning method of these accidents is proposed. The field application showed that the early warning method had avoided miners suffering from all support crushing accidents in Shigetai coal mine.

  18. Maturation, constitution and depositional environment of the coals from Makardhokada area, Nagpur District, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-12-15

    Recent sub-surface investigations have proved the existence of coal deposits in Makardhokada area of Nagpur District, Maharashtra. Structurally, Makardhokada area represents the western extension of Umrer coalfield. As far as the economic potentialities of these coal deposits are concerned, out of the six seams intersected, only four viz. Seam I, II, IV and V have attained workable thickness of more than a metre. The maceral constitution and rank estimations have been considered as the parameters to interpret the depositional environment and economic importance of these coal deposits. The maceral study suggests that the coal of seam I contains a mixture of all the three coal types i.e. vitric (Vitrinite rich), fusic (Inertinite rich) and mixed (Vitrinite + Inertinite rich). However, the seams II and IV are constituted by fusic and mixed coal types. Seam V contains both the vitric and mixed coal types. The maturation (reflectance) studies have indicated low vitrinite reflectivity (R{sub 0} max %) of 0.42-0.53%, which suggests that the coals have attained sub-bituminous C to high volatile bituminous C stage of the rank. The coal constitution suggests frequent floods at the depositional site and alternate dry oxidizing and cold climatic seasonal changes caused the formation of vitric and fusic coal types.

  19. Agora Energiewende (2016). What do Germany's climate protection goals mean for the brown coal regions? An analysis based on the eleven key points for a coal consensus; Agora Energiewende (2016). Was bedeuten Deutschlands Klimaschutzziele fuer die Braunkohleregionen? Eine Analyse auf Basis der elf Eckpunkte fuer einen Kohlekonsens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Praetorius, Barbara; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Litz, Philipp

    2016-04-15

    Since Paris's historical climate agreement, it has become clear that from now on energy supply will be discussed worldwide on the premise of decarbonisation. Germany as a traditional coal country and as a land of energy transition can no longer avoid this debate. After all, the climate targets that have been adopted several times for 2030, 2040 and 2050 will ultimately mean the end of coal-fired power generation. In January 2016, Agora Energiewende presented a proposal with the eleven cornerstones for a coal consensus on how such an exit from coal-fired power generation could look like. We are concerned with a cross-party consensus that is broadly anchored in society, which gives all parties involved planning security and reliability and at the same time paves the way for a socially balanced and fairly structured transition to the new energy system. The impacts are particularly relevant for the brown coal regions concerned. In order to make the gradual phasing out of coal-fired power generation socially and economically compatible, special attention must be paid to open-cast brown coal mines and power plants as well as to regional structural change. This publication therefore takes a closer look at precisely these aspects. [German] Seit dem historischen Klimaabkommen von Paris ist klar: Die Energieversorgung wird von nun an weltweit unter der Praemisse der Dekarbonisierung diskutiert. Deutschland als traditionelles Kohleland und als Land der Energiewende kann dieser Debatte nicht laenger ausweichen. Denn die fuer 2030, 2040 und 2050 mehrfach beschlossenen Klimaziele bedeuten letztlich den Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung. Agora Energiewende hat im Januar 2016 mit den Elf Eckpunkten fuer einen Kohlekonsens einen Vorschlag vorgelegt, wie ein solcher Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung aussehen koennte. Uns geht es um einen parteiuebergreifenden, gesellschaftlich breit verankerten Konsens, der allen Beteiligten Planungssicherheit und Verlaesslichkeit gibt und

  20. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: II. Effect of size and weight of battery pack on performance. Phase II report, number 3. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Krohn, G.; Wick, D.; Volkmer, K.; Beith, B.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report describes three experiments that were conducted to determine the effects of size and weight of battery packs. The first experiment tested the sensitivity of task measures; that is, workers performed locomotion, shoveling, cart pushing, and timbering tasks to detect variations in the size and weight of battery packs. The second experiment focused on locomotion tasks and tested the effects of varying size and weight on task completion time. The third experiment compared the battery pack presently in use with a radically different configuration of power cells.

  1. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Anna; Bukowska, Mirosława

    2015-03-01

    The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the susceptibility

  2. Unconventional methods for coal extraction from coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalicka, J.; Vydra, J.

    1984-06-01

    Unconventional methods for coal seam extraction are discussed which could be suitable for mining and geologic conditions of Czechoslovakia. The following methods are comparatively evaluated: in-situ gasification (tests carried out in Czechoslovakia in Borislav, Brezno I, Brezno II), cutting coal by jets of water at a pressure of 10 MPa or pulses of water jets at a pressure of 1400 MPa, in-situ dissolution of coal seams (using hydrocarbons as a solvent at a temperature of 300 to 400 C), in-situ hydrogenation, in-situ distillation, fluid injection of chemical compounds which cause coal fracturing and comminution under water pressure (injection of sodium hydroxides or a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen followed by water solution of ammonia, temperature from 10 to 100 C, pressure from 0.1 to 10.0 MPa). From among the evaluated unconventional coal extraction methods, in-situ gasification, coal cutting by water jets and use of fluid injection of chemical compounds which cause coal fracturing are most suitable for geologic conditions in Czechoslovakia. 9 references.

  3. Brown Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extraction) have also been linked to acquired Brown syndrome. Inflammation of the tendon-trochlea complex (from adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sinusitis) can be ... syndrome hereditary? Hereditary cases of Brown syndrome are rare. ...

  4. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Jiang

    Full Text Available To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index. Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar

  5. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  6. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  7. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  8. Trace and major metal abundances in the shale and coal of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of a number of trace and major elements in the shale and coal of differing seams in Okaba, Kogi State, Nigeria, was studied using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The study was necessary to compare the quality of Okaba coal to world standards of coal quality. Major elements of Al, K, Ca ...

  9. Width Criterion For Weld-Seam-Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincir, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Image-processing algorithm in "through-torch-vision" (T3V) system developed to guide gas/tungsten arc welding robot along weld seam modified, according to proposal, reducing incidence of inaccurate tracking of weld seam. Developmental system intended to provide closed-loop control of motion of welding robot along weld seam on basis of lines in T3V image identified by use of image-processing algorithm and assumed to coincide with edges of weld seam. Use of width criterion prevents tracking of many false pairs of lines, with consequent decrease in incidence of inaccurate tracking and increase in confidence in weld-tracking capability of robotic welding system.

  10. Geochemistry of vanadium (V) in Chinese coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Guijian; Qu, Qinyuan; Qi, Cuicui; Sun, Ruoyu; Liu, Houqi

    2017-10-01

    Vanadium in coals may have potential environmental and economic impacts. However, comprehensive knowledge of the geochemistry of V in coals is lacking. In this study, abundances, distribution and modes of occurrence of V are reviewed by compiling >2900 reported Chinese coal samples. With coal reserves in individual provinces as the weighting factors, V in Chinese coals is estimated to have an average abundance of 35.81 μg/g. Large variation of V concentration is observed in Chinese coals of different regions, coal-forming periods, and maturation ranks. According to the concentration coefficient of V in coals from individual provinces, three regions are divided across Chinese coal deposits. Vanadium in Chinese coals is probably influenced by sediment source and sedimentary environment, supplemented by late-stage hydrothermal fluids. Specifically, hydrothermal fluids have relatively more significant effect on the enrichment of V in local coal seams. Vanadium in coals is commonly associated with aluminosilicate minerals and organic matter, and the modes of V occurrence in coal depend on coal-forming environment and coal rank. The Chinese V emission inventory during coal combustion is estimated to be 4906 mt in 2014, accounting for 50.55 % of global emission. Vanadium emissions by electric power plants are the largest contributor.

  11. Tertiary lignites of As Pontes (NW-Spain) - an example for the composition of bright coal layers and its implications for formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle; Cabrera, L.; Saez, A. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia

    1997-12-31

    The Tertiary lignite basin of As Pontes is characterized by the frequent occurrence of bright brown coal layers. These layers, macroscopically very similar to those described for example in the Weisselster Basin and various other lignite deposits were studied in detail mainly by means of organic petrography in one seam of the basin and the data were related to the brightness of the coals. The question, if the colour of lignite is mainly influenced by the original plant input or the depositional environment, is under strong controversial discussion up to now. The bright coals of the As Pontes Basin are mineral rich (especially in clay) and/or contain high amounts of lipid rich matter (liptinite), especially coalification products of cork-tissue (suberinite). The results of the study indicate that the bright coal is highly degraded in comparison to the dark coals of the same basin. The formation of bright, litinite/mineral-rich lignite layers occurred especially during early basin evolution stages influenced by water table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrographical and organic geochemical data point to the fact that, although the paleoenvironments, where peat deposition took place, did not experience drastic changes, they were affected by noticable variations in hydrochemistry and groundwater stability, related to the tectonic historical record of the basin and the paleoclimatic conditions. In summary the origin of the bright layers of the As Pontes lignite is mainly related to the depositional environment. (orig.)

  12. Forecast fire damp emission in thin, steep coal bed; Prevision de Desprendimiento de Grisu en Capas Estrechas e Inclindas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A model to forecast fire damp emission in thin, steep coal bed, mining in advance and backfill works, has been developed and validated. The model estimates the amount of methane released towards the works, including fire damp proceeding from the actually mined seam, as well as methane coming from adjacent seams layers, depending on easy-to find parameters. Methane coming from the mined seam is determined as a function of the methane concentration in the seam and methane from adjacent seams is assessed by the degassification degree. This parameter depends also on the distance to the mined seam. The influence volume of a thin, steep mined coal bed has been determined, in order to study which seams and layers release methane towards the works. The works to develop the methane emission model were done in a coal face on Maria seam, in San Antonio mine, belonging to HUNOSA. The validation works were carried out in 24 left south seam, in the belonging to Minas de Figaredo, S. A. (Author)

  13. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  14. SEAM PUCKERING EVALUATION METHOD FOR SEWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automated method for the assessment and classification of puckering defects detected during the preproduction control stage of the sewing machine or product inspection. In this respect, we have presented the possible causes and remedies of the wrinkle nonconformities. Subjective factors related to the control environment and operators during the seams evaluation can be reduced using an automated system whose operation is based on image processing. Our implementation involves spectral image analysis using Fourier transform and an unsupervised neural network, the Kohonen Map, employed to classify material specimens, the input images, into five discrete degrees of quality, from grade 5 (best to grade 1 (the worst. The puckering features presented in the learning and test images have been pre-classified using the seam puckering quality standard. The network training stage will consist in presenting five input vectors (derived from the down-sampled arrays, representing the puckering grades. The puckering classification consists in providing an input vector derived from the image supposed to be classified. A scalar product between the input values vectors and the weighted training images is computed. The result will be assigned to one of the five classes of which the input image belongs. Using the Kohonen network the puckering defects were correctly classified in proportion of 71.42%.

  15. Domestic coal deposits and the possibilities their utilisation for requirements in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Turèániová Ľudmila; Špaldon František

    1998-01-01

    The information on coal exploitation and deposits of brown coal in Slovakia is presented are stated. The Slovak coal industry is struggling with the economic and quality problems of energetic coal. The organization point of view is judged and the possibilities of applying the coal preparation and coal benefication methods focused on the future possible utilisation are evaluated.

  16. Domestic coal deposits and the possibilities their utilisation for requirements in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová Ľudmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The information on coal exploitation and deposits of brown coal in Slovakia is presented are stated. The Slovak coal industry is struggling with the economic and quality problems of energetic coal. The organization point of view is judged and the possibilities of applying the coal preparation and coal benefication methods focused on the future possible utilisation are evaluated.

  17. Petrographic, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of certain Alaskan coals and washability products. Final report, July 11, 1978-October 11, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N.

    1981-05-01

    Petrological, mineralogical and chemical characterization provides basic information needed for proper utilization of coals. Since many of these coals are likely to be beneficiated to reduce ash, the influence of coal washing on the characteristics of the washed product is important. Twenty samples of Alaskan coal seams were used for this study. The coals studied ranged in rank from lignite to high volatile A bituminous with vitrinite/ulminite reflectance ranging from 0.25 to 1.04. Fifteen raw coals were characterized for proximate and ultimate analysis reflectance rank, petrology, composition of mineral matter, major oxides and trace elements in coal ash. Washability products of three coals from Nenana, Beluga and Matanuska coal fields were used for characterization of petrology, mineral matter and ash composition. Petrological analysis of raw coals and float-sink products showed that humodetrinite was highest in top seam in a stratigraphic sequence

  18. Biostimulators from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, L.V.

    1984-04-01

    A report is presented on a meeting of the Bureau of the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR on chemistry of fossil fuels held on 21-22 November 1983 in Moscow. Papers delivered during the meeting are evaluated. Chemistry of black and brown coal from the USSR was analyzed. Chemical coal properties which are of particular significance for coal use as an agricultural fertilizer (biostimulator of plant growth) were investigated. Brown and black coal with the highest oxidation level used as a fuel by power plants could be used for production of fertilizers with a high content of humic acids. Tests carried out in the USSR in various climatic zones (in the North and in Central Asia) showed that biostimulators from coal improved plant growth, reduced ripening period, increased crops, improved physical properties of soils (prevented moisture losses). Utilizing selected wastes from coal processing for production of biostimulators was also discussed. Methods for coal preparation for biostimulant production (crushing, screening, chemical processing) were evaluated. Prospects of biostimulator use in land reclamation were discussed.

  19. Assessment of contaminants associated with coal bed methane-produced water and its suitability for wetland creation or enhancement projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Extraction of methane gas from coal seams has become a significant energy source in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. In Wyoming, coalbed methane (CBM)...

  20. A novel weld seam detection method for space weld seam of narrow butt joint in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wen Jun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Structured light measurement is widely used for weld seam detection owing to its high measurement precision and robust. However, there is nearly no geometrical deformation of the stripe projected onto weld face, whose seam width is less than 0.1 mm and without misalignment. So, it's very difficult to ensure an exact retrieval of the seam feature. This issue is raised as laser welding for butt joint of thin metal plate is widely applied. Moreover, measurement for the seam width, seam center and the normal vector of the weld face at the same time during welding process is of great importance to the welding quality but rarely reported. Consequently, a seam measurement method based on vision sensor for space weld seam of narrow butt joint is proposed in this article. Three laser stripes with different wave length are project on the weldment, in which two red laser stripes are designed and used to measure the three dimensional profile of the weld face by the principle of optical triangulation, and the third green laser stripe is used as light source to measure the edge and the centerline of the seam by the principle of passive vision sensor. The corresponding image process algorithm is proposed to extract the centerline of the red laser stripes as well as the seam feature. All these three laser stripes are captured and processed in a single image so that the three dimensional position of the space weld seam can be obtained simultaneously. Finally, the result of experiment reveals that the proposed method can meet the precision demand of space narrow butt joint.

  1. Underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydra, J.; Pragr, P.; Skalicka, J.

    1988-03-01

    Discusses principles of underground coal gasification, which comprises 2 stages: drilling boreholes into the seams to be gasified and connecting them together and actual gasification process. Describes method used in USA and USSR involving multiple narrow extraction fronts and gas removal through a network of parallel channels in the seam. Refers to possibility of using inclined-horizontal drilling method (adapted from oil industry practice) to perform gasification in deep seams and discusses gasification media (air or oxygen, either alone or mixed with water vapor or carbon dioxide). Lists 3 basic gasification schemes in use today: production of low-energy gas for power plants by gasification using an air/water vapor mixture; production of medium-energy gas for use as chemical synthesis gas by gasification using oxygen/water vapor mixture; production of substitute natural gas, rich in methane, by gasification using high gas pressure and high hydrogen content. Describes 3 main stages of gasification: 0-300 degrees C - drying stage, when hygroscopically bound water and crystalline water are removed; 300- 700 degrees C - pyrolysis stage, when bituminous substances are converted to gaseous products; 700-1200 degrees C - gasification stage, when coke is formed and coke gasification occurs. 5 refs.

  2. Lower cost gasification power cycles for Australian coals and conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Wibberley; Doug Palfreyman; Peter Scaife

    2008-03-15

    The report gives an assessment of the thermal efficiency, water consumption, flexibility and comparative costs of several alternative IGCC concepts for a range of Australian coals. Other novel configurations are also considered, especially for smaller scale (<100 MW) plants. The premise for the study is that the best options for Australia may not be the same as for other regions, due to differences in coal properties, local availability of coal seam gas and coal mine waste coal, demographics, water resources, increasing peak demands, and the need for smaller efficient, efficient dry-cooled decentralised plants. 36 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Coal - increasing and rational utilization in the economy of solid combustible mineral resources. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, G.A.; Maksimov, N.M.; Portnov, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of commercial scale coal formation in the Southern Yakutsk and Baikal-Stanovoy areas and in the territory of the Transbaikal and Amur-Zeya areas coincide closely in time. The Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous appear as the coal-saturated intervals themselves. The thickness and structure of the coal seams in the tectonic zones are varied. If in the southern tectonic zone thick and ultra thick seams of ralatively simple structure are often encountered, in the north thick and ultrathick seams of relatively simple to complex structure are localized in small areas, and in the preponderant part of the tectonic zone seams of small and medium thickness are prevalent. In the southern tectonic zone coal resources are fixed by the first billions of tons; in the north they are increased to tens of billions of tons. The coals differ in quality. In the southern tectonic zone coal with a low degree of metamorphism evolved, which can be used only for energy-producing purposes; in the north the rank composition of the coals fluctuates from gas to nonbaking (coals) with a large role for coking coals.

  4. Palynofacies patterns of the Highveld coal deposits (Karoo Basin, South Africa: Clues to reconstruction of palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The early Permian represents a crucial period of climate change in Gondwana. This climate signature is captured in the palynological record that represents the floral assemblage of the region. Palynofacies analysis of the No. 2 Coal Seam of the Highveld Coalfield provides a high-resolution picture of this climatic shift, as well as detailing the vegetation patterns and local environments. Core samples taken from two localities were studied with respect to the characteristics of the plant debris and the palynomorph assemblages to differentiate between regional and local signatures. At both of the sampling localities, the No. 2 Coal Seam is split into a Lower Coal Seam and an Upper Coal Seam by a siltstone and a sandstone intraseam parting, respectively. The uneven palaeotopography and distal depositional environment of the Highveld Coalfield distinguish it from the northern Witbank Coalfield as a river-dominated delta plain, with differences in the palaeoenvironment at each locality. Results from the Lower Coal Seam indicate a fern-dominated lowland and conifer-dominated upland. This gives way to a Glossopteris-dominated lowland and a diverse gymnospermous assemblage in the upland of the Upper Coal Seam. This change in floral composition is also observed in the adjacent Witbank Coalfield and is likely caused by climate amelioration related to the movement of Gondwana away from the South Pole.

  5. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  6. Occurrence and habitat selection of Arctosa cinerea (fabr., 1777) (Araneae, lycosidae) in exhausted opencast brown coal mining areas in central Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail A. Al Hussein [Martin-Luther-University, Halle (Germany). Institute of Zoology

    2002-07-01

    Investigations upon spider communities were led through in eight exhausted opencast mining areas in Saxony-Anhalt in the years 1996-1998. A total of 111 investigation sites were examined, at 14 sites the wolf spider Arctosa cinerea (Lycosidae) could be proved by means of pitfall traps and also by visual control. All these sites were situated near waters and were characterized by sandy soil with gravel and coal. With the exception of two sites, where Phragmites communities and Juncus sp. as well as Salix and Betula trees were growing, the sites were nearly bare of vegetation. With these investigations, results about the activity period and ecological requirements of A. cinerea under the specific conditions of the exhausted open-cast mining areas in Central Germany were obtained. A. cinerea was captured over the whole investigation period in pitfall traps, with the exception of the winter months. Maximum activity was observed from May until September. In most cases more females than males were captured. It seems worth to notice that A. cinerea nearly constantly occurred together with Argenna patula (Dictynidae), which is known as halotolerant.

  7. Effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index of Western Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B.; Zhang, D.K.; Yan, H.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box 1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Brooke, R.J. [Wesfarmers Premier Coal Limited, P.O. Box 21, Premier Road, Collie, Western Australia 6225 (Australia)

    2003-04-15

    Investigations into the effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) were carried out on Collie coal of Western Australia. Experiments were conducted in a standard Hardgrove apparatus on four individual Premier seam coals (namely P2, P3, P4 and Hebe) and several blends (namely Hebe/P2, Hebe/P3, Hebe/P4, Hebe/P2/P4) prepared at various blending ratios. The experiments comprised of 5 days of air-drying followed by oven drying. Among the coal seams tested, Hebe showed the highest HGI (58) whereas P4 was the lowest (47). HGI was found to correlate well with residual moisture, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 depending on the type of coal seam or blend. In contrast, moisture measurements on the samples loaded into the HGI apparatus (size 0.600 to 1.180 mm), referred to as the 'coarse fraction' showed erratic trends with HGI. The experimental results suggest that no relationship exist between the coarse fraction moisture and HGI. Measured HGI values of binary and ternary blends were found to correspond well with the weighted average values of HGI within {+-}2 HGI units. This effect was confirmed by a further investigation with a range of 11 binary (P3/Hebe) blends of various proportions.

  8. Testing of pyrite flotation techniques on selected Ohio coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B. J.; Torak, E. R.

    1989-05-01

    The project was conceived to demonstrate the combining of conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies in a cost-effective manner. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that conventional coal cleaning followed by advanced coal cleaning of a crushed mid-gravity portion of the run-of-mine coal would produce a clean coal, suitable for use as a thermal coal, having a lower ash content and a lower sulfur dioxide emission potential than a coal cleaned only be current conventional cleaning technologies. As part of this program a number of advanced flotation techniques were tested to determine the feasibility of including them in the design of their Advanced Coal Preparation Facility. The program consisted of testing the Pittsburgh seam, the Middle Kittanning seam, and the Meigs Creek seam coals in the pilot flotation circuit at EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) in Homer City, Pennsylvania. This report contains all the data from OCDO's pilot flotation test program at the CQDC and the test data from the Middle Kittanning and Meigs Creek reverse flotation tests. 13 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. Love seam-waves in a horizontally inhomogenous three-layered medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobroka, M.

    1987-06-01

    Using the WKBJ-method the absorption-dispersion relation and the amplitude functions are derived for Love seam-waves that propagate in a horizontally inhomogeneous three-layered medium. To describe the anelastic friction the constant Q-model is applied. The inhomogeneity that appears in either the elastic moduli, or quality factors is assumed to remain weak in the coal as well as in the adjacent layers, which are assumed to have different material properties (asymmetric channel). Using numerical solutions of the dispersion relation, it is shown that the weak horizontal inhomogeneities can be optimally detected using channel-wave constituents of a frequency near to the Airy frequency while inhomogeneities of the adjacent rock can only be detected at frequencies close to, but higher than, the cut-off frequency. 11 refs.

  10. Reaction between coal and ferric chloride (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkanyan, R.O.; Khripunov, S.V.; Baranov, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Investigates absorption of ferric chloride (III) with free and filled (hexahydrate) coordination spheres, and antimony chloride (V) by various rank coal (brown coal to anthracite). Determines magnitude of specific absorption due to dynamic pore formation. Confirms polyassociative structure of coal with donor-acceptor characteristics and its similarity with polyassociative frame matrix in clathrate forming compounds. Gives specifications of coal used and provides data on specific absorption, diffractograms and paramagnetic characteristics of coal and adduct, and others. States that coal exhibits properties of intermolecular donor-acceptor complex with charge transfer and with comparatively unstable bonds which determine their paramagnetism and high specific absorption. 9 refs.

  11. Effect of Some Fabric and Sewing Conditions on Apparel Seam Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many previous studies showed that seam appearance as well as performance depends on the interrelationship of fabrics, threads, and the stitch/seam selection and lastly on the sewing conditions, which include the needle size, needle thread tension, stitch density, and the appropriate operation and maintenance of the sewing machine. Present investigation elucidates the effect of blend composition, sewing thread size, and sewing needle parameters on garment seam characteristics (i.e., seam strength, seam strength efficiency, seam puckering, seam stiffness, and drape coefficient. The seam quality characterization is studied through the L9 orthogonal design methodology. In good quality apparels, compatibility of the seams with the functional requirement is very important for serviceability and life of the apparel. Reversibility as well as repairing of seams in the apparel is very limited in the condition of seam failure. Seam strength efficiency is higher for the uniform fiber matrix in the structure of fabrics. The polyester dominated suiting fabrics give minimum seam stiffness because polyester component has low flexural rigidity. The cotton dominated suiting fabrics have less seam puckering due to increase in fabric stiffness.

  12. Diagenetic quartz and amorphous silica in New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, R.; Lindqvist, J.K. (Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Dunedin (New Zealand))

    1993-08-01

    New Zealand coal seams (Late Cretaceous-Miocene, lignite-semi-anthracite) contain numerous and varied occurrences of diagenetic quartz and amorphous silica. Early diagenetic silicifications include: sub-horizontal and laterally extensive, quartz-mineralized bands; micro- and megascopic, euhedral quartz crystals, dispersed or concentrated in layers; and silicified in situ tree stumps. Late diagenetic forms include: sub-horizontal, quartz-mineralized bands, mostly [lt] 1 m in length; and fracture-infillings. The origins of the silica remain uncertain but leached basement rocks and coal measure sediments, and siliceous phytoliths within the coal-forming plants, are possible sources. The silicification of coal seams may have significant implications for exploration, mining and geological studies. 39 refs., 5 figs., 4 plates.

  13. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  14. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  15. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Hiller, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N. [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  16. Exploiting Seams and Closing Gaps: Lessons from Mumbai and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Andrea J. Dew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a single event—the 2008 Mumbai attacks—in order to consider the strategic and operational lessons for dealing with other armed groups. How and why was Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT able to carry out such a sophisticated attack in the heart of Mumbai? And what lessons does Mumbai hold for strategists seeking to counter other armed groups around the world? While tactical level lessons from Mumbai have been well documented, it is important to also consider what the Mumbai attacks tell us at the strategic and operational levels. Specifically, the Mumbai attacks provide valuable insight into how armed groups use the maritime environment, and how they use surprise, denial, and deception to mask intention and invite over-reaction by states. In addition, studying the Mumbai attacks provides insight into some of the strategic and operational seams and gaps that armed groups seek to exploit. These include environmental and geographical factors; institutional, bureaucratic, and jurisdictional seams and gaps between agencies; cognitive seams and gaps that made the use of the sea by LeT so difficult to conceptualize; and the diplomatic seams and gaps that led to heightened tensions among states— in this case, India, Pakistan, and the United States. This article discusses how to categorize these seams and gaps in order to better address the problems they create, and how states might best direct and focus their limited resources when faced with similar challenges.

  17. Conical intersection seams in polyenes derived from their chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, Artur; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2012-08-01

    The knowledge of conical intersection seams is important to predict and explain the outcome of ultrafast reactions in photochemistry and photobiology. They define the energetic low-lying reachable regions that allow for the ultrafast non-radiative transitions. In complex molecules it is not straightforward to locate them. We present a systematic approach to predict conical intersection seams in multifunctionalized polyenes and their sensitivity to substituent effects. Included are seams that facilitate the photoreaction of interest as well as seams that open competing loss channels. The method is based on the extended two-electron two-orbital method [A. Nenov and R. de Vivie-Riedle, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034304 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3608924. It allows to extract the low-lying regions for non-radiative transitions, which are then divided into small linear segments. Rules of thumb are introduced to find the support points for these segments, which are then used in a linear interpolation scheme for a first estimation of the intersection seams. Quantum chemical optimization of the linear interpolated structures yields the final energetic position. We demonstrate our method for the example of the electrocyclic isomerization of trifluoromethyl-pyrrolylfulgide.

  18. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  19. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  20. Palynology and biostratigraphy of the Maastrichtian Coal Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wells are characterized by intercalation of laminated fine grained sand and light-dark grey fissile shale with interbeds of coal seams. The lower part with dark grey shale is characterized by the maximum development of Longapertites marginatus Acme Zone, dated Middle Maastrichtian. The upper part defined by ...

  1. Geological and mining factors affecting spontaneous heating of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1986-04-01

    The authors define the phenomenon of spontaneous heating in underground coal mines as a combination of seam factor, geological factor and mining factor. These latter two factors are discussed in a practical manner from the early work of Fayol in 1879 through to the findings of modern day researchers. The paper assesses the significance of all relevant aspects affecting spontaneous heating of coal, and provides the basis for a better understanding of its complex causes. 7 figs., 24 refs.

  2. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Winshel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The first objective will utilize analytical techniques which have not been fully demonstrated; the second objective involves more previously proven methods. This quarter, two feed coals and 39 process oils from Wilsonville Run 258 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 258 was operated in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. The subbituminous feed coals were from the Spring Creek Mine (Anderson and Dietz seams) and from the Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seams). Shell 324 catalyst was used in the second stage. Various coal samples related to Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed for chemical and petrographic composition. These results will be given in a future report, which covers all of Run 259. 18 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  5. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  6. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Use of personal equipment in low coal: A review of the personal equipment literature. Phase I report. Open file report 19 Jun 78-30 Dec 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.S.; Beith, B.; Blake, T.

    1978-12-30

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. To accomplish this, three principal tasks were to (1) summarize the state-of-the-art with respect to personal equipment and its use in low seam coal mines, (2) empirically validate alternative designs for personal equipment, and (3) make recommendations on redesign of personal equipment for low seam coal mines. The report is a summary of the literature dealing with personal protective equipment that is now, or could be used in the underground mining environment. Recommendations for further research and development are included.

  7. Investigation of Sealed Seams Properties of Moisture Barrier Layer in Firefighters Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GRINEVIČIŪTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation of sealed seams performance of two types of nonwoven fireproof fabrics laminated with bicomponent and hydrophilic membrane, which are used for moisture barrier layer in firefighters clothing. Seam strength in longitudinal and cross direction and resistance to water penetration were determined for investigation of quality of sealed seams with thermoplastic polyurethane tape. Determining the efficiency of sealed seams, optimal sealing parameters (temperature, sealing speed and quill pressure were identified in order to achieve good seam performance. The experimental relations and empirical equations for the seam strength and resistance to water penetration determined in this research can be used to predict efficiency of seams quality applying different parameters of seam sealing process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3396

  8. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  9. Thermodynamic Changes in the Coal Matrix - Gas - Moisture System Under Pressure Release and Phase Transformations of Gas Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrdin, V. V.; Smirnov, V. G.; Kim, T. L.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Fofanov, A. A.; Kartopolova, I. S.

    2017-06-01

    The physical processes occurring in the coal - natural gas system under the gas pressure release were studied experimentally. The possibility of gas hydrates presence in the inner space of natural coal was shown, which decomposition leads to an increase in the amount of gas passing into the free state. The decomposition of gas hydrates can be caused either by the seam temperature increase or the pressure decrease to lower than the gas hydrates equilibrium curve. The contribution of methane released during gas hydrates decomposition should be taken into account in the design of safe mining technologies for coal seams prone to gas dynamic phenomena.

  10. Underground coal gasification - the Velenje Coal Mine energy and economic calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konovšek Damjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a viable possibility for the exploitation of vast coal deposits that are unreachable by conventional mining and can meet the energy, economic and environmental demands of the 21st century. Due to the complexity of the process, and the site-specific coal and seam properties, it is important to acknowledge all the available data and past experiences, in order to conduct a successful UCG operation. Slovenia has huge unmined reserves of coal, and therefore offers the possibility of an alternative use of this domestic primary energy source. According to the available underground coal gasification technology, the energy and economic assessment for the exploitation of coal to generate electricity and heat was made. A new procedure for the estimation of the energy efficiency of the coal gasification process, which is also used to compare the energy analyses for different examples of coal exploitation, was proposed, as well as the technological schemes and plant operating mode in Velenje, and the use of produced synthetic coal gas (syngas. The proposed location for the pilot demonstration experiment in Velenje Coal Mine was reviewed and the viability of the underground coal gasification project in Velenje was determined.

  11. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available as shown in Figure 5. When the circulating medium density is increased, the density of the feed to both the primary and secondary cyclones is increased, and relatively small increases in the circulating medium density causes fairly large increases... availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone...

  12. Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology: Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Fossil Energy; National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential benefits of applying multiseam [well] completion (MSC) technology to the massive stack of low-rank coals in the Powder River Basin. As part of this, the study objectives are: Estimate how much additional CBM resource would become accessible and technically recoverable--compared to the current practice of drilling one well to drain a single coal seam; Determine whether there are economic benefits associated with MSC technology utilization (assuming its widespread, successful application) and if so, quantify the gains; Briefly examine why past attempts by Powder River Basin CBM operators to use MSC technology have been relatively unsuccessful; Provide the underpinnings to a decision whether a MSC technology development and/or demonstration effort is warranted by DOE. To a great extent, this assessment builds on the previously published study (DOE, 2002), which contains many of the key references that underlie this analysis. It is available on the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy technology Laboratory, Strategic Center for Natural Gas website (www.netl.doe.gov/scng). It is suggested that readers obtain a copy of the original study to complement the current report.

  13. Assessment of mining horizontal seams at depth considering strata stress factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.

    1983-04-01

    This paper discusses systems of mining level coal seams at large depths in the light of increasing mining depth in the Donbass, where about 50% of mined coal comes from depths exceeding 600 m. Mining systems used in underground mining in the Donbass are evaluated: 77.4% of production is from long pillar mining, 8.6% from longwall mining and 14% from combined systems. Seventeen variants of long pillar mining and longwall mining schemes used in the Donbass are compared. Effects of strata movement and strata control in mine roadways on mining cost are analyzed. A mathematical model is used for comparative evaluations of mining cost at large depths. Analyses show that long pillar mining combined with repeated use of gate roads is associated with considerable cost of support repair and support replacement. Recommendations on support systems suitable for strata control in mine roadways influenced by longwall mining are made. When roof subsidence does not exceed 500 mm, use of three-element yielding arched supports is recommended. In mine roadways with strata subsidence from 500 to 1200 mm, yielding arched supports consisting of five elements should be used. When forecast roof subsidence exceeds 1200 mm, additional support systems (such as friction props or hydraulic props) should be used. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  14. An integrated approach for predictive control of extrusion weld seams: experimental support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.J. den; Werkhoven, R.J.; Sillekens, W.H.; Katgerman, L.

    2010-01-01

    In hollow aluminium extrusions, longitudinal weld-seams are formed through a solid-state bonding process at elevated temperatures and under conditions of interfacial pressure and plastic deformation. For structurally loaded components, sound weld seams are imperative. In our research, a weld seam

  15. formation and behaviour of coal free radicals in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    B. M., Raaen, V. F., Maupin P. H. Brown L. I and Collins C. J., 1978. Thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in selected coal – related structures. Fuel 57, 269 –. 27. Cui H., Yang J, Liu Z and Bi J., 2002. Effect of remaining catalysts and enriched coal minerals on devolatilization of residual chars from coal liquefaction Fuel 81,.

  16. A novel method for estimating methane emissions from underground coal mines: The Yanma coal mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Min; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Pan, Jie-Nan; Niu, Qing-He

    2017-12-01

    As the world's largest coal producer and consumer, China accounts for a relatively high proportion of methane emissions from coal mines. Several estimation methods had been established for the coal mine methane (CMM) emission. However, with large regional differences, various reservoir formation types of coalbed methane (CBM) and due to the complicated geological conditions in China, these methods may be deficient or unsuitable for all the mining areas (e.g. Jiaozuo mining area). By combing the CMM emission characteristics and considering the actual situation of methane emissions from underground coal mine, we found that the methane pre-drainage is a crucial reason creating inaccurate evaluating results for most estimation methods. What makes it so essential is the extensive pre-drainage quantity and its irrelevance with annual coal production. Accordingly, the methane releases were divided into two categories: methane pre-drainage and methane release during mining. On this basis, a pioneering method for estimating CMM emissions was proposed. Taking the Yanma coal mine in the Jiaozuo mining area as a study case, the evaluation method of the pre-drainage methane quantity was established after the correlation analysis between the pre-drainage rate and time. Thereafter, the mining activity influence factor (MAIF) was first introduced to reflect the methane release from the coal and rock seams around where affected by mining activity, and the buried depth was adopted as the predictor of the estimation for future methane emissions. It was verified in the six coal mines of Jiaozuo coalfield (2011) that the new estimation method has the minimum errors of 12.11%, 9.23%, 5.77%, -5.20%, -8.75% and 4.92% respectively comparing with other methods. This paper gives a further insight and proposes a more accurate evaluation method for the CMM emissions, especially for the coal seams with low permeability and strong tectonic deformation in methane outburst coal mines.

  17. Coal mining with Triple-section extraction process in stagger arrangement roadway layout method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Liu, Baozhu; Zhao, Jingli; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the Triple-section extraction process in the three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement method for longwall top-coal caving mining. This 3-D roadway layout of stagger arrangement method without coal pillars, which arranged the air intake roadway and air return roadway in different horizons, realizing the design theory transformation of roadway layout from 2D system to 3D system. And the paper makes systematic analysis to the geological, technical and economic factors, applies this new mining roadway layout technology for raising coal recovery ratio and solving the problems about full-seam mining in thick coal seam synthetically according to theoretical study and mining practice. Furthermore, the paper presents a physical simulation about inner staggered roadway layout of this particular longwall top-coal caving method.

  18. Brown recluse spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. It ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin-shaped ...

  19. Characteristics of type III kerogen in coal-bearing strata from the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) in the Ruhr Basin, Western Germany: Comparison of coals, dispersed organic matter, kerogen concentrates and coal-mineral mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, K. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Krooss, B.M.; Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Flajs, G. [Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartkopf-Froeder, C. [Geological Survey North Rhine-Westphalia, De-Greiff-Str. 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany)

    2009-10-01

    Quality, quantity and maturity of coal and dispersed terrigenous organic matter were studied on six coal-bearing intervals in Duckmantian strata (Pennsylvanian/Upper Carboniferous) of the Ruhr Basin, Western Germany. Between 10 and 40 samples were collected from fresh drill cores of each interval typically consisting of a coal seam as well as clastic roof and floor strata (sandstone, siltstone, claystone). Coal seams constitute about 8 vol.% of the succession studied. The samples were analysed by organic petrological methods and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Maturity expressed in terms of vitrinite reflectance is between 0.75 and 1.0 %. For the six successions studied, the total amount of dispersed organic matter in clastic rocks is about half of that stored in coal seams, both containing predominantly vitrinite. Significant differences between Rock-Eval parameters determined on whole rock samples and kerogen concentrates were observed, especially with respect to Hydrogen Index (HI) values. Thus, the HI of the coal is about twice as high as that of the dispersed organic matter, although the maceral composition is similar. The effects of minerals were further examined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis of artificial mixtures of coal (lignite) powder and different minerals. Reduced HI values are partly explained by the retention of generated hydrocarbons on mineral surfaces and partly by reactions of generated fluids with pyrite in kerogen concentrates. (author)

  20. Devolatilization and ignition of coal particles in a two-dimensional fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; Siemons, R.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1989-01-01

    In a two-dimensional (15 × 200 × 400 mm) high-temperature fluidized bed, devolatilization ignition and combustion phenomena of single coal particles have been studied. The particles, with diameters of 4–9 mm, were selected from three coal types of widely different rank: brown coal, bituminous coal,

  1. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  2. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  3. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  4. More frequent elements in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krejci-Graf, K.

    1982-04-01

    On frequent elements in coals: in the case of bioelements (H, C, N, O) even bare quantities may offer evidence of origin and transformation of coals. With those as with other frequent elements it is not so much quantity (as is still with S), as variability, and ratios of pairs of elements, which may give evidence of transformation. Enrichments in different plants and tissues - excepting H, C, N, O - are extremely different in different samples. In coalification original contents are lowered, mixed, or veiled by import. Influences of surroundings change during the stages of coalification, while the surroundings themselves are in continual transformation. Only with frequent elements one may hope to recognize traces of original conditions. More exact knowledge of seams may help in prospection and parallelization.

  5. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  6. Characterization of selected Ohio coals to predict their conversion behavior relative to 104 North American Coals. [Factors correlating with liquefaction behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitacre, T. P.; Hunt, T. J.; Kneller, W. A.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-six coal samples from Ohio were collected as washed and seam samples, and lithobodies within the seams. Characterization of these samples included determination of % maceral, % anti R/sub max/, LTA, chlorine content and proximate/ultimate and qualitative mineral analyses. These data were compared to data from a similar project by Yarzab, R.F., et al., 1980 completed at Pennsylvania State University using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The characteristics of these coals were correlated with liquefaction conversion and other data accrued on 104 North American coals by statistical analyses. Utilizing percent carbon, sulfur, volatile matter, reflectance, vitrinite and total reactive macerals, Q-mode cluster analysis demonstrated that Ohio coals are more similar to the coals of the Interior province than to those of the Appalachian province. Linear multiple regression analysis for the 104 North American coals provided a prediction equation for conversion (R = .96). The predicted conversion values for the samples range from 58.8 to 79.6%, with the Lower Kittanning (No. 5) and the Middle Kittanning (No. 6) coal seams showing the highest predicted percent conversion (respectively, 73.4 and 72.2%). The moderately low FSI values for the No. 5 and No. 6 coals (respectively, 2.5 and 3) and their moderately high alkaline earth content (respectively, 0.69 and 0.74%) suggest that these coals possess the best overall properties for conversion. Stepwise regression has indicated that the most important coal characteristics affecting conversion are, in decreasing order of importance: % volatile matter, % vitrinite and % total sulfur. Conversion processes can be expected to produce higher yields with Ohio coals due to the presence of such mineral catalysts as pyrite and kaolinite. It is believed that the presence of these disposable catalysts increases the marketability of Ohio coals.

  7. Coal geology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology. All aspects of coal geology are covered in one volume, bridgint the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry...

  8. Perfecting technology and organization of development work in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisun, A.P.; Suslo, A.I.

    1980-02-01

    Mining-geological conditions are characterized in the Makeevugol mines, with mining depth over 800 m, methane hazard and rock burst hazard. In the Makeevugol' mines pillar mining predominates as it requires far less development work than a longwall system (detailed comparison is given). Methods of development work, i.e. blasting and heading machines, are described along with haulage systems (belt conveyors, rope haulage ways), and support systems. The article concentrates on development work under difficult conditions, slope up to 26 degrees and methane and rock burst hazard, where possibilities of mechanizing work are more limited than in horizontal and safe coal seams. Work efficiency per one miner in seams characterized by rock burst hazard is 26% lower than in other seams. In the Makeevugol' mines development work presents a serious hindrance to the mining process. (In Russian)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 5. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 5). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elementary matters, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include engineering specifications related to electrical designs, lists of electrical items, specifications related to civil engineering designs, drawings such as planning drawings, and a detailed construction design drawn by an Australian engineering corporation and related documents and drawings. Concerning the manufacture of mechanical systems, items procurable in Japan, specifications of items procurable in Australia, lists, drawings, etc., are shown. Also included are the details of on-site preparation for construction and on-site work, conceptual designs of processes of dehydration, deashing, and secondary hydrogenation, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Evaluation of the effect of macerals on coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the subject of gas emission in underground coal mines in many countries is an important subject. Many factors affect in gas emissions in coal seams. Geological and physical structures of coal are affecting on gas emissions'. Also, composition and mineralization of coal, affect in coal permeability for different gases. In this study, the relationship between maceral composition and coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines has been studied. Accordingly, a laboratory studies to investigate the relationship between coal composition and coal permeability was done. In coal samples, with MFORR equipment the permeability test was done. With microscopic analysis, the maceral contents of coal such as Inertinite and Vitrinite have been measured. Accordingly, many coal samples of Parvadeh and Tazareh coal mines have the pyrite as the dominant mineral matter. Parvadeh coal samples has the average percentage of Vitrinite equal 81.34% and 10.52% Inertinite. Also, in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines, the average percentage of Vitrinite is 69.31% and inertinite is 22.47%. The average percentage of Pyrite content in Parvadeh coal samples in Tabas coal mines is 2.38% and in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines is 2.62%.  The permeability test results have been shown, which, with increase of Inertinite contents, the permeability of coal is increasing. Also, test results have been shown, there was a reduction in the coal permeability with increasing of mineral contents and carbonate contents of the coal. So, the coal permeability in Tabas coal samples is more than Eastern Alborz coal samples.

  11. Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

    1993-08-01

    It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

  12. Coal resource estimation in the Bayir field, Yatagan-Mugla, SW Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaner, H.; Nakoman, E.; Karayigit, A.I. [Dokuz Eylul University, Buca Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on some coal properties and calculation of coal resources with two classical (isopach and polygon) methods in the Bayir field, Yatagan-Mugla, which is located in southwestern Anatolia. This field has not been mined because it is still in the exploration stage. A productive coal seam of Early (?)-Middle Miocene age has a mineable coal thickness of 1.25 m to 18.01 m. Proximate analysis results indicated that this coal seam contains high moisture, ash, volatile matter, total sulphur content, and net calorific values. The weighted average mineable coal thickness calculated from the isopachs is 7.52 m and 7.82 m from polygonal methods. The in situ tonnages with isopach and polygonal methods were calculated to be 122.8 Mt and 130 Mt, respectively. The average value of the two methods shows 126.4 Mt in situ coal tonnages. Total amount of the in situ mineable coal resources is 77.7 Mt, which indicates an important coal potential in the Bayir field. The overburden thickness ranges from 72 m to 493 m in the Bayir field, averaging 257 m, indicating a deep coal mine. The overburden ratio averages 37 m{sup 3}/ton, indicating an underground coal mine to feed a power plant in near future.

  13. Research of rheological properties improvement methods of coal-water fuel based on low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of coal-water fuel (CWF rheological properties based on 3B brown coal have been conducted using different processing methods, such as rotary flows modulation device (RFMD, sodium hydroxide and lignosulfonate. Physicochemical properties of initial solid fuel have been determined using JEOL JCM 6000 microscope. Optimal method of coal-water treatment has been determined based on obtained data considering its influence on viscosity and sedimentation stability of coal-water slurry (CWS.

  14. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. Recovery of fine coal using column flotation at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Peters, W.J. [Powell Mountain Coal Co., Big Stone Gap, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A joint project was initiated in 1989 between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Powell Mountain Coal Company (PMCC) to evaluate the applicability of column flotation for recovery of fine coal from classifying cyclone refuse at PMCC`s Mayflower Preparation Plant. Laboratory and extensive pilot plant studies were conducted on each of the seams processed by the plant evaluating various column operating parameters. These results were used to design a larger 8-ft. diameter x 22-ft. tall column capable of recovering fine coal from the dilute classifying cyclone overflow with a feed capacity of 1,000 gpm. In order to effectively treat the entire plant classifying cyclone overflow stream, a total of four columns operating in parallel were installed in December 1989. This paper outlines four years of operating experience and results obtained with this fine coal recovery circuit.

  16. Sorption characteristic of coal as regards of gas mixtures emitted in the process of the self-heating of coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtacha-Rychter Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks in the coal mining sector is the detection of endogenous fire risks. Under field conditions, the distance between the points where samples for the analyses are collected and the actual place where coal self-heating takes place may be quite remote. Coal is a natural sorbent with a diverse character of pore structures which are surrounded by fractures and cleavage planes constituting ideal spaces for the flow and adsorption of gases. The gases (methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen released from the source of fire migrate through the seam and may be subject to adsorption, or they may cause the desorption of gases accumulated in coal. Therefore, the values of reference sample concentrations may be overstated or understated, respectively. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the adsorption phenomena accompanying the flow of a multi-component gas mixture through a coal bed which may occur in situ. The research was conducted by means of a method based on a series of calorimetric/chromatographic measurements taken to determine the amount of gases released during coal heating at various temperatures under laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained in the course of the experiments, it was concluded that the amount of gas adsorbed in the seam depends on the type of coal and the gas. Within the multi-component gas mixture, hydrocarbons demonstrated the largest sorption capacity, especially as concerns propylene.

  17. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  18. Interactive program system for application of modern evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hoňková

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution methodical procedures of modeling and assessing of coal deposits, applied in the frame of the solution of the (Grant Agency of the Czech Republic project No 105/03/1417 entitled „Interactive program system for application of modern methods of evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions“, are presented. The development of the computer technology as well as the new results in the domain of scientific geoinformatics have enabled an application of new modeling procedures and subsequent assessing of coal seams. Above all, the procedures in the sphere of the statistical data processing, geostatistics, selection and the application of a proper interpolation method, the graphic elaboration of maps and the 3D visualization of modeled coal seams and further procedures facilitating the selection of in-seam balanced thickness as well as identifying and correlating of coal seams are concerned. The program system formed in this way is conceived for applying to all types of coal deposits occurring in the Czech Republic.

  19. Coal handling equipment at power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusko, E.; Wrobel, J. (Poltegor, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1989-07-01

    Discusses design and specifications of equipment for coal storage, handling and transport used at three power plants in Turkey designed and constructed by Polish companies. Poltegor in Wroclaw designed the materials handling systems used at the three power plants. The three brown coal fired power plants are described: Yatagan (2x210 MW), Yenikoy (2x210 MW) and Keremkoy (3x210 MW). The following systems are analyzed: coal yards, coal crushing systems, electromagnetic separators, belt conveyors for coal transport, special yards for coal mixing after crushing and metal separation, the LZKS-500/25/31.5 loaders.

  20. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  1. The characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P. L.; Lovell, H. L.; Vastola, F. J.; Given, P. H.; Suhr, N. H.; Jenkins, R. G.

    1982-06-01

    The Sample Bank for characterization of coal includes full seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and subseam sections. The data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur froms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. The pyrolysis of coal was studied the reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, was studied for reactivity to air, CO2, H2 and steam. The catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes was examined. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported.

  2. Research on critical size of water barrier in underground coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Ding, K. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Energy Science and Engineering

    2001-12-01

    The calculation formula of the width of the water barrier used in nowadays was derived from considering the coal mass tensile damage, and the theoretical foundation of tensile damage is the beam theory of Mechanics of Materials. Because simplifying water barrier to beam is not reasonable, and the calculation formula did not take into account the other important factors such as the surroundings and so on, in many cases, there are great differences between the theoretical results and the actual results. Further analysis indicates that besides the physical and mechanical characteristics of the coal seams and water pressure, the critical size of the water barrier in underground coal mine is also affected by underground pressure which is depending on the coal seam depth, roof and floor rocks structural characteristics and other factors. The collapse of the water barrier caused by critical water pressure is the macrographic behaviour of the combined action of water pressure and underground pressure. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  4. Biopetrological investigations on the coals of Kosar, Dongargaon and Mahadoli areas, Wardha Valley Coalfield, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2004-04-01

    The coal sequences concealed below the Deccan Trap in Mahadoli (northwestern part) and in the vicinity of Kosar and Dongargaon areas (Kayar Block) delimiting the western boundary of the Wardha Valley Coalfield, Maharashtra, have been analyzed. A comparative study about their maceral constitution, rank evaluation and depositional environment has also been discussed. The coals in these areas are classified under fusic and mixed types barring the top seam of Dongargaon area containing vitric type of coal. In general, these coals have attained high volatile bituminous C stage of rank.

  5. Prediction models of coal thickness based on seismic attributions and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.P.; Guo, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Pan, J.N.; Lu, J. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Resource & Geoscience

    2006-03-15

    As a technology used widely in lithology and structural interpretation, seismic attribute technology has been playing an important role in coal and oil exploration. Based on 3-D seismic exploration data of coal seam 13-1 in the Xieqiao colliery, Huainan coal field of China, 28 seismic attributes axe extracted. Through analysis of seismic attributes, four usable seismic attributes, such as average-peak-amplitude, kurtosis-inamplitude, maximum-absolute-amplitude and slope rate of instantaneous frequency, are selected as the basic analysis parameters of prediction models of coal thickness. Combined with the real drill data, the prediction models between coal thickness and multi attributes are established by using analytical methods of multivariant polynomial regression and BP neural networks (BPNN), and error analysis of predicting coal thickness is carried out. From the comparison of prediction results of coal thickness of coal seam 13-1 in the Xieqiao colliery, Huainan coal field of China by using these two models, it is concluded that the BPNN model has higher accuracy in predicting coal thickness.

  6. Ventilation of mines developed by the combined method of coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkus, Val V.; Ermakov, A. Yu; Senkus, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the features of ventilation of mines which are developed by the combined method of coal mining. It also provides recommendations for placing the flank and central ventilation holes while mining flat and steep seams from open pit sides, as well as anticlinal and synclinal deposits.

  7. Review of the study ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast'' from the perspective of brown coal; Bewertung der Studie ''Entwicklung der Energiemaerkte - Energiereferenzprognose'' aus Sicht der Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyllong, Yvonne [DEBRIV e.V., Koeln (Germany); Maassen, Uwe [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In June 2014 the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) published an expertise prepared by the EWI, GWS and Prognos institutes entitled ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast''. This study presents probable developments in the energy economy up to the year 2030 (reference forecast) on the assumption of a yet more stringent energy and climate protection policy as well as continuing impediments to its implementation. Complementing the forecast is an outlook up to the year 2050 (scenario of trends). But what do the findings of this expertise say about the future utilization of Germany's greatest domestic energy resource, namely brown coal? This question is addressed in the following article.

  8. Stress-state monitoring of coal pillars during room and pillar extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Waclawik, Petr; Ptacek, Jiri; Konicek, Petr; Kukutsch, Radovan; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Current mining activities of the OKD mines are primarily focused on coal seams within the Karvina Formation in the Karvina sub-basin. A considerable amount of coal reserves are situated in protection pillars that lie under built-up areas. The longwall mining method is not applicable in these areas because significant deformation of the surface is not permitted. For this reason OKD is considering using alternative methods of mining to minimise subsidence. The room and pillar method has been tr...

  9. Trace elements in high-S subbituminous coals from the Teruel mining district, northeast Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Turiel, J.L.F.; Soler, A.L.; Duran, M.E. (Institute of Earth Sciences, Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    The elemental composition of high temperature ash (750[degree]C) and forms of S were studied in 25 coal seams from the Escucha Formation (Middle Albian) in the Teruel Mining District, northeast Spain. The principal analytical method was ICP-MS, but ICP-ES was also used in the determination of some trace elements. The analytical data show wide ranges of trace element contents among the coal seams studied, even in the vertical profile of a single coal seam. These wide ranges of the trace element concentrations are attributed to both syngenetic and epigenetic processes. When a comparison was made between the average trace element contentsof the Teruel Mining District coals, and those of the average content in worldwide coals, the Teruel coals show slightly higher concentrations of Be and U, and lower concentrations of Ba, Cd Mn, Pb, Sr and Zr. Further, three main groups of trace elements were differentiated on the basis of the inorganic/organic affinity; Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Mn, Ni, Rb and Ze. Between these, Ba, Ce, Cr and Rb show a well defined correlation with the clay mineral content, and Co and Ni with pyritic-S content; (2)trace elements with an intermediate (mixed) affinity; As, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ge, Ho, Lu, Mo, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zr. In this group, As, Cd, Cu, Ge, Mo, Th, U and Zn show a weak trend associated with the mineral matter and Sr with the organic matter; and (3) Be shows an organic affinity. The high mineral matter content (21.3% HTA) of the Teruel coals may account for the great number of elements with inorganic affinity. This classification represents a general trend, but the results show that the affinities of some trace elements (e.g. As, Sb, and Zn) may vary from one coal seam to another in the Teruel Mining District.

  10. Chemometric Study of Trace Elements in Hard Coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompalski, Przemysław; Cybulski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the analysis of trace elements contents in coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), which may pose a potential threat to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. Productive carbon overburden in central and southern zones of the USCB is composed mostly of insulating tertiary formations of a thickness from a few m to 1,100 m, and is represented by Miocene and Pliocene formations. In the data study the geological conditions of the coal seams of particular zones of the USCB were taken into account and the hierarchical clustering analysis was applied, which enabled the exploration of the dissimilarities between coal samples of various zones of the USCB in terms of basic physical and chemical parameters and trace elements contents. Coals of the northern and eastern zones of the USCB are characterized by high average Hg and low average Ba, Cr, and Ni contents, whereas coals of southern and western zones are unique due to high average concentrations of Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, and V. Coals of the central part of the USCB are characterized by the highest average concentration of Mn and the lowest average concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, V, and Zn. PMID:24967424

  11. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  12. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  13. Sensing textile seam-line for wearable multimodal physiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, M; Agcayazi, T; Kausche, H; Ghosh, T; Bozkurt, A

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates a novel multimodal sensing method by forming seam-lines of conductive textile fibers into commercially available fabrics. The proposed ultra-low cost micro-electro-mechanical sensor would provide, wearable, flexible, textile based biopotential signal recording, wetness detection and tactile sensing simultaneously. Three types of fibers are evaluated for their array-based sensing capability, including a 3D printed conductive fiber, a multiwall carbon nanotube based fiber, and a commercially available stainless steel conductive thread. The sensors were shown to have a correlation between capacitance and pressure; impedance and wetness; and recorded potential and ECG waveforms.

  14. Reconstruction of 3D Micro Pore Structure of Coal and Simulation of Its Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhe Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the low permeability coal seam in the coalfield of South Judger Basin in Xinjiang, as a research object. The pore structure characteristics of coal rock mass in low permeability coal seam were analyzed quantitatively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM through the methods of statistics and digital image analysis. Based on the pore structure parameters and the distribution function of the coal rock mass, a three-dimensional porous cylinder model with different porosity was reconstructed by FLAC3D. The numerical simulation study of reconstructed pore model shows that (1 the porosity and the compressive strength have obvious nonlinear relation and satisfy the negative exponential relation; (2 the porosity significantly affects the stress distribution; with the increase of micro porosity, the stress distribution becomes nonuniform; (3 the compressive failures of different models are mainly shear failures, and the shape of fracture section is related to porosity; (4 the variation of seepage coefficient of the pore reconstruction model is consistent with the development of micro cracks. The micro mechanism of the deformation and failure of coal and the interaction of multiphase flow with porosity are revealed, which provides a theoretical reference for the clean development of the low permeability coal seam.

  15. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of the Early Permian Upper No. 3 Coal from Southwestern Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper No. 3 coal of the Early Permian age is a major workable seam in the southwestern Shandong coalfield, which is located in the eastern part of North China. From Early Jurassic to Neogene, the coalfield was subjected to intensive tectonic processes, leading to a significant rearrangement in depth of coal seams. In this paper, three Upper No. 3 coals occurring at −228, −670 and −938 m in the Luxi, Liangbaosi, and Tangkou mines, respectively, were collected to investigate their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, with emphasis on modes of occurrence and origin of epigenetic minerals. The three coal seams are similar in vitrinite reflectance, volatile matter yield, and maceral components, suggesting insignificant influence from the tectonic activities on coal rank. Terrigenous minerals (e.g., kaolinite and quartz are comparable in both types and distribution patterns in the three coals. The presence of siderite and pyrite of syngenetic or penecontemporaneous origin indicate they were emplaced during peat accumulation. The distribution of epigenetic minerals (e.g., calcite, ankerite, and dolomite are associated with the underground water activities, which were Ca (Mg, Fe-bearing.

  16. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MINHAJ UDDIN MONIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Barapukuria coal mine (BCM is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68 km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m. The estimated coal reserves is about 390 million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS system. These supports are moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method. Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face during production period, faces temperature 46o

  17. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6.4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located ... Habitat The Brown Recluse Spider builds small retreat webs behind objects of any type. Symptoms • The severity ...

  18. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  19. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  20. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  1. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  2. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  3. Real-time seam tracking for robotic laser welding using trajectory-based control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.W.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Jonker, Jan B.; Meijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a real-time seam tracking algorithm is proposed that can cope with the accuracy demands of robotic laser welding. A trajectory-based control architecture is presented, which had to be developed for this seam tracking algorithm. Cartesian locations (position and orientation) are added

  4. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  5. Dust-control for thick-seam wall mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Belle, BK

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics CWP Coal Workers’ Pneumoconioisis DERDS Double Ended Ranging Drum Shearer DME Department of Minerals and Energy FB Feeder Breaker FM Face Middle HG Head Gate HGO Head Gate Operator JCB Joint Coal Board KSSC Kloppersbos Shearer Spray... traverse is called “web cut.” The depth of the web cut on each pass is determined by the width of the shearer drum. An average web width is between 0,8m and 1,0 m. Coal is cut from the face by rotary drums either single or double-ended drums. 12...

  6. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  7. Evaluation of bending rigidity behaviour of ultrasonic seaming on woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevkan Macit, Ayşe; Tiber, Bahar

    2017-10-01

    In recent years ultrasonic seaming that is shown as an alternative method to conventional seaming has been investigated by many researchers. In our study, bending behaviour of this alternative method is examined by changing various parameters such as fabric type, seam type, roller type and seaming velocity. For this purpose fifteen types of sewn fabrics were tested according to bending rigidity test standard before and after washing processes and results were evaluated through SPSS statistical analyze programme. Consequently, bending length values of the ultrasonically sewn fabrics are found to be higher than the bending length values of conventionally sewn fabrics and the effects of seam type on bending length are seen statistically significant. Also it is observed that bending length values are in relationship with the rest of the parameters excluding roller type.

  8. Drag resistance measurements for newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, S. M.; Andres, E.

    in their newly applied conditions. The effects of water absorption of newly applied antifouling coatings on frictional resistance were measured. A flexible rotor with artificial welding seams on its periphery has been designed and constructed to estimate the influence of welding seams on drag resistance. Both......Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared...... the density of welding seams (number per 5 m ship side) and the height of welding seams had a significant effect on drag resistance....

  9. STRUCTURE-BASED PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR COAL CHAR COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHRISTOPHER M. HADAD; JOSEPH M. CALO; ROBERT H. ESSENHIGH; ROBERT H. HURT

    1999-01-13

    Significant progress continued to be made during the past reporting quarter on both major technical tasks. During the reporting period at OSU, computational investigations were conducted of addition vs. abstraction reactions of H, O(3 P), and OH with monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The potential energy surface for more than 80 unique reactions of H, O ( 3 P), and OH with aromatic hydrocarbons were determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The calculated transition state barriers and reaction free energies indicate that the addition channel is preferred at 298K, but that the abstraction channel becomes dominant at high temperatures. The thermodynamic preference for reactivity with aromatic hydrocarbons increases in the order O(3 P) < H < OH. Abstraction from six-membered aromatic rings is more facile than abstraction from five-membered aromatic rings. However, addition to five-membered rings is thermodynamically more favorable than addition to six-membered rings. The free energies for the abstraction and addition reactions of H, O, and OH with aromatic hydrocarbons and the characteristics of the respective transition states can be used to calculate the reaction rate constants for these important combustion reactions. Experimental work at Brown University on the effect of reaction on the structural evolution of different chars (i.e., phenolic resin char and chars produced from three different coals) have been investigated in a TGA/TPD-MS system. It has been found that samples of different age of these chars appeared to lose their "memory" concerning their initial structures at high burn-offs. During the reporting period, thermal desorption experiments of selected samples were conducted. These spectra show that the population of low temperature oxygen surface complexes, which are primarily responsible for reactivity, are more similar for the high burn-off than for the low burn-off samples of different ages; i.e., the population of active sites are more

  10. Concept of co-firing coal with biomass and natural gas: On track of sustainable solution for future thermal power plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodžić Nihad; Smajević Izet; Kazagić Anes

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents R&D project of multi fuel concept (MFC) for future coal-based power plants, demonstrated on example of cofiring Middle-Bosnia brown coal with waste woody biomass and natural gas...

  11. The wave superposition in the coal seam - the rock layers system in the OKR conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovanský Stanislav

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic shock at the all places of the mountain massif are counted to the unique form leading to the wave. The wave is able to evoke exceeding of a tension in the mountain massif at the concrete place and an original tension condition. There are possibilities of exceeding of a breaking strenght of basic elements followed by weak disorders and the possible rise of a mountain bump.

  12. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    OpenAIRE

    Dziok Tadeusz; Strugała Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury...

  13. The underground coal gasification First step of community collaboration; Gasification Subterranea del Carbon. Primer Intento en el Ambito de una Colaboracion Comunitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification in coal seams at 600 metre depth, in order to asses its potential as a means of energy exploitation in Europe. The trial was based on the use of deviated boreholes and a retractable injection system techniques, which have both been developed by the oil and gas industries. One borehole, the injection well, was drilled in the coal seam. The other, the vertical production well, was run to intercept it in the lower part of the coal seam as closely as possible, in order to construct a continuous channel for gasification. The well were completed with casing and concentric tubing to provide the necessary paths for production, injection, purging gas and cooling water flows. A coiled tubing located in the injection well was used to execute the retraction (or CRIP) manoeuvre, which is a process in which the injector head for the gasification agents, i. e. oxygen and water, and the ignitor, are directed to a specific section of the coal seam. The gasification products passes to a surface production line for flow measurement and sampling of gas and condensate products. Production gases were either flared or incinerated, while the liquids were collected for appropriate disposal. The first trial achieved its principal objectives of in seam drilling, channel communication, the CRIP manoeuvres and the gasification of significant quantity of coal. The post-gasification study also identified the shape and extent of the cavity. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification at the intermediate depths of European coal and proposals are made for further development and semi-commercial exploitation of this promising extraction technology. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Sedimentary environment dynamics and the formation of coal in the Pennsylvanian Variscan foreland in the Ruhr Basin (Germany, Western Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, M. Peter [Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Institut, Universtaet Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Drozdzewski, Guenter [Geologischer Dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, de-Greiff-Str. 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany); Schaefer, Andreas [Geologisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    During the Pennsylvanian, formation of coal was a phenomenon that was spread over many continents. It is the aim of this paper to illustrate factors that led to the formation of coal seams in paralic clastic sedimentary environments in the Ruhr Basin (German Variscan foreland) during the Pennsylvanian in terms of sequence stratigraphy and the structural evolution of the basin. Lithostratigraphic sections from exploration wells in the currently explored zone of the coal basin allowed the generation of volumetric lithofacies models, using geostastical methods. These models support the analysis of sedimentary facies and a sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the successions that are widely correlated throughout the basin. We then evaluate the relation of the sequence stratigraphic elements derived from the facies models with the abundance of coal seams. (author)

  15. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C.O.; Olea, R.A.; Goodman, G.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control.This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines.Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  16. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  17. Experimental study on supercritical CO2 adsorption on coals from Upper Silesian coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Although coal seams, besides saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas reservoirs, have the lowest capacity for deposition of carbon dioxide yet this relatively new technology is considered advantageous from an economical standpoint, especially in the case of location of a repository in the vicinity of a power plant producing carbon dioxide. Another appreciable positive aspect is injection of carbon dioxide into unmineable methane-bearing seams, which simultaneously increases production of coal methane as a valuable energetic resource. Suitability of coal seams as carbon dioxide repositories is given by exceptional properties of coal, which during the coalification process retained in its interior spatial arrangement a substantial part of the porous structure of the original plant material with predominance of cavities of an effective size sorption processes taking place in the coal porous system. The effectivity of the sorption process depends on properties of the coal matter, seam environment, and carbon dioxide under the conditions corresponding to the situation in situ. Among the basic parameters for selection of a suitable repository based on simulation of the deposition process there is determination of its sorption capacity. The capacity can be determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to supercritical conditions in situ using high pressure sorption techniques. Similarly, the amount of methane bound in coal is based on high pressure measurement of it sorbed amount The present study has been aimed at investigation of the effect of the coal properties on the carbon dioxide and methane sorption capacities. High pressure sorption experiments with carbon dioxide and methane were carried out at the temperature 45 oC and the pressure up to 15 MPa with three samples of methane-bearing, medium rank coals in a moisture equilibrated state using a manometric method. The

  18. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  19. Surface cracking in resistance seam welding of coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonyi, Y.; Kimchi, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this experimental work, the focus was on the understanding the electrode-wheel/coated steel surface phenomena by building operational lobes and by correlating the weld quality with static-and dynamic-contact-resistance variation during welding. Conventional AC, DC, and electrode-wire resistance-seam weldability of printed zinc-coated and hot-dipped tin-coated steel was performed in this work, as compared with traditional lead-tin (terne) coating used as reference material. Variables included steel substrate type, welding equipment type, electrode-wheel cleaning practice, and electrode-wire geometry. Optic and electron microscopy were used for the evaluation of specimens extracted from longitudinal cross-sections of representative welds. The size and morphology of surface cracks was characterized and correlated with variations in the above-mentioned parameters. It was found that the tin-coated (unpainted) steel sheet had a superior all-together performance to the zinc-coated steel and terne-coated steel, both in terms of wider weldability lobes and lesser surface cracking. The extent of surface cracking was greatly reduced by using the electrode-wire seam welding process using a longitudinally grooved wire profile, which also widened the corresponding weldability lobes. It was also found that the extent of cracking depended on the electrode knurl geometry, substrate type, and the presence of conductive paint applied on top of the metallic coating. An attempt was made to characterize the specific mechanisms governing the LME phenomenon for the lead-, zinc and tin-based coating systems and to assess the potential for crack propagation in the welds. The dynamic contact resistance was found to be a good measure of the welding process stability and an indicator of defect formation. It was found that the ratio between the static and dynamic contact resistances of the tin-coated sheet was considerably lower than similar ratios for bare and zinc-coated sheet.

  20. Environmental impact assessment for steeply dipping coal beds: North Knobs site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-08

    The US Department of Energy is funding an underground coal gasification (UCG) project in steeply dipping coal beds (SDB), at North Knobs, about 8 miles west of Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming. The project is being conducted to determine the technical, economic and environmental viability of such a technology. The development of SDB is an interesting target for UCG since such beds contain coals not normally mineable economically by ordinary techniques. Although the underground gasification of SDB has not been attempted in the US, Soviet experience and theoretical work indicate that the gasification of SDB in place offers all the advantages of underground gasification of horizontal coal seams plus some unique characteristics. The steep angle of dip helps to channel the produced gases up dip to offtake holes and permits the ash and rubble to fall away from the reaction zone helping to mitigate the blocking of the reaction zone in swelling coals. The intersection of SDB with the surface makes the seam accessible for drilling and other preparation. The tests at the North Knobs site will consist of three tests, lasting 20, 80 and 80 days, respectively. A total of 9590 tons of coal is expected to be gasified, with surface facilities utilizing 15 acres of the total section of land. The environmental effects of the experiment are expected to be very small. The key environmental impact is potential groundwater contamination by reaction products from coal gasification. There is good evidence that the surrounding coal effectively blocks the migration of these contaminants.

  1. Discovery of bacteria and algae coal balls and its geological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suixian, P.; Jun, Z.; Kaiming, W.

    1983-01-01

    Pyrite coal balls are found in No. 2 seam of Shanxi Formation and No. 8 seam of Taiyuan Formation in Xishan coalfield, Taiyuan. These coal balls contain bacteria, algae and plant fossils. The higher plant fossils are Pteridosperm, Lycopodiales, etc. Bacteria in coal balls are various spherical Fungus, Bacillus, Actinomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Hypha. And algae in the coal balls are Gloeotrichia, Gloeochloris, Codonosiga, Coocolithophorida, Planktoniella, Polysiphonia, Codium, Volvox, Chroococcus, Scinaia, Mallomonas, Melobesia, Chromulina, Nitzchia and Desmarella. They take various shape and have distinct structures. The occurrence of fresh water, brackish water and neritic genera and species of bacteria and algae indicates that there might have been certain intrusion of seawater during the coal-forming process. These bacteria and algae existed in the peat swamps in sessile, planktonic and benthonic forms. Discovery of bacteria and algae coal balls is of geological importance to research on bacteria and algae, coal-forming materials and environment in which coal was formed. 2 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  3. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  4. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2001; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  5. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1997; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  6. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1999; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  7. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  8. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2000; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  9. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  10. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  11. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1996; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  12. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  13. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  14. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  15. Funginite-resinite associations in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Volk, Thomas J. [Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); Watt, Michael A. [Weatherford Laboratories, Arvada, CO 80007 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Petrographic examination of a series of Indian Tertiary-age coal seams, some with > 38% resinite (mineral-free basis), showed that several had associations of funginite in resinite. There are three primary mechanisms for incorporation of fungus into resinite: (1) as an accidental inclusion, for example, as a fungal infection on an insect encapsulated in resin; (2) infestation of fungus into tree, whether into a wound or other point of entry, with encapsulation by resin as a defense mechanism by the tree (alternatively, fungal hyphae could also be growing from another portion of the tree that is already infected); and (3) resinicolous fungus using the resin as a food source. In the coal samples examined, while incidental fungal inclusion on invading insects cannot be eliminated, we have seen no direct evidence for insects. Both encapsulation of invading fungus by resin and resinicolous relationships are among the associations observed. (author)

  16. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  17. Functional state of coal miners in deep coal mines from results of mass examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Kiva, A.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Mil' shtein, A.B.; Kanyuka, S.B.; Sokolova, L.T.; Grishchenko, L.A. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Describes results of a study of hearing and other functions in miners working in steep seams in Donbass coal mines. A total of 1640 miners was examined, of whom 53% had a period of employment of 10 years or over, with 60% aged 30-49. A high risk of pathology caused by noise was discovered (over 30% of face and drivage workers had noise damage symptoms). There was also an increased risk of hypertensive and respiratory problems. Disturbances to genmeral or cerebral hemodynamics were not found to be related directly to hearing problems. 4 refs.

  18. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  19. Coal Technology Program progress report, March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    In the final hydrocarbonization experiment with Wyodak subbituminous coal, the coal was hydrocarbonized at 1100/sup 0/F and 300 psig in the recirculating fluidized bed. Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of an eastern bituminous coal (Pittsburgh seam) continues to be examined. Results to date indicate that swelling is significantly more pronounced at very low heating rates. Several activities in progress are related to inspection techniques for wear- and process-resistant coatings. Experimental investigations of fireside corrosion on tubing from a fluidized bed combustor have proceeded with metallographic examination and analyses of the scale formed during the test exposure. Methods for nondestructively determining remaining tube wall thickness and scale thickness were developed. Failure prevention and analysis work was aimed at several parts from the Solvent Refined Coal Plant in Ft. Lewis, Washington. The mechanical design of the gas-fired potassium boiler system was completed with the issue of the last four drawings. One electrical and five instrument and control drawings were completed and some fabrication work was completed. Surveys of industrial coal conversion capabilities continued with emphasis on rotating components, valves, hot gas cleanup devices, and heat recovery equipment. Process and program analysis research studies continued with work on low-Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power conversion, liquefaction, high-Btu gasification, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation. In the fossil energy environmental project, a first draft of a landfill assessment report was issued for review. Work continued on the Environmental Monitoring Handbook and Pipeline Gas Programmatic Assessment.

  20. Microscopic analysis of the morphology of seams in friction stir welded polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kiss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supermolecular structure of welded seams prepared by friction stir welding (FSW of polypropylene sheets has been studied by optical and electron microscopy. It has been shown that in the central parts of the seam spherulitic structures similar to that of the base material are formed, while at the borderline of the seam, a complex supermolecular structure could be identified. Lower welding rotation speed resulted in a border transition zone of more complex feature than the higher rotation speed during FSW. This was accompanied by reduced joint efficiency.

  1. Biotechnology and microbiology of coal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakoussa, R.M. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie and Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Hofrichter, M. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie, Friedrich Schiller-Univ. Jena, Jena (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    For several years it has been known that fungi and bacteria can attack and even liquefy low rank coals. This review covers the progress in coal biotechnology and microbiology, mainly during the last decade, from describing the first effects to elucidating the mechanisms used by the microorganisms. More than one mechanism is responsible for microbial coal degradation/liquefaction: oxidative enzymes (peroxidases, laccases), hydrolytic enzymes (esterases), alkaline metabolites and natural chelators. Due to the heterogeneous structure of coal, which is described in one section, and for economic reasons the review focuses on the enzymatic depolymerization of brown coal. Approaches which seem not so promising are discussed (anaerobic, reductive pathways, chemical pretreatment). Finally the possible applications and products in this field are summarized, as lignite with a worldwide production of about 940 million tons a year will continue to play an important economic role in the future. (orig.)

  2. Studies of the relationship between mineral matter and grinding properties for low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ural, Suphi [Department of Mining Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Akildiz, Mustafa [Department of Geological Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330, Adana (Turkey)

    2004-10-22

    Investigations into the effects of mineral matter content on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) were carried out on some low-rank Turkish coals. Quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out using an interactive data processing system (SIROQUANT(TM)) based on Rietveld interpretation methods. Selective leaching processes were used to determine the water and acid-soluble contents of coal samples. Among the coal seams tested, the HGI values of Elbistan coal samples presented a large range from 39 to 83, whereas Tufanbeyli coal samples ranged from 48 to 69. Treatment of the coal with water, ammonium acetate, and hydrochloric acid showed that a considerable part of the ash-forming inorganic matter occurs in water-soluble, acid-soluble, or ion-exchangeable form. Grindability tests on samples of varied water and acid-soluble content showed a significant effect of water and acid-soluble contents on HGI.

  3. Hydrogeology and stress regime of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary coal-bearing strata in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Michael, K. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Alberta Energy and Utilities Board

    2002-10-01

    The hydrogeology of formation waters and coal permeability depend on the stress regime of coal-bearing strata. These factors are important for evaluating the potential of strata for production of coal bed methane (CBM). The geology of the Belly River Group, Edmonton Group, Wapiti Group, Scollard Formation, and Paskapoo Formation in the Alberta Basin is described. The permeabilities of coal seams, associated stresses, formation water flow, and water chemistry are discussed with reference to the regions that appear most suitable for coal bed methane production. Coal thickness, rank, and gas content measurements should be considered, as well, when applying these considerations to identification of Alberta sites that are most suitable for CBM exploration and production. 43 figs., 1 tab., 85 refs.

  4. Coal deposition in carbonate-rich shallow lacustrine systems: the Calaf and Mequinenza sequences (Oligocene, eastern Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Saez, A.

    1987-05-01

    Two main coal-bearing sequences developed during the Oligocene in the Tertiary Ebro Basin, the Calaf (early Oligocene) and Mequinenza (late Oligocene) coal basins. Coal deposition took place in shallow marsh-swamp-lake complexes which sometimes became closed and evolved under warm climatic conditions with fluctuating humidity. These shallow lacustrine systems are closely interrelated with the terminal parts of the distributive fluvial systems which spread from the tectonically active Ebro basin margins. Laterally extensive lignite-bearing sequences, including rather thin, lenticular autochthonous and/or hypautochthonous coal seam with high ash and sulphur contents, characterized coal deposition in the shallow lacustrine systems. Coal seam geometry, which makes them nearly subeconomic, resulted from the tectonic instability during basin margin evolution and the sometimes closed, arid conditions under which the lacustrine systems evolved. High ash and sulphur contents resulted from the inadequate isolation of peat forming environments from clastic influx and from the very low acidity and sometimes high sulphate contents of the lacustrine waters. Coal exploration in shallow lacustrine sequences similar to those described here must take into account that the spread of coal-forming environments and maxima of coal deposition are usually coincident with lake expansions and retraction or shifting of the terminal fluvial zones interrelated with the lacustrine areas. 44 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their

  6. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  7. Interanal seam loss in Asian turtles of the Cuora flavomarginata complex (Testudines, Geoemydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of Asian box turtles of the genus Cuora is complicated by the description of numerous valid and invalid taxa over the last several decades. However, some characteristics used to differentiate species are questionable. Members of the C. flavomarginata complex are defined by some, but not all, taxonomists as having reduced interanal seam lengths relative to other species. We examined the ratio of interanal scute seam length divided by midline anal scute length in C. flavomarginata and C. evelynae. Hatchlings show a seam that divides 100% of the anal scute along the midline. As individuals increase in carapace length, there is a tendency for the percentage to decrease, especially in females, although there is considerable overlap. We suggest that the decrease in interanal seam length is due to abrasion of the plastron on the substrate as turtles grow larger and older. Differences in habitat substrates across the range of the species may contribute to the wide variation we observed.

  8. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  9. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...

  10. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  11. Controlling dust and gas in the face area: Operating experience under ultra low-seam conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daft, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Poor face ventilation in thin-seam mechanised mines can be attributed to a lack of research into methods of improving face ventilation and to not keeping abreast of new developments in mechanised mining systems. This lack of research has forced management to keep to outdated ventilation methods entirely unsuited to the demands of mechanised mining. What follows is an account of the problems encountered in ventilating a thin-seam mechanised section and the efforts being made to overcome these problems.

  12. Petrography of Permian "Gondwana" coals from boreholes in northwestern Bangladesh, based on semiautomated reflectance scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, N.H.; Betterton, W.J.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Nazrul, Islam M.

    1991-01-01

    Drilling through Quaternary alluvium and Tertiary cover at low-gravity anomalies in northwestern Bangladesh showed the presence of Permian sedimentary rocks in depressions that may be as much as a thousand meters deep in the crystalline basement. These Permian strata include low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coals in beds as thick as 15 m. The maceral group composition of these coals was determined by semiautomated reflectance scanning with a motorized microscope stage, rather than by point counting. This method was chosen to give objectively recorded raw analytical data and to provide a graphical picture of each sample. The coals are mostly "Gondwana" type (poorly layered "plum pudding" with abundant minerals and inertinite in a vitrinite groundmass) that would be classed as semi-dull (inerto-gelitite) coals. However, six samples have more than 70% vitrinite. None of the samples would be classed as sapropelic (liptinitic). The upper, middle, and lower main seams in borehole GDH-45 were sampled in 10 benches (0.1-3 m thick) each. Inertinite ranges from 7 to 100 vol% (mineral free basis) in individual benches, but composite seam averages are 41, 54 and 67%. Inertinite increases toward the top of two main seams so the bottom would yield the most valuable first mine slices. Some benches with extremely high inertinite content, such as the top 7 m of the lower thick seam, might be mined specially for blending with foreign low-inert coals to increase coke strength. The free swelling index reaches 7.5 in several vitrinite-rich benches, which can indicate good coking coal. Much of the vitrinite is fluorescent, which indicates secondary bituminization characteristic of vitrinite in good coking coals. Ash yields range from 8 to 52%, with composite seam averages of 15, 14 and 24%. Rare visible pyrite is in veinlets or small nodules; framboids and dispersed pyrite are absent. In borehole GDH-40 near Barapukuria (200-500 m depth), the mean random reflectance of vitrinite "A

  13. Membrane gas transfer of methane and carbon dioxide in submerged coal deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, T A; Johnson, D W; Urynowicz, A

    2009-01-01

    Membrane degassing technology may prove to be a viable alternative to current coal bed methane recovery. The proposed approach involves supplying a CO2 sweep gas to membrane fibres placed directly within a saturated coal seam to provide simultaneous CO2 sequestration and CH4 recovery. A system of ordinary differential equations derived from a mass balance on an infinitesimal fibre element enabled the calculation of lumen gas composition as a function of fibre length. The results were verified through the use of a bench-scale vessel. The model agreement appears reasonable for CH4 recovery; however, agreement for CO2 recovery declines as liquid flow decreases and lumen flow increases. To further evaluate the feasibility of the membrane degassing technology, model predictions were normalized to an average conventional CH4 recovery rate of 1.56 x 10(4) m3 d(-1). Assuming a hypothetical coal seam with a groundwater velocity of 100 cm d(-1), thickness of 36.6 m and an average depth of 107 m, 290,000 m2 or 7.73 km of fibre fabric is required, resulting in 4.11 x 10(5) m3 of CO2 transfer daily and an outlet gas composition of 95% CH4, 4.4% CO2 and 0.6% H2O vapour. Increasing groundwater velocities reduce the required membrane surface area with diminishing effect, stabilizing at 100 cm d(-1). Greater pore pressures also reduce required membrane areas, and predictions indicate that a deeper coal seam under 4.3 times greater pressure would require 98% fewer fibres as compared with the hypothetical coal seam and only 0.206 km of membrane fabric.

  14. Combustion of Lausitz brown coal under oxyfuel. Process conditions in a 0,5 MW{sub th} combustion plant; Verbrennung von Lausitzer Braunkohle unter Oxyfuel. Prozessbedingungen in einer 0,5 MW{sub th}-Feuerungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Helge; Jentsch, Norbert; Burboeck, Martin; Panzenboeck, Helmut; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2008-07-01

    For climate policy reasons, future coal-fired power stations are to be built on the basis of the CCS technology (CCS = Carbon Capture and Storage). Thereby, the oxyfuel process combines the advantages of a simple process design at the combustion with the highest separation potential of carbon dioxide. In order to test the oxyfuel process, in the year 2005 an existing 0.5 MW{sub th} test facility of the Centre for Power Technology (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) was selected and extended by substantial components of the oxyfuel process such as for example oxygen supply, flue gas condenser. Subsequently, the oxyfuel process was examined within a test period of two years. The most important cognitions of this test period are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical Parameters of Different Rock Layers to the Stability of Coal Roadway in Soft Rock Strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Wei-ming; Gao, Xin; Yan, Ji-xing

    2013-01-01

    According to the geological characteristics of Xinjiang Ili mine in western area of China, a physical model of interstratified strata composed of soft rock and hard coal seam was established. Selecting the tunnel position, deformation modulus, and strength parameters of each layer as influencing factors, the sensitivity coefficient of roadway deformation to each parameter was firstly analyzed based on a Mohr-Columb strain softening model and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then the effect laws of influencing factors which showed high sensitivity were further discussed. Finally, a regression model for the relationship between roadway displacements and multifactors was obtained by equivalent linear regression under multiple factors. The results show that the roadway deformation is highly sensitive to the depth of coal seam under the floor which should be considered in the layout of coal roadway; deformation modulus and strength of coal seam and floor have a great influence on the global stability of tunnel; on the contrary, roadway deformation is not sensitive to the mechanical parameters of soft roof; roadway deformation under random combinations of multi-factors can be deduced by the regression model. These conclusions provide theoretical significance to the arrangement and stability maintenance of coal roadway. PMID:24459447

  16. X-Ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Sajau Coal, Berau Basin, Indonesia: 3D Imaging of Cleat and Microcleat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Helman Hamdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene Sajau coals of the Berau Basin area have a moderately to highly developed cleat system. Mostly the cleat fractures are well developed in both bright and dull bands, and these cleats are generally inclined or perpendicular to the bedding planes of the seam. The presence of cleat networks/fractures in coal seam is the important point in coalbed methane prospect. The 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT technique was performed to identify cleats characteristics in the Sajau coal seams, such as the direction of coal cleats, geometry of cleat, and cleats mineralization. By CT scan imaging technique two different types of natural fractures observed in Sajau coals have been identified, that is, face cleats and butt cleats. This technique also identified the direction of face cleats and butt cleats as shown in the resulting 3D images. Based on the images, face cleats show a NNE-SSW direction while butt cleats have a NW-SE direction. The crosscutting relationship indicated that NNE-SSW cleats were formed earlier than NW-SE cleats. The procedure also identified the types of minerals that filled the cleats apertures. Based on their density, the minerals are categorized as follows: very high density minerals (pyrite, high density minerals (anastase, and low density minerals (kaolinite, calcite were identified filling the cleats aperture.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-07-01

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Three major topics are reported: (1) Feed coals and process oils form Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 259 was operated in the catalytic/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. Feed coals were conventionally cleaned and deep cleaned coal from the Ireland Mine (Pittsburgh seam). The catalyst used in both reactors was Shell 324 for most of the run; Amocat IC was used for start-up and (unstable) period A. (2) A special set of samples from Wilsonville Runs 258 and 259 was analyzed to provide clues for the cause of interstage deposition problems during Run 258, which was operated with subbituminous coal. (3) Eight technical sites were visited to provide input to the Analytical Needs Assessment and to refine ideas for proposed research under the Participants Program. The site visits are summarized. 11 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundelach, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

  19. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  20. Advancements in understanding and enhancing biogenic methane production from coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budwill, K.; Koziel, S.; Vidmar, J. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic methane is one of the numerous natural resources found in Western Canada for the production of energy. Research suggests that this natural gas is generated from methanogenic microbial cultures in deep coal beds under anaerobic conditions. However, methanogenesis is an extremely slow process and is not yet fully understood. For the process to be profitable, it needs to be significantly enhanced. The current study proposes the use of organic nitrogen-rich nutrients to enhance the production of methane from microbial cultures in deep coal-beds. First, samples of methanogenic cultures from coal seams were studied in order to identify and make a taxonomic analysis of the diverse species. The bionutrient was then applied to the cultures. Subsequent analysis showed that nutrient feed significantly increased methane production. The study allowed for a better understanding of the methanogenesis process, allowing it to be improved through use of the newly developed biotechnology.

  1. Hydrogenation of coal in the presence of stationary wide-pore aluminium-cobalt-molybdenum catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembovskaya, E.A.; Karmanova, E.L.; Yulin, M.K.; Zaidman, N.M.; Milova, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of hydrogenating brown coal using an AlCoMo catalyst has been demonstrated. The conversion can reach 82-84% and depends on the porous structure and concentration of the active components of the catalyst.

  2. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    extent, without regard to the underlying geology base or topographic constraints. Indication of the presence of African coal is based on multiple sources. However, the quality of the sources varies and there is often disagreement in the literature. This dataset includes the rank, age, and location of coal in Africa as well as the detailed source information responsible for each coal-bearing polygon. The dataset is not appropriate for use in resource assessments of any kind. Attributes necessary for tasks, such as number of coal seams, thickness of seams, and depth to coal are rarely provided in the literature and accordingly not represented in this data set. Small-scale investigations, representations and display uses are most appropriate for this product. This product is the first to show coal distribution as bounded by actual geologic contacts for the entire African continent. In addition to the spatial component of this dataset, complete references to source material are provided for each polygon, making this product a useful first step resource in African coal research. Greater detail regarding the creation of this dataset as well as the sources used is provided in the metadata file for the Africa_coal.shp file.

  3. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

  4. Development of and horizontal seams wining system by means of galleries and chambers; Demostracion de un Sistema de Explotacion de Capas Horizontales por el Metodo de Pilares y Galerias Trazadas Integramente con Maquinas de Ataque Puntual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The project Development of an horizontal seams wining system by means of galleries and chambers aimed on the solution of a mining problem kept unresolved during the last 35 years in Carrasconte mine, owned by the society Minero Siderurgica de Ponferrada, in the coal yield of Villablino, Leon, Spain. The problem was a horizontal seam, with a width from 2,5 to 3,5 m, with two specific characteristics; one, roof and floor extremely rigid, with a 30 m sandstone stratum by roof that practically could highly restrict the long wall face conventional system, and the other, an intercalation of shale with a width of 1,2 m and a hardness of near 400 kg/cm2 that required a suitable winning system. By means of investigation with galleries carried out by continuous miners the real width of shale intercalation was stated, an then suitable systems adopted as this width varied. So, short wall faces in areas with minimum shale were disposed, and in t areas with maximum shale width, two long wall faces each one in each different vein were designed. At the end, the borders of reserves were recovered by the conventional system of galleries and chambers. This development project has allowed to recover more than a million tons in three years by systems suitable to the different conditions of the seam. (Author)

  5. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Control of sea-level change to coal accumulation in Carboniferous-Permian, north China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Petroleum University of China (China). Resource Department

    2000-10-01

    According to the results of sequence stratigraphic research, the Carboniferous-Permian depositional formation in North China were formed in a second order sea-level change cycle, which includes 4 cycles in the third order and 26 cycles in the fourth order. Several large scale coal accumulations took place during the turning point between the fall and rise of the third order sea-level, locating at the top of highstand system tracts. The formation of thin coal seams was correlated to the fourth order sea-level change cycle and occurred at the top of the parasequences. The development of coal accumulation was controlled by the sea-level change cycle. The sea-level change supplied the potential accommodate space for the accumulation of organic materials. The developmental range of coal accumulation was controlled by the periodic range of sea-level change, which controlled the evolution of coal accumulation in time and space. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 3. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 3). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the instrumentation design, such as the meter specifications, front view drawings for meter panels, drawings for panel arrangement in the central control room, a computer room layout drawing, control system explanation drawings, interlock diagrams, and the instrumentation power supply diagrams. (NEDO)

  8. ELT-5 and ELT-6 are required continuously to regulate epidermal seam cell differentiation and cell fusion in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, K; Rothman, J H

    2001-08-01

    The C. elegans epidermis is a simple epithelium comprised of three major cell types, the seam, syncytial and P cells. While specification of all major epidermal cells is known to require the ELT-1 GATA transcription factor, little is known about how the individual epidermal cell types are specified. We report that elt-5 and -6, adjacent genes encoding GATA factors, are essential for the development of the lateral epidermal cells, the seam cells. Inhibition of elt-5 and -6 function by RNA-mediated interference results in penetrant late embryonic and early larval lethality. Seam cells in affected animals do not differentiate properly: the alae, seam-specific cuticular structures, are generally absent and expression of several seam-specific markers is blocked. In addition, elt-3, which encodes another GATA factor normally expressed in non-seam epidermis, is often ectopically expressed in the seam cells of affected animals, demonstrating that ELT-5 and -6 repress elt-3 expression in wild-type seam cells. Seam cells in affected animals often undergo inappropriate fusion with the epidermal syncytia. Interference of elt-5 and -6 function during larval development can cause fusion of all seam cells with the surrounding syncytia and pronounced defects in molting. elt-5 and -6 are both expressed in seam cells and many other cells, and are apparently functionally interchangeable. Their expression is controlled by separable tissue-specific regulatory elements and the apportionment of monocistronic versus dicistronic transcription of both genes appears to be subject to cell-type-specific regulation. Collectively, these findings indicate that elt-5 and -6 function continuously throughout C. elegans development to regulate seam cell differentiation and cell fusion.

  9. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  10. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  11. Prestack Kirchhoff time migration of 3D coal seismic data from mining zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.; Gao, Y.A.; Bai, L.Y.; Liu, Z.Z. [Key Laboratory of Geodetectnics, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional seismic data processing methods based on post-stack time migration have been playing an important role in coal exploration for decades. However, post-stack time migration processing often results in low-quality images in complex geological environments. In order to obtain high-quality images, we present a strategy that applies the Kirchhoff prestack time migration (PSTM) method to coal seismic data. In this paper, we describe the implementation of Kirchhoff PSTM to a 3D coal seam. Meanwhile we derive the workflow of 3D Kirchhoff PSTM processing based on coal seismic data. The processing sequence of 3D Kirchhoff PSTM includes two major steps: 1) the estimation of the 3D root-mean-square (RMS) velocity field; 2) Kirchhoff prestack time migration processing. During the construction of a 3D velocity model, dip moveout velocity is served as an initial migration velocity field. We combine 3D Kirchhoff PSTM with the continuous adjustment of a 3D RMS velocity field by the criteria of flattened common reflection point gathers. In comparison with post-stack time migration, the application of 3D Kirchhoff PSTM to coal seismic data produces better images of the coal seam reflections.

  12. Depositional Cycles of Muara Wahau Coals, Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.v1i2.183Fifteen samples were taken ply by ply from a 33 m thick drill core of Muara Wahau coal seams for interpretation of depositional environments. Generally, lithotype variation in the bottom part of the coal seams has a lower frequency than in the upper part. Petrographical analysis was performed to determine the maceral composition, groundwater index (GWI, and gelification index (GI. The samples from lower sections show much higher GWI-GI values and lower variation frequency than from the upper section. This characteristic is interpreted as the result of development of mesotrophic to ombrotrophic peats during the deposition of lower to upper parts of the section, respectively. During the development of the mesotrophic peat, water was more abundant and relatively stable in budget. However, during the development of ombrotrophic peat, water was less abundant and relatively not stable in budget. The latter is related to the water supply depending only on rain, resulted in the more sensitive water table in the om- brotrophic peat. The unstable water table is thought as the reason of higher variation frequency of lithotype, GWI, GI, as well as maceral composition in the upper part of the core. Unstable water table would lead to moist condition in the uppermost layer of the ombrotrophic peat, favoring fungi to grow. This is confirmed by the higher abundance of sclerotinite maceral in samples from the upper part of the coal core.

  13. Flow loop studies with AMAX coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, D.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The coal-water mixtures (CWM) with a stabilizer and the CWM without stabilizers were successfully transported through a flow loop facility under a variety of conditions. The handling characteristics of both CWM were reasonable. The mix tank mixer was not needed during nontesting hours to prevent settling of either material. After several days of transporting the nonstabilized material in the loop facility, the viscosity-reducing agent became ineffective. It was necessary to increase the concentration of the viscosity-reducing agent. The material with stabilizer could not be transported through the loop facility at mass flow rates greater than 209 lb/min until overnight shearing of the CWM in the tank. The CWM without a stabilizer appeared to be slightly shear-thickening, whereas the stabilized CWM initially exhibited shear-thinning behavior. The pressure losses measured for the nonstabilized material were similar to the pressure losses measured for CWM prepared at PETC with three or four percent higher concentration of Pittsburgh seam coal. Tests performed with the stabilized CWM experienced pressure losses similar to CWM prepared at PETC with Pittsburgh seam coal of five to seven percent higher concentration. Tests 1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B were not included in the comparison of in-house-prepared CWM due to differences in pretest handling procedures. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  15. Utilization of ferrofluids in coal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the possibilities of ferrofluid application as a separation medium and a selective wetting agent with the aim of desulphurization and ash content decreasing of brown coal from Slovak deposits. The influence of magnetic field induction on sulphur and ash content in the products of magneto-hydrostatic separation was observed. The adsorption of ferrofluids on the surface of coal was observed. The ferrofluids cause above all the change of magnetic properties and they increase the separability of materials under magnetic field.

  16. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for delineation of concealed coal fire in East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Priyam, Piyush; Bharti, Abhay Kumar; Kumar, Rajwardhan

    2017-06-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of subsurface coal fires of East Basuria colliery in Jharia coal field, India using tilt derivative and downward continuation of magnetic data. Magnetic data processing methods such as diurnal correction, noise removal, reduction to pole, tilt derivative and downward continuation have been used to process the data and for the interpretation of results on the basis of magnetic properties of overlying materials which change with the temperature variation above or below the Curie temperature. Most of the magnetic anomalies are associated with coal fire and non-coal fire regions which are correlated with tilt-derivative anomaly and corresponding downward-continued anomaly at different depths. The subsequent surface and subsurface characteristics are explained with good agreement. Approximate source depth of principal anomaly inferred from tilt derivatives method are corroborated with multi-seam occurrences, mine working levels and surface manifestation which are also correlated well with 3D model of downward continued anomaly distribution.

  17. Application of XPS to coal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.L.; Grint, A.

    1983-09-01

    The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the chemistry of coal surfaces is reviewed and its application to the functional group composition of bulk coals discussed. The surface composition of a range of 19 coals (anthracite to brown coal), ground under heptane, was measured and compared with the results of bulk analysis. A good correlation was obtained for oxygen, with the bituminous and higher-rank coals showing surface enrichment in oxygen. The surface bulk correlation was less good for sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine and was poor for silicon, aluminium and iron. Silicon and aluminium are enriched at the surface while iron is surface depleted. These effects are either due to different particle-size distributions of mineral and organic phases or to the mechanism of fracture in heptane preferentially exposing specific components of the coal. Oxidation and carbonization of a bituminous coal were also investigated. Oxidation was seen to occur initially via the exterior surface, producing a distribution of carbon-oxygen groups. Singly-bonded species predominate at all temperatures, stable carboxyl groups forming in significant proportion only at temperatures > 250/sup 0/C. Carbonization was seen to result in the formation of ether linkages by condensation of hydroxyl groups. (18 refs.)

  18. Fuel Characterization of Newly Discovered Nigerian Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan Nyakuma, Bemgba; Oladokun, Olagoke; Jauro, Aliyu; Damian Nyakuma, Denen

    2017-07-01

    This study seeks to characterize and highlight the fuel properties, rank, and classification of coals from Ihioma (IHM) and Ogboligbo (OGB) in Imo and Kogi states of Nigeria, respectively. The fuel properties were examined based on ultimate, proximate, and bomb calorific analyses. The results indicated that IHM coal contains comparatively higher C and H but lower O, N, and S content than OGB. In addition, the nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) content for both coal samples were above 0.7 wt.% and 1.5 wt.%, respectively, which indicates high potential for pollutant emissions. Furthermore, the coal proximate properties were below 5 wt.% for Moisture; Volatiles (70 wt.%); Fixed Carbon (45 wt.%) and Ash (2.5 wt.%) on average. IHM coal has an HHV of 19.40 MJ/kg whereas OGB is 15.55 MJ/kg. This is due to the low carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and high oxygen (O) content in OGB whereas IHM contains higher VM and HHV. Furthermore, OGB presents better handling, storage, and transport potential. Furthermore, OGB has a higher fuel ratio and value index due to lower moisture, ash content, and volatiles. Based on the ASTM D388 standard, the coals were classified as Lignite (Brown) Low-Rank Coals (LRCs) with potential for energy recovery.

  19. Adsorption-induced deformation of microporous materials: coal swelling induced by CO2-CH4 competitive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochard, Laurent; Vandamme, Matthieu; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Fen-Chong, Teddy

    2012-02-07

    Carbon dioxide injection in coal seams is known to improve the methane production of the coal seam, while ensuring a safe and long-term carbon sequestration. This improvement is due to the preferential adsorption of CO(2) in coal with respect to CH(4): an injection of CO(2) thus results in a desorption of CH(4). However, this preferential adsorption is also known to cause a differential swelling of coal, which results in a significant decrease in the reservoir permeability during the injection process. Recent studies have shown that adsorption in coal micropores (few angströms in size) is the main cause of the swelling. In this work, we focus on the competitive adsorption behavior of CO(2) and CH(4) in micropores. We perform molecular simulations of adsorption with a realistic atomistic model for coal. The competitive adsorption is studied at various temperatures and pressures representative of those in geological reservoirs. With the help of a poromechanical model, we then quantify the subsequent differential swelling induced by the computed adsorption behaviors. The differential swelling is almost insensitive to the geological temperatures and pressures considered here and is proportional to the CO(2) mole fraction in the coal.

  20. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  1. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosangela [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Pires, Marcal [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Azevedo, Carla M.N. [Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Fagundes, Leandro [P and D Consultoria (Brazil); Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B. [SATC, Associacao Beneficente da Industria Carbonifera de Santa Catarina, CTCL, Technological Center of Clean Coal (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C{sub 1}) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C{sub 1} to C{sub 5}), while only C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C{sub 1} (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C{sub 2}-C{sub 3}, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C{sub 2} was detected in all samples while C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  2. Resistance of Type 5 chemical protective clothing against nanometric airborne particles: behaviour of seams and zipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-08-21

    In the field of dermal protection, the use of chemical protective clothing (CPC) (including coveralls) are considered as the last barrier against airborne engineered nanomaterials (ENM). In the majority of cases, type 5 CPC, used against solid particles (ISO 13982-1), perform well against ENM. But in a recent study, a penetration level (PL) of up to 8.5% of polydisperse sodium chloride airborne nanoparticles has been measured. Moreover, in all the previous studies, tests were performed on a sample of protective clothing material without seams or zippers. Thus, the potential for permeation through a zipper or seams has not yet been determined, even though these areas would be privileged entry points for airborne ENM. This work was designed to evaluate the PL of airborne ENM through coveralls and specifically the PL through the seams on different parts of the CPC and the zipper. Eight current models of CPC (type 5) were selected. The samples were taken from places with and without seams and with a zipper. In some cases, a cover strip can be added to the zipper to enhance its sealing. Polydisperse nanoparticles were generated by nebulization of a sodium chloride solution. A penetration cell was developed to expose the sample to airborne nanometric particles. The NaCl particle concentration in number was measured with an ultrafine particle counter and the PL was defined as the downstream concentration divided by the upstream concentration. The results obtained show that the PL increased significantly in the presence of seams and could reach up to 90% depending on the seam's design. Moreover, this study classifies the different types of seams by their resistance against airborne ENM. As for the penetration of airborne NaCl particles through the zipper, the PL was greatly attenuated by the presence of a cover strip, but only for certain models of coveralls. Finally, the values of the pressure drop were directly linked to the type of seam. All of these conclusions provide

  3. Supporting Seamful Development of Positioning Applications through Model Based Translucent Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Langdal

    design for context aware applications in general are advocating that seams (problem areas caused by technologies interconnecting) can be exploited by end-users if they are made available to them. A system allowing this kind of interaction is said to be seamfully designed as opposed to the traditional...... goal of ubiquitous computing where seamlessness is advocated. Another challenge is to provide middleware designers a set of tools that allow them to build translucent middleware, i.e., middleware where the level of openness can be differentiated. Such middleware should provide application developers...

  4. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  5. Recovery process for phenolic compounds from coal-derived oils by ions of soluble metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizhang Ge; Hong Jin [Hefei Institute of Coal, Hefei (China)

    1996-11-01

    Phenolic compounds in a fraction (170-210{degree}C) of multistage rotary furnace coal tar pyrolysed from Tian Zhu brown coal at 550{degree}C were efficiently recovered by precipitation using ions of soluble metal salts as precipitant. The method overcomes the defects of the extraction method using 10 wt% NaOH solution. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Application of Foam-gel Technique to Control CO Exposure Generated During Spontaneous Combustion of Coal in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xing W; Wang, Feng Z; Guo, Qing; Zuo, Zhao B; Fang, Qi S

    2015-01-01

    In China, 47.3% of state-owned coal mines are located in coal seams that are prone to spontaneous combustion. The spontaneous combustion of coal is the main cause of the generation of a large amount of carbon monoxide, which can cause serious health issues to miners. A new technique using foam-gel formation was developed to effectively control the spontaneous combustion of coal. The gel can capture more than 90% of the water in the grout and at the same time the foam can cover dangerous areas in the goaf by stacking and cooling of foam in all directions. In this study, a mechanism of foam-gel formation was introduced and the optimal proportions of additives were defined based on experiments of different foaming properties, gelling time and water loss rate as the main index parameters. The results of a field application in a coal mine promise that this new technique would effectively prevent coal oxidation in the goaf and reduce the generation of carbon monoxide.

  7. Analysis of the bonding strength and microstructure of AA6082 extrusion weld seams formed during physical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Sheng Wen; Fang, Gang; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    The research was aimed to determine the effects of extrusion process condition on the weld seam quality of the aluminum alloy AA6082 by using a novel physical simulation method. A weld seam between two bars was formed under hydrostatic pressure in a specially designed die setup to simulate the

  8. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: sales and foreign trade. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, refinement, employees; part II: sales in domestic and foreign trade.

  9. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  10. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maceral is a term to introduce organic components visible under a microscope (Stopes, 1935. The physical and chemical characteristics of macerals such as elemental composition, moisture content, hardness, density and petrographic characteristics differ. The differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of macerals are reflected in their industrial behavior.(Parkash, 1985. Petrographic analysis provides information on the various physical components of coals (Suwarna and Hemanto, 2007 and determination of quality of coal, coalification rate, composition and characteristics of coke and paleoenvironmental deposition (Taylor et al., 1998. Sampling and methodology Coal samples were collected from freshly mined coal from 11 coal seams of 4 active coal mines (Cheshlagh, Zemestan Yourt, Narges Chal and Cheshmehsaran for organic petrography in the Gheshlagh coal deposits. All samples were collected and stored in plastic bags to prevent contamination and weathering. Samples were prepared for microscopic analysis by reflected light following ASTM Standard procedure D2797-04. For microscopic study, coal samples were crushed to1-mm size fraction (18 mesh size, mounted in epoxy resin and polished. Three polished samples were prepared for each coal seam. The petrographic composition was obtained by maceral analyses under standard conditions (ISO 7404/3, 2009, for maceral analysis. Maceral point counting (based on 400 points analyses were performed using an Olympus BX51 reflected light microscope. The terminology used to identify and describe the organic matter particles is the one proposed by the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998; ICCP, 2001; Scott and Glasspool, 2007; Taylor et al., 1998; Stach et al., 1982; Hower et al., 2009; Hower and Wagner, 2012. Organic petrography of theGheshlagh coal seams The vitrinite maceral group is dominant in all coal seams (66.2 to 87.2 vol.% and includes collodetrinite

  11. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  12. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    incorporated into pre-selected candidate ration components for evaluation via storage, sensory and chemical analysis. The concentration of inhibitor was...inhibiting Maillard browning, also known as non-enzymatic browning, a complex reaction which can lead to darkening of color, off- odors , off-flavors...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  13. Paradise (and Herrin) lost: Marginal depositional settings of the Herrin and Paradise coals, Western Kentucky coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.M.K.; Shultz, M.G.; Rimmer, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Popp, J.T. [Alliance Coal, Lexington, KY 40503 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    This is the fourth installment in a series of papers on the Asturian (Westphalian D) disrupted mire margins, termed the ''ragged edge'' in previous papers, and limestone distributions in the Herrin-Baker coal interval in the Western Kentucky extension of the Illinois Basin. New data, indicating in-situ peat development and marine influence, collected from the first in-mine exposure of this interval are presented. Borehole data from the region are examined in the context of ''ragged edge'' exposures and a carbonate platform depositional model for this portion of the Illinois Basin is presented. This shows that deposition of the sequence was influenced both by the underlying sediments and by a marine transgression. The former influence is seen in variations in coal and limestone thickness over sandstone-filled channels versus over shale bayfill deposits. The latter is marked by the progressive upwards loss of coal benches (i.e., the bottom bench of both coals is the most extensive and the Herrin coal is more extensive than the overlying Paradise coal) and by marine partings in both coals. Further, the brecciated margins seen in both coal seams are similar to brecciated peats encountered along the Everglades margins of Southwest Florida. Overall coal distributions are similar to both those along the Everglades margins and those along a transect from the Belize coast to Ambergis Caye. (author)

  14. An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, B.

    2001-08-01

    The coal deposits of southern Africa (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) are reviewed. The coal seams formed during two periods, the Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) and the Late Permian (Ufimian-Kazanian). The coals are associated with non-marine terrestrial clastic sedimentary sequences, most commonly mudrock and sandstones, assigned to the Karoo Supergroup. The Early Permian coals are most commonly sandstone-hosted while the younger coals typically occur interbedded with mudstones. The sediments were deposited in varying tectono-sedimentary basins such as foreland, intracratonic rifts and intercratonic grabens and half-grabens. The depositional environments that produced the coal-bearing successions were primarily deltaic and fluvial, with some minor shoreline and lacustrine settings. Coals vary in rank from high-volatile bituminous to anthracite and characteristically have a relatively high inertinite component, and medium- to high-ash content. In countries where coal is mined, it is used for power generation, coking coal, synfuel generation, gasification and for (local) domestic household consumption.

  15. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Coal is the energy source with the largest geological availability worldwide. Of all non-renewable energies coal and lignite accounting for 55 % of the reserves and some 76 % of the resources represent the largest potential. Reserves are those geological quantities of a mineral which can currently be mined under technically and economically viable conditions. Resources are those quantities which are either proven but currently not economically recoverable or quantities which can still be expected or explored on the basis of geological findings. The global availability of energy source does not only depend on geological and economic factors. The technical availability, e.g. mining and preparation capacities, the sufficient availability of land and sea-borne transportation as well as transloading capacities and also a political availability are required likewise. The latter may be disturbed by domestic-policy disputes like strikes or unrest or by foreign-policy disputes like embargos, trade conflicts or even tensions and wars in the producing regions. In the energy-economic discussion the reach of fossil primary energies plays a central role with the most important questions being: when will which energy source be exhausted, which impact will future developments have on the energy price, what does the situation of the other energies look like and which alternatives are there? The reach of coal can only be estimated because of the large deposits on the one hand and the uncertain future coal use and demand on the other. The stronger growth of population and the economic catching-up process in the developing and threshold countries will result in a shift of the production and demand centres in the global economy. However, also in case of further increases the geological potential will be sufficient to reliably cover the global coal demand for the next 100 years. The conventional mining of seams at great depths or of thin seams reaches its technical and economic limits

  16. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) hereby notifies the public that it will hold a public meeting to consider a proposal to exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977. This exchange (serial number MTM-99236) has been proposed by Jay Nance, Brett A. Boedecker, as personal representative for Susanne N. Boedecker, Joseph P. Hayes, Patricia Hayes Rodolph, and the Brown Cattle Company Shareholders Coal Trust, collectively referred to as Nance-Brown.

  17. Three years of column flotation operating experience at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Peters, W.J.; Kennedy, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    A joint project was initiated in 1989 between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Powell Mountain Coal Company (PMCC) to evaluated the applicability of column flotation for recovery of fine coal from classifying cyclone refuse at PMCC`s Mayflower Preparation Plant. Laboratory and extensive pilot plant studies were conducted on each of the seams processed by the plant evaluating various column operating parameters. These results were used to design a larger 8-ft. diameter {times} 22-ft. tall column capable of recovering fine coal from the dilute classifying cyclone overflow with a feed capacity of 1,000 gpm. In order to effectively treat the entire plant classifying cyclone overflow stream, a total of four columns operating in parallel were installed in December 1989. This paper outlines three years of operating experience and results obtained with this fine coal recovery circuit.

  18. Miocene amber inclusions from the Bitterfeld area. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, M.; Hetzer, H.

    1982-07-01

    This paper presents color and black and white photographs enlarged from 1:10 to 1:100 of insect inclusions in amber from a new amber field located in a sandy-silty layer between two brown coal seams, the main Bitterfeld brown coal seam and the Breitenfeld brown coal seam. The amber is 22 million years old, which is 12 million years younger than Baltic amber. The brown coal seams are Miocene formations. The origin of the amber is resin from the Mesozoic conifer Cupressospermum saxonicum Mai. Insect inclusions are well preserved, 55 photographs are provided, showing samples of mosquitoes, spiders, beetles, flies and other insects, from insect groups Arachnida, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda. Each insect sample from the inclusions is described in detail by scientists from the Museum of Natural History in Berlin. Infrared spectrograms of different amber pieces are also analyzed and aspects of amber genesis in the Bitterfeld area are discussed.

  19. Seam gap bridging of laser based processes for the welding of aluminium sheets for industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderink, B.J.; Aalderink, Benno; Pathiraj, B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser welding has a large potential for the production of tailor welded blanks in the automotive industry, due to the low heat input and deep penetration. However, due to the small laser spot and melt pool, laser-based welding processes in general have a low tolerance for seam gaps. In this paper,

  20. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam JaeYeal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. Methods To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Results Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and ROD (Ratio of Distortion of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. Conclusions For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  1. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kim, SeongHoon; Nam, JaeYeal

    2010-09-20

    A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM) is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and ROD (Ratio of Distortion) of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  2. Effect of Seams on Drape of Fabrics (Pp. 62-72)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    simplest type in which a single row of lock stitches joins two pieces of fabrics together. Thus, investigating the effect of a plain seam on fabric drape has a significant value for both the textile and clothing industries. The quantified drapeability of a fabric into a dimensionless value called a “Drape coefficient”, which is defined ...

  3. Physical simulation method for the investigation of weld seam formation during the extrusion of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, G; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Extrusion through the porthole die is a predominant forming process used in the production of hollow aluminum alloy profiles across the aluminum extrusion industry. Longitudinal weld seams formed during the process may negatively influence the quality of extruded profiles. It is therefore of

  4. FREEZE-THAW CYCLING AND COLD TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON GEOMEMBRANE SHEETS AND SEAMS. Project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the tensile strength of 19 geomembranes and 31 different seam types were investigated. The study was performed in three parts using different test conditions. Part I involved incubating unconfined specimens in freeze-thaw cycles and then per...

  5. Using active contour models for feature extraction in camera-based seam tracking of arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    . It is highly desirable to extract groove features closer to the arc and thus facilitate for a nearly-closed-loop control situation. On the other hand, for performing seam tracking and nearly-closed-loop control it is not necessary to obtain very detailed information about the molten pool area as long as some...

  6. Controlling dust and gas in the face area: operating experience under ultra low-seam conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daft, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author provides an account of problems encountered in ventilating a low-seam mechanised section in a bord and pillar working in S. Africa, and the efforts made to overcome these problems. They include the use of a hydraulically-driven air jet fan system.

  7. Textiles: Some technocal information and data IV: sewability, sewing needles, threads and seams.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available and 516. Both oossess eood elasticitv as well as coverine vower and durabilitfl. The - -. following table (Table V) gives some guidelines for safety stitch seaming7. An important stitch type in the sewing of athletic shorts and other similar underwear...

  8. Seismic techniques in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Belleza, G.V.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes a study of the peripheral fractured zones in coal pillars by the seismic refraction method and a version of the uphole method. The study, conducted at three collieries in New South Wales, investigated the depths of such fractured zones and the degrees of fracturing therein. The equipment consisted of a sledgehammer, 3-component borehole geophone assemblies, and a 12-channel oscillographic recorder with the facility of stacking multiple repetitions of given signals. The application of the refraction method was more complicated than the uphole method. However, the refraction method provided the depths of a fracture zone along the length of the spread, as opposed to the depth at a single location by the uphole method. The depths of the fractured zones obtained from the refraction method were less than the corresponding ones from the uphole method, the latter being closer to the findings of other investigators. The determined depths of the fractured zones in pillars were less than those in continuous ribsides. The depths of fractured zones and the degree of fracturing therein seemed to have some relationship with the depth of the seam from the surface.

  9. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  12. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  13. Time Effect of Water Injection on the Mechanical Properties of Coal and Its Application in Rockburst Prevention in Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal seam water injection is widely used to prevent rockbursts in coal mines, and the duration of water injection is an important parameter related to the effectiveness of rockburst prevention, making it of practical importance to optimize the effective water injection duration. This paper presents the test results of the mechanical properties and pore structure of samples with different soaking time, obtained from a working face where rockburst occurred. Soaking time changes the mechanical properties of samples, and this time effect differs with the coal size (from centimeter to nanometer size. Results of numerical simulation and on-site tests in the Changgouyu coal mine demonstrated that water injection can effectively soften coal bodies and release or transfer stresses, and the time effect of water injection on rock prevention and control is apparent.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  15. Experimental Study on the Residual Strength of Coal Under Low Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Kang, Hongpu

    2017-02-01

    In underground coal mining, coal rib failure of longwall entries is almost certain due to the relative weakness of coal and the presence of high mining-induced stresses. To maintain the coal's capability of sustaining large loads after failure and substantial deformation, it is crucial to understand its post-peak behavior and subsequently, its residual strength. In this study, triaxial compression tests were performed on a total of 51 coal specimens that were classified into two groups based on the existence of calcite grains. Particular emphasis was given to evaluating the residual strength of the coal specimens. It was found that the presence of calcite grains has significant effect on the brittleness of the coal. Coal specimens containing calcite grains have lower frictional strength than specimens without calcite grains. The tests demonstrated that splitting is completely suppressed when the confinement exceeds 10 % of the coal's unconfined compressive strength. The Coulomb and Hoek-Brown failure criteria satisfactorily fit the coals' the peak strength data over the entire confining stress range. The Hoek-Brown failure criterion satisfactorily fits the residual strength data. The parameter m for residual strength is significantly greater than that of the peak strength for both groups of coal. It was also found that as the confinement increases, the increase in residual strength is greater than the increase in peak strength.

  16. The Investigation of Knitted Materials Bonded Seams Behaviour upon Cyclical Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research uniaxial tension behaviour of PES knitted materials with bonded seams is analysed. The objects of the investigation were two types of knitted materials, having the same fibre composition (93 % PES, 7 % EL, but different in knitting pattern, i. e. plain single jersey and rib 1 × 1. Bonded overlap seams were formed by changing the orientation of knitted materials strips, i. e. parallel/parallel, parallel/bias, parallel/perpendicular, bias/bias and bias/perpendicular. The strips of each knitted material were joined by two types of thermoplastic polyurethane (PU films different in thickness (75 mm and 150 mm. Mechanical characteristics of bonded seams were defined in longitudinal direction. During uniaxial tension such parameters as maximal force Fmax (N and maximal elongation ɛmax (% were recorded from typical tension diagrams. The changes of tested specimens strength and deformation were compared before and after cyclical fatigue tension the conditions of which were 50 cycles up to tension force F equal 24.5 N. The results have shown that changes before and after cyclical fatigue tension are mostly determined by the structure of knitted materials, the orientation of knitted materials strips in bonded seam, but not effected by thermoplastic polyurethane film. These results are opposite compared to the results of biaxial tension of the same type of specimens, which have shown that changes before and after cyclical fatigue punching are mostly determined by the type of thermoplastic film, but not effected by the orientation of knitted materials strips in bonded seams. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16065

  17. Pulmonary inflammation and crystalline silica in respirable coal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    communication with V Castranova). Because the cells had been centrifuged and resuspended prior to counting, we adjusted the cell counts by the ..... dant status in coal dust-induced respiratory disorders: a lon- gitudinal evaluation of multiple biomarkers; Biomarkers 2. 45–50. Steenland K and Brown D 1995 Silicosis ...

  18. Perfecting technology and organization of development work in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud' , A.M.

    1980-02-01

    Conditions of development work and panelling of coal deposits in Donetskugol' mines are characterized, with mining located 1000 m below the surface and coal seams liable to bursts and methane emission. Air cooling systems used in deep mines during developing and panelling are described. A scheme of a system cooling heading machine oil is given. Water used for cooling is later used for spraying the face to control air dust. Combines, loaders and haulage systems drivage is stressed and organization of work during high speed drivage is discussed. A table shows a comparison of number of miners working in various development headings driven by high speed methods, machines and support systems used, and the economic results of their work, i.e. advance of the heading in one month and labor productivity per miner. (In Russian)

  19. Safety during handling of coal, coal dust, coke and coke dust. Sicherheit beim Umgang mit Kohlen und Kohlenstaeuben sowie mit Koksen und Koksstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlschmidt, J.; Hoeppner, K.; May, M.; Schmieder, L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews fire and explosion prevention measures for transport, storage and combustion of brown coal and black coal. The fire and explosion hazard of coal and coke dust is characterized; various examples of hazardous situations in handling coal and coke are presented. Safety requirements for the design of coal and coke handling equipment according to GDR standard TGL 30634/02 are further noted. Safe storage of bulk coal in open-air facilities as well as safe transportation and bunker storage of fuel dust are described. Safety requirements for manually operated coal combustion equipment and for pneumatic fuel-feeding systems of steam generators are also outlined. Fire fighting methods to be employed in case of fires or suspected smoldering fires are listed briefly. (11 refs.)

  20. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-10-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.