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Sample records for brown coal district

  1. Hydrothermal-mechanical dewatering of brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    There are enormous reserves of brown coal in the world. In Australia, brown coal is used to generate most of electricity in the states of Victoria and South Australia. Brown coal is characterised by very high moisture content (around 60 wt% on a wet basis). Therefore, boilers used in the power station are very large and have low thermal efficiency, leading to high cost and large emissions of green house gas. High moisture content also makes brown coal uneconomical for transport...

  2. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko

    2007-01-01

    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  3. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  4. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

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    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  5. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

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    Pavel Sedláček

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  6. Disintegration of brown coal using alkaline solution

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    Vydra, J.; Skalicka, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations carried out by the Institute of Geology and Geotechnics of the Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia are discussed. The investigations were aimed at determining the optimum conditions for in situ solution mining of brown coal using alkaline solutions. Twelve brown coal samples with carbon content ranging from 64.5 to 90.7% were treated with sodium hydroxide solution with concentration ranging from 1 to 5%. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (15%) and ethanolamine (5%) also were investigated. Proportion of the 3 compounds in water was the following: 500 ml sodium hydroxide, 100 ml ethanolamine and 20 ml hydrogen peroxide. Effects of coal grain size on its disintegration in the alkaline solution also were analyzed. Conditions of in situ solution mining were simulated in the laboratory. Investigations showed that the optimum coal grain size was 2 mm, in which case disintegration efficiency depended on carbon content in coal. The lower the carbon content was, the more efficient was the alkaline disintegration. Alkaline solutions did not influence brown coal with carbon content higher than 85%. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide was 3%. Addition of hydrogen peroxide and ethanolamine did not influence disintegration. When alkaline solution was pumped 96 h long into a borehole, it penetrated coal to a depth of 2 mm causing swelling of the borehole walls but not coal disintegration. 8 references.

  7. Effects of brown coal treatment with hydrogen peroxide on brown coal wax yield

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    Bazarova, O.V.; Shevchenko, A.G.; Ruban, I.V.; Ksenofontov, V.G.; Turovskii, N.A. (Institut Fiziko-Organicheskoi Khimii i Uglekhimii AN UkrSSR (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Studies preliminary treatment of brown coal with 30% hydrogen peroxide. Experiments employed 0.1-0.2 mm fractions of brown coal and were carried out at ambient temperature for 30 min with a coal:oxidizer ratio of 1:6. Sample demineralization met the requirements of ISO 602. Spectral resonance methods were employed to find that the oxidation processes of brown coal and of anthracite are similar; two spectra are presented. Coal extraction employed petroleum ether. Pre-treatment increased the wax yield from 4.3% to 10.5% in terms of coal organic mass. Wax elemental compositions are presented. Six IR spectra are shown and discussed: of initial coal wax, of pre-treated coal wax, of initial coal, of pre-treated coal, of initial coal residue (after its extraction) and of pre-treated coal residue. The 1,020 cm{sup -1} band was observed to suggest the formation of phenol structures during oxidation. The 1,610 cm{sup -1} band of aromatic structures with carboxylic groups increased its intensity. The wax hydrogen content doubled and H/O increased by 1/3-1/4. 12 refs.

  8. Thermodynamic study of brown-coal gasification

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    Vonka, P.; Holub, R.; Schoengut, S.; Schoengut, J.

    1988-04-01

    Describes a method for calculating and assessing results of partial adiabatic oxidation of brown coal from the North Bohemian brown-coal field, which may in future act as a source of raw material for production of energy and synthesis gas. Calculations assume idealized fluid and burner generators and reaction parameters were selected to cover a range of operational values (these parameters include pressure, temperature, gasification ratio, water content, ash content and degree of coal conversion). After describing mathematics involved, concludes that thermodynamic analysis shows burner generator to have some advantages over fluid generator for production of synthesis gas, and vice versa for production of energy gas. However, final conclusions must await experimental evidence with regard to degree of conversion and composition of gas mixture; also, validity of this assessment is limited by the fact that no account was taken of the possibility of using reaction heat for production of steam or of any energy consumption involved. 10 refs.

  9. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

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    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

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    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  11. Dermatoses of Belchatow brown coal mine employees

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    Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszczynska-Kuczynska, W.

    1981-09-01

    Evaluates the results of examinations carried out in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine on skin diseases. Influence of working conditions specific for brown coal mines on the development of some dermatoses is analyzed. From 1978 to 1979 443 miners were examined. Two groups of miners were examined separately: 1. 235 miners who contacted the firm physician due to skin problems and 2. 208 miners who underwent a periodic examination. In group 1 skin dermatoses were found in 86% of all cases, and in group 2 in 48%. Foot skin inflammation, particularly interdigital intertrigo, was the most common dermatosis. Oil acne (occupational disease of coal miners) was diagnosed in 15 cases, common acne in 23 cases, pytiriasis versicolor in 19 cases, erythrasma in 10, eczema and other contact dermatitis in 10 cases. Investigations show that 23% of the foot interdigital intertrigo is caused by mycotic infections. Dermatoses of the skin of miners' feet are caused mainly by rubber protective boots. (10 refs.) (In Polish)

  12. Applied paleobotany and brown coal petrology: plant texture as a basis for brown coal structure

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    Schneider, W.

    1984-01-01

    A selection of 28 microscopic oil immersion photographs is provided showing major groups of plant tissue found in Tertiary brown coal deposits. These groups are bark tissue (peridermo-textit), leaf tissue (phyllo-textit), palm tree tissue and root tissue (rhizo-textit). Explanations on type of plants, cell structures of plants, and degree of coalification are also provided. Conclusions on the paleoenvironment are made. 25 references.

  13. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Mollah, Mamun

    2017-01-01

    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  14. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

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    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  15. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

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    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  17. Microwave treatment of a brown coal concentrate from Mugunsk coal for the manufacture of sponge iron

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    A.A. Khaidurova; P.N. Konovalov; N.P. Konovalov [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russia)

    2008-04-15

    A technique for the production of a finely dispersed dry brown coal concentrate with the use of microwave energy is proposed to prepare a charge mixture for the manufacture of sponge iron. The advantages of this technique over analogous industrial processes are demonstrated. The results of experiments on the briquetting of the charge mixture of brown coal and iron ore concentrates without the use of an additional binding agent are described.

  18. Pyrolysis of brown coals of the Lelchitsy deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Falyushin, P. L.; Kraiko, V. M.; Dudarchik, V. M.

    2012-11-01

    Results of experimental studies on pyrolysis of brown coals of the Lelchitsy deposit, which were conducted on Laboratory setups in stationary and moving layers for producing high-caloric energy carriers, are presented. The yield of the pyrolysis products is determined; the chemical composition of solid, liquid, and gaseous products of thermochemical treatment is considered.

  19. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

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    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  20. Briquetting of brown coal with hydrolized lignin

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    Saranchuk, V.I.; Galushko, L.Ja.; Pashchenko, L.V.; Khazipov, V.A. [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    In present the briquetting of coal fines becomes one of priory directions in the solution of problem of provision of needs of people with solid fuel because of deficiency in energetic resources in Ukraine. One of possible ways of developing production of briquets as consumer fuel is the utilization of secondary material resources as additions, in particular, waste products of hydrolysis production-lignin.

  1. Electrocatalytic oxidation of brown coal from the Adamow mine

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    Studnicki, M. (Zaklad Karbochemii PAN, Gliwice (Poland))

    1991-08-01

    Studies the possibility of electrocatalytic oxidation of brown coal and products obtained therefrom. Two cycles of experiments were performed with either external or internal power supply. The results were compared to electrocatalytic oxidation of n-hexane in a fuel cell. Reaction products were subject to extraction in methylene chloride and analyzed with the use of high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Conditions for tests and for analyses are described. Two figures and six tables are provided. It was found that alternating electrocatalytic reduction and oxidation of the Adamow brown coal yields aliphatic carboxylic acids C20-C33. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-hexane yields alcohols C1-C3. The tested method was found capable of producing oxygen-containing compounds and electricity without carbon dioxide release. 2 refs.

  2. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  3. Coal resources of southern Kuzbass (Novokuznetsk administrative district)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutak, Ja M.

    2017-09-01

    The article summarizes data on geological structure of Novokuznetsk district of the Kemerovo region and its coal reserves. Survey is conducted consistently in regards to geological and economic areas of Kuzbass, included in the territory of Novokuznetsk district (Aralichevsky, Baidayevsky, Bunguro-Chumyshsky, Erunakovsky, Kondomsky, Mrassky, Osinovsky, Tersinsky, Tutuyas, Central, Uskatsky). Stating presence of significant coal reserves in this territory, the survey points out that in some geological and economic areas reserves are either depleted (Aralichevsky) or there are no prospects for reserves increase (Baidayevsky, Mrassky). The largest coal reserves explored are concentrated in Erunakovsky, Tersinsky and Osinovsky geological and economic areas. The main reserves of highly dmanded coking coals are located in Erunakovsky and Osinovsky areas. As for the Novokuznetsk administrative district, a significant increase in coal production level is possible, although it has to be linked to demand, since the extracted coal can not be stored for a long time. Today key point is not the increase in coal production, but qualitative deep processing of coal.

  4. New interpretations of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany

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    Hagemann, H.W.; Wolf, M.

    1987-05-01

    New ideas concerning the understanding of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany are discussed. These new interpretations are based on a significantly larger number of samples and refined procedures for analysis within the field of paleobotany, palynology, coal petrology and organic geochemistry than were available to P.W. Thomson and M. Teichmuller. The light and dark bands in the coal are mainly the result of different degrees of plant decomposition. The influence of the peat-forming plant communities plays a subordinate role in the petrographical composition of these particular strata of the Rhenish brown coal. 28 refs.

  5. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

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    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  6. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

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    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Application of Biologically Activated Brown Coal in Cu(II Sorption

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    Andrea Beňová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters using different adsorbents is currently of great interest. Adsorption of cooper ions from aqueous solutions on biologically activated brown coal was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from brown coal by microorganisms activity. There were used soi microfungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. The equilibrium of the adsorption process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum capacity of the sorbents was determined.

  8. Chemical investigation of brown coals in regard to their intended application

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    Zharova, M.N.

    1984-11-01

    On the basis of the results of chemical analysis of Kansk-Achinsk and southern Urals brown coals, it was demonstrated that the reactivity of the organic matter during reduction depends on the structure of the coal. In hydrogenation, the depth of conversion is proportional to the content of hydrolized fragments in the structure. The formation of liquid products corresponds to the presence of alkyl bridge bonds and to solubility in active solvents. Biological activity of humic acids in brown coals is related to the presence of specific forms of oxygen bonding. 10 references.

  9. 78 FR 48666 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... of Intention b. Docket No: DI13-6-000 c. Date Filed: July 15, 2013 d. Applicant: Browns Valley... Declaration of Intention is filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Federal Power Act...

  10. Brown coal planning in the State of Brandenburg. Braunkohlenplanung im Land Brandenburg

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    Zenker, P. (Oberbergamt des Landes Brandenburg, Senftenberg (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    In an official declaration attention was drawn to the urgent need for an economic and ecological redevelopment of our state, a question that also includes the new energy policy and a reliable and ecologically compatible supply of energy. Brown coal plays a major role in the supply of energy. As regards the ecological aspect, brown coal mining is undergoing a considerable improvement, and seen in terms of the economy will definitely play an important part for many years to come. This is also evident from the main decisions reached with regard to the energy policy of Brandenburg, according to which the State Government will orient its political decisions to a yearly output of 60 Mt in the Brandenburg region of Lusatia in the year 2000. A further important precondition which will ensure that the brown coal mining industry of Brandenburg retains its significance in connection with the return to private ownership is the fact that licences for general working plans or brown coal mining plans are to be made available for the operation of the brown coal opencast workings. The State Mines Inspectorate of Brandenburg, on the one hand, is co-operating constructively with the brown coal technical committee in drawing up brown coal mining plans for the long-term opencast workings, and, on the other hand, is taking steps to ensure that the licences for the general working plans can be made available early in the second half of 1993 after relevant orders are issued by the Government of the State of Brandenburg. These short licensing procedures for this difficult and complex matter have only been made possible by the application of modern planning techniques in the form of simultaneous planning in the administrative sector. All planning will no longer be carried out consecutively but concurrently in order to ensure that the licences will be avialable by the end of 1993. This is an important precondition for the further operation of the long-term opencast workings in the State.

  11. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

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    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  12. Identification and geochemical significance of some extractable components from Bosnian brown coal and their possible connection to Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.M.; Anderson, R.R.; Rohar, P.C.; Irdi, G.A.; Veloski, G.A. [Federal Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Audino, M.; Alexander, R. [Centre for Petroleum and Environmental Organic Geochemistry, Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Bosnian brown coal was crushed and then extracted with toluene in a Soxhlet extractor. The toluene extract was subjected to analysis by combined GC-MS using a Hewlett/Packard 5988A system and low-voltage high-resolution mass spectrometry (LVHRMS) using a modified Kratos MS-50. Petrographic results indicate that the coal is immature and would be classified as a brown coal. Many biological markers were identified. These findings may have implications related to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. (orig.)

  13. The groundwater measuring network in the Rhenish brown coal district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelter, M.

    1981-04-01

    Some 3700 observation wells have been installed by Rheinbraun and the Grosser Erftverband in order to monitor the effects of dewatering activities inside and outside the mines. The hydrological investigation began in 1955 with drilling piezometers, firstly using rotary, later air injection methods. Nordrhein-Westfalen and the mining companies carried out the investigation. Water samples for hydrochemical investigation are taken in addition to ground-water and temperature measurements. (In German)

  14. Do stable carbon isotopes of brown coal woods record changes in Lower Miocene palaeoecology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Dolezych, M.; Kool, J.; Burgh, J. van der; Bergen, P.F. van

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of fossil wood from the Miocene brown coal deposits in former East Germany are compared with palaeobotanical and sedimentological data to test the use of stable isotopes in determining palaeoenvironment. Significant differences in the chemical composition of samples

  15. Disintegrative supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of brown coal using supercritical dichloromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie

    1997-12-31

    A Rhenish brown coal was extracted with dichloromethane under supercritical conditions. Extraction pressure and temperature increased rapidly after passing critical point of dichloromethane indicating the rapid disintegration of both solvent and coal. After fractionating the extract in hydrocarbon classes analyses using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were performed. Comparing these fractions with those from the original coal significant changes in hydrocarbon assemblages were obvious. The n-alkane distribution shifted from the higher homologues to those with lower carbon numbers indicating pyrolyis of paraffins. Pyrolysis was also indicated by the appearance of bibenzyl, napthaline and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues not existing in the original sample. Further some interesting reactions of the solvent were observed. First, the insertion of methylene groups (-CH{sub 2}-) into oxygen-hydrogen bonds of carboxyl groups or oxygen-carbon bonds of esters took place indicated by the appearance of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and hexyl esters of fatty acids not existing in the original brown coal. Second, methylated sulfur species like alkylated tri- and tetrasulfides were identified. Both classes of substances are supposed to be the reaction products of dichloromethane, which decomposes rapidly under supercritical conditions, and fatty acids or their methyl esters as well as cyclo-octasulfur (S{sub 8}), which are present in the brown coal. (orig.)

  16. SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG FUNCTION OF COAL WORKERS WORKING AT MACH (BOLAN DISTRICT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Younis, Shafi Muhammad, Tanzeel Ahmed*, Muhammad Siddique, Bashir Ahmed, Munir Ahmed, Jahanzaib

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the coal dust effect on lung function among coal workers and non-coal workers. This was case-control study. The 144 male coal workers and non-coal workers, 20-50 years more than one year of working skill were selected. Study was carried out in the Mach, Bolan district in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Spirometer and selfdesigned survey form were used. The interview was accompanied and information was documented in the survey form and Spirometry was done for coal workers and non-coal w...

  17. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  18. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  19. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. CAPTO method application to the quality assessment of Slovak brown coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the principle and application of CAPTO (Controlled - atmosphere programmed - temperature oxidation method for the sulphur content valuation in coal. The principle of CAPTO consists in mixing the coal with an inert material (WO3 and oxidation of the sample by a linear increase of temperature to 1000oC. The evolved gases (CO2, H2O, SO2 and NO2 are analyzed by infrared sensors. The method enables the determination of different sulphur forms (sulphidic, elemental, sulphate, organic aromatic and organic non-aromatic, hydrogen, carbon and humidity. The results on Americal coal Illionois No. 6 and Slovakian brown coal Nováky serve as an illustration of the CAPTO method possibility.

  1. Identification of aliphatic biological markers in brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazai, I.; Alexander, G.; Essiger, B.; Szekely, T.

    1988-07-01

    Ten coal samples were subjected to solvent extraction and aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions were obtained by open column chromatography. The fractions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: n-alkanes, di- and triterpenoid hydrocarbons and (in lesser amounts) sterenes were found. The distribution of the biological markers found indicated the low rank of the samples, but contradictions in the composition of hopanoids were observed. Some compounds not previously reported in the literature were also present. 44 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Differentiation of Victorian brown coal lithotypes as revealed by thermally desorbable biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Johns, R.B. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia))

    1991-01-01

    TD/GC/MS analyses of a profile of Victorian brown coal lithotypes are reported. Specifically, weight loss on TD, triterpenoid and diterpenoid hydrocarbons, and trimethylnaphthalene isomers are considered as lithotype differentiators. In this initial use of biomarkers released by thermal desorption to characterise lithotypes, evidence is reported for differences in angiosperm/gymnosperm contributions, variation in higher plant inputs and for distinct variations of bacterial biomass content of the lithotypes. Trimethylnaphthalenes also differentiate coal seams in the samples reported in this study. 4 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  3. Purification of highly polluted tip seepage water using brown coal coke. Reinigung hochbelasteter Deponiesickerwaesser mit Braunkohlenkoks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felgener, G. (Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)); Janitza, J.; Koscielski, S. (Inst. fuer Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of tests conducted over a long period of time on actual seepage water from five different household refuse tips was to ascertain whether brown coal coke, which is available as a mass product and therefore cheap, is suitable for use as an adsorptive purification agent on highly polluted tip seepage water. The present paper discusses the concept, treatment costs and the findings obtained from the tests. On the strength of the purification results it is shown that the treatment of tip seepage water can be effected successfully with brown coal coke and that the values obtained are even much lower than those stipulated in Appendix 31 of the general administrative regulations. (orig.).

  4. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  5. Reuse and recycling options for solid prescribed industrial wastes and brown coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum Hailu, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of detailed investigation of the possible use of stabilised sludge and brown coal fly ash as raw material ingredients for road construction and manufacture of building bricks. The thesis is organised into seven chapters including a general introduction chapter. A literature review of solid waste management practices employed in Australia and some selected countries are discussed (chapter 1) together with waste generation from power station...

  6. The immersion freezing behavior of ash particles from wood and brown coal burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Sarah; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Prager, Andrea; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that ash particles from coal combustion can trigger ice nucleation when they interact with water vapor and/or supercooled droplets. However, data on the ice nucleation of ash particles from different sources, including both anthropogenic and natural combustion processes, are still scarce. As fossil energy sources still fuel the largest proportion of electric power production worldwide, and biomass burning contributes significantly to the global aerosol loading, further data are needed to better assess the ice nucleating efficiency of ash particles. In the framework of this study, we found that ash particles from brown coal (i.e., lignite) burning are up to 2 orders of magnitude more ice active in the immersion mode below -32 °C than those from wood burning. Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was shown to be the most efficient at nucleating ice. Furthermore, the influence of various particle generation methods on the freezing behavior was studied. For instance, particles were generated either by dispersion of dry sample material, or by atomization of ash-water suspensions, and then led into the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) where the immersion freezing behavior was examined. Whereas the immersion freezing behavior of ashes from wood burning was not affected by the particle generation method, it depended on the type of particle generation for ash from brown coal. It was also found that the common practice of treating prepared suspensions in an ultrasonic bath to avoid aggregation of particles led to an enhanced ice nucleation activity. The findings of this study suggest (a) that ash from brown coal burning may influence immersion freezing in clouds close to the source and (b) that the freezing behavior of ash particles may be altered by a change in sample preparation and/or particle generation.

  7. Proximate and The Calorific Value Analysis of Brown Coal for High-Calorie Hybrid Briquette Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam; Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Wati, Wa; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    A study has been conducted about the quality of young coal (brown coal ) briquettes from North Kolaka to determine the effect of varied adhesive on the proximate characteristics and calorific value. The young coal briquettes were made by using adhesives of starch, cassava starch and Castor oil plant starch at a concentration of 5 to 15% of the total mass. The grain size of young coal and the adhesive used were 60 mesh and 100 mesh, respectively. The samples were molded in a cylindrical mold with a diameter of 2.5 cm and a high of 6 cm, and with a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. After having been compacted, the young coal samples were then analyzed proximately i.e. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon, as well as their calorific values calculation. The results showed that the increase of the adhesive could tend to increased the water content and volatile matter, but reduced the ash content, and the fixed carbon tend to constant except coal briquettes using starch adhesive it were increased. The calorific value of the young coal briquettes increased for all kinds of adhesives when the adhesive increased. The calorific value per one gram ranged from 3162.7 cal/g to 4678.7 cal/g. The highest calorific value, 4678.7 cal/g, was observed at the adhesive of 15 % of starch. The characteristics of young coal can be used as a raw material for making high-calorie hybrid briquettes.

  8. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  9. U and Th in some brown coals of Serbia and Montenegro and their environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivotić, Dragana; Grzetić, Ivan; Lorenz, Hans; Simić, Vladimir

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine and compare the concentrations of U and Th in soft to hard brown (lignite to sub-bituminous) coals of Serbia and Montenegro. It also presents comparison of the obtained data on U and Th concentrations with the published data on coals located in some other countries of the world. Almost the whole coal production of Serbia and Montenegro is used as feed coals for combustion in thermal power plants. Channel samples from open pit and underground mines and core samples were collected for hard and soft brown coals. For the analysis the samples were decomposed using microwave technique. Obtained solutions containing U and Th were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) using NIST standards. Concentration of U from the investigated basins and the corresponding mine fields ranges within 0.60-70.10 mg/kg, 0.65-3.20 mg/kg, 0.95-6.59 mg/kg, 1.20-6.05 mg/kg, 0.80-6.66 mg/kg, 0.18-89.90 mg/kg, 0.19-4.14 mg/kg, and 0.28-3.52 mg/kg for the Kostolac, Kolubara, Krepoljin, Sjenica, Soko Banja, Bogovina East field, Senje-Resavica and Pljevlja basins, respectively. Concentration of Th ranges within 0.20-2.60 mg/kg, 0.84-6.57 mg/kg, 1.48-6.48 mg/kg, 0.12-2.71 mg/kg, 0.13-4.95 mg/kg, 0.14-3.48 mg/kg, 0.29-3.56 mg/kg, and 0.17-1.89 mg/kg for the Kostolac, Kolubara, Krepoljin, Sjenica, Soko Banja, Bogovina East field, Senje-Resavica and Pljevlja basins, respectively. Brown coal from Senje-Resavica, Kolubara, Kostolac and Pljevlja is characterized by low U concentration. Coals form the Krepoljin, Soko Banja and Sjenica basins have slightly higher U concentrations than the mentioned group. The highest concentration of U is characteristic for the coal from the Bogovina East field. Concentration of Th in coals from Serbia and Montenegro has proved to be low. Out of all investigated coal basins, only the coal from the Krepoljin and Kolubara basins has high concentration of Th. The hydrothermally altered rocks of the Timok

  10. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  11. Kerogen extract interrelationships of terpenoid biomarkers from a Jilin brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Johns, R.B. (University of Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Two samples of a Chinese brown coal taken from a depth profile in the Funan coal mine, Jilin Province, have been studied in detail to assess the interrelationships between the triterpenoid and diterpenoid biomarkers isolated from the solvent extracts, on thermal desorption at 350{degree}C and on flash pyrolysis at 600{degree}C. The thermally desorbed hydrocarbons are shown to be identical in distribution and in relative concentration to those found for the solvent extracts. Thermal desorption, when coupled with GC-MS analysis, provides a rapid and direct technique for studying diterpenes in sediments avoiding the limitations of extraction and followed by separation steps in analyses. Thermal desorption does not bring about isomerisation of maturity indicators and is, therefore, a reliable technique for use in maturation studies. Thermal desorption followed by pyrolysis at 600{degree}C allows the desorbable terpenes to be compared and contrasted with those held in the kerogen by covalent bonds. The results of thermal desorption analyses reported in this paper show that there can be significant differences in the concentrations of the same biomarkers both within and between closely related coals. The results suggest that maturation studies which have not differentiated between 'bound' and 'free' triterpenes in source rock shales may require reassessment. These immature coal samples have allowed it to be demonstrated that some diterpenoid biomarkers are held in the kerogen through acid sensitive functional groups. This is in contrast to the triterpenoid biomarkers which are resistant to demineralisation of the coal. On pyrolysis, these coals yield a suite of hopenes where the double bond position reflects the prior heat treatment of the coal. 24 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Influence of Small Furnaces Construction Type on TSP Emissions During Wood and Brown Coal Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří HORÁK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid fuel burning household heat sources are considered to be significant producers of total suspended particulates (TSP. In the year 2005, c. 35% of the total particulate matter emissions PM10 (in The Czech Republic came out from household heating [1]. However, low-power combustion devices cannot be considered as identical pollution sources because they can operate on different combustion principles and feature dramatically different emission factors. The article presents results of an experimental determination of particulate matter emissions including TSP dividing into PM10 and PM2.5 fractions from wood and brown coal combustion in five types of combustion devices.

  13. German planning atlas. Vol. 1: North Rhine Westphalia. No. 11. Brown coal 2 - ownership of brown coal deposits, resettlement, surface balance, coal, rock, and energy economy, future developments. Deutscher Planungsatlas. Bd. 1: Nordrhein-Westfalen. Nr. 11. Braunkohle 2 - Feldesbesitz, Umsiedlung, Grundwasser, Flaechenbilanz, Kohle-, Abraum- und Energiewirtschaft, kuenftige Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In map No. III of the atlas on the develpment of Rhenish coal mining, the ownership in brown coal deposits and planning, resettlement, ground water and an area balance are presented. Map No. IV discusses coal economy, rock economy, energy economy, structure and development. Details are described in the text.

  14. Maturation, constitution and depositional environment of the coals from Makardhokada area, Nagpur District, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-12-15

    Recent sub-surface investigations have proved the existence of coal deposits in Makardhokada area of Nagpur District, Maharashtra. Structurally, Makardhokada area represents the western extension of Umrer coalfield. As far as the economic potentialities of these coal deposits are concerned, out of the six seams intersected, only four viz. Seam I, II, IV and V have attained workable thickness of more than a metre. The maceral constitution and rank estimations have been considered as the parameters to interpret the depositional environment and economic importance of these coal deposits. The maceral study suggests that the coal of seam I contains a mixture of all the three coal types i.e. vitric (Vitrinite rich), fusic (Inertinite rich) and mixed (Vitrinite + Inertinite rich). However, the seams II and IV are constituted by fusic and mixed coal types. Seam V contains both the vitric and mixed coal types. The maturation (reflectance) studies have indicated low vitrinite reflectivity (R{sub 0} max %) of 0.42-0.53%, which suggests that the coals have attained sub-bituminous C to high volatile bituminous C stage of the rank. The coal constitution suggests frequent floods at the depositional site and alternate dry oxidizing and cold climatic seasonal changes caused the formation of vitric and fusic coal types.

  15. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?; Braunkohleausstieg NRW. Welche Abbaumengen sind energiewirtschaftlich notwendig und klimapolitisch moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, Dierk; Hermann, Hauke; Ritter, David; Vogel, Moritz; Winger, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  16. Modified Two-Step Dimethyl Ether (DME Synthesis Simulation from Indonesian Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study was conducted to investigate the performance of dimethyl ether (DME synthesis from coal. This paper presents a model for two-step DME synthesis from brown coal represented by the following processes: drying, gasification, water-gas reaction, acid gas removal, and DME synthesis reactions. The results of the simulation suggest that a feedstock ratio of coal : oxygen : steam of 1 : 0.13 : 0.821 produces the highest DME concentration. The water-gas reactor simulation at a temperature of 400°C and a pressure of 20 bar gave the ratio of H2/CO closest to 2, the optimal value for two-step DME synthesis. As for the DME synthesis reactor simulation, high pressure and low temperature promote a high DME concentration. It is predicted that a temperature of 300°C and a pressure of 140 bar are the optimum conditions for the DME synthesis reaction. This study also showed that the DME concentration produced by the two-step route is higher than that produced by one-step DME synthesis, implying that further improvement and research are needed to apply two-step DME synthesis to production of this liquid fuel.

  17. The generation of hydrocarbons from Victorian brown coals by hydrous pyrolysis as indicative of maturation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Johns, R.B. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    Hydrous pyrolysis over a temperature profile from 200{degree} to 300{degree}C of the Medium Light lithotype of Victoria brown coal Rosedale Field has been carried out in order to simulate geochemical transformations during early diagenesis of the solvent extractable fraction of the coal. Some unexpected product-precursor relationships are revealed. n-Alkanes are generated but at lower carbon numbers, and are derived from ether lipids probably of bacterial origin. Pristene is readily formed deriving also from bacterial phytanyl ethers. Prist-2-ene predominates with increasing temperature of reaction and the conversion of prist-1-ene appears to be driven not only by greater thermodynamic stability but also by acid catalysis of the coal surface. With temperature the aromatic fraction increases at the expense of polar constituents whilst the aliphatic fraction remains constant, but is increasingly composed of n-alkanes. Analysis of the data shows that bicyclic aromatics are generated and predominate over n-alkanes; this favoured pathway during maturation involves 8,14-seco-triterpenoid intermediates derived from higher plant triterpenes. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Composition of benzene fraction separated from alkaline hydrolysis product of bituminized non-weathered Shurabsk brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartsman, B.B.; Rumyantseva, Z.A.; Perednikova, Z.M.

    1987-01-01

    Componental composition is studied of benzene fraction obtained from hydrolysis of non-weathered bituminized Shurabsk brown coal. Benzene fraction was hydrolized with 3% methanol solution KOH and extracted with various polarity solvents. Chromato-mass spectral analysis indicates that benzene fraction of alkaline hydrolysis products contains about 2/3 neutral substances (aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic acid anhydrides, dibutylphthalates) and 1/3 benzene-, oxybenzene-carboxylic and aliphatic acids. Weathering brings about oxidation of aliphatic unsaturated and seemingly some saturated hydrocarbons forming organic coal mass as well as accumulation of benzene- and oxybenzene-carboxylic acids in alkaline hydrolysis of coal products. 10 refs.

  19. SPECIFIC INFLUENCE OF BIOMASS ON THE DESULPHURISATION PROCESS IN COMBUSTION OF BROWN COAL AND BIOMASS MIXTURE IN FLUIDISED BED BOILER

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, Svetlana; Ochman, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Thesis is focused on specific aspects of the desulphurisation processes of fluidised- bed boilers. The original goal of the study was to analyse the influence of several kinds of biomass to the quality of the desulphurisation process in combustion of the mixture of brown coal, biomass and limestone in fluidised-bed boilers.

  20. {open_quotes}Experimental investigation of brown coal combustion with siumlated gas Turbine Exhaust Gas in a combined cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakaras, E.; Vourliotis, P.

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of this study is the experimental investigation of the brown coal combustion (brown coal with high sulphur content, e.g. {open_quotes}Megalopolis{close_quotes} lignite) in a lab-scale Atmospheric Fluidized Bed (AFB). The fluidizing gas and the oxidant medium is the Simulated gas Turbine Exhaust flue Gas - {open_quotes}Vitiated Air{close_quotes} (STEG - V.A.). The STEG simulates the exhaust flue gas from the turbine MS 9/1 (FA) produced by EGT - GEC Alsthom (/1/). According to the IFRF experiments, the lowest O{sub 2} level allowed for stable combustion is 10%, concentration which corresponds to 88.4 % burnout in the IFRF experimental furnace. For the improvement of the coal burnout the presence of an oxidation catalyst is considered necessary in order, first, to avoid the incomplete combustion of the coal and second, to decrease the CO and C{sub x}H{sub y} emissions. The catalysts, supplied by KAT-TEC (/4/), are perovskit-type with TiO{sub 2} and Pt as stabilisers. The purposes of the trials are: (1) To examine the possibility to achieve the combustion of low grade brown coal under these conditions. (2) The investigation of the burnout behaviour as well as the resulting O{sub 2} CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, C{sub x}H{sub y} and NO{sub x} emissions.

  1. Anomalous gold contents in brown coals and peat in the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Maslov, S.G.; Arhipov, V.S.; Belyaeva, A.M. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-02

    One hundred twenty-two samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and 1254 peat samples from the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method. Mean content of Au in Jurassic coals is 30+/-8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6+/-4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6+/-1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time. Negative correlation between gold and ash yield in coals and peat and highest gold concentrations were found in low-ash and ultra-low-ash coals and peat. Primarily this is due to gold's association with organic matter. For the investigation of mode of occurrence of Au in peat the bitumen, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances, humic acids, cellulose and lignin were extracted from it. It was determined that in peat about 95% of gold is combined with organic matter. Forty to sixty percent of Au is contained in humic acids and the same content is in lignin. Bitumens, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances contain no more than 1% of general gold quantity in peat. The conditions of accumulation of high gold concentrations were considered. The authors suggest that Au accumulation in peat and brown coals and the connection between anomalous gold concentrations and organic matter in low-ash coals and peat can explain a biogenic-sorption mechanism of Au accumulation. The sources of formation of Au high concentration were various Au-Sb, Au-Ag Au-As-Sb deposits that are abundant in the Southern and South-Eastern peripheries of the coal basin. (author)

  2. Trace elements in high-S subbituminous coals from the Teruel mining district, northeast Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Turiel, J.L.F.; Soler, A.L.; Duran, M.E. (Institute of Earth Sciences, Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    The elemental composition of high temperature ash (750[degree]C) and forms of S were studied in 25 coal seams from the Escucha Formation (Middle Albian) in the Teruel Mining District, northeast Spain. The principal analytical method was ICP-MS, but ICP-ES was also used in the determination of some trace elements. The analytical data show wide ranges of trace element contents among the coal seams studied, even in the vertical profile of a single coal seam. These wide ranges of the trace element concentrations are attributed to both syngenetic and epigenetic processes. When a comparison was made between the average trace element contentsof the Teruel Mining District coals, and those of the average content in worldwide coals, the Teruel coals show slightly higher concentrations of Be and U, and lower concentrations of Ba, Cd Mn, Pb, Sr and Zr. Further, three main groups of trace elements were differentiated on the basis of the inorganic/organic affinity; Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Mn, Ni, Rb and Ze. Between these, Ba, Ce, Cr and Rb show a well defined correlation with the clay mineral content, and Co and Ni with pyritic-S content; (2)trace elements with an intermediate (mixed) affinity; As, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ge, Ho, Lu, Mo, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zr. In this group, As, Cd, Cu, Ge, Mo, Th, U and Zn show a weak trend associated with the mineral matter and Sr with the organic matter; and (3) Be shows an organic affinity. The high mineral matter content (21.3% HTA) of the Teruel coals may account for the great number of elements with inorganic affinity. This classification represents a general trend, but the results show that the affinities of some trace elements (e.g. As, Sb, and Zn) may vary from one coal seam to another in the Teruel Mining District.

  3. Application of electrocatalytic oxidation of brown coal for anticorrosive coating of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M. (Zaklad Karbochemii PAN, Gliwice (Poland))

    1992-02-01

    Explains a method for preparing anticorrosive steel coatings. Brown coal was oxidized at 0.15 V and 0.5 A in a mixture with hydrogen peroxide (30%), sulfuric acid, ethanol and nickel nitrate. A sulfoxide inhibitor was further prepared as well as Epidain 5 epoxy resin and a rubber-asphalt composition. All components were used in 15 different mixtures. Steel plates were treated with the mixtures for 1 hour. Plates were further treated for 76 hours with 0.1% sulfuric acid and 0.021% NaCl solution. The mass loss of coating mixtures was measured and compared to that of Ketec standard coating. The surface protection factor reached as high as 75%. Nonlinear regression analysis and computer calculations were employed to determine the role of separate mixture components. Coefficients obtained by calculations are discussed. 10 refs.

  4. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate

  5. The exploitation of brown coal at Megalopolis (Greece). L'exploitation de lignite de Megalopolis (Grece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In Greece, the exploitation of brown coal at Megalopolis makes it possible to feed fuel to a thermal power station which supplies not less than 16% of the electricity requirements of the country. A great effort has been made here to improve productivity, even when the progressive restoration of the site is given prominence. The operation of this site is expected to last another forty years. 3 photos.

  6. Origin and distribution of biomarkers in the sulphur rich Utrillas coal basin - Teruel mining district - Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivella, M.A.; Gorchs, R.; de las Heras, F.X.C. [University Politecnica Catalunya, Manresa (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The Utrillas coal facies are located in the Maestrazgo basin in NE Spain. This mining district of Teruel contains subbituminous deposits from the Middle Albian (Lower Cretaceous 105 Ma) in areas near a delta estuary with abundant sulphur. The high sulphur content is due to an influx of sulphate caused by the geological recycling of Triassic gypsum from the catchment area into the delta estuary. In some outcrops, the weathered coal reveals leonardite deposits. The depositional environment of the basin originated coals, some of which are currently mined. The organic matter of the coals has been the object of scattered reports. Studies have focused on bulk pyrolysis parameters and microscopic observation in Utrillas samples, as well as the inorganic and insoluble organic fraction. We analysed the organic soluble extract of the Utrillas coals using GC-MS in order to characterize their aliphatic, aromatic and organosulphur compounds. The biomarker distribution allowed us to recognize different inputs, assess their depositional palaeoenvironment and finally determine their degree of maturity. In particular, homologous series of hopanes related to eubacteria were present. Biomarkers characteristic of higher plant inputs were also widely distributed (e.g. phyllocladane or C-29 steranes). The presence of linear alkylbenzenes allowed us to recognize the palaeodepositional reducing environments where they were deposited. Specifically, thienylhopanes were associated with sulphur-reducing environments. Finally, the abundance of unsaturated biomarkers such as diacholestenes indicated low-maturity coals. Various aromatic ratios such as the methylphenanthrene index also suggested diagenesis in the initial stage.

  7. Quantum chemical investigation of the primary thermal pyrolysis reactions of the sodium carboxylate group in a brown coal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Baisheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Kefeng; Kang, Lixun

    2014-12-01

    The primary pyrolysis mechanisms of the sodium carboxylate group in sodium benzoate-used as a model compound of brown coal-were studied by performing quantum chemical computations using B3LYP and the CBS method. Various possible reaction pathways involving reactions such as unimolecular and bimolecular decarboxylation and decarbonylation, crosslinking, and radical attack in the brown coal matrix were explored. Without the participation of reactive radicals, unimolecular decarboxylation to release CO2 was calculated to be the most energetically favorable primary reaction pathway at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) level of theory, and was also found to be more energetically favorable than decarboxylation of an carboxylic acid group. When CBS-QBS results were included, crosslinking between the sodium carboxylate group and the carboxylic acid and the decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group (catalyzed by the phenolic hydroxyl group) were found to be possible; this pathway competes with unimolecular decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group. Provided that H and CH3 radicals are present in the brown coal matrix and can access the sodium carboxylate group, accelerated pyrolysis of the sodium carboxylate group becomes feasible, leading to the release of an Na atom or an NaCO2 radical at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) or CBS-QB3 level of theory, respectively.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of an existing coal-fired power plant for district heating/cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, H.H.; Dagdas, A.; Sevilgen, S.H.; Cetin, B.; Akkaya, A.V.; Sahin, B.; Teke, I.; Gungor, C.; Atas, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-02-15

    In a conventional coal-fired power plant, which is only designed for electricity generation, 2/3 of fuel energy is wasted through stack gases and cooling water of condensers. This waste energy could be recovered by trigeneration; modifying the plants in order to meet district heating/cooling demand of the locations. In this paper, thermodynamical analysis of trigeneration conversion of a public coal-fired power plant, which is designed only for electricity generation, has been carried out. Waste heat potential and other heat extraction capabilities have been evaluated. Best effective steam extraction point for district heating/cooling systems have been identified by conducting energetic and exergetic performance analyses. Analyses results revealed that the low-pressure turbine inlet stage is the most convenient point for steam extraction for the plant analyzed.

  9. Cause analysis of Hujiagou coal wastes landslide in Nantong mining district of Wansheng, Chongqing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Q.; Liu, D.; Zhu, Z.; Sun, H. [Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing (China)

    2007-06-15

    The article discusses the situation and background of two landslides and a series cause of two environmental geological hazards of a coal dump waste in Nantong mining district, China. The stability of the waste dump was discussed using the limiting equilibrium method and the FLAC numerical simulation method. The results indicate that the stability of the waste dump was insufficient before rainfall and a potential slip surface existed in the waste dump. After rain, the stability of the waste dump decreased. At the same time, self-ignition and explosion of the coal waste occurred and then a blast. The blast made the dump loose its self-organised critical state and a mass of coal wastes burst from the dump and turned into flow. Lessons can be drawn from this. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Impact assessment of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district using geoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S A; Katpatal, Y B

    2008-10-01

    The industrial development and growing population in India is in demand of more energy. Coal based thermal power generation is a major source of energy and is expanding at a very high rate leading to over exploitation of coal reserves, which is causing adverse impacts on the environment. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been found to be useful in mapping and monitoring of dynamic changes taking place due to mining activity. Satellite based environmental impact assessment involves various aspects, such as land use, water resources, land degradation, etc. These studies help in formulating environmental management plan for the mining sector. Coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district so far have lost 2139.68 hectares of land constituting a fertile agriculture land, reserve forest, protected forest and natural river course of Erai river, Upsa nala and Motaghat nala severely affecting the watershed eco-system. Therefore, an in-depth impact assessment study of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district was carried out using geoinformatics and the results are presented in this paper.

  11. Pressure combustion of Rhenish brown coal. Final report; Druckkohlenstaubverbrennung von rheinischer Braunkohle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayar, A.; Fielenbach, C.; Gross, R.; Holfeld, T.; Lockemann, S.; Severin, C.; Thulfaut, C.; Hillemacher, B.

    2003-07-01

    NOx formation and reduction in the coal combustion process was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The influence of coal grain size described in earlier publications was proved by the measurements at the DKSF test facility at Aachen. While no pressure dependence was established so far for lignite, measurements on Spitzbergen coal at 9 - 13 bar showed a decrease in NOx concentrations with increasing pressure. This effect will be investigated for Rhenish brown coal in further experiments. Modelling by the standard FLUENT code and by the user defined subroutines of the FLUENT code developed by the International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF), Ijmuiden, showed that the different predictions of flame temperatures have a decisive role in the modelling of NOx formation. A more accurate analysis of the NOx models as compared to ther measurements will be carried out in a melting chamber furnace with a stable flame. Additionally, measurements were carried out for investigating the kinetics of homogeneous gaseous phase reactions in flue gases, i.e. the thermal and additive-catalysed degradation of nitrous components was investigated. The kinetics of the process was also described by a code developed at Aachen University. On the base of a sensitivity analysis, a reduction of the detailed modelling of the reaction kinetics is achieved which permits 2D and 3D calculations on the decomposition of different flue gas components using a CFD code like FLUENT. The 1D and 2D calculations and the measurements were found to be in good agreement. [German] Im Rahmen des Forschungsschwerpunkts 3 wurde experimentell und theoretisch die NO{sub x}-Bildung und -Reduktion bei der Druckkohlenstaubverbrennung untersucht. Der zuvor beschriebene Einfluss der Kohlemahlung auf die Flamme konnte auch anhand der NO{sub x}-Messungen an der DKSF-Anlage Aachen bestaetigt werden. Waehrend mit Braunkohle im Staubfeuerungsbetrieb noch keine eindeutige Druckabhaengigkeit nachgewiesen werden

  12. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  13. Organic geochemistry and coal petrology of Tertiary brown coal in the Zhoujing mine, Baise Basin, South China; 3. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-G.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Shashi City (China). Petroleum Geochemistry Unit)

    1991-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the Tertiary brown coal from Zhoujing mine have been characterized in detail. They are composed mainly of aromatic sesqui-, di-, sester- and triterpenoid hydrocarbons, with retene and simonellite as the predominant species. Secondary in abundance are mono- to pentaaromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons, derived from oleanane, ursane and lupane precursors, indicators of terrestrial sources. Minor species present are a tetraaromatic norhopane, undecyltoluene and perylene and most of the regular polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are found at trace levels only. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankowski, P; Zou, L; Hodges, R

    2004-10-18

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition.

  15. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvara, Frantisek, E-mail: skvaraf@vscht.cz [ICT Prague, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Department of Glass and Ceramics, 166 28 Prague 6, Technicka 5 (Czech Republic); Kopecky, Lubomir, E-mail: kopecky@fsv.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, 166 29 Prague 6, Thakurova 7 (Czech Republic); Smilauer, Vit, E-mail: vit.smilauer@fsv.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, 166 29 Prague 6, Thakurova 7 (Czech Republic); Bittnar, Zdenek, E-mail: bittnar@fsv.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, 166 29 Prague 6, Thakurova 7 (Czech Republic)

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M{sub n} [-(Si-O){sub z}-Al-O]{sub n}.wH{sub 2}O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ({sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al, {sup 23}Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2 kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the {sup 29}Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The {sup 23}Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H{sub 2}O){sub n} rather than Na{sup +}, thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr{sup 6+} are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 3+} are reported.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan-Fang; Xing, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ze-Zhou; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yang, Dan; Yuen, Dave A; Sandy, Edward H; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Li, Xiao-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Mining activities are among the major culprits of the wide occurrences of soil and water pollution by PAHs in coal district, which have resulted in ecological fragilities and health risk for local residents. Sixteen PAHs in multimedia environment from the Heshan coal district of Guangxi, South China, were measured, aiming to investigate the contamination level, distribution and possible sources and to estimate the potential health risks of PAHs. The average concentrations of 16 PAHs in the coal, coal gangue, soil, surface water and groundwater were 5114.56, 4551.10, 1280.12 ng g(-1), 426.98 and 381.20 ng L(-1), respectively. Additionally, higher soil and water PAH concentrations were detected in the vicinities of coal or coal gangue dump. Composition analysis, isomeric ratio, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed to diagnose the potential sources of PAHs in different environmental matrices, suggesting the dominant inputs of PAHs from coal/coal combustion and coal gangue in the soil and water. Soil and water guidelines and the incremental lifetime risk (ICLR) were used to assess the health risk, showing that soil and water were heavily contaminated by PAHs, and mean ICLRcoal/coal-gangue and mean ICLRsoil were both significantly higher than the acceptable levels (1 × 10(-4)), posing high potential carcinogenic risk to residents, especially coal workers. This study highlights the environmental pollution problems and public health concerns of coal mining, particularly the potential occupational health hazards of coal miners exposed in Heshan.

  17. Test with Rhein brown coal in 1-liter oven and fourth report on neutralization of coal and precipitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz

    1942-10-12

    A 1.5 liter sump oven, without stirrer, was used for preparation of Rhein coal with different grinding oils. Partial neutralization of the coal, by mixing sulfuric acid or sulfates with wet coal before drying, was sought. Oven precipitation was reduced by addition of street tar (high middle oil content) and Bruex tar (up to 350/sup 0/C) as well as by a mixture of Estonian slate tar oil and anthracitic tar oil in ratio of 80:20, but there was chalk-coke residue similar to caviar found when the oven was disassembled. Fifty percent neutralization of the coal by sulfuric acid as opposed to untreated coal gave some reduced vaporization and lower asphalt content. Iron sulfate catalyst also gave good results; magnesium sulfate, somewhat less. Though not unequivocally, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and FeSO/sub 4/ both apparently reduced precipitants. A mixture of magnesium sulfate with iron sulfate gave less favorable results over all. Untreated coal with the previous catalysts produced the undesirable caviar-precipitants. The results of the tests were questionable since exactness in components, viscosity, and other problems hindered reproducing the tests consistently. 2 tables.

  18. Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1983-09-01

    The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

  19. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  20. Relative Efficiency of Brown Sugar Agroindustry in Kokap District, Kulon Progo Regency, D.I. Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Dian Eswin; Hartono, Slamet; Darwanto, Dwidjono Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture industry is the activity using agriculture product as raw material by further process become the result product and is conducted by packaging, saving to the distributor toward consumer. Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) is one of agriculture commodity that has good potential market in Kulon Progo. Besides sold as a fresh product, coconut tree also produced nira (liquid from palm tree) that is quite potential if it is further process become brown sugar (brown sugar) to increase economic val...

  1. Studies of angiospermous woods in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insight into early coalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar

  2. Change of brown coal oxidation kinetic characteristics by promoting additives appending in the form of copper salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, K. B.; Mishakov, I. V.; Gromov, A. A.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Process of brown coal oxidation with 5%wt content of copper-salt additives of various nature (Cu (NO3)2, CuSO4 and Cu(CH3COO)2) was studied. The experiment has been performed by thermogravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 2.5°C/min to a maximum temperature of 600°C in the air. Analytical evaluation of oxidation process kinetic characteristics has been conducted based on the results of TGA. It has been established that addition of initiating agents leads to significant reduction in the initial ignition temperature of coal (ΔTi = 15÷40°C), shortening of the sample warm-up time to the ignition point (Δte = 6÷12 min) and reduction of the sample burning time (Δtf = 40÷54 min). The following series of additives activity affecting ignition temperature of coals has been established: Cu(CH3COO)2 > Cu(NO3)2 > CuSO4. Additionally, the opposite can be said about the effect of additives on residence time of the sample in its combustion area (CuSO4 > Cu(NO3)2 > Cu(CH3COO)2). According to mass spectrometric analysis, presence of NOx, SO2, CO2 (intense peaks at 190÷290°C) was recorded in oxidation products of modified samples, which is explained by partial or complete decomposition of salts.

  3. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  4. Molecular analysis of sulphur-rich brown coals by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: The type III-S kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Las Heras, F.X.C. de; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1992-01-01

    The molecular composition of five brown coals from three different basins (Maestrazgo, Mequinenza and Rubielos) in Spain was investigated by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography and flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In these techniques, the macromolecular material is thermally

  5. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  6. Quantum chemical investigation of the thermal pyrolysis reactions of the carboxylic group in a brown coal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyu; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Huifang

    2012-01-01

    Different reaction pathways of the carboxylic group in a brown coal model were investigated by applying density function quantum chemical theory, examining the possible cross-linking and decomposition reactions between the hydrogen bonded carboxylic group-carboxylic group and the carboxylic group-hydroxyl group during the thermal pyrolysis process. The results show that bimolecular dehydration and decarboxylation of hydrogen bonded carboxylic groups have distinctly lower activation barriers and therefore, proceed preferentially at low temperature. The esterification reaction between the hydrogen bonded carboxylic group and hydroxyl group, together with unimolecular decarboxylation of isolated single carboxylic groups were also possible at moderate temperature. Aryl-aryl coupling is thought to occur via radical pyrolysis and recombination at relatively high temperature.

  7. A transition perspective on alternatives to coal in Chinese district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available China accounts for half of the world’s annual coal consumption. Coal is the primary energy source for heating in urban areas, particularly in northern China. This causes significant challenges for urban air quality problems in China and greenhouse gases emissions. Urban district heating (DH systems penetration is very high in northern China. It supplies space heating to more than 80% of urban buildings in the area. Unlike the electricity and transportation sectors, the heating sector has received little attention from policy makers and researchers in China, DH systems are an enabling infrastructure which facilitates energy efficiency improvements and the use of renewable energy sources. This study explores the dynamics and possibility to expand alternative energy sources (natural gas, biomass, direct geothermal heat, ground-source heat pump, municipal waste heat, industrial waste heat for DH in China. We apply an analytical framework largely based on the multi-level perspective in socio-technical transitions theory, in which transitions are interpreted as the result of the functioning of niche, regime and landscape elements, and interactions between them. The study provides an integrated picture of the socio-technical structure and functioning of DH in China. The results show that an energy transition in Chinese DH systems has barely started. The system is characterised by stability of the coal-based DH regime, while a number of alternative niches are struggling to emerge. Among these, natural gas is the most successful example. However, at local level different niches present opportunities in terms of physical availability, economic viability and technical capacity to address changes in landscape pressures. A sustainable heat roadmap based on integrated energy planning and policy attention at the national level could be developed as one mechanism for instigating a much needed energy transition in DH in China.

  8. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  9. Thermogravimetric study of the combustion of Tetraselmis suecica microalgae and its blend with a Victorian brown coal in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Arash; Kassim, Mohd Asyraf; Yu, Jianglong; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-12-01

    The combustion characteristics of microalgae, brown coal and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres were studied using thermogravimetry. In microalgae combustion, two peaks at 265 and 485°C were attributable to combustion of protein and carbohydrate with lipid, respectively. The DTG profile of coal showed one peak with maximum mass loss rate at 360°C. Replacement of N2 by CO2 delayed the combustion of coal and microalgae. The increase in O2 concentration did not show any effect on combustion of protein at the first stage of microalgae combustion. However, between 400 and 600°C, with the increase of O2 partial pressure the mass loss rate of microalgae increased and TG and DTG curves of brown coal combustion shifted to lower temperature zone. The lowest and highest activation energy values were obtained for coal and microalgae, respectively. With increased microalgae/coal ratio in the blends, the activation energy increased due to synergy effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of coalified gymnosperm xylem tissue from Australian brown coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Bates, A.L.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    We report here on the use of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to contrast the average chemical composition of modern degraded gymnosperm woods with fossil gymnosperm woods from Australian brown coals (Miocene). We first established the quantitative nature of the NMR techniques for these samples so that the conventional solid-state 13C NMR spectra and the dipolar dephasing NMR spectra could be used with a high degree of reliability to depict average chemical compositions. The NMR results provide some valuable insights about the early coalification of xylem tissue from gymnosperms. Though the cellulosic components of wood are degraded to varying degrees during peatification and ensuing coalification, it is unlikely that they play a major role in the formation of aromatic structures in coalified woods. The NMR data show that gynmosperm lignin, the primary aromatic contribution to the coal, is altered in part by demethylation of guaiacyl-units to catechol-like structures. The dipolar dephasing NMR data indicate that the lignin also becomes more cross-linked or condensed. ?? 1989.

  11. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. "Mendez v. Westminster School District": How It Affected "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Frederick P.

    2005-01-01

    Most Americans are keenly aware of the African American civil rights movement. However, few know about the comparable struggle of Mexican Americans to enjoin the practice of segregated public schools in the Southwest. This article analyzes "Mendez v. Westminster School District," a 1946 federal court case that ruled that separate but…

  13. Novel C-ring cleaved triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, F. X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-11-01

    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl/naphthyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C 8(14) bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings.

  14. Novel C-ring triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Las Heras, F.X. (Escola Univ. Politecnia de Manresa, Catalonia (Spain)); Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J.

    1991-11-01

    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C{sub 8(14)} bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings.

  15. Novel C-ring cleaved triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, F.X. de las; Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. (Escola Universitaria Politecnica de Manresa (U.P.C.), Manresa (Spain))

    1991-11-01

    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl/naphthyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C{sub 8(14)} bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings. 38 refs.

  16. Gelification of Victorian Tertiary soft brown coal wood. II. Changes in chemical structure associated with variation in the degree of gelification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.J.; Barron, P.F.

    1984-09-01

    The gross chemical structures of xylites and gelified soft brown coal woods, Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, as determined by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are compared with those of present-day wood-derived materials prepared from an angiosperm, Eucalyptus regnans, and a gymnosperm (conifer), Pinus radiata. Also examined are the changes in the gross chemical structures of soft brown coal woods with increase in their degree of gelification and the relationship between these changes and variations in their chemical composition and microscopic appearance. The Victorian xylites exhibit greater affinities with the present-day gymnosperm than the present-day angiosperm. The progressive removal of cellulose with increasing degree of gelification can be equated with an increase in huminite reflectance, elimination of humotelinite autofluoresence and changes in the relative proportions of the humotelinite submacerals. The lignin structure of xylite is also modified during the gelification process, including the progressive loss of methoxyl groups and evidence of minor oxidation.

  17. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A MINERAL-AND-ORGANIC FERTILISER PRODUCED FROM BROWN COAL ON THE OCCURRENCE AND INFECTIOUS POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the species composition and rate of entomopathogenic fungi occurrence in cultivable soil following the application of a mineral-and-organic fertiliser produced from brown coal. The material for testing consisted of soil samples collected in the second year of the experiment on two dates in 2015 (spring and autumn. The experiment was carried out on the following plots: control plot (no fertilisation; a plot fertilised with mineral fertilisers NPK presowing + N60 for top dressing; a plot fertilised with NPK presowing + manure; a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 1 t/ha NPK presowing + N20 for top dressing; and a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 5 t/ha NPK presowing + N40 for top dressing. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil of particular fertilisation experiment plots using insect traps (Galleria mellonella larvae as well as a selective medium. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Isaria fumosorosea, were isolated using two methods, from the soil samples collected from particular fertilisation experiment plots on two dates, i.e. spring and autumn. Fungus M. anisopliae s.l. proved to be the predominant species in the tested soil samples. The addition of the mineral-and-organic fertiliser, produced based on brown coal, to the soil at both applied doses contributed to an increase in the number of infectious units (CFUs of entomopathogenic fungi formed in relation to the control plot.

  18. Molecular simulation of CO2/CH4 adsorption in brown coal: Effect of oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yong; Zhao, Lianming; Lu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jing; Sang, Pengpeng; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Houyu; Guo, Wenyue

    2017-11-01

    The CO2/CH4 adsorption behaviors in brown coal at the temperatures of 298, 313, and 373 K and in the pressure range of 0.005-10 MPa were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD), density functional theory (DFT), and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The absolute adsorption isotherms of single-component CH4 and CO2 exhibit type-I Langmuir adsorption behavior showing a negative influence of temperature. For the binary CO2/CH4 mixture, brown coal shows super high selectivity of CO2 over CH4 at pressures below 0.2 MPa, which then decreases quickly and finally tends to be constant when the pressure increases. The high competitive adsorption of CO2 originates from the effects of (i) the large electrostatic contributions, (ii) the conducive micropore environment with pore sizes below 0.56 nm, and (iii) the stronger adsorption of CO2 with respect to CH4. These effects are strengthened by the high-density oxygen-containing, pyridine, and thiophene functional groups contained in brown coal, which provide abundant and strong adsorption sites for CO2, but show weaker affinity to CH4. Furthermore, the influence of various nitrogen- and sulfur-containing functional groups on the CO2 adsorption capacity was also investigated. The results indicate that the basicity of the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups has a large influence on the CO2 adsorption, while for the sulfur functional groups the determining factor is the polarity.

  19. Biomass as auxiliary fuel in brown coal power stations; Verwertung von Biomasse als Zusatzbrennstoff in Braunkohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, N.; Kakaras, E. [National Technical Univ. Athens (Greece). Thermal Engineering Section

    1998-12-31

    Greek lignite is characterized by a high water and ash content (water content between 56 and 60%, ash content between 11 and 18%), and its calorific value is between 3 200 and 6 000 KJ/kg. The varying coal quality considerably affects the generating performance, and at certain times the planned performance can only be achieved by adding diesel oil, respectively hard coal. In Greece, some 400 000 tons of olive kernel granulated material per year are obtained as by-product during olive oil production. Due to the calorific value of this granulated material with H{sub u} 16 740 KJ/kg, the high content of volatile matter of approximately 75% and an ash content of 17.2% (waterfree), the application of this fuel as additional fuel is interesting with a view to the increase of the calorific value, respectively the stabilizing of the firing. As an alternative to imported coal or oil the co-combustion of this indigenious biomass was examined. In this context, pyrolyse and combustion trials have been carried out at NTUA, Athens. Furthermore, various mixtures of lignite and olive kernel granulated material have been burnt in the Megalopolis Power Plant. This Contribution describes the results of the examination. (orig.) [Deutsch] Griechische Braunkohle ist durch einen hohen Wasser- und Aschegehalt (Wassergehalt 56 bis 60%, Asche 11 bis 18%) gekennzeichnet. Sie hat einen Heizwert von 3 200 bis 6 000 KJ/kg. Die Schwankung der Kohlequalitaet beeinflusst die erzeugte Leistung erheblich, und zu gewissen Zeiten ist es ohne Beimischung von Dieseloel bzw. Steinkohle unmoeglich, die erforderliche Leistung zu erreichen. In Griechenland fallen jaehrlich etwa 400 000 Tonnen Olivenkerngranulat bei der Olivenoelgewinnung als Nebenprodukt an. Der Heizwert dieses Granulats mit H{sub u}{proportional_to}16 740 KJ/kg, der hohe Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen von etwa 75% (w.f.) und der Ascheanteil von 17,2% machen diesen Brennstoff als Zusatzbrennstoff fuer die Erhoehung des Heizwertes bzw

  20. Utilisation of geothermal heat in flooded coal mines of the Aachen and southern Limburg coal districts; Gewinnung von Erdwaerme aus gefluteten Steinkohlenbergwerken des Aachener und Suedlimburger Reviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Rosner [Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Demollin-Schneiders, Elianne [Gemeinde Heerlen (Netherlands); Hofmann, Thomas [EBV GmbH, Hueckelhoven (Germany). Bereich Bergbaufolgearbeiten - Umwelt

    2008-07-01

    In the flooding of abandoned mines, the main concern is the control of potential effects on the surface terrain and on the groundwater, i.e. safety aspects. In the context of the current intensive discussion of the potential uses of renewable energy sources, the warm water available in flooded mineshafts is an important option for power supply to former mining regions. As a rule, shafts and pipelines are still in existence which, together with the underground roadways, will make it easy to utilise geothermal energy. The contribution outlines the state of research on thermal utilisation of mine water in the transfrontier coal district of Aachen and southern Limburg. (orig.)

  1. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiec, Jan P; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  2. Power plant ash and slag waste management technological direction when Kansk-Achinsk brown coal is burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today resource efficiency technology development in all industries where conventional raw material is being replaced by local natural resources and industrial waste is an essential matter. Along with that most producing operations are overload with wide range of waste produced during technological process. Thermal power stations are real world evidence. Their main waste is ash and slag which accumulated in great amounts in often overfull ash dumps. The goal of present work is to find perspective ash dump waste utilization methods. The study will be based on experimentally obtained data: elementary compound and properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal. Research methods: experimental, chemical silicate analysis, mineralogical forms identification within samples by using ASM X-ray diffraction analysis. Experiments resulted with the following conclusions: silica is ash main component, and ash has the form of ore concentrate analogy in a number of elements. We think that ASM main properties which make it useful for utilization are: high content of calcium oxide; high ash sorption properties; ASM radiation safety class which makes them safe to be used in materials, goods, and structures production for residence and public buildings construction and reconstruction; sufficiently high content of individual elements.

  3. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  4. Recolonization and development of vegetation on mine spoils following brown coal mining in Lusatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, W.H.O. [Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus, Cottbus (Germany). Chair of Soil Protection and Recultivation

    1996-09-01

    A survey of primary colonization and succession of vegetation on various deposited substrates, littoral and shallow water areas of mining lakes and residual waters of the Lusatian lignite mining district is presented. Dumped substrates are characterized by a high acid potential which is caused by pyrite and marcasite of Tertiary origin. In the process of pyrite oxidation free mineral acids and large quantities of sulphate and bivalent iron are liberated. Residual waters are characterized by extreme acidity with pH values between 1.9 and 3.1 and by extremely high iron contents. Non-linear positive correlations are demonstrated between pH values and free mineral acids and between pH values and free carbonic acids (CO{sub 2}) and bivalent iron. In aquatic, semi-aquatic and in terrestrial areas the succession of vegetation can be described by the following five main stages: stage of primary colonization and spontaneous vegetation; stage of monodominant species stands; stage of the formation of vegetation mosaics; stage of the formation of plant associations; final stage of succession. Index species of the terrestrial colonization are Corynephorus canescens and Calamagrostis epigejos, while Juncus bulbosus is the indicator species of aquatic colonization. The succession of vegetation develops in the direction of close-to-nature vegetation conditions which are typical for the heath areas of the Lusatian Lowlands. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  6. Large herbivores in novel ecosystems - Habitat selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a former brown-coal mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøcher, Peder Klith; Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    After centuries of range contraction, many megafauna species are recolonizing parts of Europe. One example is the red deer (Cervus elaphus), which was able to expand its range and is now found in half the areas it inhabited in the beginning of the 19th century. Herbivores are important ecosystem engineers, influencing e.g. vegetation. Knowledge on their habitat selection and their influence on ecosystems might be crucial for future landscape management, especially for hybrid and novel ecosystems emerging in post-industrial landscapes. In this study, red deer habitat selection was studied in a former brown-coal mining area in Denmark. Here, natural settings were severely changed during the mining activity and its current landscape is in large parts managed by hunters as suitable deer habitat. We assessed red deer habitat preferences through feces presence and camera traps combined with land cover data from vegetation sampling, remote sensing and official geographic data. Red deer occurrence was negatively associated with human disturbance and positively associated with forage availability, tree cover and mean terrain height. Apparently, red deer are capable of recolonizing former industrial landscapes quite well if key conditions such as forage abundance and cover are appropriate. In the absence of carnivores, human disturbance, such as a hunting regime is a main reason why deer avoid certain areas. The resulting spatial heterogeneity red deer showed in their habitat use of the study area might be a tool to preserve mosaic landscapes of forest and open habitats and thus promote biodiversity in abandoned post-industrial landscapes. PMID:28505192

  7. Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in spoil heaps after brown coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldrian, P.; Trogl, J.; Frouz, J.; Snajdr, J.; Valaskova, V.; Merhautova, V.; Cajthaml, T.; Herinkova, J. [ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute for Microbiology

    2008-09-15

    Changes in the activity of extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase, chitinase, arylsulfatase and phosphatases) and the changes in microbial community and abiotic properties in the topsoil layer, as well as soil abiotic properties during primary succession were investigated in a brown coal mine deposit area near Sokolov, Czech Republic. The study considered the chronosequence of 4 post-mining plots, 4-, 12-, 21 - and 45-year old. The 4-year old site had no vegetation cover. Herbs and grasses (mainly Calamagrostis epigeios) were present on the 12-year old plot, shrubs (Salix caprea) occurred on the 21-year old plot and tree cover (Betula spp. and Populus tremuloides) developed on the 45-year old plot. Soil pH gradually decreased with site age, while the content of K, C and N peaked in the 21-year old site, being significantly lower in the 45-year old site and much lower in the 4- and 12-year old sites. Phosphatase activities were strongly affected by seasonality while the activities of all the other enzymes measured were more influenced by the effects of succession age and soil layer than by seasonality. Succession age was also the most important factor affecting the total and bacterial PLFA contents, followed by the effects of soil layer and season while for the fungal biomass content-related properties (ergosterol, fungal PLFA and the fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio), season was the most important. Activities of individual enzymes in the topsoil (0-5 cm depth) were significantly affected by both site age and season. Cellobiohydrolase and beta-xylosidase were more affected by site age while chitinase and phosphatases were more affected by season. Enzyme activity increased with succession age. Comparison of the effect of site and season on enzyme activity showed that season played a principal role in the enzyme activity of the entire 0-5 cm component of topsoil, as well the soil layers when evaluated separately.

  8. Projected configuration of a coal-fired district heating source on the basis of comparative technical-economical optimization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Radziewicz, Wojciech; Olszewski, Eligiusz; Skorek, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    District heating technologies should be efficient, effective and environmentally friendly. The majority of the communal heating systems in Poland produce district hot water in coal-fired boilers. A large number of them are considerably worn out, low-efficient in the summer time and will not comply with forthcoming regulations. One of the possible solution for such plants is repowering with new CHP systems or new boilers fuelled with fuels alternative to coal. Optimisation analysis of the target configuration of municipal heat generating plant is analysed in the paper. The work concerns repowering the existing conventional heat generating plant according to eight different scenarios of the plant configuration meeting technical and environmental requirements forecasted for the year of 2035. The maximum demand for heat of the system supplied by the plant is 185 MW. Taking into account different technical configurations on one side, and different energy and fuel prices on the other side, the comparative cost-benefits analysis of the assumed scenarios has been made. The basic economical index NPV (net present value) has been derived for each analysed scenario and the results have been compared and discussed. It was also claimed that the scenario with CHP based on ICE engines is optimal.

  9. Projected configuration of a coal-fired district heating source on the basis of comparative technical-economical optimization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tańczuk Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating technologies should be efficient, effective and environmentally friendly. The majority of the communal heating systems in Poland produce district hot water in coal-fired boilers. A large number of them are considerably worn out, low-efficient in the summer time and will not comply with forthcoming regulations. One of the possible solution for such plants is repowering with new CHP systems or new boilers fuelled with fuels alternative to coal. Optimisation analysis of the target configuration of municipal heat generating plant is analysed in the paper. The work concerns repowering the existing conventional heat generating plant according to eight different scenarios of the plant configuration meeting technical and environmental requirements forecasted for the year of 2035. The maximum demand for heat of the system supplied by the plant is 185 MW. Taking into account different technical configurations on one side, and different energy and fuel prices on the other side, the comparative cost-benefits analysis of the assumed scenarios has been made. The basic economical index NPV (net present value has been derived for each analysed scenario and the results have been compared and discussed. It was also claimed that the scenario with CHP based on ICE engines is optimal.

  10. Environmental assessment of PAHs in soils around the Anhui Coal District, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jiamei

    2010-07-01

    Thirty-three soil samples were collected from the Luling, Liuer, and Zhangji coal mines, in the Huaibei and Huainan areas, Anhui Province, China, in 2007. The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), identified as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 0.13 to 3.54 microg/g (dry weight basis) with a mean concentration of 0.84 microg/g. Among the three sampling sites selected around the coal mines, the site at the Luling coal mine revealed maximum concentration of PAHs, whereas minimum concentration was observed at the site at the Zhangji coal mine. In general, low-molecular-weight PAHs were predominant. The gob pile and coal preparation plant are the sources of PAHs pollution in surface soils in the vicinity of coal mines. The crops in rice paddies might adsorb some PAHs and reduce the PAHs content in soils from paddy fields. The vertical distribution of PAHs in two soil profiles indicates that PAHs contamination in soil profiles tends to occur high in the surface soils and markedly decreases with soil depth. For all depths, PAHs showed a similar distribution pattern, which is an indicator of a similar origin. The total B[a]P equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) was found to be maximum at the Luling area, whereas it was minimum at Liuer zones.

  11. Primary measures for the reduction of SO[sub 2] emissions from the brown coal fired power plants of Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakopoulos, D.; Kakaras, E.; Papageorgiou, N. (NTUA, Athens (Greece). Thermal Engineering Section)

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model concerning the computational simulation of SO[sub 2] reduction, with the dry additives method, inside brown coal fired furnaces is presented. The method has been applied for the case of the particular operating conditions of the Megalopolis I Thermal Power Plant furnace. The applied procedure consists of 3-D computational simulation of the brown coal combustion and the investigation of the dry additives particle trajectories along the furnace combined with the Shrinking core and the Pore tree models for the SO[sub 2] retention. The performance of the models is evaluated under varying residence time, particle's diameter, number and position of the injection location in the boiler. Advantage of this method is the fact that each one of the aforementioned models is applied for each particle position obtaining in this way realistic values of the governing variables such as SO[sub 2] concentration, flue gas temperature, H[sub 2]O and CO[sub 2] pressures. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Studies of angiospermous wood in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insights into the early coalification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassallo, A.M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms, which commonly dominated the ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of such swamps can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous wood from Australian brown coal with similar wood buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolsis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms). These two modern techniques are especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. The earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation and removal of cellulosic components and the concomitant selective preservation of lignin-derived components. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalification reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal of the lignin. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl-ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin, and this transformation leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross linked, as determined by dipolar-dephasing NMR studies. This cross linking is probably responsible for preventing the lignin phenols, which are freed from the lignin

  13. Investigation of the estrogenic risk to feral male brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Shannon International River Basin District of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Miriam A; Reid, Antoinette M; Quinn-Hosey, Kathryn M; Fogarty, Andrew M; Roche, James J; Brougham, Concepta A

    2010-10-01

    The estrogenic potential of sewage treatment effluents and their receiving waters in the Shannon International River Basin District (SIRBD) of Ireland was investigated. An integrated approach, combining biological and chemical methods, was conducted to assess 11 rivers adjacent to sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their possible interference with the endocrine system of feral brown trout (Salmo trutta). Hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, histological (intersexuality) and endocrine (vitellogenin induction) parameters were assessed in a sample size of 10 at each location. The estrogenic burden was determined using an in vitro recombinant yeast assay containing the human estrogen receptor (YES assay). In addition, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were quantitatively identified through a selection of pre-concentration techniques combined with chromatographic analysis at or near the selected locations. Chemical analysis of representative site samples identified phthalates and an alkylphenol in water and sediments in μg/L and mg/kg concentrations, respectively. There were no significant difference in somatic indices or the condition factor between upstream control and downstream test sites, and there was no evidence of reproductive alterations or the presence of intersex in studied male brown trout. However, raised vitellogenin (vtg) levels were detected in the blood plasma samples of male brown trout at 8 of the 11 sites. Significant levels were reported at 3 of the positive sites (p ≤ 0.05). In one particular location, vtg induction was observed in 100% of the male brown trout sampled downstream. These findings were supported by the YES assay, where estrogenic activity was detected in the same upstream and downstream sites giving 17β-estradiol equivalency factor (EEF) values of up to 2.67 ng/L. This study represents an integrated assessment approach, confirming the presence of estrogens in rivers of the SIRBD of Ireland, thus

  14. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  15. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M.; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols. PMID:27066076

  16. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS. Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  17. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  18. Storage and source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments downstream of a major coal district in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, O; Mondamert, L; Grosbois, C; Dhivert, E; Bourrain, X; Labanowski, J; Desmet, M

    2015-12-01

    During the 20th century, the local economy of the Upper Loire Basin (ULB) was essentially based on industrial coal mining extraction. One of the major French coal districts with associated urban/industrial activities and numerous coking/gas plants were developed in the Ondaine-Furan subbasins, two tributaries of the upper Loire main stream. To determine the compositional assemblage, the level and the potential sources of contamination, the historical sedimentary chronicle of the 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated. PAH concentrations were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in a dated core, sampled in the Villerest flood-control reservoir located downstream of the Ondaine-Furan corridor (OFC). The most contaminated sediments were deposited prior to 1983 (Σ16PAHs ca. 4429-13,348 ng/g) and during flood events (Σ16PAHs ca. 6380 ng/g - 1996 flood; 5360 ng/g - 2003 flood; 6075 ng/g - 2008 flood), especially in medium and high molecular weight PAHs. Among them, typical pyrogenic PAHs such as FLT, PYR, BbF and BaP were prevalent in most of the core samples. In addition, some PAHs last decade data is available from the Loire Bretagne Water Agency and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC/FLD). These results confirm that the most highly contaminated sediments were found downstream of OFC (Σ16PAHs ca. 2264-7460 ng/g). According to the observed molecular distribution, PAHs are originated largely from high-temperature pyrolytic processes. Major sources of pyrogenic PAHs have been emphasized by calculation of specific ratios and by comparison to reported data. Atmospheric deposition of urban and industrial areas, wood combustion and degraded coal tar derived from former factories of coking/gas plants seem to be the major pyrogenic sources. Specifically, particular solid transport conditions that can occur during major flood

  19. Estimation of potentially toxic elements contamination in anthropogenic soils on a brown coal mining dumpsite by reflectance spectroscopy: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350-2500 nm reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD, the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63. Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively, 2.0 ˂ RPD ˂ 2.5 were obtained. The PLSR model for predicting Mn (R2cv = 0.44, RMSEPcv = 116.43, RPD = 1.45 presented an inadequate model. Overall, SVMR models for the Vis-NIR spectra could be used indirectly for an accurate assessment of PTEs' concentrations.

  20. Estimation of potentially toxic elements contamination in anthropogenic soils on a brown coal mining dumpsite by reflectance spectroscopy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Asa; Borůvka, Luboš; Vašát, Radim; Saberioon, Mohammadmehdi; Klement, Aleš; Kratina, Josef; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350-2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR) with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv) and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD), the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv) = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63). Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv) ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively, 2.0 ˂ RPD ˂ 2.5) were obtained. The PLSR model for predicting Mn (R2cv) = 0.44, RMSEPcv = 116.43, RPD = 1.45) presented an inadequate model. Overall, SVMR models for the Vis-NIR spectra could be used indirectly for an accurate assessment of PTEs' concentrations.

  1. Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R

    2007-10-01

    Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk.

  2. District heating from coal cures Germany's oil phobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.

    1982-04-30

    Germany's firm commitment to district heating, energy conservation and renewable energy was the most striking impression to emerge from this year's Hanover Fair. Despite the present low price of oil, industry and government are resolved to reduce the country's dependence on this fuel. Although oil now accounts for only 44 per cent of German's total energy consumption, compared with 55 per cent in 1972, price rises and economic stagnation mean that its value is now equivalent to some 20 per cent of the country's exports compared with just 6 per cent in 1972. Space and process heating are the biggest oil users. District heating schemes, heat pumps and waste-heat recovery are all being vigorously promoted to reduce the oil demand from these sectors. A recent study by the German Ministry of Research and Technology estimates that 25 per cent of all domestic heat could be delivered economically by district heating, some three times the present installed capacity.

  3. Comparative Study of Graphite-Supported LDI- and ESI-FT-ICR-MS of a Pyrolysis Liquid from a German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Philipp; Wolf, Bianca; Kroll, Marius M; Otto, Matthias

    2015-08-04

    Pyrolysis liquids from coal are complex mixtures of organic compounds with low to high molecular mass and low to high polarity. Compared to low-molecular-weight compounds, little information is available regarding high-molecular-weight compounds in pyrolysis liquids, although their characterization is important for the elucidation of degradation pathways. In this study, laser desorption ionization (LDI) using graphite powder as the support material has been used in conjunction with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) for the analysis of a pyrolysis liquid from brown coal. The acquired data is compared to previous results of the same sample using electrospray ionization (ESI). Using LDI, compounds with masses between 300 and 900 Da were detected by LDI. An evaluation of the spectra was based on the frequency of molecular formulas with a different number of heteroatoms. Hydrocarbon compounds and heteroatomic compounds containing oxygen and sulfur were found. A comparison to ESI results shows that the numbers of observed molecular formulas are virtually the same, but a higher quantity of molecular formulas with a low number of oxygen can be detected by LDI. The observation of molecular formulas without oxygen is a unique feature of the LDI spectra. A more detailed investigation was possible by the utilization of double bond equivalent plots versus carbon number, which revealed a prevalence of LDI for the ionization of compounds with higher DBE.

  4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE RUHR DISTRICT – FROM THE FORMALLY CENTRE OF THE COAL AND STEAL INDUSTRY TO A CENTRE OF TERTIARY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Anhuf

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional development within the Ruhr district – from the formally centre of the coal and steel industry to a centre of tertiary services. The Ruhrgebiet (Ruhr district is an urban agglomeration in the western part of Germany with a population of approximately 5.3 Million, covering an area of 4.435 km². It’s part of the metropolitan area of Rhine-Ruhr with more than 10 Million inhabitants living in an area of about 10.000 km².The black coal resources, deposited during the carboniferous area form the natural backbone for the development of the largest region of coal, iron, and steel industry in Europe. The economy of the Ruhrgebiet was unidirectional dominated for more than 150 years by four heavy industry sectors, black coal, steel, chemical industry and energy production. But later, when petroleum and natural gas and cheaper imported black coal conquered the German market and, as well, steel could be produced at a reduced rate elsewhere in the world the booming producing industry quasi collapsed. Thus, the Region is characterized by an above average unemployment since the mid 70ies. More than 50% of the 1 Million jobs in the region were lost, while only 300.000 new jobs could be added within the service sector between 1980 and 2002. The economic and social structural change within the Ruhr district is primarily based on the expansion of services like advertisement, science, development, transport logistics, consulting, and design. But also the cultural and tourist branches are characterized by growing figures. The BIP, produced within the Ruhrgebiet, is about 26% of the BIP of North-Rhine-Westphalia or 6% of Germany’s BIP. In comparison, the metropolitan area of São Paulo produces 17% of the national BIP of Brazil.

  5. Utilisation of geothermal heat in abandoned mines. Examples from the Aachen coal district; Nutzung von Erdwaerme in aufgelassenen Bergwerken. Beispiel Aachener Steinkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet fuer Angewandte Geophysik; Geophysica Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Stolberg (Germany); Heitfeld, M.; Rosner, P. [Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sahl, H. [EBV Aktiengesellschaft, Herzogenrath (Germany). Bereich Bergbaufolgearbeiten - Umwelt; Schetelig, K. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie; Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    For the Aachen coal district, a feasibility study was carried out in order to clarify basic problems relating to geothermal heat utilisation in abandoned mines. Abandoned or flooded mines are highly suitable locations for geothermal heat supply from medium depths (100 - 1500 m) as the broken rock enables intensive heat exchange between rock and water and the available shafts and pipelines can be utilized. (orig.)

  6. Impact of Sulphur Content on Coal Quality at Delta Plain Depositional Environment: Case study in Geramat District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Linda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Geramat District of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. An evaluation of the geological condition of the research area shown that the coal deposits were found in Muara Enim Formation as a coal-bearing formation. The method used was literature study, field observation and the laboratory work includes proximate and petrography analysis. The aim of this research is to determine the environmental condition of coal based on the change of total sulphur content and to know the relation between ash content to calorific value.  As the result of proximate analysis conducted on five samples of coal, the research area obtained total sulphur (0,21-1,54% adb, ash content (3,16 - 71,11% adb and gross calorific value (953 - 5676 cal/g. adb. Based on the result of maceral analysis showed the maceral percentage of coal in research area composed by vitrinite (77,8-87,4 %, liptinite (0,6 %, inertinite (8,0 – 17,6 % and mineral matter concentration in the form of pyrite (1,6-4,6 %. The average reflectance value of vitrinite (Rv of coal in the research area (0.54%. the results analysis shows that the coal in Muara Enim Formation on the research area is in the transitional lower delta plain depositional environment phase. Any changes in the sedimentary environment affected by sea water will be followed by changes in total sulphur and the higher ash content, on the contrary, the lower calorific value of the coal.

  7. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the past. Further the evaluation of known surrounding abandoned mines aquifer systems, accumulated in the coal seam (underground accumulation of water and the evaluation of the effect of increasing the water level in the Kohinoor II mine, focusing on the enlargement of the central mine aquifers and the evaluation of the effects of changes in the way of pumping on the surrounding coal seam and its mining with continued safe brown coal mining at the nearby Bílina mine, that can be ensured for at least another 25 years.

  8. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mikoláš; Jiří Varady; Jaroslav Bažant; František Žoček

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB) and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the pas...

  9. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  10. Assessment of Comprehensive Effects and Optimization of a Circular Economy System of Coal Power and Cement in Kongtong District, Pingliang City, Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suocheng Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a circular economy (CE, which differs from traditional linear economy with a high consumption of natural resources and pollution, has captured much interest and attention. This paper uses a CE system of coal power and cement in Kongtong District, Pingliang City, Gansu Province, China as a case study to analyze the comprehensive effects of CE paradigm. Our simulation results, based on system dynamics (SD modeling, infer that the transformation of manufacturing towards a CE system can prominently help coal power and cement enterprises reduce waste emission and increase economic profits. Through solid waste exchanges, a power plant can achieve over RMB 80 million of additional revenue per year at the highest level. CE also contributes to the reduction of regional pollution, saves mineral resources, and improves the atmospheric environment, an accumulated total of 14.11 million t of natural gypsum and 22.67 million t of coal can be saved. This sets a promising example for coal power and cement plants worldwide. Effective regulatory measures and further optimization towards a circular economy system are essential in maintaining the stable development of a CE system due to the risk of surplus production of upstream industries and other defects.

  11. Utilisation of residues in coal and ore mining in Nordrhein-Westfalen according to the specifications of mining law. Verwertung von Reststoffen im Steinkohle- und Erzbergbau Nordrhein-Westfalens im Betriebsplanverfahren nach Bundesbergrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, H. (Landesoberbergamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dortmund (Germany))

    1992-12-01

    In order to stabilize the marketing position of domestic coal and lignite, the mining industry of North-Rhine-Westphalia developed a new sales strategy about 10 years ago. Apart from supplying coal to their customers, Rheinbraun AG and Ruhrkohle AG also took care of the disposal of residues from power plants, heating stations, and furnaces. This induced many communal and private plant owners to continue buying domestic coal - especially in southern Germany where disposal of residues was impossible or too costly. The brown coal residues were dumped in the Rheinish brown coal district, which had ample capacity. In the case of hard coal residues, the industry had to develop and test techniques for underground dumping. (orig./HS).

  12. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, P.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Francu, J.; Francu, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of a joint Czech-German project, experimental and analytical methods are being applied to improve the understanding of compositional variation of coal-related gas in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic). According to present understanding, the gas composition is controlled by generation (thermal vs. microbial), migration and adsorption/desorption processes. In particular the effects of the sorption processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of coal gases are only poorly explored. During the first stage of this project, the gas adsorption capacity has been determined for coal samples representing the paralic Ostrava Formation (Namurian A) and the limnic Karviná Formation (Namurian B-C). For this purpose, high pressure adsorption isotherms have been measured for methane and carbon dioxide on medium and low volatile bituminous coal (VRr 1.2-1.8%) from the production face of two collieries in the study area. Adsorption isotherms have been measured for pressures up to 25 MPa for CO2 and up to 17 MPa for methane at 20˚ C and 45˚ C. Isotherms were measured on dry, moisture-equilibrated and "as received" samples (moisture content: 0.5-1.7%, mineral-matter-free) using a manometric method. Sorption capacities for CH4 at 45˚ C ranged from 18 to 27 Std. cm3/g (0.7 to 1.1 mmol/g) coal, dry ash-free (daf), showing an increase of sorption capacity with increasing coal rank. For CO2, sorption capacities were generally higher than for methane, ranging from 35-40 Std. cm3/g (1.4-1.7 mmol/g) coal (daf). Equilibrium moisture contents, determined by a modified ASTM method, were significantly higher than the "as received" moisture. Sorption capacities measured on moisture-equilibrated samples were generally lower than those measured on dry or "as received" samples. Methane excess sorption isotherms show a type I Langmuir form and could be approximated using the Langmuir function. Excess sorption isotherms for CO2 show a decrease in

  13. Occurrence and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil from the Tiefa coal mine district, Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei; Yin, Hao; Wang, Ruwei

    2012-10-26

    In order to evaluate soil-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution from coal mine activities in Tiefa coal mine, Northeast China, 16 PAHs identified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Pollution Agency were determined in mining zone soil (MZS), agricultural soil (AS), local lake bank soil (LBS), a vertical soil profile and three coal gangue samples. The total concentration of 16 PAHs (defined as Σ(16)PAH, dry weight) in surface soil ranged from 5.1 to 5642.3 ng g(-1), with an arithmetic mean of 1118.3 ng g(-1). Σ(16)PAH values at the sites from MZS are significantly higher than those found in AS and LBS. The vertical distribution of PAHs indicated that these compounds can penetrate the deeper layers of the soil, especially the low-rings compounds. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. According to principal component analysis (PCA), four factors were identified in the source contribution, including coal combustion, unburned coal particulates, coal gangue and vehicular emissions. The degree of contamination and the PAH toxicity assessment suggested that the soils of the study area have been seriously polluted and pose a high potential health risk.

  14. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  15. Agora Energiewende (2016). What do Germany's climate protection goals mean for the brown coal regions? An analysis based on the eleven key points for a coal consensus; Agora Energiewende (2016). Was bedeuten Deutschlands Klimaschutzziele fuer die Braunkohleregionen? Eine Analyse auf Basis der elf Eckpunkte fuer einen Kohlekonsens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Praetorius, Barbara; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Litz, Philipp

    2016-04-15

    Since Paris's historical climate agreement, it has become clear that from now on energy supply will be discussed worldwide on the premise of decarbonisation. Germany as a traditional coal country and as a land of energy transition can no longer avoid this debate. After all, the climate targets that have been adopted several times for 2030, 2040 and 2050 will ultimately mean the end of coal-fired power generation. In January 2016, Agora Energiewende presented a proposal with the eleven cornerstones for a coal consensus on how such an exit from coal-fired power generation could look like. We are concerned with a cross-party consensus that is broadly anchored in society, which gives all parties involved planning security and reliability and at the same time paves the way for a socially balanced and fairly structured transition to the new energy system. The impacts are particularly relevant for the brown coal regions concerned. In order to make the gradual phasing out of coal-fired power generation socially and economically compatible, special attention must be paid to open-cast brown coal mines and power plants as well as to regional structural change. This publication therefore takes a closer look at precisely these aspects. [German] Seit dem historischen Klimaabkommen von Paris ist klar: Die Energieversorgung wird von nun an weltweit unter der Praemisse der Dekarbonisierung diskutiert. Deutschland als traditionelles Kohleland und als Land der Energiewende kann dieser Debatte nicht laenger ausweichen. Denn die fuer 2030, 2040 und 2050 mehrfach beschlossenen Klimaziele bedeuten letztlich den Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung. Agora Energiewende hat im Januar 2016 mit den Elf Eckpunkten fuer einen Kohlekonsens einen Vorschlag vorgelegt, wie ein solcher Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung aussehen koennte. Uns geht es um einen parteiuebergreifenden, gesellschaftlich breit verankerten Konsens, der allen Beteiligten Planungssicherheit und Verlaesslichkeit gibt und

  16. Brown Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extraction) have also been linked to acquired Brown syndrome. Inflammation of the tendon-trochlea complex (from adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sinusitis) can be ... syndrome hereditary? Hereditary cases of Brown syndrome are rare. ...

  17. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  18. STUDI KESESUAIAN LAHAN TAMBAK DI KAWASAN BEKAS PELABUHAN BATUBARA KECAMATAN SATUI KALIMANTAN SELATAN DENGAN SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS Study of Fishpond Land Suitability at Ex the Coal Port in Satui District, Tanah Bumbu Regency, South Kalimantan Province using Geographic Information System(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adnan Zain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Satui district is the largest coal producing area in South Kalimantan and it has a coastal and marine areas that quite broad. Mining activity causes a lot of impact of environmental pollution, especially water pollution. Conditions of aquaculture in Satui district is currently vulnerable to damage resulting from the former coal mining and the construction of the illegal construction of the specific port. The purpose of this study is collecting the parameters  of land suitability evaluation for pond in the Satui district pond and knowing the level of suitability coastal ponds in the Satui district with GIS. The method that applied at this research are observing and analyzingthe criteria parameters of environmental quality for pond development which supported by field data to find the level of compliance. This study including some stages, they are image using, field data collection and data analysis. Water quality, soil and land suitability analysis, the paramaters study at this study are slope, the zone fisiology, soil texture and water supply. Based on GIS analysis, the area very suitable for pond around the port is 486 ha, the suitable area is 406 ha, the moderate area is 1.734 ha and unsuitable area is 1.197 ha.

  19. Domestic coal deposits and the possibilities their utilisation for requirements in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Turèániová Ľudmila; Špaldon František

    1998-01-01

    The information on coal exploitation and deposits of brown coal in Slovakia is presented are stated. The Slovak coal industry is struggling with the economic and quality problems of energetic coal. The organization point of view is judged and the possibilities of applying the coal preparation and coal benefication methods focused on the future possible utilisation are evaluated.

  20. Domestic coal deposits and the possibilities their utilisation for requirements in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová Ľudmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The information on coal exploitation and deposits of brown coal in Slovakia is presented are stated. The Slovak coal industry is struggling with the economic and quality problems of energetic coal. The organization point of view is judged and the possibilities of applying the coal preparation and coal benefication methods focused on the future possible utilisation are evaluated.

  1. Biostimulators from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, L.V.

    1984-04-01

    A report is presented on a meeting of the Bureau of the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR on chemistry of fossil fuels held on 21-22 November 1983 in Moscow. Papers delivered during the meeting are evaluated. Chemistry of black and brown coal from the USSR was analyzed. Chemical coal properties which are of particular significance for coal use as an agricultural fertilizer (biostimulator of plant growth) were investigated. Brown and black coal with the highest oxidation level used as a fuel by power plants could be used for production of fertilizers with a high content of humic acids. Tests carried out in the USSR in various climatic zones (in the North and in Central Asia) showed that biostimulators from coal improved plant growth, reduced ripening period, increased crops, improved physical properties of soils (prevented moisture losses). Utilizing selected wastes from coal processing for production of biostimulators was also discussed. Methods for coal preparation for biostimulant production (crushing, screening, chemical processing) were evaluated. Prospects of biostimulator use in land reclamation were discussed.

  2. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  3. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  4. Occurrence and habitat selection of Arctosa cinerea (fabr., 1777) (Araneae, lycosidae) in exhausted opencast brown coal mining areas in central Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail A. Al Hussein [Martin-Luther-University, Halle (Germany). Institute of Zoology

    2002-07-01

    Investigations upon spider communities were led through in eight exhausted opencast mining areas in Saxony-Anhalt in the years 1996-1998. A total of 111 investigation sites were examined, at 14 sites the wolf spider Arctosa cinerea (Lycosidae) could be proved by means of pitfall traps and also by visual control. All these sites were situated near waters and were characterized by sandy soil with gravel and coal. With the exception of two sites, where Phragmites communities and Juncus sp. as well as Salix and Betula trees were growing, the sites were nearly bare of vegetation. With these investigations, results about the activity period and ecological requirements of A. cinerea under the specific conditions of the exhausted open-cast mining areas in Central Germany were obtained. A. cinerea was captured over the whole investigation period in pitfall traps, with the exception of the winter months. Maximum activity was observed from May until September. In most cases more females than males were captured. It seems worth to notice that A. cinerea nearly constantly occurred together with Argenna patula (Dictynidae), which is known as halotolerant.

  5. Reaction between coal and ferric chloride (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkanyan, R.O.; Khripunov, S.V.; Baranov, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Investigates absorption of ferric chloride (III) with free and filled (hexahydrate) coordination spheres, and antimony chloride (V) by various rank coal (brown coal to anthracite). Determines magnitude of specific absorption due to dynamic pore formation. Confirms polyassociative structure of coal with donor-acceptor characteristics and its similarity with polyassociative frame matrix in clathrate forming compounds. Gives specifications of coal used and provides data on specific absorption, diffractograms and paramagnetic characteristics of coal and adduct, and others. States that coal exhibits properties of intermolecular donor-acceptor complex with charge transfer and with comparatively unstable bonds which determine their paramagnetism and high specific absorption. 9 refs.

  6. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  7. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Hiller, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N. [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  8. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  9. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  10. formation and behaviour of coal free radicals in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    B. M., Raaen, V. F., Maupin P. H. Brown L. I and Collins C. J., 1978. Thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in selected coal – related structures. Fuel 57, 269 –. 27. Cui H., Yang J, Liu Z and Bi J., 2002. Effect of remaining catalysts and enriched coal minerals on devolatilization of residual chars from coal liquefaction Fuel 81,.

  11. Brown recluse spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. It ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin-shaped ...

  12. Devolatilization and ignition of coal particles in a two-dimensional fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; Siemons, R.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1989-01-01

    In a two-dimensional (15 × 200 × 400 mm) high-temperature fluidized bed, devolatilization ignition and combustion phenomena of single coal particles have been studied. The particles, with diameters of 4–9 mm, were selected from three coal types of widely different rank: brown coal, bituminous coal,

  13. Coal geology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology. All aspects of coal geology are covered in one volume, bridgint the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry...

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 5. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 5). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elementary matters, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include engineering specifications related to electrical designs, lists of electrical items, specifications related to civil engineering designs, drawings such as planning drawings, and a detailed construction design drawn by an Australian engineering corporation and related documents and drawings. Concerning the manufacture of mechanical systems, items procurable in Japan, specifications of items procurable in Australia, lists, drawings, etc., are shown. Also included are the details of on-site preparation for construction and on-site work, conceptual designs of processes of dehydration, deashing, and secondary hydrogenation, etc. (NEDO)

  15. The feasibility of underground pumped storage plants in the active coal mines in the Ruhr district; Zur Machbarkeit untertaegiger Pumpspeicherwerke in den aktiven Steinkohlebergwerken des Ruhrreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Andre; Wortberg, Timo [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft; Eilert, Walter [RAG AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Standort- und Geodienste

    2013-08-15

    With the expiration of the coal mining in 2018, the mining is leaving an extensive infrastructure. Shaft depths of up to 1200 m, numerous linings at depth and a large area drainage open perspectives for subsequent use as a subsurface pump storage plant. This could be at the current mining locations a contribution to the energy storage problem. [German] Mit dem Auslaufen des Steinkohlenbaus im Jahre 2018 hinterlaesst der Bergbau eine umfangreiche Infrastruktur. Schachttiefen von bis zu 1200 m, zahlreiche Ausbauten in der Tiefe und eine grossraeumige Wasserhaltung eroeffnen gegebenfalls Perspektiven fuer eine Folgenutzung als untertaegiges Pumpspeicherwerk. Damit koennte an den heutigen Bergbauorten ein Beitrag zur Energiespeicherproblematik verfolgt werden.

  16. Research of rheological properties improvement methods of coal-water fuel based on low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of coal-water fuel (CWF rheological properties based on 3B brown coal have been conducted using different processing methods, such as rotary flows modulation device (RFMD, sodium hydroxide and lignosulfonate. Physicochemical properties of initial solid fuel have been determined using JEOL JCM 6000 microscope. Optimal method of coal-water treatment has been determined based on obtained data considering its influence on viscosity and sedimentation stability of coal-water slurry (CWS.

  17. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  18. Coal handling equipment at power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusko, E.; Wrobel, J. (Poltegor, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1989-07-01

    Discusses design and specifications of equipment for coal storage, handling and transport used at three power plants in Turkey designed and constructed by Polish companies. Poltegor in Wroclaw designed the materials handling systems used at the three power plants. The three brown coal fired power plants are described: Yatagan (2x210 MW), Yenikoy (2x210 MW) and Keremkoy (3x210 MW). The following systems are analyzed: coal yards, coal crushing systems, electromagnetic separators, belt conveyors for coal transport, special yards for coal mixing after crushing and metal separation, the LZKS-500/25/31.5 loaders.

  19. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  20. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 153... 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded...

  1. Review of the study ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast'' from the perspective of brown coal; Bewertung der Studie ''Entwicklung der Energiemaerkte - Energiereferenzprognose'' aus Sicht der Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyllong, Yvonne [DEBRIV e.V., Koeln (Germany); Maassen, Uwe [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In June 2014 the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) published an expertise prepared by the EWI, GWS and Prognos institutes entitled ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast''. This study presents probable developments in the energy economy up to the year 2030 (reference forecast) on the assumption of a yet more stringent energy and climate protection policy as well as continuing impediments to its implementation. Complementing the forecast is an outlook up to the year 2050 (scenario of trends). But what do the findings of this expertise say about the future utilization of Germany's greatest domestic energy resource, namely brown coal? This question is addressed in the following article.

  2. Avaliação agronômica e química de dezessete acessos de erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] - quimiotipo citral, cultivados no Distrito Federal Agronomic and chemical evaluation of seventeen accessions of "erva-cidreira" [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] - citral chemotype, cultivated at the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jannuzzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] é uma espécie nativa utilizada como planta medicinal em todo o Brasil. O citral é responsável pela ação sedativa da erva cidreira, sendo um dos principais componentes do óleo essencial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento agronômico, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial e de citral em 17 acessos de L. alba da coleção da Universidade de Brasília - UnB. O experimento foi realizado no período de 19/02/2005 a 18/03/2006, em latossolo vermelho, no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, contendo três plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros área foliar, comprimento da haste, produção de massa fresca (folhas e hastes, produção de massa foliar seca, teor de óleo essencial e de citral, rendimento estimado de óleo essencial e de citral por planta, além da caracterização do perfil aromático do óleo essencial. Os acessos L.41 (0,75%, L.45 (0,66% e L.08 (0,62% apresentaram os maiores teores de óleo essencial. O acesso L.45 (1,32 g pl-1 apresentou o maior rendimento de óleo, seguido dos acessos L.47 (0,73 g pl-1, L.41 (0,67 g pl-1, L.34 (0,67 g pl-1 e L.33 (0,62 g pl-1. Os acessos apresentaram teores de citral variando de 51,7% (L.34 a 75,1% (L.09, com média de 63,6% e predominância do isômero geranial (36,4% sobre o neral (27,8%. O acesso L.45 (0,83 g pl-1 apresentou o maior rendimento de citral. Treze acessos apresentaram o quimiotipo citral; três o quimiotipo citral-limoneno e apenas um apresentou o quimiotipo citral-mirceno. Os resultados evidenciam o potencial de produção de citral do acesso L.45, o qual poderá ser utilizado para melhorar a qualidade da matéria prima de erva-cidreira utilizada nos programas de fitoterapia no país ou em programas de melhoramento genético para esta finalidade."Erva-cidreira" [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] is a native species used as a medicinal

  3. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6.4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located ... Habitat The Brown Recluse Spider builds small retreat webs behind objects of any type. Symptoms • The severity ...

  4. Support of the business management of opencast brown coal mining with an enhanced variability of deposits based on mine surveyoral data management; Unterstuetzung der Betriebsfuehrung von Braunkohlentagebauen mit hoher Lagerstaettenvariabilitaet auf Grundlage des markscheiderischen Datenmanagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipfer, Anja [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH, Zeitz (Germany). GIS/Risswerkfuehrung

    2012-04-15

    A variable manifestation of the deposit is a particular challenge for the operational management for the continuous supply of coal in a specified range. Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (Zeitz, Federal Republic of Germany) supports the planning and production process by a GNSS controlled dredging. The storage of all operating conditions at the database level is the basis for the different evaluations. The verification of the data separaed by waste and coal enables a statement to the recoverability of the seams under consideration of a impact mapping and production data. This is an aid for the continuous improvement of the extraction planning and management.

  5. Testing the combustion qualities of coarse coal from the Moscanica coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, V.

    1987-04-01

    Presents the results of industrial combustion tests carried out in the Zenica power plant on coarse brown coal from the Moscanica surface coal mine. Describes tests carried out by specialists from the Thermal Engineering Department of the Mining Institute of Belgrade in accordance with standard control procedures laid down for steam boilers and furnaces. Coal from two defined seams was used as fuel in the horizontal crawling grate of a 2 MW sectional boiler. Describes how the quality of the coal from both seams was assessed and the effects of combustion measured. Ash slag and flue gas were analyzed. Concludes that coal from the main seam sampled was suitable as fuel in flat crawling grates but that coal from the second seam sampled could only be successfully utilized in furnaces with inclined mechanized grates, or, when pulverized, in boilers fueled by coal dust. 4 refs.

  6. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  7. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  8. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  9. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  10. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  11. Concept of co-firing coal with biomass and natural gas: On track of sustainable solution for future thermal power plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodžić Nihad; Smajević Izet; Kazagić Anes

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents R&D project of multi fuel concept (MFC) for future coal-based power plants, demonstrated on example of cofiring Middle-Bosnia brown coal with waste woody biomass and natural gas...

  12. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    OpenAIRE

    Dziok Tadeusz; Strugała Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury...

  13. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  14. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2001; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  15. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1997; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  16. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1999; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  17. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  18. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2000; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  19. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  20. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  1. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1996; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  2. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  3. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  4. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  5. Biotechnology and microbiology of coal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakoussa, R.M. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie and Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Hofrichter, M. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie, Friedrich Schiller-Univ. Jena, Jena (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    For several years it has been known that fungi and bacteria can attack and even liquefy low rank coals. This review covers the progress in coal biotechnology and microbiology, mainly during the last decade, from describing the first effects to elucidating the mechanisms used by the microorganisms. More than one mechanism is responsible for microbial coal degradation/liquefaction: oxidative enzymes (peroxidases, laccases), hydrolytic enzymes (esterases), alkaline metabolites and natural chelators. Due to the heterogeneous structure of coal, which is described in one section, and for economic reasons the review focuses on the enzymatic depolymerization of brown coal. Approaches which seem not so promising are discussed (anaerobic, reductive pathways, chemical pretreatment). Finally the possible applications and products in this field are summarized, as lignite with a worldwide production of about 940 million tons a year will continue to play an important economic role in the future. (orig.)

  6. A Curse of Coal? Exploring Unintended Regional Consequences of Coal Energy in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.

  7. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their

  8. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...

  9. Estudo florístico de segmentos de Mata Atlântica em Parelheiros, São Paulo, SP, para soltura de bugio-ruivo Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940. Floristic survey of Atlantic Rain Forest in the District of Parelheiros, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, for reintroduction of the Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Francischetti GARCIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de minimizar os efeitos da pressão da urbanização sobre bugios-ruivos, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, a Divisão de Fauna em parceria com o Herbário Municipal realiza, desde 1996, o Programa de Reintrodução de Bugios, com o objetivo de viabilizar o retorno à vida livre dos indivíduos aptos. Entre várias áreas prospectadas para possível soltura de bugios-ruivos, o Sítio Roda d’Água, distrito de Parelheiros, município de São Paulo, foi selecionado para realização do presente estudo. Todos os componentes da mata, em uma área de 89,9 hectares, foram amostrados para avaliação da disponibilidade de alimentos. Foram registradas 251 espécies vasculares, sendo 13 pteridófitas, uma gimnosperma e 237 angiospermas. O material testemunho está depositado no Herbário Municipal. Na área estudada foram registradas duas espécies ameaçadas e quatro quase ameaçadas. As espécies dos componentes arbóreo-arbustivo e epifítico, que constituem o hábitat preferencial dos bugios-ruivos, correspondem a 73,7% do total levantado. Dentro deste grupo de espécies, 17,8% já foram registradas como fontes alimentares para a espécie-alvo. Dentre as espécies já referidas na dieta de bugios-ruivos, registradas na área de estudo, todas apresentam distribuição geográfica ampla. Desta forma, a área estudada foi considerada apropriada para a soltura de bugios-ruivos, quanto à disponibilidade de recursos para alimentação. In order to minimize the urbanization pressure effects over Brown Howler Monkeys, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, the Fauna Division in partnership with the Municipal Herbarium carries out a Brown Howler Monkey Reintroduction Program since 1996, with the aim of enabling the return of fit individuals to the wild. Among several areas prospected for possible reintroduction of the Brown Howler Monkey, Roda d’Água Ranch, District of Parelheiros, City of São Paulo, was selected to carry out this study. All

  10. Combustion of Lausitz brown coal under oxyfuel. Process conditions in a 0,5 MW{sub th} combustion plant; Verbrennung von Lausitzer Braunkohle unter Oxyfuel. Prozessbedingungen in einer 0,5 MW{sub th}-Feuerungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Helge; Jentsch, Norbert; Burboeck, Martin; Panzenboeck, Helmut; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2008-07-01

    For climate policy reasons, future coal-fired power stations are to be built on the basis of the CCS technology (CCS = Carbon Capture and Storage). Thereby, the oxyfuel process combines the advantages of a simple process design at the combustion with the highest separation potential of carbon dioxide. In order to test the oxyfuel process, in the year 2005 an existing 0.5 MW{sub th} test facility of the Centre for Power Technology (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) was selected and extended by substantial components of the oxyfuel process such as for example oxygen supply, flue gas condenser. Subsequently, the oxyfuel process was examined within a test period of two years. The most important cognitions of this test period are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  11. Hydrogenation of coal in the presence of stationary wide-pore aluminium-cobalt-molybdenum catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembovskaya, E.A.; Karmanova, E.L.; Yulin, M.K.; Zaidman, N.M.; Milova, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of hydrogenating brown coal using an AlCoMo catalyst has been demonstrated. The conversion can reach 82-84% and depends on the porous structure and concentration of the active components of the catalyst.

  12. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 3. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 3). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the instrumentation design, such as the meter specifications, front view drawings for meter panels, drawings for panel arrangement in the central control room, a computer room layout drawing, control system explanation drawings, interlock diagrams, and the instrumentation power supply diagrams. (NEDO)

  14. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  15. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  16. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  17. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  18. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  19. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  20. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  1. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  2. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  3. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  4. Utilization of ferrofluids in coal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the possibilities of ferrofluid application as a separation medium and a selective wetting agent with the aim of desulphurization and ash content decreasing of brown coal from Slovak deposits. The influence of magnetic field induction on sulphur and ash content in the products of magneto-hydrostatic separation was observed. The adsorption of ferrofluids on the surface of coal was observed. The ferrofluids cause above all the change of magnetic properties and they increase the separability of materials under magnetic field.

  5. Application of XPS to coal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.L.; Grint, A.

    1983-09-01

    The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the chemistry of coal surfaces is reviewed and its application to the functional group composition of bulk coals discussed. The surface composition of a range of 19 coals (anthracite to brown coal), ground under heptane, was measured and compared with the results of bulk analysis. A good correlation was obtained for oxygen, with the bituminous and higher-rank coals showing surface enrichment in oxygen. The surface bulk correlation was less good for sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine and was poor for silicon, aluminium and iron. Silicon and aluminium are enriched at the surface while iron is surface depleted. These effects are either due to different particle-size distributions of mineral and organic phases or to the mechanism of fracture in heptane preferentially exposing specific components of the coal. Oxidation and carbonization of a bituminous coal were also investigated. Oxidation was seen to occur initially via the exterior surface, producing a distribution of carbon-oxygen groups. Singly-bonded species predominate at all temperatures, stable carboxyl groups forming in significant proportion only at temperatures > 250/sup 0/C. Carbonization was seen to result in the formation of ether linkages by condensation of hydroxyl groups. (18 refs.)

  6. Fuel Characterization of Newly Discovered Nigerian Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan Nyakuma, Bemgba; Oladokun, Olagoke; Jauro, Aliyu; Damian Nyakuma, Denen

    2017-07-01

    This study seeks to characterize and highlight the fuel properties, rank, and classification of coals from Ihioma (IHM) and Ogboligbo (OGB) in Imo and Kogi states of Nigeria, respectively. The fuel properties were examined based on ultimate, proximate, and bomb calorific analyses. The results indicated that IHM coal contains comparatively higher C and H but lower O, N, and S content than OGB. In addition, the nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) content for both coal samples were above 0.7 wt.% and 1.5 wt.%, respectively, which indicates high potential for pollutant emissions. Furthermore, the coal proximate properties were below 5 wt.% for Moisture; Volatiles (70 wt.%); Fixed Carbon (45 wt.%) and Ash (2.5 wt.%) on average. IHM coal has an HHV of 19.40 MJ/kg whereas OGB is 15.55 MJ/kg. This is due to the low carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and high oxygen (O) content in OGB whereas IHM contains higher VM and HHV. Furthermore, OGB presents better handling, storage, and transport potential. Furthermore, OGB has a higher fuel ratio and value index due to lower moisture, ash content, and volatiles. Based on the ASTM D388 standard, the coals were classified as Lignite (Brown) Low-Rank Coals (LRCs) with potential for energy recovery.

  7. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  8. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  9. Recovery process for phenolic compounds from coal-derived oils by ions of soluble metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizhang Ge; Hong Jin [Hefei Institute of Coal, Hefei (China)

    1996-11-01

    Phenolic compounds in a fraction (170-210{degree}C) of multistage rotary furnace coal tar pyrolysed from Tian Zhu brown coal at 550{degree}C were efficiently recovered by precipitation using ions of soluble metal salts as precipitant. The method overcomes the defects of the extraction method using 10 wt% NaOH solution. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. In-situ coal gasification as a progressive coal utilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, E.V.; Saltykov, I.F.

    1988-02-01

    Describes the Podzemgaz coal gasification station at Angren that was put into operation in 1961. It exploits a 15 m thick and 120-250 m deep seam of brown coal. Technology of in-situ coal gasification is described and its results are compared in regard to cost and efficiency with the results of conventional surface mining. Air blowing is used for most in-situ coal gasification in USSR. Trials using air enriched in oxygen for this purpose were conducted in 1953 and 1957 but did not find wider application. A station using oxygen enrichment technology is planned for Angren at the Apartak section, as cheaper oxygen production methods have emerged. A new concept for in-situ coal gasification using membrane technology (molecular sieves) is set out. This technology assures total chemical and power utilization of coal, yielding not only coal gas but also liquid nitrogen, hydrogen, a mixture of both these gases for ammonia production, and carbonic acid. Prospective site selection for in-situ coal gasification stations is discussed and conditions required for the respective coalfields are outlined.

  11. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: sales and foreign trade. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, refinement, employees; part II: sales in domestic and foreign trade.

  12. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  13. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  14. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    incorporated into pre-selected candidate ration components for evaluation via storage, sensory and chemical analysis. The concentration of inhibitor was...inhibiting Maillard browning, also known as non-enzymatic browning, a complex reaction which can lead to darkening of color, off- odors , off-flavors...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  15. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) hereby notifies the public that it will hold a public meeting to consider a proposal to exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977. This exchange (serial number MTM-99236) has been proposed by Jay Nance, Brett A. Boedecker, as personal representative for Susanne N. Boedecker, Joseph P. Hayes, Patricia Hayes Rodolph, and the Brown Cattle Company Shareholders Coal Trust, collectively referred to as Nance-Brown.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  18. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  19. Microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  20. Experimental Study on the Residual Strength of Coal Under Low Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Kang, Hongpu

    2017-02-01

    In underground coal mining, coal rib failure of longwall entries is almost certain due to the relative weakness of coal and the presence of high mining-induced stresses. To maintain the coal's capability of sustaining large loads after failure and substantial deformation, it is crucial to understand its post-peak behavior and subsequently, its residual strength. In this study, triaxial compression tests were performed on a total of 51 coal specimens that were classified into two groups based on the existence of calcite grains. Particular emphasis was given to evaluating the residual strength of the coal specimens. It was found that the presence of calcite grains has significant effect on the brittleness of the coal. Coal specimens containing calcite grains have lower frictional strength than specimens without calcite grains. The tests demonstrated that splitting is completely suppressed when the confinement exceeds 10 % of the coal's unconfined compressive strength. The Coulomb and Hoek-Brown failure criteria satisfactorily fit the coals' the peak strength data over the entire confining stress range. The Hoek-Brown failure criterion satisfactorily fits the residual strength data. The parameter m for residual strength is significantly greater than that of the peak strength for both groups of coal. It was also found that as the confinement increases, the increase in residual strength is greater than the increase in peak strength.

  1. Pulmonary inflammation and crystalline silica in respirable coal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    communication with V Castranova). Because the cells had been centrifuged and resuspended prior to counting, we adjusted the cell counts by the ..... dant status in coal dust-induced respiratory disorders: a lon- gitudinal evaluation of multiple biomarkers; Biomarkers 2. 45–50. Steenland K and Brown D 1995 Silicosis ...

  2. Safety during handling of coal, coal dust, coke and coke dust. Sicherheit beim Umgang mit Kohlen und Kohlenstaeuben sowie mit Koksen und Koksstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlschmidt, J.; Hoeppner, K.; May, M.; Schmieder, L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews fire and explosion prevention measures for transport, storage and combustion of brown coal and black coal. The fire and explosion hazard of coal and coke dust is characterized; various examples of hazardous situations in handling coal and coke are presented. Safety requirements for the design of coal and coke handling equipment according to GDR standard TGL 30634/02 are further noted. Safe storage of bulk coal in open-air facilities as well as safe transportation and bunker storage of fuel dust are described. Safety requirements for manually operated coal combustion equipment and for pneumatic fuel-feeding systems of steam generators are also outlined. Fire fighting methods to be employed in case of fires or suspected smoldering fires are listed briefly. (11 refs.)

  3. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    structural details of fucoidans. Mild extraction techniques coupled with the use of new tools such as enzymes can provide the much needed knowledge about structural characteristics of different fucoidan molecules and thus pave the way for a better understanding of the structural chemistry and bioactivities......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  4. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. Microwave Drying of Moist Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Karelin, V. A.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2017-03-01

    Physical principles and examples of practical implementation of drying large bodies of coal by microwave radiation are considered. It is shown that energy consumption in microwave drying of brown coals decreases to 1.5-1.8 (kW·h)/ kg as compared with traditional types of drying, for which the expenditures of energy amount to 3.0 (kW·h)/kg. In using microwave drying, the technological time of drying decreases to 4 h, whereas the time of convective drying, with other things being equal, comes to 8-20 h. Parallel with microwave radiation drying, grinding of a fuel takes place, as well as entrainment of such toxic and ecologically harmful elements as mercury, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen. An analysis of the prospects of using a microwave energy for drying coal fuel has shown that microwave radiation makes it possible to considerably economize in energy, increase explosional safety, improve the ecological situation, and reduce the metal content and overall dimensions of the equipment.

  7. Structure-Based Predictive Model for Coal Char Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Hadad; Joseph Calo; Robert Essenhigh; Robert Hurt

    1998-04-08

    Progress was made this period on a number of separate experimental and modelling activities. At Brown, the models of carbon nanostructure evolution were expanded to consider high-rank materials with initial anisotropy. The report presents detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations with non-zero initial layer length and with statistically oriented initial states. The expanded simulations are now capable of describing the development of nanostructure during carbonization of most coals. Work next quarter will address the remaining challenge of isotropic coke-forming coals. Experiments at Brown yielded important data on the "memory loss" phenomenon in carbon annealing, and on the effect of mineral matter on high-temperature reactivity. The experimental aspects of the Brown work will be discussed in detail in the next report.

  8. Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, City of Huntsville Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Government Districts, Other dataset current as of 2014. Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues.

  9. (Industrial dermatoses among the Belthatow brown coal miners)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszyncka-Kuczynska, W.

    1981-01-01

    443 subjects were examined, 235 applying to the physician due to the occurrence of skin dermatoses (group I) and 208 workers referred for periodic examinations (group II). In group I skin dermatoses were found in 100, i.e. 85%, of the subjects and in group II in 99 i.e. 48% of the subjects. In both groups the most frequent dermatosis was feet skin inflammation, especially interdigital intertrigo. Oil acne was diagnosed in 15, ordinary acne in 23, pityriasis versicolor in 19. erythrasma in 10, and eczema and contact dermatitis in 7 subjects of the first group and 3 subjects of the other group. 204 subjects with feet skin pathologies underwent mycologic examinations and 36 subjects--also bacteriologic examinations. The results of those studies indicate that in 23% of the subjects, feet interdigital intertrigo results from mycologic infections. Bacterial infections may contribute to etiopathogenesis. Imidazole compounds are useful for the treatment and prevention of interdigital intertrigo.

  10. Coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  11. SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBUSTION OF BOSNIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  12. [Brown recluse bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehemya, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Spider bites are not uncommon in our warm climate. The most prevalent species of venomous spiders in Israel are the brown recluse and the black widow. Although the black widow is more notorious than the recluse, for every bite by a black widow there are hundreds of recluse bites reported. Despite the numerous bites, there is little awareness amongst physicians with regard to the clinical signs of recluse bites, and very often the wrong diagnosis is made, resulting in complex and unnecessary treatments. The basis of this error stems from the numerous clinical diagnoses which closely imitate a recluse bite, the relative scarceness of documented recluse bites and the fact that in most cases the spider is not witnessed by the victim. The following article describes three cases of children admitted to our department, presenting with high fever, a necrotic lesion and an extensive maculopapular rash. The children were eventually diagnosed with brown recluse bites. Furthermore, the article summarizes the literature regarding the clinical signs of recluse bites, possible complications and treatment options. The objective of this review is to increase awareness towards recluse bites, thereby preventing misdiagnoses and unnecessary treatments.

  13. Steam coal forecaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This quarterly forecasting service provides a short-term analysis and predictions of the international steam coal trade. Sections are entitled: market review; world steam coal at a glance; economics/foreign exchange; demand (reviewing the main purchasing companies country-by-country); supply (country-by-country information on the main producers of steam coal); and freight. A subscription to Steam Coal Forecaster provides: a monthly PDF of McCloskey's Steam Coal Forecaster sent by email; access to database of stories in Steam Coal Forecaster via the search function; and online access to the latest issue of Steam Coal.

  14. Mercury in Eastern Kentucky coals: Geologic aspects and possible reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Quick, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury emissions from US coal-fired power plants will be regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) before the end of the decade. Because of this, the control of Hg in coal is important. Control is fundamentally based on the knowledge of the amounts of Hg in mined, beneficiated, and as-fired coal. Eastern Kentucky coals, on a reserve district level, have Hg contents similar to the USA average for coal at mines. Individual coals show greater variation at the bench scale, with Hg enrichment common in the top bench, often associated with enhanced levels of pyritic sulfur. Some of the variation between parts of eastern Kentucky is also based on the position relative to major faults. The Pine Mountain thrust fault appears to be responsible for elemental enrichment, including Hg, in coals on the footwall side of the thrust. Eastern Kentucky coals shipped to power plants in 1999, the year the USEPA requested coal quality information on coal deliveries, indicate that coals shipped from the region have 0.09 ppm Hg, compared to 0.10 ppm for all delivered coals in the USA. On an equal energy basis, and given equal concentrations of Hg, the high volatile bituminous coals from eastern Kentucky would emit less Hg than lower rank coals from other USA regions. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia

    1995-03-01

    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  17. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Kinetic study of Mongolian coals by thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargalmaa S

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analysis was used for the thermal characterization of the coal samples. The experiments were performed to study the pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of typical Mongolian brown coals. Low rank coals from Shivee ovoo, Ulaan ovoo, Aduun chuluun and Baganuur deposits have been investigated. Coal samples were heated in the thermogravimetric apparatus under argon at a temperature ranges of 25-1020ºC with heating rates of 10, 20, 30 and 40ºC/min. Thermogravimetry (TG and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG were performed to measure weight changes and rates of weight losses used for calculating the kinetic parameters. The activation energy (Ea was calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius type kinetic model.

  19. Coal Mining, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  20. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Coal desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  2. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  3. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community Development...

  4. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  5. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  6. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  7. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  8. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Lignosulfonate Application for Organic Coal-Water Fuel Rheological Properties Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lignosulfonate on viscosity of organic coal-water-fuel (OCWF was investigated. Brown coal from “Borodinskoe” deposit, waste oil Motul 8100 X-Clean 5W-30-C3, distilled water and powdered lignosulfonate was used as raw materials for slurry preparation. OCWF viscosity were measured using a rotational viscometer BROOKFIELD DV-II + Pro EXTRA. Optimum lignosulfonate concentration was obtained (1.3-1.4%.

  9. Coal terminal project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Malaysia is building the necessary infrastructure to cope with an increasing demand for electricity. Its restructured energy policy has led to construction of the 2,100 MW Manjung coal-fired power plant in the state of Perak, for which coal has to be imported via the new Lekiv Bulk Terminal (LBT) adjacent to the plant. Contracts for the LBC and the TNBJ coal stockyard were awarded to the Koch Consortium. The article describes equipment for handling and storing coal. 4 photos.

  10. Inorganic constituents in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Radenovic [University of Zagreb, Sisak (Croatia). Faculty of Metallurgy

    2006-07-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More than one hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been found in coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates), minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the order of w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprised in coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases. Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A variety of analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode of occurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumental methods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is the one most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that have influence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion. Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuously and widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is a conflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution on the other. It's known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, can be: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert a significant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  11. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  12. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-16

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2016.

  14. The particularly important role of coal in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnyansky, Georgy [World Mining Congress (Russian Federation). Russian Organizing Committee; Belovskaya Coal Mine (CJSC), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    By the end of the 20{sup th} century thermal coal had been transformed in Russia from the predominant energy resource into the least popular type of fuel. At the same time, however, demand for coal globally is growing, while Russian coal miners are primarily targeting export markets. In the opinion of experts, the volume of international trade in coal will increase by 3 bn t over the next 20 years. Meanwhile in Russia's energy sector the structure of the consumption balance of fuel and energy resources has evolved to favour gas, which is in line with economic logic. At the same time, it is necessary and already possible today to resolve the problems related to the use of coal. First and foremost, by using new technologies. Now a unique project is being created in Kemerovo Oblast, Belovsky district, which consolidates the enterprises in the coal industry, the electricity sector and coal chemical sector in a single complex. The project's developers believe that the state-of-the-art coal processing system will make it possible to expand the product line in use, and at the same time resolve the energy problems facing the region. (orig.)

  15. Atmospheric brown clouds: regional assessment report with focus on Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, V.; M. Agrawal; H. Akimoto (and others)

    2008-07-01

    UNEP commissioned an assessment of the impacts of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) on regional radiative forcing, climate, agriculture, water and health. Part 1 of this report describes the impacts on radiative forcing and climate. The impacts of ABCs on agriculture and human health are described I Parts II and III, respectively. The study identified 13 cities as ABC hotspots, including Bangkok, Beijing, Mumbai, New Delhi, Seoul, Shanghai and Shenzhen. The effect of brown clouds is to make these cities darker or dimmer because particles such as sulfates from burning coal and other fossil fuels reflect and scatter rays back to space and other particles such as black carbon absorb sunlight before it reaches the ground. Brown clouds contain a variety of toxic aerosols, carcinogens and particles including particulate matter (PM) of less than 2.5 microns in width. These have been linked with a variety of health effects from respiratory disease and cardio-vascular problems. Increase in concentrations of PM 2.5 of 20 microgrammes per cubic metre could lead to about 340,000 excess deaths per year in China and India.

  16. An approach to development of an information geomechanical structural model of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Yushkin, V.F.; Kiril' tseva, N.A.; Izotov, A.S. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

    2006-05-15

    The geographic information system designed at the Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry for the Kuznetsk Coal Basin and the non-linear geomechanics researches undertaken at the Institute of Mining has served the basis for analyzing the hierarchical structure of geological faults in the Anzherskiy economic district (Kemerovo Region). The analysis is performed by a new canonical scale for structural-hierarchical representations with base root 2, where A and x are the normalized functionally related values. The recommendations are given on how to utilize the geoinformation system of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in order to obtain a graphical-analytical representation and a system analysis of experimental geomechanical data.

  17. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  18. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  19. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District... Robles Willow Creek District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton... Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District viticultural areas within...

  20. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  1. Coalification of organic matter in coal balls of the Pennsylvanian (upper Carboniferous) of the Illinois Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Thompson, C.L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the degree of coalification of two coal balls from the Illinois Basin of the Pennsylvanian (upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Previous interpretations are mainly misleading and contradictory, primarily because of the assumption that the brown color and exceptional cellular and subcellular preservation typical of American coal balls imply chemical preservation of cellulose and lignin, the primary components of peat. Xylem tissue from a medullosan seed fern contained in a coal ball and the coal attached to the coal ball from the Calhoun coal bed, Mattoon Formation, Illinois, was analyzed by elemental, petrographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to determine the degree of coalification. The NMR and elemental data indicate the lack of cellulose and lignin and a probable rank of high-volatile C bituminous coal. These data corroborate data for a coal ball from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (Carbondale Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian) and support our hypothesis that the organic matter in coal balls of the Pennsylvanian strata of the United States is coalified to about the same degree as the surrounding coal. Data presented show a range of lower reflectances for xylem tissue and vitrinite in the analyzed coal balls compared with vitrinite in the attached coal. The data reported indicate that physical preservation of organic matter in coal balls does not imply chemical preservation. Also our study supports the hypothesis that compactional (static load) pressure is not a prerequisite for coalification up to a rank of high-volatile C bituminous coal. A whole-rock analysis of the Calhoun coal ball indicates a similarity to other carbonate coal balls from the United States. It consists primarily of calcium carbonate and 1-2% organic matter; silica and alumina together make up less than 0.5%, indicating the lack of minerals such as quartz and clays. ?? 1984.

  2. Long-term experience with maleic acid in a hard coal-fired FGD unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole [Vattenfall A/S, Vodskov (Denmark). Chemistry and Materials

    2010-07-01

    The addition of adipic acid to increase the gas cleaning efficiency of lime water in brown coal power plants is the state-of-the-art approach. In hard coal power plants, functional considerations mean that adipic acid is used less frequently. In Block 3 of the Nordjyllandsvaerket hard coal power plant, maleic acid was used over an 8-year period with great success, improving the desulphurisation capacity and simultaneously reducing operating costs. The greatest advantage of maleic acid as opposed to adipic acid is its exceptional biological stability in the flue gas desulphurising plant. (orig.)

  3. VT School Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont School Districts and one Interstate School District. Part of data sets which model Vermont's education system governance boudaries for...

  4. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  5. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  6. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  7. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  8. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  9. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  10. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  11. The Middle Miocene Yallourn coal seam - The last coal in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R.; Wallace, M.W.; Gallagher, S.J.; Wagstaff, B.E.; Chung, Li [School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne (Australia); Cartwright, I. [Earth Sciences Department, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Blackburn, D.T. [David Blackburn Environmental Pty. Ltd. 4 Egmont Terrace Erindale SA 5066 (Australia)

    2007-04-02

    The 100-m thick Middle Miocene Yallourn brown coal seam was the last of the major Latrobe Valley Group seams to form in the Gippsland Basin (southeastern Australia) and the final major coal to form in Australia. Coal deposition coincided with the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. During this warm period of relatively high sea-levels, high water tables and relatively high subsidence rates, a 565 km{sup 2} area of alternating eutrophic and ombrogenous peat swamp developed at the western end of the Latrobe Valley to form the Yallourn Seam. Stratigraphic units of the seam contain a high sclerophyll plant component and abundant charcoal, suggesting seasonal dry periods alternated with wet warm conditions characterised by abundant rushes and dense kauri forests. Iron content in parts of the Yallourn Seam is relatively high, and a strong correlation exists between the iron distribution and the abundance of proteoid roots (mainly Proteaceae) - an indicator of seasonal dry periods. The contemporaneous carbonates of the Wuk Wuk Marl were deposited in a high-productivity, upwelling, warmer water (subtropical) environment. A new carbon isotope profile at 1 m intervals through the Yallourn Seam shows a poor relationship between {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes and coal colour, but some correlation with Gymnosperm abundance. The {delta}{sup 13}C record also correlates well with long-term secular changes in climate, the presence of global carbon maxima CM2-CM4, and with the deep-sea {delta}{sup 13}C marine organic record. Thick coal seam development ended near the end of the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. The termination of coal seam deposition in Latrobe Valley was primarily the result of tectonic compression, uplift and development of adjacent highland relief, and erosion at the end of the Miocene. (author)

  12. How brown is brown fat that we can see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2014-04-01

    There are many unanswered questions related to the heterogeneity of adipose tissue depots and the paucity of their function, development, and organization at the cellular level. Much effort has been directed at studying white adipose tissue (WAT), the driver of obesity and the associated metabolic disease. In recent years, the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been appreciated. While BAT depots are prominent in many small mammal species, their detection in adult humans has been technically challenging and the identity of brown human adipocytes found within depots of WAT has remained controversial. We recently reported a peptide probe that binds to BAT vasculature and, when coupled with a near-infrared fluorophore, can be used to detect BAT in whole body imaging. This probe reliably discriminates between endothelium associated with brown or brown-like (beige/brite) adipocytes and endothelium of visceral WAT. Improved probes based on this approach could aid in assessing human adipose tissue body distribution and remodeling, which is a process underlying various pathologies. This commentary aims at discussing open questions that need to be addressed before full clinical advantage can be taken from adipose tissue imaging, as well as its metabolic activation strategies.

  13. Mathematical methods in geometrization of coal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, D. N.; Kalinchenko, V. M.; Tkachev, V. A.; Tretyak, A. Ya

    2017-10-01

    In the work, the approach to increase overall performance of collieries on the basis of an increase in accuracy of geometrization of coal thicknesses is considered. The sequence of stages of mathematical modelling of spatial placing of indicators of a deposit taking into account allocation of homogeneous sites of thickness and an establishment of quantitative interrelations between mountain-geological indicators of coal layers is offered. As a uniform mathematical method for modelling of various interrelations, it is offered to use a method of the group accounting of arguments (MGUA), one of versions of the regressive analysis. This approach can find application during delimitation between geological homogeneous sites of coal thicknesses in the form of a linear discriminant function. By an example of division into districts of a mine field in the conditions of mine “Sadkinsky” (East Donbass), the use of the complex approach for forecasting of zones of the small amplitude of disturbance of a coal layer on the basis of the discriminant analysis and MGUA is shown.

  14. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  15. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  16. Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CANNON, BARBARA; NEDERGAARD, JAN

    2004-01-01

    .... Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance. Physiol Rev 84: 277–359, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00015.2003.—The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat...

  17. Characterization of some coals and coal intercalations by high-resolution /sup 1/H (BR-24/MAS at 270 MHz) and /sup 13/ (CP/MAS) n. m. r. in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, H.; Scheler, G.; Kuenstner, E.

    1988-04-01

    High resolution /sup 1/H n.m.r. studies combining the BR-24 multiple-pulse method after BURUM and RHIM with fast magic-angle sample spinning (MAS), and high resolution solid-state /sup 13/C n.m.r. measurements with cross polarization (CP) and MAS have been used for investigating: a number of coals of different ranks; GDR soft brown coals characterized by textural differences; and typical intercalations to be found in such soft brown coals. The resolution level of /sup 1/H n.m.r. spectra achieved so far at a resonance frequency of 270 MHz permits determination of essential functional groups. The coalification series ranging from soft brown coal to anthracite shows an increase of the aromaticity values f/sub a//sup C/ and also an increase of the f..cap alpha../sup H/ values, which is analogous to the increases in reflectance and carbon content. There are marked differences between the functional groups to be found in detrital and xylite-containing soft brown coals. Tertiary (Miocene) brown coals from the 2nd Lower Lusatian seam (GDR) (i.e. unbedded, poorly bedded, bedded, xylite-containing unbedded, and gelified bedded coals) differ significantly due to variations in micropetrographical composition. Varying amounts of cellulose and lignin are contained in the xylites of the 2nd Lower Lusatian seam. /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H n.m.r. measurements are employed to determine the main constituents of substances such as pyropissite, retinite, fusite and 'monkey hairs' (fossilized rubber). 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  19. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  20. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  1. The Application for a Prediction of the Coal Spontaneous Ignition - Predisam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Vlastimil; Klouda, Petr; Blata, Jan; Helebrant, František

    2017-06-01

    The article follows the research of the project number TA01020351 called "The research of possibilities when predicting steam origin and consequent spontaneous ignition of brown coal fuels" which was researched with the support of the Technological Agency in the Czech Republic in 2011-2014 in the connection with a realized technical research. Therefore, it gives a summary information about the evaluation of the risk degree for the origin of spontaneous ignitions of the brown coal. The presented way of evaluation is based on a numeric expression of a value for MHU criteria - the point load of particular indicators is added together with other results gained from this research project. Then, more information is taken from companies running the dumps of brown coal products - both for suppliers (mining companies) and big consumers (power engineering). The complex knowledge about prediction of the origin of the spontaneous ignition enables to make an early response to eliminate a threat of mining fire in open pit mines or on the dumps of coal products. Consequently, it reduces the risk of fire and breakdowns of transportation means DPD, heavy machines and preparation plants. The working injuries are reduced as well - burns by coal in fire or inhalation of gas products from imperfect combustion.

  2. THE APPLICATION FOR A PREDICTION OF THE COAL SPONTANEOUS IGNITION – PREDISAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article follows the research of the project number TA01020351 called “The research of possibilities when predicting steam origin and consequent spontaneous ignition of brown coal fuels” which was researched with the support of the Technological Agency in the Czech Republic in 2011-2014 in the connection with a realized technical research. Therefore, it gives a summary information about the evaluation of the risk degree for the origin of spontaneous ignitions of the brown coal. The presented way of evaluation is based on a numeric expression of a value for MHU criteria – the point load of particular indicators is added together with other results gained from this research project. Then, more information is taken from companies running the dumps of brown coal products – both for suppliers (mining companies and big consumers (power engineering. The complex knowledge about prediction of the origin of the spontaneous ignition enables to make an early response to eliminate a threat of mining fire in open pit mines or on the dumps of coal products. Consequently, it reduces the risk of fire and breakdowns of transportation means DPD, heavy machines and preparation plants. The working injuries are reduced as well – burns by coal in fire or inhalation of gas products from imperfect combustion.

  3. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  4. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  6. Coal data base - thesaurus 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The thesaurus contains the vocabulary used to index the Coal Data Base maintained by IEA Coal Research Technical Information Service. The Data Base contains indexed and abstracted references to publicly-available literature covering all aspects of the coal industry. The subject areas covered include: economics and management, reserves and exploration, mining, preparation, transport and handling, coal properties and constitution, processing and conversion, combustion, waste management, environ mental aspects, coal products, and health and safety. The indexing terms are used in the preparation of the annual subject index to Coal Abstracts and should be useful in searching other data bases for material relevant to the coal industry. (Available from IEA Coal Research)

  7. New concept for the calculation of the trace element affinity in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klika, Z.; Kolomaznik, I. [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2000-05-01

    The present models for the calculation of the trace element affinity between organic and inorganic parts of coal are critically evaluated and a new concept of calculation is proposed. This new concept of calculation is based on the experimental data characterising coal fractions separated from coal samples using sink-float technique. It consists in the calculation of (a) organic element association (OEA) supposing constant concentration of the element in organic phase and (b) maximal organic element association (OEA{sub max}) supposing maximal possible concentration of the element in the organic phase of all coal fractions. For one coal sample OEA and OEA{sub max} are calculated. It must be valid that OEA {le} OEA{sub max}. This relation is not true for some elements e.g. Ge and Ga, which usually have extremely high concentration in the lightest coal fraction. Contemporary with OEA the inorganic element association (IEA) is evaluated. Using least squares method the IEA can be recalculated among mineral groups present in coal. The model was successfully tested on one sample of bituminous coal and one sample of brown coal. 17 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Proposal of a new rheological model of a highly loaded coal-water mixture (CWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School for Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Effective use of coal has been increasingly highlighted by the growing needs for energy sources. Among them low-rank coal including sub-bituminous coal and brown coal is an abundant resource, but it has not been competitive in thermal coal markets due to its low heating value and a tendency for spontaneous combustion. One solution to this problem is the Coal-Water Mixture (CWM) technique. This paper proposes a new rheological model of CWM. Several reports that have described the importance of a particle size distribution minimizes the void fraction among the coal particles in a low viscosity CWM. This model was semi-empirically derived from the concept of the average thickness of liquid layer among coal particles, and the relative viscosity of the slurry was described as a function of the void fraction and specific surface area of particles. The extension of the model to non-Newtonian fluids based on coagulation process was also discussed. The relative viscosity of CWM estimated by this model was compared with experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data when the void fraction of sample could be accurately calculated from the particle size distribution. In particular, a sample in which the void fraction of coal particles is minimal does not always show the lowest viscosity. It became clear that in theory, the relative viscosity of CWM is influenced not only by the void fraction but also by the specific surface area of particles.

  9. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  10. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.-G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene to Jurassic sediments and a set of of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. Aromatized derivatives were the major components, consisting of one or two aromatic ring species with the abietane and occasionally pimarane skeletons. The saturated structures were comprised primarily of the abietane and pimarane skeletons having from three to five carbon (C1, C2, etc.) substituents. Kaurane and phyllocladane isomers were present in only minor amounts. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids as saturated and partial or fully aromatized forms were also common in these samples, but only traces of sesterterpenoids and triterpenoid derivatives were found. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the

  11. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  12. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  13. Management of coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.M. [IEA Coal Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Stockpile management is an important part of the coal handling process from mine to customer. Virtually all coal producers and consumers make use of stockpiles at their facilities, either to serve as a buffer between material delivery and processing or to enable coal blending to meet quality requirements. This report begins by examining why stockpiles are employed. The stacking and reclaiming of piles, and the reduction of noise arising from the handling equipment is then discussed, along with stockpile automation and management. Good sampling and analysis procedures are essential for coal quality management. Sampling systems, representative samples and on-line analysis are described. Stock auditing to reconcile the amount of coal in the stockpiles is also covered. Coals are susceptible to weathering and atmospheric oxidation during storage in open-air piles. Properties and processes affected by coal oxidation and weathering, including heating value losses, handleability, cleaning, combustion and coking are examined. Spontaneous combustion poses safety, environmental, economic and handling problems if it becomes established in stockpiles. Factors affecting spontaneous combustion are discussed with the emphasis on prevention, detection and control. Stockyard operators are under constant social and political pressures to improve the environmental acceptability of their operations. Thus the control, prevention, and monitoring of fugitive dust emissions, and the composition, collection and treatment of stockpile runoff are addressed. The prevention and control of flowslides is also covered. Experience has shown that with good stockpile design and management, most coals can be safely stored in an environmentally acceptable way. 187 refs., 41 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Coal for the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    With reserves of 7 billion t of coal, Colombia is the world's fourth-largest exporter of bituminous coal and has the potential to grow further. The paper discusses current production and the future potential of the La Guajira reserves with Carbones del Cerrejon Ltd., Colombia. 1 ref.

  15. Biodesulphurisation of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Prayuenyong, P.

    2001-01-01

    The emission of sulphur oxides during the combustion of coal is one of the causes of an environmental problem known as acid rain. Biodesulphurisation technology applied as a method to remove sulphur before coal combustion was investigated in this work. The desulphurisation abilities of three specific bacterial strains including Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8, R. erythropolis X309 and Shewanella putrefaciens strain NCIMB 8...

  16. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  17. Electrolysis of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, K.E.; Tran, T.; Swinkels, D.

    1984-01-01

    The major aims of the project were: to verify early reports of the American workers and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept of electrolysis of coal slurries; investigate reaction mechanisms and the stoichiometry; measure the reducing power and oxidation kinetics of selected Australian coals; investigate some process variables, and demonstrate an electrolysis cell with practical electrode geometry.

  18. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    Coal is one of the most complex and challenging natural materials to analyze and to understand. Unlike most rocks, which consist predominantly of crystalline mineral grains, coal is largely an assemblage of amorphous, degraded plant remains metamorphosed to various degrees and intermixed with a generous sprinkling of minute syngenetic, diagenetic, epigenetic, and detrital mineral grains, and containing within its structure various amounts of water, oils, and gases. Each coal is unique, having been derived from different plant sources over geologic time, having experienty -45ced different thermal histories, and having been exposed to varying geologic processes. This diversity presents a challenge to constructing a coherent picture of coal geochemistry and the processes that influence the chemical composition of coal.Despite the challenge coal presents to geochemists, a thorough understanding of the chemistry and geology of this complex natural substance is essential because of its importance to our society. Coal is, and will remain for sometime, a crucial source of energy for the US and for many other countries (Figure 1). In the USA, more than half of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants, and almost 90% of the coal mined in the USA is sold for electricity generation (Pierce et al., 1996). It is also an important source of coke for steel production, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and even perfumes ( Schobert, 1987). It may also, in some cases, be an economic source of various mineral commodities. The utilization of coal through mining, transport, storage, combustion, and the disposal of the combustion by-products, also presents a challenge to geochemists because of the wide range of environmental and human health problems arising from these activities. The sound and effective use of coal as a natural resource requires a better understanding of the geochemistry of coal, i.e., the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the coal that control its

  19. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  20. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  1. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  2. Mammut borsoni (HAYS 1834) from the Early Pliocene of Husnicioara (Mehedinţi district, Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Codrea; Florina Diaconu

    2007-01-01

    A mastodon tooth has been found at Husnicioara coal open pit, in Mehedinţi district (southwestern Romania). It originates from the Lower Pliocene (Dacian) gravel and sand deposits lying just above the coal bed IV, mined in this quarry. The tooth exposing zygodont features undoubtedly belongs to Mammut borsoni (“Borson’s mastodont”). Although this species is very common in the Pliocene vertebrate faunas from this part of Europe, until now it was missing from the Lower Pliocene (Dacian) assembl...

  3. Characterization of Black and Brown Carbon Concentrations and Sources during winter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Liu, Yue; Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Močnik, Griša; Zheng, Mei

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), play important roles in air quality, human health, and climate change. A better understanding of sources of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol (including black carbon and brown carbon) is particular critical for formulating emission-based control strategies and reducing uncertainties in current aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced serious air pollution problems and high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in recent years, especially during heating seasons. During November and December of 2016, several severe haze episodes occurred in Beijing, with hourly average PM2.5 mass concentration up to 400 μg/m3. In this study, concentration levels and sources of black carbon and brown carbon were investigated based on 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-33) with combination of other PM2.5 chemical composition information. Contributions of traffic and non-traffic emissions (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning) were apportioned, and brown carbon was separated from black carbon. Our preliminary results showed that (1) Concentrations of BC were around 5.3±4.2 μg/m3 during the study period, with distinct diurnal variations during haze and non-haze days. (2) Traffic emissions contributed to about 37±17% of total BC, and exhibited higher contributions during non-haze days compared to haze days. (3) Coal combustion was a major source of black carbon and brown carbon in Beijing, which was more significant compared to biomass burning. Sources and the relative contributions to black carbon and brown carbon during haze and non-haze days will be further discussed.

  4. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  5. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  6. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  7. Historical review of the progress in direct coal liquefaction technology in the 21st century; Sekita kara ekitai nenryo wo tsukuru (chokusetsu ekika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-05-20

    Direct coal liquefaction technology under high pressure and temperature was established by Friedrich Bergius in Germany in 1913. Then, Matthias Pier, I.G. Farbenindustrie, realized the industrial production of gasoline from brown coal based on Bergius method in 1927. During World War 2, the industrial production of gasoline from coals was carried out in Germany, the U.K. and Japan. After World War 2, the U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated the IG process economically. As a result, it was clarified that a coproduction of coal chemicals with gasoline turned to economic advantages for coal liquefaction process. The coproduction of coal chemicals from coal liquefaction process was examined in Japan during 1956-1962. On occurring of the first oil crisis in 1973, a variety of modern coal liquefaction processes, such as SRC process, EDS process, H-Coal process, new IG process and LSE process, were developed in the U.S., Germany and the U.K.. In Japan, the Sunshine Program under AIST, MITI was started in 1974. Under the Sunshine Program, NEDO promoted the development of coal liquefaction technology, Regarding BCL process for the liquefaction of brown coal, the operation of 50 t/d pilot plant was begun from 1988 and continued by 1990 in Victoria, Australia. As to NEDOL initiated from 1996 and continued by 1998 at Kashima, Ibaraki. Results of both process development unit for the upgrading of coal liquids is under construction at Funakawa, Akita to complete coal liquefaction technologies in Japan. Coal liquefaction technologies being developed in Japan are expected to be commercialized in China or Indonesia in the near future. (author)

  8. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  9. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. Social Red Bull: Exploring Energy Relationships in a School District Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Alan J. Daly, Yi-Hwa Liou, and Chris Brown explore the idea of positive affective arousal through "energy exchange relationships" within a district leadership team. Education leaders have long been expected to be not only effective leaders but also motivators who can move change efforts forward. Although there has been…

  11. Village energy survey reveals missing rural raw coal in northern China: Significance in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Yayun; Sun, Jianzhong; Cheng, Miaomiao; Dang, Hongyan; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Junchao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Shuyuan; Meng, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Burning coal for winter heating has been considered a major contributor to northern China's winter haze, with the district heating boilers holding the balance. However a decade of intensive efforts on district heating boilers brought few improvements to northern China's winter air quality, arousing a speculation that the household heating stoves mainly in rural area rather than the district heating boilers mainly in urban area dominate coal emissions in winter. This implies an extreme underestimation of rural household coal consumption by the China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (CESYs), although direct evidence supporting this speculation is lacking. A village energy survey campaign was launched to gather the firsthand information on household coal consumption in the rural areas of two cities, Baoding (in Hebei province) and Beijing (the capital of China). The survey data show that the rural raw coal consumption in Baoding (5.04 × 103 kt) was approximately 6.5 times the value listed in the official CESY 2013 and exceeded the rural total of whole Hebei Province (4668 kt), revealing a huge amount of raw coal missing from the current statistical system. More importantly, rural emissions of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 from raw coal, which had never been included in widely distributing environmental statistical reports, were found higher than those from industrial and urban household sectors in the two cities in 2013, which highlights the importance of rural coal burning in creating northern China's heavy haze and helps to explain why a number of modeling predictions on ambient pollutant concentrations based on normal emission inventories were more bias-prone in winter season than in other seasons. We therefore recommend placing greater emphasis on the "missing" rural raw coal to help China in its long-term ambition to achieve clean air in the context of rapid economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  13. Coal. A human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, B.

    2002-07-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy and even today powers our electrical plants, has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. This book describes the history of coal, that began three hundred million years ago and spans the globe.

  14. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  15. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  16. Utilization of coal-water liquid fuel mixtures in heavy fuel oil burning boiler installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, V. (Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Termotehniku)

    1989-01-01

    Describes preliminary laboratory tests carried out to assess the feasibility of a project to be organized by the Mining Institute of Belgrade on construction of a pilot semi-industrial plant to investigate substitution of heavy fuel oil used in many thermal power plants with a coal/water or coal/water/oil mix. Tests were conducted using brown coal from the Kolubara surface mine made up in three formats: coal powder/water, coal powder/fuel oil and coal powder/water/fuel oil. Thermodynamic computations were made on each mix in order to predict their effectiveness when used to fuel TE-101 and TE-106 steam generating boilers that would normally consume 1 and 5 t fuel oil per hour respectively. Results are presented in tabular form. Concludes that the coal/oil and coal/oil/water mixes could be used as a substitute fuel with only minor modifications necessary to the boilers. Recommends proceeding with pilot plant construction. 4 refs.

  17. Investigation of Adsorbed Gases Content in Coal Beds in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadadinovic, J.

    2008-09-01

    desorption index in mining, as well as calculation of the totally adsorbed gas in newly opened mining district and coal beds. This means that it is possible by a quick operative procedure to determine the immediate danger from gas outburst, and apply preventive measures in coal mining of still unexplored coal beds.

  18. The German coal market in 2008; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, Roland; Loo, Kai van de; Lange, Achim [Gesamtverband Steinkohle (GVSt), Essen (Germany)

    2009-04-28

    The German coal market was characterised by highly conflicting trends in 2008. Coal prices on the international markets continued to rise like oil prices until summer and reached an 'all-time high'. The import prices increased accordingly. For the new annual contracts for coking coal imports the German steel industry had to make record payments of up to 300 US-Dollars/t. In autumn, however, the coal markets worldwide were drawn into the whirlpool of the global financial and economic crisis, which not only led to a drastic fall in prices, but also to a clear decline in sales. Coal consumption in Germany fell by 7.3% from 67.4 Mill.t coal units in the previous year to 62.5 Mill.t coal units in 2008. The electricity generation from coal even fell by 9.5 %. Despite the decline in coal consumption the proportion of imported coal in the German coal market increased (to 72 %) because indigenous production was reduced as planned from 22.2 Mill.t coal units to 17.7 Mill.t coal unites, i.e. by a further good 20 %. In the middle of 2008 the Walsum mine was closed as planned and on 1 January 2009 also the Lippe mine. In spring 2008 there was also an unplanned partial closure of the Saar mine. It was preceded by an unexpected earth tremor caused by the mining industry, which was followed by temporary stoppage of production throughout the Saar district and subsequent relocation of the workings to other areas, whereby the production quantities have been reduced and operation is to continue only until 2012. (orig.)

  19. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  20. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is...

  2. Coal handling for IPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.

    2000-02-01

    Demand for seaborne steam coal in Asia is expected to increase. By 2010, for example, Japan alone is expected to double its coal-fired power generating electricity capacity. At end-FY 1999 an extra 13 IPPs should come on line. Demand for new materials handling equipment at ports will increase. In terms of scraper reclaimers for stockyard storing and homogenising systems for coal handling and blending, Gustac Schade of Germany is a world leader. Schade introduced the first cantilever scraper reclaimer system at Scholven power station of VKR in Germany in 1968. Later designs have incorporated portal scraper reclaimers. Systems are available for longtidunal and circular coal storage systems, both open and enclosed. 3 photos.

  3. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  4. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Genesis and rank distribution of Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero, Juan Ramon; Barba, Pedro; Llorens, Teresa [Department of Geology, Salamanca University, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC). Ap. Co, 73. 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Fernandez-Suarez, Javier [Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Complutense University, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-03

    The Cantabrian Mountains located in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula constitute the most important coal-mining district of Spain. Anthracitic and bituminous coals (high and medium rank coals) have been mined in the area since the end of the nineteenth century and they currently account for about 70% of the total coal resources of the country. The region forms part of the Cantabrian and West Asturian-Leonese Zones of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt and is strongly deformed by a set of imbricate thrusts, coeval folds and high-angle faults. Coal-bearing successions are Westphalian and Stephanian (Pennsylvanian) in age and are exposed in numerous coalfields of variable size arranged roughly parallel to the tectonic structures. Coal rank varies from medium-rank bituminous D coals (Rr {>=} 0.5%) to high-rank anthracites A coals (Rr < 6.0%). The regional rank distribution can be correlated with the increase in the thermal effect observed from Westphalian to the Stephanian coals, and from the Cantabrian Zone to the West Asturian-Leonese Zone. These rank variations are related to the thermal processes caused by the emplacement of some major faults, and granitoids and mafic rocks in upper crustal levels and the subsequent development of the regional methamorphic contact aureoles. (author)

  6. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  7. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  8. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations

    OpenAIRE

    Rader, RK; Stoecker, WV; Malters, JM; Marr, MT; Dyer, JA

    2012-01-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April–October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April–October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse sp...

  9. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  10. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  11. Coal stockyard systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.

    2001-10-01

    Selection criteria for coal stockyard materials handling systems at bulk terminals is far more complex than it appears at first sight. Criteria for the selection of the best suitable layout and equipment for coal terminals, include the homogenisation of material and the layout of the stockpile in the form of conventional longitudinal piles or circular piles. The article reviews the current state-of-the-art concepts for coal terminals, and groups these ideas into a workable set of guidelines for the coal mine or stockyard operator. As priorities for each application are different, utmost flexibility in the layout and design of bulk terminals is required. It describes storage systems chosen for the transhipment terminal at the Port of Koper in Slovenia, the Callide coal mine in Queensland, Australia, and the Ho-Ping coal-fired power plant in Taiwan. The recent agreement for a combined sales and marketing cooperation between Aumund in Germany and BLW Mechanical Handling in the UK is mentioned. 3 photos.

  12. Australian coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Almost 600 people attended this year's Australian Coal Conference on Queensland's Gold Coast. The article reports on issues raised at the conference which included the effects of globalisation and the difficulties of raising funds faced by the coal industry and environmental issues. A life cycle analysis of coal's emissions compared to other fuels, released at the conference had demonstrated that coal was a legitimate part of the world's future energy mix. Conference speakers included Michael Pinnock, Queensland Mining Council Chief Executive Officer, Dr Louis Wibberley and Rich Gazzard of BHP, Robin Batterham, the Australian Governments Chief Scientist, Mark Vale, Federal Minister for Trade, Tony Armor of EPRI, Daren Fooks, Clayton Utz Lawyers, Ron Knapp, Chief Executive of the World Coal Institute and Andrew Tucker, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Highlights of their addresses are given. Winners of the five research awards presented by the Australian Coal Association at the conference are reported. 11 photos.

  13. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  14. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  15. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  16. Floor design in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria Santos, C.; Bieniawski, Z. T.

    1989-10-01

    Floor failure and excessive heave in underground coal mines can jeopardize the stability of the whole structure, including the roof and pillars, due to differential settlements and redistribution of stress concentrations. Besides, floor failure is detrimental to haulageway operation and can lead to unacceptable conditions of high deformation. Thus, the design of any underground opening must consider roof/pillar and floor as one structural system. This paper presents guidelines for the design of mine floors, including the necessary field and laboratory investigations and the determination of the bearing capacity of floor strata. The design methodology is based essentially on a modified Hoek-Brown rock mass strength criterion. The main modifications are the introduction of the concept of the point of critical energy release to account for the long term strength, the inclusion of tensile strength and the adoption of a lithostatic state of stress in the rock mass. The determination of the dimensionless parameters m and s result from correlations with the RMR (“rock mass rating”) of the Geomechanics Clasification. Nine case histories, both in longwall and room and pillar coal mining, were analyzed with the proposed methodology.

  17. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  18. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  19. The brain and brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cristina; Gonzalez, Francisco; Fernø, Johan; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn humans, but recent data have shown that BAT is also functional in adult humans. On the basis of this evidence, extensive research has been focused on BAT function, where new molecules, such as irisin and bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP7 and BMP8B, as well as novel central factors and new regulatory mechanisms, such as orexins and the canonical ventomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK)-SNS-BAT axis, have been discovered and emerged as potential drug targets to combat obesity. In this review we provide an overview of the complex central regulation of BAT and how different neuronal cell populations co-ordinately work to maintain energy homeostasis.

  20. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  1. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  2. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  3. Clays of volcanic – detrititus strata of North the Bohemian coal basin as a raw material for the preparation of natural mineral pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rucký

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials which are suitable for the preparation of mineral pigments are found in the area of the North Bohemian brown coal basin. Set Experiments on a hydrocyclone were realized as a part of the technological research of the suitability of “bolus” and ochres from the North Bohemian brown coal basin to be applicated as ecological pigments. It was found that this method of processing is suitable for the preparation of the product which can serve as a mineral pigment. Produced pigments were examined concerning their application in the area of paint pigments with a positive result.

  4. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  5. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  6. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  7. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  8. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  9. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  10. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  11. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  12. Mill performance of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett; G. O' Brien; D. Holcombe [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Evaluating the potential performance of coal blends for use as pulverised fuel (PF) in power plants and pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces requires knowledge of the size distribution of the organic and mineral matter components of a blend, especially when there are significant differences in the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of the component coals. The size distribution of the organic matter impacts on combustibility of thermal and PCI coal blends and handleability of PCI coal blends. Petrography techniques were used to examine four size fractions from the PF of single coals and blends to measure the size distribution of maceral groups. For most coals, a good estimate of a blend's size distribution can be made assuming that the size distribution of the individual coals, milled under the same conditions, are added together in the proportions of the blend. The exception is when a very soft coal (HGI 90) is blended with a very hard coal (HGI 35). In this case preferential milling (more reporting to the smaller size fractions) of the softer coal occurred. All coals studied in this project show some sign of preferential grinding of the softer maceral group when the coal was milled individually or in a blend. It is only when there is a large difference in the relative strength of the maceral groups of the coals blended that the preferential milling of a coal in a blend is observed in the size distribution of the blend. The results indicate that the breakage characteristics (change in size reduction per unit of energy) of maceral groups in individual coals do not change when they are blended with other coals. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Print A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula ...

  14. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  15. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  16. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  17. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  18. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  19. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  20. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  1. A rural district makes energy history. Model region Harz; Ein Landkreis schreibt Energiegeschichte. Modellregion Harz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenkel, Matthias

    2011-05-15

    As the 'Regenerative Model Region Harz' a whole district lined up in order to prove that about 240,000 citizens will soon be able to manage without electricity from coal, gas or nuclear power. The author of the paper under consideration reports on what he has seen and listened locally.

  2. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  3. Biotransformation of coal derived humic acids by Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Low energetic coals and wastes of coal industry are promising sources for biologically active compounds including humic acids (HA). Aside from evident advantages of biocatalytic approaches for coal slime conversion such as environmental safety and cost efficiency they also could be used for the improving of HAs biological activity [1, 2]. The aim of the present study was to provide molecular characterization of the HAs formed during biotransformation of coal slime by Basidiomycetes under different cultivation conditions. Materials and methods Biotransformation of brown coal from Solncevskoe deposit (Sakhalin, Russia) was performed by liquid surface cultivation of pure culture Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf. Ex. Fr.) Quel. with rich (contained glucose as a carbon source) and poor (without readily available carbon source) nutrition medium. After 30 days of cultivation coal HAs were separated by alkaline extraction followed by dialysis desalting and drying at 50C. HAs derived were characterized using size-exclusion chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results and discussion Molecular weight distribution of HA was not significantly affected by Basidiomycetes under all cultivation conditions studied in comparison to HAs extracted from non-conversed coal. FTIR spectra of HA obtained were typical for HAs. Biotransformation of coal did not result in appearance of new functional groups. The exception was observed under rich media conditions where absorbance at 1700 cm-1 was determined related to carbonyl groups of carboxyl and ketonic fragments. Therefore, the revealed phenomena could be explained with additional formation of the above carbonyl groups in the course of biotransformation process. Quantification of 13C NMR spectra revealed decrease of aromatic structures in HA extracted from coal after biotransformation under poor media conditions. Also a significant increase in carboxylic fragments content was observed. So

  4. Refining effect of the liquid phase (in coal hydrogenation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1942-11-07

    Experiments were run in a 10-liter oven at 600 atm. on various starting materials to determine what percentage of the original content of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur impurities were removed during liquid-phase processing. It was determined that the liquid phase removed most of these impurities, with nitrogen being affected to a lesser extent than the other two. In general, the raw materials which could most easily be hydrogenated had the greatest percentage of impurities removed. Also, in general, the more drastic the processing, the more effective the impurity-removal, especially in the case of nitrogen. Removal of oxygen as oxides of carbon happened in the case of brown coal to about twice the extent that it did in the case of bituminous coal, and happened to an even greater extent in the case of high-temperature tar. In the case of sulfur, the following percentages were removed in the following processes: 79% in processing low-temperature-carbonization tar to heavy oil, 75% to 87% in processing high-temperature-carbonization tar to heavy oil, 82% to 92% in processing high-temperature-carbonization tar to gasoline and middle oil, 80% to 97% in processing bituminous coal to gasoline and middle oil, and 86% to 89% in processing brown coal to gasoline and middle oil. In the case of oxygen, the corresponding figures (in the same order) were 73%, 36% to 70%, 44% to 70%, 86% to 91%, and 89% to 92%. In the case of nitrogen, they were 56%, 38% to 51%, 53% to 73%, 60% to 67%, and 64% to 79%. 1 table.

  5. Exchange of experience: sieve analyses of coal and coal paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-02-01

    This report consisted of a cover letter (now largely illegible) and a graph. The graph showed percentages of material left behind as residue on sieves of various mesh sizes, graphed against the mesh sizes themselves. The materials for which data were shown were both dry coal and coal paste from Ludwigshafen, Scholven, Gelsenberg, and Poelitz. The dry coal from Poelitz seemed to be by far the least finely-ground, but the coal paste from Poelitz seemed to be the most finely-ground. The values for coal paste from the other three plants were very close together over most of the range of mesh sizes. The dry coal from Gelsenberg seemed to be the most finely-ground dry coal, while the dry coals from Scholven and Ludwigshafen gave similar values over most of the range of mesh sizes. In all cases, the coal paste from a plant was more finely-ground than the dry coal from the same plant, but for Gelsenberg, the difference between the two was not nearly as great as it was for the other plants, especially Poelitz. For example, for a sieve with about 3,600 cells per square centimeter, only about 10% of the Poelitz coal paste was retained versus about 85% of the Poelitz dry coal retained, whereas the corresponding figures for Gelsenberg materials were about 36% versus about 53%.

  6. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...

  7. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...

  8. Traumatic Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, M O; Flynn, P A; Pang, K A; Hawkins, S A

    2001-09-01

    In the 1840s Brown-Séquard described the motor and sensory effects of sectioning half of the spinal cord. Penetrating injuries can cause Brown-Séquard or, more frequently, Brown-Séquard-plus syndromes. To report the case of a 25-year-old man who developed left-sided Brown-Séquard syndrome at the C8 level and left-sided Horner syndrome plus urinary retention and bilateral extensor responses following a stab wound in the right side of the neck. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a low cervical lesion and somatosensory evoked potentials confirmed the clinical finding of left-side dorsal column disturbance. At follow-up, the patient's mobility and bladder function had returned to normal. This patient recovered well after a penetrating neck injury that disturbed function in more than half the lower cervical spinal cord (Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome).

  9. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  10. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  11. AVO forward modeling for VTI coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.; Cui, R.; Liu, E. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Resource and Earth Science

    2009-04-15

    The article discusses the possibility of prospecting primary coal, tectonic coal, soft coal and vertical transverse-isotropic (VTI) coal by P- wave amplitude variation with offset (AVO) forward modeling. For thick coal bed, the P-wave AVO curves of primary coal, tectonic coal and soft coal were achieved by the Zoeppritz equation. For a thick VTI coal bed, its stiffness matrix was first calculated by effective media's theory; then the P-wave AVO curve of this coal was calculated by the propagation matrix method which is based on anisotropy theory. In this way the synthetic seismogram was attained by combining the seismic wavelet with AVO curves. At the same time, thin coal seams of AVO curves and a synthetic seismogram were simulated. It is shown that the coal roof's P-wave AVO of thick coal has the AVO character of class IV and the AVO gradient and intercept of the coal beds diverge from each other. For thin coal seams, the reflection waves are composite waves. In this case, the primary coal and tectonic coal's reflection amplitude is small and its AVO with obvious class IV, the VTI coal and soft coal's reflection amplitude is larger, and its AVO curves fluctuate acutely. In summary, the AVO technique could be used to identify primary coal, tectonic coal, soft coal and VTI coal. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  13. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  14. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  15. Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

  16. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern

  17. Important fossil source contribution to brown carbon in Beijing during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Bosch, Carme; Andersson, August; Desyaterik, Yury; Sullivan, Amy P.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; He, Kebin; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-03-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) constitutes a substantial fraction of fine particles and affects both human health and climate. It is becoming clear that OA absorbs light substantially (hence termed Brown Carbon, BrC), adding uncertainties to global aerosol radiative forcing estimations. The few current radiative-transfer and chemical-transport models that include BrC primarily consider sources from biogenic and biomass combustion. However, radiocarbon fingerprinting here clearly indicates that light-absorbing organic carbon in winter Beijing, the capital of China, is mainly due to fossil sources, which contribute the largest part to organic carbon (OC, 67 ± 3%) and its sub-constituents (water-soluble OC, WSOC: 54 ± 4%, and water-insoluble OC, WIOC: 73 ± 3%). The dual-isotope (Δ14C/δ13C) signatures, organic molecular tracers and Beijing-tailored emission inventory identify that this fossil source is primarily from coal combustion activities in winter, especially from the residential sector. Source testing on Chinese residential coal combustion provides direct evidence that intensive coal combustion could contribute to increased light-absorptivity of ambient BrC in Beijing winter. Coal combustion is an important source to BrC in regions such as northern China, especially during the winter season. Future modeling of OA radiative forcing should consider the importance of both biomass and fossil sources.

  18. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    OpenAIRE

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    After years of relatively slow growth, coal is undergoing a renaissance. Some 140 coal power plants are planned, and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the U.S. will consume almost 1,800 million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million tons this year. In addition, while EIA’s estimates do not take coal-to-hydrogen production into consideration, several recent studies suggest that if the hydrogen economy ever comes to fruition coal could be a feedstock of choice...

  19. Big coal book 2002. 3rd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The book provides a wide collection of information for the international coal market. An introductory review of the coal market in 2001 and insight into 2002 is followed by a chapter giving statistics (of exports, imports, coal production, consumption and freight rates). Chapter 3 reviews issues facing coal producers and gives a company listing of major coal producers throughout the world. This format is followed for coal consumers, coal traders, coal ports, and the coal transportation sector. Company listings are also given for ship owners, shipbrokers, rail companies, barge companies and petcoke producers. Detailed coal specifications are given for both producers and consumers and there is a complete set of indexes.

  20. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple of sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  1. Solid and fly ash materials ofbrown coal power plants, their characteristics and utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Ferenc

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available coal-fired power plants, a significant amount of residues is produced, depending on the technical parameters of coal separation and firing equipment. A large quantity of solid and fly ash and, in the case of flue gas desulphurisation, REA gypsum and wash-water is produced. The quantity of residues depends primarily on the ash and sulphur content of the fuel.Coal has a significant role in energy production and represents a considerable quantity in electric energy generation. At the turn of the millenary, about 4 billion tones of black coal and 800 million tones of brown coal and lignite are produced in the world annually. Depending on the ash content of the coals – it varies between 5-8% and 30-35% –, the quantity of solid and fly ash produced by firing is 1.0-1.5 billion tones per year. The quantity of residues of this kind accumulated in the past amounts to 100 billion tones.As far as the residues of coal-fired power plants are concerned, the annual fuel demand of the power plants of the Rhenish brown coal basin, where the average ash content of lignite is 7% and the average sulphur content is 0.2-0.8%, is 1 Mt referred to a power plant capacity of 100 MW. 60-70 kt solid + fly ash and, in the case of flue gas desulphurisation, 12-15 kt of gypsum is produced annually, referred to a capacity of 100 MW. In the East German areas, after the reconstruction of power plants, 30-50 kt of fly ash and, because of the higher sulphur content, 25-30 kt of gypsum and 4-5000 m3 of wash-water is produced annually, referred to a capacity of 100 MW.The composition of Hungarian lignite is significantly different to that of Rhenish brown coal. The ash content and combustible sulphur content of domestic lignite is considerably higher. The ash content of lignite varies between 15 and 25%, the average is 20%. In Visonta, 160-200 tones of solid + fly ash is produced annually, referred to a power plant capacity of 100 MW. With the flue gas desulphuriser installed

  2. Brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, R M; Neufeld, M V; Westfall, C T

    2000-08-01

    To present a photographically documented case of a known brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid. Interventional case report. The wound was photographed daily during an 11-day hospitalization and at 1 month and 6 months after the injury. Treatment included canthotomy and cantholysis; administration of dapsone, antibiotics, and steroids; and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Clinical presentation and course of a known brown recluse spider bite. Complete recovery with cicatrization at the site of the bite. We present a case of a brown recluse spider bite to the left lower eyelid with a discussion of management and outcome of this rarely reported injury.

  3. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  4. Hamilton district energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsales, D. [Hamilton Community Energy, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation began with a description of the Hamilton District Energy Project. A piping distribution system delivers the energy. For those buildings located in the close vicinity of the central energy centre, heating and cooling are provided. The Hamilton City Hall, the Copps Coliseum, and a host of other buildings located downtown are included in this project. Both the proximity to the energy centre and the pipe infrastructure are important components for the delivery of the energy. A natural gas burning engine is part of the energy centre. Direct waste is minimized since waste exhaust is used to heat water. Individual energy transfer systems, much smaller than the equipment being replaced, are used for each building connected to the district energy network. All emission requirements are met by district heating, which is a reliable source of energy and more efficient. There are instances where only more efficient energy solutions are available to a municipality when renewable energy sources are not feasible. figs.

  5. Coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Includes estimates of coal reserves in the following regions of Spain - Asturias, El Bierzo, Villablino, North of Leon, Guardo/Barruelo, Suroccidental, Teruel, Pyrenees and the Balearics. Four types of estimate are given per region - very probably, probable, possible and hypothetical.

  6. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  7. NSW clean coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: Otway CO{sub 2} storage project (P. Cook); alternative pathways to low emission electricity (L. Wibberley); Delta Electricity pilot capture project (G. Everett); international developments for CO{sub 2} capture and storage and clean coal (K. Thambimutu); NSW storage opportunities (B. Mullard); NSW opportunities (M. O'Neil); and the Climate Institute (J. Connor).

  8. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  9. Methanol from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Economic feasibility of methanol or methyl fuel produced from coal using existing technology is discussed. Other factors considered include environmental, safety, toxicity, transportation, so storage, ease of burning, and retrofitting of present boilers. Demonstrations of its uses as a boiler fuel and as a turbine fuel are cited.

  10. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  11. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  12. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  13. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  14. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  15. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  16. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  17. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  18. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  19. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of districts in undermined areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyushev, V.S.; Losev, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the case of a Pavlogradugol' mine where a decision was taken to mine a coal seam above a previous mining district without leaving the regulation rock thickness between seams. According to the 1976 Safety Regulations this thickness should be at least 6 times the seam thickness for seams mined with roof caving. The seams were 1.1-1.4 m thick, the intervening thickness 4.5-6.1 m. The development roadways for the upper seam were moved to minimize damage, and the stables in the lower seam remained outside the extent of the upper seam district. There was some floor swelling and curvature of the seam, but within acceptable limits. The time difference between mining in the upper and lower seams was 4-6 years. Given the weak plastic (argillite/aleurolite) rocks in the intervening beds, the decision to mine with a rock/seam thickness ratio of 3.7-5.1 was considered justified.

  1. Progress report: brown bear studies - 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty-four brown bears (22 adult female, 22 offspring) were captured in the Ayakulik River, Sturgeon River, and Frazer Lake drainages of Kodiak Island in July, 1983....

  2. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  3. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  4. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R K; Stoecker, W V; Malters, J M; Marr, M T; Dyer, J A

    2012-07-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April-October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April-October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse spiders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m2/g, with pore sizes coal. The nanopore structure (coal. PMID:25126601

  6. Lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hodosán, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Lightning is an important electrical phenomenon, known to exist in several Solar System planets. Amongst others, it carries information on convection and cloud formation, and may be important for pre-biotic chemistry. Exoplanets and brown dwarfs have been shown to host environments appropriate for the initiation of lightning discharges. In this PhD project, I aim to determine if lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs can be more energetic than it is known from Solar System planets, what are...

  7. Brown recluse spider bites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Janice D

    2006-02-01

    The brown recluse spider is found more commonly in the Southeast and the Central Midwest. Its bite is not common because it is a shy spider that only bites if cornered. A severe bite may necrose a large area that requires skin grafting; systemic reactions rarely occur. This article discusses the brown recluse spider and presents a case study of a patient with two spider bites that did require extensive grafting.

  8. High-sulfur coal research at the SIUC (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale) Coal Technology Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-01-01

    Research on high-sulfur coal which is taking place at the Coal Technology Laboratory at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale is divided into four general categories: coal science, coal preparation, coal conversion, and coal utilization. The work in these four areas covers a broad spectrum of high-sulfur coal research from the very fundamental aspects of the coal, through its physical beneficiation and possible conversion, to its ultimate utilization and overall economic modeling. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases.

  9. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kessels [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    This report examines the prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand. The country's existing coal reserves are examined and the probable need to import coal to meet the future coal is explained. A discussion on the generation capacity in Thailand examines the current and future prospects for coal-fired power generation. The role of the government in the coal sector is discussed along with the power development plan being implemented to meet increasing energy demand. Environmental issues related to coal are a major issue in Thailand particularly because of problems with SO{sub 2} emissions at the Mae Moh power station which have been solved by the use of flue gas desulphurisation. The report examines the role of international organisations such as the ADB, APEC, WB, ASEAN, IEA and USAID in clean coal technologies and how this could be improved. 70% of Thailand's power is generated from natural gas. The government recognises the need to diversify its energy sources since only 12 years of proven domestic gas reserves remain. Northern Thailand has around 2 Gt of coal reserves, mostly lignite of high sulphur content. It is estimated that 1 Gt of these could be used economically. Coal production in 2008 was between 18-19 Mt which was supplemented with 17-18 Mt of imports. In the future it is likely that all new coal-fired power stations will burn imported low sulphur coal with imports projected to rise to 48 Mt by 2021. Thailand is facing up to a challenge to develop and deploy clean coal technologies. This has begun with the first supercritical coal-fired power station being built, due to be operational by 2011. A key conclusion of this report is that a central organisation should be established in the public or private sector to undertake and promote clean coal technology research, education and deployment with domestic and international organisations as well as strengthen the sustainable use of coal in Thailand. 186 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. District-Level Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  11. perceptions in Dedza District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logistical problems. HCWs identified the tendency of patients with ТВ to seek traditional and private healthcare services, the association of ТВ with HIV/AIDS, difficulties in. Abstract traveling to .... "Even those who come to collect the sputum sometimes take time ... when you complain they [district staff] say transport problem ...

  12. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  13. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  14. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  15. Information system on science and technology within the ministry of coal and energy. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the technical information system in the field of coal and energy in the German Democratic Republic. The system has a central data base with 200,000 units of information stored and is supplied by an additional 1,700 units per month. Five Institutes (in Leipzig, Grossraeschen, Vetschau, Greifswald, Freiberg and Dresden) are equipped with the AIDOS computer system in which data can be stored and retrieved. Computer systems of the Institutes store information relevant to their field of research. The fields of information assigned to the Institutes are listed: brown coal exploration and mining is covered by the Institute for Brown Coal Mining in Grossraeschen, energetic gases is the field of the Freiberg Fuel Institute. Services rendered by the information systems of the institutes are outlined, which include publishing monthly abstract journals for the various fields, issuing express information and documentation of the latest technological developments, conducting searches of international literature, etc. Since 1980 selective information service concerning descriptions of new patents and inventions registered the GDR and FRG in the field of coal and energy has also been provided. International exchange of information and literature is also carried out. Cooperation with the VINITI central information institute in Moscow and with the Informugol and Informneftegaz information systems exists.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Leptospira Found in Urban Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Largest Cities of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tanja M; Löhmus, Mare; Persson Vinnersten, Thomas; Råsbäck, Therese; Sundström, Karin; Bergström, Tomas; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis of global concern; however, its contemporary occurrence in Sweden, a European country partly located north of the Arctic Circle, is poorly known. Four out of 30 brown rats, captured within urban districts in Sweden, were found to be positive for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. This serovar causes Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage. Our study is the first finding of this highly pathogenic serovar in Swedish rats since the 1930s.

  17. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  18. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  19. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  20. New Hope Coal Australia: leaders in thin seam coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    New Hope Corporation Ltd.'s coal activities in Queensland are conducted under the business name of New Hope Coal Australia and comprise open-cut mines in the West Moreton coal fields, 40 km west of Brisbane. The company gained an award for its reject co-disposal system and another for its organic overburden conditioning programme. Walloon coal from the Jeebropilly and New Oakleigh open-cut mines has characteristics which are making it increasingly popular as power plant fuel. The article describes operations at these mines and also at Swanbank and Acland. Other projects with which New Hope is involved are mentioned. 4 photos.

  1. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  3. Electricity from Coal Combustion: Improving the hydrophobicity of oxidized coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehra, Mohindar; Singh, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    To reduce pollution and improve efficiency, undesirable mineral impurities in coals are usually removed in coal preparation plants prior to combustion first by crushing and grinding coals followed by gravity separation using surfactant aided water flotation. However certain coals in the US are not amendable to this process because of their poor flotation characteristics resulting in a major loss of an energy resource. This problem has been linked to surface oxidation of mined coals which make these coals hydrophilic. In this project, we are investigating the surface and water flotation properties of the eight Argonne Premium (AP) coals using x-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The role of the surface functional groups, (phenolic -OH and carboxylic -COOH), produced as a result of chemisorptions of O2 on coals in determining their flotation behavior is being explored. The isoelectric point (IEP) in zeta potential measurements of good vs. poor floaters is being examined in order to improved the hydrophobicity of poor floating coals (e.g. Illinois #6). Results from XRD and IR will be presented along with recent findings from zeta potential measurements, and use of additives to improve hydrophobicity. Supported by USDOE/CAST, Contract #DE-FC26-05NT42457.

  4. Characterisation and classification of the Cretaceous coals of Teruel. Relationships between their characteristics and the geological sequence; Caracterizacion y clasificacion de los carbones cretacicos de Teruel. Relaciones entre sus caracteristicas y el entorno geologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, R.; Ruiz, C.; Querol, X.; Fernandez, J.L.; Lopez, A. [C.S.I.C., Zaragoza (Spain). Instituto de Carboquimica

    1993-12-31

    Cretaceous coals from the Teruel Mining District (Spain) have been characterized by an exhaustive study of 36 bed samples from all of the underground and open cut mines with activity in that coal field. This study has included proximate, elemental, petrographic and other analyses. Also, some chemical tests, as oxidations and hydrogenations, have been carried out. The results show that although these coals belong to the same geological unit (Escucha Formation in the lower Cretaceous), there are clear differences between the Northern and Southern Subzones of the Mining District. These coals have been classified by some scientific (Syler`s, van Krevelen diagram and Alpern-ICCP) and commercial (ECE/UN and ASTM) systems. The best parameter to classify these coals has been the vitrinite reflectance. In depending on the used classification system, coals from the North Subzone can be considered as lignites or subbituminous B while coals from the South Subzone can be considered as subbituminous B or A. The differences between both groups of studied coals can be explained, from a geological viewpoint, by two major factors: (1) The lithostatic pressure supported by the coal beds has been different in depending on the Subzone, because of the progressive thickness increase of the Cenomanian - Senonian sediments (Upper Cretaceous) from the North to the South of the Mining District. (2) The intensity of the Alpine Orogeny was stronger in the South Subzone; where gave rise to a more intense structuration of the Mesozoic sequences. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Images of industry: coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornes, R.

    1994-12-31

    Numerous buildings and structures associated with coalmining have been made redundant by the recent and rapid contraction of the industry and many now face an uncertain future. The photographs in this book form part of a comprehensive record of coal-industry architecture made by the Royal Commission in response to that threat. From pit-head baths and colliery headgear to model housing and miners` memorials, these images capture the full variety of the coal industry`s impact on the environment. The supporting text explains the history and development of building types that have been taken for granted up to now, but which, looked at in detail, tell the fascinating story of a once-mighty industry. 82 refs., 120 photos.

  6. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  7. David Brown gear industries generates world first in swing racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Discusses the gear construction and design of draglines in operation in South Africa. each of the 21 draglines in operation has on average sets of 80 gears ranging from 400 mm to 4 m in diameter. Of these, the largest single unit is the swing rack or ring gear, which on the largest draglines in South Africa is 11.8 m in diameter with teeth of 127 mm circular pitch. The swing rack allows smooth rotational movement of the superstructure, boom and bucket of the dragline. Discusses the cutting of a swing rack for the B-E 1570 at New Vaal with involute profile to a pitch accuracy two grades higher on the AGMA scale than achieved by the previous method of manufacture. The swing rack was cut by David Brown Gear Industries on its 390 ton 14 metre MAAG plano-generator at Benoni. Discusses the accuracy achieved in the cutting and the importance of accuracy for smooth operation and long life. Describes the development of local capability for manufacturing high quality gears and how this should defeat pirates supplying components who win orders on lower price and quicker delivery. Describes other applications in the mining industry of gears supplied by DBGI including the Radicon worm gearbox frequently used on belt conveyors, worm gears for vertical spindle mills for coal crushing; and reduction mills for ESCOM's power stations.

  8. Fuelling car production with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, U. [FAM Foerderanlagen, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    FAM Foerderanlagen Magdeburg Group was commissioned by SKO-Energo Fin s.r.o. to supply, erect and commission a complete coaling plant with stockyard for the latter's thermal power station, to be built on the premises of the Skoda works at Mlada Boleslav in the Czech Republic. Coal from rail wagons is unloaded into an underground bunker and is moved from the stockpile with chain and inclined conveyors into a processing building for screening, crushing and blending, using an FAM PHM 1214 MRVD impact hammer. From the processing plant coal is conveyed to the coal bunker of the power plant which has two boilers with circulating atmospheric fluidized beds. The coaling plant is controlled from an independent coaling control room. It achieves low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, Co and dust. 4 figs.

  9. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  10. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  11. Coal - testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    This Standard specifies the method for the particle-size analysis, the method for determination of the float and sink characteristics, the method for determination of Hardgrove grindability indices, the method for determination of the crucible swelling number, the method for determination of the swelling properties, the method for determination of the fluidity properties, the method for determination of the coking properties, the method for determination of the fusibility of ash, and the method for determination of Roga indices of coal.

  12. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. (Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  13. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  14. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

  15. Coal: a human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, B.

    2002-12-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. It made China a twelfth-century superpower, inspired the writing of the Communist Manifesto, and helped the northern states win the American Civil War. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy - and even today powers our electrical plants - has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. In this book, Barbara Freese takes us on an historical journey that begins three hundred million years ago and spans the globe. From the 'Great Stinking Fogs' of London to the rat-infested coal mines of Pennsylvania, from the impoverished slums of Manchester to the toxic city streets of Beijing, this book describes an ordinary substance that has done extraordinary things.

  16. Zero emission coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  17. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  18. Stockyard machines for coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    A little unexpectedly, coal has become something like the fuel of the future. This can also be seen from the large number of projects for coal handling facilities world wide. Most of the times, stacking and reclaiming equipment forms a major, and often quite impressive part of these facilities. The contribution under consideration provides examples of such equipment for handling of coal from Sandvik Mining and Construction.

  19. Coal in a sustainable society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Wibberley [BHP Minerals Technology (Australia)

    2001-12-01

    This report builds on an earlier ACARP project C8049 Environmental Credentials of Coal and is aimed at assisting the coal industry to understand the role of coal in a sustainable society, for both iron and steel production, and for electricity generation. Iron and steel life cycle analysis (LCA) case studies show that, in terms of resource energy and greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs), the emerging coal based technologies compare favourably with gas based routes, if displacement credits can be claimed. There is clearly a change emerging in technologies for iron and steel production which favours the use of coal, and the coupling of hot metal production to electric arc furnaces. The 'dash to gas' is slowing. An important issue for the Australian coal industry is the relationship between coal properties and operating performance for these emerging technologies. 19 electricity LCA case studies have been carried out for a wide range of technologies. A number of opportunities have been identified from these for reducing the GGEs for coal based electricity generation technologies. LCAs were also carried out on cement production, coal production, and coal mine waste and fly ash utilisation. The GGE results for cement compared favourably with those published by the IEA when allowance was made for fly ash and blast furnace slag use in Australian cements, the results were in agreement with those published by the Cement Industry Federation. Extensive overseas discussions confirmed that coal's positive attributes will underpin the transition to more sustainable energy systems. It is therefore important to reverse the decline in coal R&D which has occurred in many developed countries, and to transfer technology (eg through CDM) to developing countries, and in particular China and India.

  20. District energy a global solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damecour, R.; Andersson, B. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the development of district energy systems throughout the world is provided. Significant district energy data is provided for Canada, the United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe and Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. The overall conclusion is that district energy systems are here to stay and have a good chance of succeeding provided that the concept has the support of business, municipalities and national governments. The 40 years old district heating system in Vasteras, Sweden, the oldest and most successful district energy system in the world, was highlighted.

  1. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  2. Better planning in coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    More coal terminals are purchasing planning applications to improve the planning process and optimize throughput. Port Kembla Coal Terminal in New South Wales has chosen Quintiq's integrated advanced planning and scheduling solution (APS) to maximise its capacity capabilities and provide seamless integration across its coal supply chain. Implementation will be completed in early 2010. QMASTOR claims to be the market leader in bulk materials software solutions. Its Horizon APS is used at one coal terminal to manage inbound transportation, stockyard allocations and ship loading. Fuelworx software developed by Energy Softworx can manage fuel procurement process, manage contracts and maintain audit controls. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  3. The Global Value of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  4. Coal desulfurization prior to combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrathall, J.; Vermeulen, T.; Ergun, S.

    1979-11-01

    Since current coal cleaning processes remove only a fraction of the total sulfur, the question arises as to what fraction of US coals can be cleaned within current EPA new source standards (1.2 lb. SO/sub 2/ per MMBTU). A number of studies has shown the fraction to be encouragingly large. A report on the applicability of the Meyers process estimates, on the basis of 35 coals sampled, that 40% of the samples could be burned cleanly after some combination of physical separation and chemical leaching. A report by Ergun on coal cleaning gives the higher estimate of cleanability of 56%, based on 455 samples properly weighted between Eastern and Western coals. Beyond this figure, Ergun estimates an additional 17% is cleanable if 30 to 40% of the organic sulfur is removed, bringing the total cleanable to 73%. Data from a study by Cavallaro, with coal reserves taken from a study by Beekers, give an estimate in agreement with that of Ergun on the amount of coal cleanable by pyrite removal. In summary, cleanable coal reserves increase by 33% if processes are used which can remove what are probably the more reactive organic sulfur species, such as aliphatic mercaptans, sulfides, and disulfides. A process which attacks the refractor thiophenic sulfur could conceivably increase the cleanable coal reserves by another 20 to 30%, assuming roughly equal distribution between reactive and refractory organic sulfur.

  5. Awakening a sleeping coal giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.

    2007-08-15

    Botswana, a southern African country that in the 1980s could not economically land a tonne of coal at the closest export terminal and even today mines no more than 1 million tpa, is to increase production to beyond 30 million tpa. A first ever coal conference in Gaborone called it the awakening of a coal giant. The alarm call for the coal giant is the realisation that without more generating capacity than its power utility Eskom can itself build in time, South Africa will in four to five years face a severe shortage of power. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  7. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Mammut borsoni (HAYS 1834 from the Early Pliocene of Husnicioara (Mehedinţi district, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A mastodon tooth has been found at Husnicioara coal open pit, in Mehedinţi district (southwestern Romania. It originates from the Lower Pliocene (Dacian gravel and sand deposits lying just above the coal bed IV, mined in this quarry. The tooth exposing zygodont features undoubtedly belongs to Mammut borsoni (“Borson’s mastodont”. Although this species is very common in the Pliocene vertebrate faunas from this part of Europe, until now it was missing from the Lower Pliocene (Dacian assemblage’s lists in our country.

  9. Temperatures rising: brown fat and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-03-01

    Caloric restriction is associated with a reduction in body weight and temperature, as well as a reduction in trabecular bone volume and paradoxically an increase in adipocytes within the bone marrow. The nature of these adipocytes is uncertain, although there is emerging evidence of a direct relationship between bone remodeling and brown adipocytes. For example, in heterotrophic ossification, brown adipocytes set up a hypoxic gradient that leads to vascular invasion, chondrocyte differentiation, and subsequent bone formation. Additionally, deletion of retinoblastoma protein in an osteosarcoma model leads to increased hibernoma (brown fat tumor). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) becomes senescent with age at a time when thermoregulation is altered, bone loss becomes apparent, and sympathetic activity increases. Interestingly, heart rate is an unexpected but good predictor of fracture risk in elderly individuals, pointing to a key role for the sympathetic nervous system in senile osteoporosis. Hence the possibility exists that BAT could play an indirect role in age-related bone loss. However, evidence of an indirect effect from thermogenic dysfunction on bone loss is currently limited. Here, we present current evidence for a relationship between brown adipose tissue and bone as well as provide novel insights into the effects of thermoregulation on bone mineral density.

  10. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  11. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ˜ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ˜2 km s-1, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  12. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  13. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Coal and Coal/Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta's book, Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Coal is a key, growing component in power generation globally. It generates 50% of U.S. electricity, and criteria emissions from coal-based power generation are being reduced. However, CO2 emissions m...

  15. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.; Ramesh, R.

    1989-01-01

    This project is designed to develop an understanding of the fundamentals involved in flotation and flocculation of coal, and of coal in various states of oxidation. The main objective of this study is to accurately characterize the coal surface and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance beneficiation of coals. Effects of oxidation on the modification of surface characteristics of coal by various reagents will also be studied. This quarter, the following studies were conducted in order to further develop our understanding of the role of heterogeneity in interfacial phenomena. (1) Since surface characterization is an important aspect in this project, ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) study of the coal surface was conducted. Surface derivatization, a technique often used in the preparation of organic compounds for gas-liquid chromatography, uses site specific molecular tags'' that bond to key chemical groups on the surface. Application of derivatization in conjunction with ESCA is a relatively new technique for quantifying functional groups on the surface which has not been possible till now. (2) A distribution of contact angles on the surface of coal (pseudo theta map) is presented based on our earlier results and other published information. The role of heterogeneity in contact angle studies is also examined. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Baruya [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Malaysia is a regular participant in world coal trade. Coal production is a modest 1 Mt/y but, as an importer, the country trades some 30 Mt/y. As one of ASEAN's most prosperous economies, the expected growth in electricity demand is inevitable. For many years the country has been dependent on gas-fired power, much of which is in the form of expensive single cycle gas turbines. However, coal-fired power has emerged as an important provider of power in a country desperate to improve its energy security. This report looks at how coal-fired power has developed, and examines the current technologies deployed in the country. It is the fourth in a series of reports by the lEA Clean Coal Centre on ASEAN countries, following Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  18. Petrographical and mineralogical analysis of coal after biological leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupka Daniel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available For coal utilization the sulphur content is a decisive parameter for the quality of the coal. In many countries clean coal technologies have to be applied on the basis of regulations concerning fuel quality and emission standards for dust, CO, SO2 and NOx in the flue gas. It becomes quite obvious that it is always preferable to keep the sulphur levels in coal at a minimum. Bacterial oxidation of the sulphur present in coal could well be thought of as an effective alternative.Desulphurization by bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was applied to coal sample from Sokolov mine. Bacteria growing in batch culture on ferrous iron at initial pH 1.6 were harvested at the later growth phase. The ferric iron precipitates were separated from the cells by centrifugation and the rest medium by membrane filtration. Cell pellet captured on the filter was washed by hydrochloric acid and distilled water and finally suspended in fresh Waksmann & Joffe medium. The medium was previously acidified by 5M H2SO4 to pH 2. Initial concentration of sulphates in medium was 1.8 g L-1. Desulphurization of coal was studied in a stirred batch reactor at 10% w/v pulp density in diluted H2SO4 at pH = 2.The effect of bacterial leaching on mineral and organic matter of coal was followed by optical microscopy. Petrographic evaluation of the coal matter samples consisted of the determination of reflectance of gelified huminite macerals (R0, determination of maceral group contents of huminite, liptinite, inertinite and determination of the mineral content with emphasis on the various forms of iron sulphides. The sample examined were brown coal with higher liptinite and pyrite contents. The huminite reflectance of 0,33 % is corresponding to the lignitic metatype. Huminite concentration is 65,7 % and is the most abundant maceral group. The maceral ulminite and densinite contributes to the high huminite content. The concentration of attrinite, who be pass to liptodetrinite, textinite

  19. Low temperature combustion of organic coal-water fuel droplets containing petrochemicals while soaring in a combustion chamber model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the integral characteristics (minimum temperature, ignition delay times of stable combustion initiation of organic coal-water fuel droplets (initial radius is 0.3-1.5 mm in the oxidizer flow (the temperature and velocity varied in ranges 500-900 K, 0.5-3 m/s. The main components of organic coal-water fuel were: brown coal particles, filter-cakes obtained in coal processing, waste engine, and turbine oils. The different modes of soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel have been established. The conditions have been set under which it is possible to implement the sustainable soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel droplets. We have compared the ignition characteristics with those defined in the traditional approach (based on placing the droplets on a low-inertia thermocouple junction into the combustion chamber. The paper shows the scale of the influence of heat sink over the thermocouple junction on ignition inertia. An original technique for releasing organic coal-water fuel droplets to the combustion chamber was proposed and tested. The limitations of this technique and the prospects of experimental results for the optimization of energy equipment operation were also formulated.

  20. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many environmental friendly advantages. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis has been studied using termogravimetry apparatus NETZCH TG-DTA STA 409 EP. The pyrolysis of all polymers except for scrap tyres was a one-step process and temperature range was narrower than for coal pyrolysis. The overlapping temperature range for pyrolysis of polymers and coal was 200–600°C. The synergic effect and kinetics of co-pyrolysis of polymers and coal has been studied in the given temperature range. The addition of polymers to coal led to (i the enhancement of weight loss of brown coal, (ii the shift of temperature of the max pyrolysis speed and (iii the slight influence of EA of coal pyrolysis.

  1. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  2. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  3. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  4. Determination of the Technological Parameters of Borehole Underground Coal Gasification for Thin Coal Seams

    OpenAIRE

    Falshtynskyi, Volodymyr S.; Dychkovskyi, Roman O.; Vasyl G. Lozynskyi; Pavlo B. Saik

    2013-01-01

    In this article the characteristics of the criteria of borehole underground coal gasification for thin coal seams are defined. The thermal and material balance calculations for coal seam gasification processes are also explained. The construction, method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification for area No 1 (located in the field of Solenovsk coal deposits) are also described. The parameters of borehole underground coal gasification for the Solenovsk coal mi...

  5. Coal combustion and air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J.

    1987-07-01

    Briefly describes the general problem of emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and compares the effects of burning brown coal and those of using heating oil. Describes methods selected for desulfurization in Czechoslovakia based on the magnesite method. Raw materials for this method are available in the country and the processes have been tested in the USSR. The first installation is under construction on a 200 MW unit of an electricity plant in North Bohemia. Briefly describes this system, which involves cooling and humidifying combustion products before they enter a scrubber to be passed over sulfur dioxide magnesium oxide, which converts the sulfur dioxide to produce magnesium sulfite crystals, which are then converted by fluidized-bed combustion at 900-950 C back to sulfur dioxide and magnesium oxide. The sulfur dioxide is used for manufacturing sulfuric acid and the magnesium oxide is recycled through the system. Discusses in general terms future possibilities for dealing with combustion products, including semi-dry, wet, calcium chloride, limestone, RCE (Refractories Consulting and Engineering, GmbH, FRG) and citrate methods, and briefly examines the economic aspects involved. 12 refs.

  6. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion

  7. Why Schools Should Consider Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Coal has great potential for use in many school systems. Domestic supplies are abundant with relatively stable prices. Equipment is available for clean and efficient combustion of coal with little or no impact on environmental quality. Cost estimates are provided. (Author/MLF)

  8. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  9. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  10. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  11. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  12. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  13. Hanbury Brown-Twiss interference of anyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnano, Gabriele; Zilberberg, Oded; Gornyi, Igor V; Feldman, Dmitri E; Potter, Andrew C; Gefen, Yuval

    2012-09-07

    We present a study of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer realized with anyons. Such a device can directly probe entanglement and fractional statistics of initially uncorrelated particles. We calculate Hanbury Brown-Twiss cross correlations of Abelian Laughlin anyons. The correlations we calculate exhibit partial bunching similar to bosons, indicating a substantial statistical transmutation from the underlying electronic degrees of freedom. We also find qualitative differences between the anyonic signal and the corresponding bosonic or fermionic signals, indicating that anyons cannot be simply thought of as intermediate between bosons and fermions.

  14. Development of oxidation heat of the coal left in the mined-out area of a longwall face: Modelling using the fluent software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraba B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial CFD software program, Fluent, was used to study oxidation processes in the longwall mined-out (gob area. A three-dimensional model of the gob area with an advancing coal face has been developed. For the model, typical oxidation behavior of a bituminous coal from the Ostrava-Karviná District was incorporated as resulted from laboratory investigations. The longwall gob area was designed on the basis of the actual longwall face district. Detailed measurements in the district then enabled re-verification of the model outputs with actual data in situ. The main attention was paid to modelling the effect of grain size of the coal left in the mined-out area on the oxidation heat and gases evolution. Numerical simulations confirmed the existence of an 'optimal' zone for intense development of the spontaneous heating process in the gob area.

  15. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  16. Coal terminal guide 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    IBJ`s third edition of its annual guide to the world`s multi-user coal terminals includes comprehensive details of terminals in 44 countries. The guide sets out information for rapid and easy reference comprising contact, full address and communication details as well as berth dimensions and constraints, loading equipment and daily loading rate, annual loading capacity, daily discharge rate, annual discharge capacity, annual throughput capacity, storage facilities, stockyard capacity and equipment, processing facilities and so on. All information has been compiled from specific questionnaires and is presented alphabetically in country order.

  17. Coal pillar design procedures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Coal pillar design procedures G. York, I. Canbulat, B.W. Jack Research agency: CSIR Mining Technology Project number: COL 337 Date: March 2000 2 Executive Summary Examination of collapsed pillar cases outside of the empirical... in strength occurs with increasing specimen size. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 UNIAX IA L COMPR EHEN SIV E S TR ENG TH (M Pa ) CUBE SIZE (cm) Figure 1...

  18. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionDistrict2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class representing the Redistricting Commission Plan 11-15, adopted November 15, 2001. This Commission District Boundary layer becomes effective...

  19. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  20. Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

  1. Development coal tippler facility. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, F.

    1985-01-01

    Development coal at Mitsui Coal Mining's Ashibetsu mine was previously hauled in tubs through horizontal and inclined roadways to a tippler installed at the -410 m level, where it was transferred to a trunk belt conveyor which took it to the surface. However, when working faces began operating at depths in excess of -600 m, the main inclined shaft winding machine was found to be of insufficient capacity. Accordingly, a tippler for development coal has recently been installed in an unused coal storage pocket at the -600 m level, in conjunction with an extension to the trunk conveyor. The effect of this addition has been to reduce by 75% the amount of development coal handled by tubs in the main inclined shaft, and to reduce the number of operators required, by six.

  2. Preparation of slightly hydrogenated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1943-05-03

    Processes serving as producers of slightly hydrogenated coal are discussed. It was established that the working process of an extracting hydrogenation from coal alone did not present optimal conditions for production of slightly hydrogenated coal, and therefore led to unfavorably high costs. More favorable operating costs were expected with the use of larger amounts of gas or with simultaneous production of asphalt-free oils in larger quantity. The addition of coal into the hydrogenation of low temperature carbonization tars made it possible to produce additional briquetting material (slightly hydrogenated coal) in the same reaction space without impairment of the tar hydrogenation. This was to lower the cost still more. For reasons of heat exchange, the process with a cold separator was unfavorable, and consideration of the residue quality made it necessary to investigate how high the separator temperature could be raised. 3 tables.

  3. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  4. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MINHAJ UDDIN MONIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Barapukuria coal mine (BCM is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68 km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m. The estimated coal reserves is about 390 million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS system. These supports are moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method. Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face during production period, faces temperature 46o

  5. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shamanian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Alborz structural zone in northern Iran is the host of a number of important coal deposits. The Gheshlagh coal mine is one of them, which is located 35 km southeast of Azadshahr. Coal bearing strata in the Gheshlagh mining district occur in the middle part of the Lower Jurassic Shemshak Formation which consists mainly of shales, siltstones and sandstones. The Geshlagh coals have a low sulfur content and a low ash yield. The ash content of coal and its geochemical character depends on the environment of deposition and subsequent geological history (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the texural and mineralogical characteristcs of the Ghashlagh coals and to identify the geochemistry of the major and trace elements and their relationship to specific mineralogical components. These results are necessary to improve the understanding of coal characterization and to relate the mineralogy of different materials to their potential for producing acidic or alkaline mine waters associated with mining and preparation processes. Materials and methods About 20 samples were collected from the main coal seams. These samples were taken from fresh faces of the mine to avoid weathered surfaces and get fresh samples. The petrography of the samples was carried out by the conventional microscopic methods at the Golestan University. Mineralogical analyses were done by a X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα tube and monochrometer (XRD Philips PW 1800 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. The coal samples were initially crushed to less than 200 μm and homogenized. Then, 50 g from each sample was heated to 525 oC according to the United States Geological Survey procedure(Bullock et al., 2002. The concentration of the major and trace elements in the resulting ash samples was determined using a wavelength Xray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF Philips PW1480 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. Results The Coal

  7. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  8. Unconventional methods for coal extraction from coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalicka, J.; Vydra, J.

    1984-06-01

    Unconventional methods for coal seam extraction are discussed which could be suitable for mining and geologic conditions of Czechoslovakia. The following methods are comparatively evaluated: in-situ gasification (tests carried out in Czechoslovakia in Borislav, Brezno I, Brezno II), cutting coal by jets of water at a pressure of 10 MPa or pulses of water jets at a pressure of 1400 MPa, in-situ dissolution of coal seams (using hydrocarbons as a solvent at a temperature of 300 to 400 C), in-situ hydrogenation, in-situ distillation, fluid injection of chemical compounds which cause coal fracturing and comminution under water pressure (injection of sodium hydroxides or a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen followed by water solution of ammonia, temperature from 10 to 100 C, pressure from 0.1 to 10.0 MPa). From among the evaluated unconventional coal extraction methods, in-situ gasification, coal cutting by water jets and use of fluid injection of chemical compounds which cause coal fracturing are most suitable for geologic conditions in Czechoslovakia. 9 references.

  9. Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

  10. Problems of hard coal desulphurisation in Poland in processes of coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, W.; Gawlik, L. [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Centre, Krakow and State Agency for Restructuring of Harc Coal Industry, Katowice (Poland); Nycz, R.; Starzak, Z.; Tazbirek, L. [State Agency for Restructuring of Hard Coal Industry, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-07-01

    The paper gives details on production and use of hard coal in Poland. On this background the problem of high sulphur coal is shown. The structure of coal production according to sulphur content in coal and demands of users for coal of different quality is given. The programme of building new coal fines preparation and desulphurisation plants is shown and comparison the projected plants with the existing ones is done. The viability evaluation of processes of coal preparation and desulphurisation in Poland is Shown. In the context of the restructuring programme of hard coal mining industry in Poland the problem of high sulphur coal utilisation is described. 7 refs.

  11. Environmental Assessment: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District complex`s existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. This Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality`s regulations; the Department`s Implementing Procedures and Guidelines Revocation; and the May 1993 ``Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements,`` by the Department`s Office of NEPA Oversight. Under the Institutional Conservation Programs, created by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (PL 95--619), the Department is authorized to encourage energy conservation-by providing funding for up to 50 percent of the costs of installation of qualified energy conservation measures by entities such as schools, hospitals, and other buildings owned by local governments. This proposed action to fund partially the installation of a new coal-fired heating system for the Winnett School District is part of this energy conservation program.

  12. Memorandum on coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struss

    1942-10-27

    The first test facility was built in Ludwigshafen in Building 35 in 1924. During the Technical Committee meeting of February 4, 1926, Carl Bosch reported briefly for the first time on the status of coal hydrogenation and promised a comprehensive report to follow. Next, in connection with the Technical Committee meeting of July 13, 1926, Bosch arranged for the Committee to tour the test facility. Subsequently, the first industrial facility, for a yearly output of 100,000 tons, was built in Leuna with great speed and began production in April 1927. For this facility RM 26.6 million in credit was appropriated during 1926 and 1927 (the costs, including associated units, were estimated at RM 46 million; the RM 26.6 million covered only erection of the plant). A further RM 264 million was written off to hydrogenation in the years 1926 to 1931 on tests in new areas. At the end of 1929 the large scale tests at Merseburg were interrupted. On April 7, 1932, in the Nitrogen Branch discussion at Ludwigshafen, Dr. Schneider reported on the improvement in coal decomposition percentage which had meanwhile been achieved: from 60% to 95%. He proposed a last large-scale test, which was to require RM 375,000 up to the starting point and RM 170,000 per month during the six-month test period. This last test then led to definitive success in 1933.

  13. Processing of converter sludges on the basis of thermal-oxidative coking with coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S. N.; Shkoller, M. B.; Protopopov, E. V.; Kazimirov, S. A.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with the solution of an important problem related to the recycling of converter sludge. High moisture and fine fractional composition of waste causes the application of their deep dehydration and lumping. To reduce environmental emissions the non-thermal method of dehydration is considered - adsorption-contact drying. As a sorbent, the pyrolysis product of coals from the Kansko-Achinsky basin - brown coal semi-coke (BSC) obtained by the technology “Thermokoks”. Experimental data on the dehydration of high-moisture wastes with the help of BSC showed high efficiency of the selected material. The lumping of the dried converter dust was carried out by thermo-chemical coking with coals of grades GZh (gas fat coal) and Zh (fat coal). As a result, an iron-containing product was obtained - ferrocoke, which is characterized by almost complete reduction of iron oxides, as well as zinc transition into a vapor state, and is removed with gaseous process products. Based on the results of the experimental data a process basic diagram of the utilization of converter sludge to produce ferrocoke was, which can be effectively used in various metallurgical aggregates, for example, blast furnaces, converters and electric arc furnaces. In the basic technological scheme heat generated by ferrocoke cooling and the energy of the combustion products after the separation of zinc in the gas turbine plant will be used.

  14. Evaluating the Energy Recovery Potential of Nigerian Coals under Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan Nyakuma, Bemgba; Oladokun, Olagoke; Jauro, Aliyu; Damian Nyakuma, Denen

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the fuel properties and energy recovery potential of two coal samples from Ihioma (IHM) and Ogboligbo (OGB) environs in Nigeria. The ultimate, proximate, and bomb calorimetric analyses of the coal were examined. Next, the rank classification and potential application of the coals were evaluated according to the ASTM standard D388. Lastly, thermal decomposition behaviour was examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) under pyrolysis conditions from 30 - 900 °C. The results indicated IHM and OGB contain high proportions of combustible elements for potential thermal conversion. The higher heating value (HHV) of IHM was 20.37 MJ/kg whereas OGB was 16.33 MJ/kg. TG analysis revealed 55% weight loss for OGB and 76% for IHM. The residual mass was 23% for IHM and 44% for OGB. Based on the temperature profile characteristics (TPCs); Ton , Tmax , and Toff , IHM was more reactive than OGB due to its higher volatile matter (VM). Overall, results revealed the coals are Lignite (Brown) low-rank coals (LRCs) with potential for electric power generation.

  15. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  16. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  17. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  18. Natural history of presumed congenital Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, T J; Smith, K; Orton, R B; Noel, L P; Clarke, W; Cadera, W

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the stability of the ocular alignment in patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. A retrospective review of patients with Brown syndrome with an emphasis on nonsurgical cases. Follow-up of at least 1 year was required for inclusion in the study. Patients were selected for this study from the pediatric ophthalmology services at the Ivey Institute of Ophthalmology, London, Ontario, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa. A cohort of 71 patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. Two cases were bilateral. Eleven cases were excluded because of insufficient length of follow-up, leaving 60 patients with an average follow-up of 46 months. All patients were assessed and followed up by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Of 38 patients who had no hypotropia in primary position at presentation, only two (5%) patients experienced a worsening with the development of a small vertical strabismus during the follow-up period. Six (10%) of the entire group of 60 patients experienced a complete spontaneous resolution of the deficiency in elevation at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 years of age. Among patients with congenital Brown syndrome, those who are orthotropic in the primary position tend to remain stable or improve over time without surgical intervention.

  19. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  20. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...