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Sample records for brown coal district

  1. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  2. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  3. Innovations in the field of brown coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Brandt, H.; Weidlich, G. (Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-03-01

    Summarizes technological research achievements of the GDR brown coal industry over the past decade. In the field of brown coal combustion, improved swirl burners and swirl ignition burner types were put into operation in coal power plants. Furthermore, a fluidized bed coal predrying chamber at a low-grade fuel combusting power plant was tested, for increasing the calorific value of coal feed in by-pass operation, thus stabilizing steam generator combustion if coal quality reaches low limits. In the field of brown coal gasification, the GSP pulverized brown coal gasification process is commercially employed in a generator with 30 t/h coal throughput and 50,000 m{sup 3}/h gas production. Furthermore, a process for producing high quality brown coal coke for blast furnaces has been developed that requires brown coal dust and HSC-ROSE pitch (waste product of petroleum processing) as binder. Other achievements include production of activated carbon at low cost from the processing of brown coal coke and development of computer-based monitoring and operation control equipment for brown coal gasification. 12 refs.

  4. Radiation-thermal desulphurization of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaev, I.; Mahmudov, O.; Gulieva, N. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Sector of Radiation Research

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents results of an investigation of radiation-thermal hydrodesulphurization of brown coal in the presence of methane under accelerated electrons with a dose rate P = 350 Gy/s in the intervals of temperature T = 200-500{degree}C, absorbed dose up to 60 kGy. It has been established that at the more favourable conditions (T = 400-450{degree}C, D{gt} 60 kGy) about 80% of sulphur is removed from the coal and in the solid product sulphur decreased up to 1.0-1.1%. In these conditions the selectivity of desulphurization processes is s = 2.6-3.8 and energy consumption towards removal of sulphur is E = 0.5-0.6 kW.h/kg. The mechanism of selective activation by irradiation for the desulphurization process is discussed.

  5. Environmental protection in brown coal mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses environmental policy of Poland with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine, the largest in Poland. The following problems are evaluated: collecting detailed information on water conditions in the Belchatow mine and environmental pollution prior to mine construction, construction of a pipeline system for water supply prior to mine draining, effects of mine draining on formation of a large drawdown cone, effects of lowering the ground water table on vegetation, forests, agriculture in the area, water conditions, river flow, water pollution from the Belchatow mine, water treatment plants, dust emission from Belchatow cuts and spoil banks, land reclamation after surface mining (plant growth, grass, afforestation), standardized methods for land reclamation, economic aspects of environmental protection, organizational models of environmental protection in a large brown coal surface mine.

  6. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  7. The competitive strength of German brown coal; Deutsche Braunkohle im Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, D.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of a celebration on 4 December 1996, Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning, Chairman of the Board of Rheinbraun-AG, outlined the changes in the energy-political boundary conditions in Germany and Europe, strategies for maintaining the competitive strength of brown coal, and the importance of this feld of industry, and especially of the Garzweiler II oopen-cast mine, for the structural development of the Rhenish brown coal district. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gemeinsame Barbara-Feier am 4. Dezember 1996 in der Erfthalle Kerpen-Tuernich war dem Vorstandsvorsitzenden der Rheinbraun AG, Bergwerksdirektor Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning Anlass genug, von den Fuehrungskraeften des Rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbaus und den Bergingenieuren vom Bezirksverein Rheinische Braunkohle, die Veraenderungen der energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in Deutschland und Europa, die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Braunkohle und die Bedeutung dieses Industriezweiges und vor allem von Garzweiler II fuer die strukturelle Entwicklung des rheinischen Reviers, darzulegen. (orig.)

  8. Primary energy resource brown coal - difficulties, problems, solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, W.; Effenberger, H.; Retschke, W.; Weidlich, H.-G. (Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-06-01

    Outlines general aspects of burning low calorific brown coal in power plants of the GDR, which produce 83% of the country's electric energy supply. Combustion of declining coal qualities led to lower plant efficiency, higher fuel consumption, emissions, equipment wear and other negative effects. Technological variants for adapting steam generators, coal pulverizers and burner systems to low and fluctuating fuel quality are discussed. Variants include optimization of burner design, slag and ash removal from combustion chamber surfaces; measures to reduce steam generator wear as well as increase equipment service life are noted. 7 refs.

  9. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.)

  10. Functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity. The results of researches of functional composition of brown and weathered coals and their activity as a growth-promoting factor for agricultural crops were considered. The composition of coals was studied. It was found that application of humates of brown coal is a very important factor for complex rehabilitation of soils and for application in agriculture.

  11. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  12. Removal of humic substances from water by brown coal sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.V. Veprikova; A.V. Rudkovskii; M.L. Shchipko [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch

    2007-12-15

    Brown coal sorption materials with high activity toward humic substances were prepared using a larger scale laboratory unit with a spouted-bed system. The effect of thermal treatment conditions on the sorption properties of these materials was studied. It was found that the sorption activity of the resulting samples toward humates was closely related to the limiting sorption volume of the materials with respect to benzene.

  13. Direct measurement of oxygen in brown coals and carbochemical products by means of fast neutron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of elemental oxygen by means of fast neutron activation permit high-accuracy measurements of oxygen concentrations in East German brown coal; this applies to run-of-mine brown coal as well as to demineralized brown coal. The relative error was 4% in the first case and 2% in the latter case. Pre-washing with 1n ammonium acetate solution permits direct analyses of the oxygen bonded to the coal minerals. The method is applicable to other carbonaceous materials, e.g. coal ashes, solid hydrogenation residues, cokes, coal extracts, asphaltenes, oils, etc., at oxygen concentrations of 1-50%. (orig.)

  14. Brown coal mining and environment in the Rhineland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, H.J.

    1985-02-01

    Between the cities of Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle, a brown coal deposit containing approx. 55 x 10/sup 9/ tonnes is extracted by means of open cast mining methods. The deposit is covered by aquiferous loose rock, which is to be drained before actual mining can start. The entire region is densely populated. In planning and mining, particular importance should be attached to the impact on the environment. Before coal mining starts, the surface has to be cleared. This means transfer of villages, relocation of streets, rivers and the like. As provided for by statute, the local authorities and the population to be transferred are consulted and asked for their ideas about mine planning and its subsequent implementation. With regard to the technical side, it is necessary to minimize dust and noise pollution. Refilling of the exhausted mines followed by proper reclamation schemes, in particular recultivation of agricultural land, is to make up for the land lost to mining.

  15. Environmental protection at the Belchatow brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.; Ozog, J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses environmental effects of brown coal surface mining in Belchatow. Mine construction started in 1975. In 1985 coal output had increased to 18.0 Mt/a, coal calorific value was 1,860 kcal/kg. A system of 345 wells was used for mine draining. Drawdown cone radius ranged from 34.0 to 13.4 km, drawdown area was 445.5 km/sup 2/. Sedimentation tanks with a total capacity of 290,337 m/sup 3/ were used for waste water treatment. In the initial phase of mine development air pollution was relatively low. Air pollution will increase after a coal-fired power plant is constructed. Damage caused by surface mining in the mine area is associated with drawdown and earth tremors (caused by overburden removal and its disposal in new areas). Two land reclamation trends in Belchatow are comparatively evaluated: reforestation and agriculture. The average land reclamaton cost was 4.2 million zlotys/ha. Organizations which coordinate environmental control and land reclamation in Belchatow are listed.

  16. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  17. Brown Coal Dewatering Using Poly (Acrylamide-Co-Potassium Acrylic Based Super Absorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devasahayam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising cost of energy and fuel oils, clean coal technologies will continue to play an important role during the transition to a clean energy future. Victorian brown coals have high oxygen and moisture contents and hence low calorific value. This paper presents an alternative non evaporative drying technology for high moisture brown coals based on osmotic dewatering. This involves contacting and mixing brown coal with anionic super absorbent polymers (SAP which are highly crossed linked synthetic co-polymers based on a cross-linked copolymer of acryl amide and potassium acrylate. The paper focuses on evaluating the water absorption potential of SAP in contact with 61% moisture Loy Yang brown coal, under varying SAP dosages for different contact times and conditions. The amount of water present in Loy Yang coal was reduced by approximately 57% during four hours of SAP contact. The extent of SAP brown coal drying is directly proportional to the SAP/coal weight ratio. It is observed that moisture content of fine brown coal can readily be reduced from about 59% to 38% in four hours at a 20% SAP/coal ratio.

  18. THE ISSUE OF BROWN COAL QUALITY ON THE BASIS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Škvarekova, Erika; Kozakova, L'ubica

    2011-01-01

    Coal is expected to remain the dominant fuel for electricity generation in the Slovak republic for a considerable time in the future. Mining of lignite and brown coal is necessary for security and stabilizes the electricity systems of this republic through the heat power Nováky (ENO). Coal combustion processes represent a significant potential for contamination of environmental components. The elemental composition of coal from the mine Cígeľ showed that coal contains variable amount of arsen...

  19. 78 FR 48666 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... of Intention b. Docket No: DI13-6-000 c. Date Filed: July 15, 2013 d. Applicant: Browns Valley... Declaration of Intention is filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Federal Power...

  20. Collembola and Oribatei of brown coal dumps in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebaeva, S.K.; Andrievsky, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novobirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Nature and rates of forming Collembola and Oribatei groups in catena of technogenic ecosystems on brown coal dumps in Siberia were studied. With increasing age of dumps, the taxonomic diversity and abundance of microarthropod groups increase, the dominance structure is transformed. Colonization of technogenic landscapes by Collembola proceeds faster than that by Oribatei, especially at initial and middle stages of forming the groups resulting in the sharp increase of species abundance and diversity. At the late successional stage the rates of colonizing dumps by Collembola and Oribatei become identical due to increasing the rate of forming the Oribatei group. The dominance structure in microarthropod groups is transformed during succession and becomes similar to the structure, characteristic of the groups from undisturbed meadow ecosystems. In Oribatei this is displayed more distinctly, but in both groups the indicator species for technogenic ecosystems are distinguished.

  1. Data and facts on brown and hard coal. Status quo and perspectives. Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reports on the contribution of brown and hard-coal power plants to gross electricity production, quoting a total of 45.2% for 2013. CO2 emissions from hard coal rose continuously from 2011 to 2013, largely due to a growing electricity export surplus. By contrast, CO2 emissions from brown coal power plants decreased slightly, in spite of more electricity being produced from brown coal. This can be explained by the replacement of a number of old power plants with new, more efficient ones in the course of 2012 and 2013. From an environmental viewpoint brown and hard coal carry a heavy burden as energy resources. Their specific characteristics and special features are thus covered in a separate part of the report, giving due consideration to aspects of energy economy, general economy and environmental issues.

  2. A SWOT ANALYSIS OF NEW INVESTMENTS IN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Ziętera, Anna, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present factors determining the effectiveness of new investments in brown coal deposits. It discusses the weak and strong points of brown coal mining in Poland, as well as opportunities and risks in its development. The strong point is that Poland has abundant resources of lignite and the opportunity lies in the rising demand for energy. The weak point is that brown coal emits large amounts of CO2 and risk is perceived in that the EU tightens up its policy on...

  3. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  4. Co-pyrolysis of a Ukrainian low-grade coal (brown) with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.N. Shevkoplyas [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    An effective pathway of the wastes plastics utilization can be its co-pyrolysis with a low-grade (brown) coal. The Dneprovsky deposit brown coal (Ukraine) and waste plastics as a polyethyleneterephthalate in this investigation were taken. The brown coal-plastics mixed used: 19:1; 9:1 and 4:1 ratio that was as 5, 10 and 20 % plastics additive to the brown coal. The co-pyrolysis mix prepared in the temperature region 450-800{sup o}C in a fixed bed reactor has been carried out. The process time was 0, 60 and 120 min., heating rate - 25{sup o}C/min. The influence plastics additive on the co-pyrolysis yield has been estimated. The influence of the co-pyrolysis isothermal time on the yield and properties of the tars produced has been studied. The mass balances of co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics have been calculated. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics is a way to utilize organic pollutants. 3 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Utilization of heat pumps in the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlau, R.

    1981-09-01

    This paper points out fields for possible energy recovery by heat pumps in the area of brown coal surface mines. It is stated that surface mine ground water from a depth of 80 m has a constant temperature of 10 to 11 C. The theoretical heat content of cooling 170,000 m/SUP/3/h of drainage water of all GDR surface mines from 10 C to 5 C is calculated to amount to 9 million MWh. Research is therefore being conducted on recovering heat from mine drainage and mine surface waters for use as space heating in buildings and installations of surface mines, which are at present electrically heated. Further sources of heat which are being examined for possible heat pump employment are heat generating plants and large surface mine machinery. Studies have been carried out by TAKRAF on determining feasibility and economic benefit of using waste heat from engine and transmission mechanisms of heavy surface mining equipment. Results of a further study on utilizing waste heat from a large transformer station show that a direct heat recovery system is definitely more efficient than employing a heat pump system, but only in the case of a transformer average load higher than 60%. (2 refs.)

  6. Effects of pretreatment in steam on the pyrolysis behavior of Loy Yang brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Zeng; George Favas; Hongwei Wu; Alan L. Chaffee; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-01

    Dewatering/drying of Victorian brown coal will be an integral part of future brown coal utilization processes aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims to investigate the effects of the thermal pretreatment of brown coal in the presence of steam/water on its subsequent pyrolysis behavior. A Victorian (Loy Yang) brown coal was thermally pretreated in pressurized steam and inert atmospheres. The pyrolysis behavior of these pretreated coal samples was investigated in a wire-mesh reactor. While the pretreatment in steam at temperatures higher than 250{sup o}C increased the char yield of the steam-treated coal, it did not affect the overall pyrolysis char yield at 1000{sup o} C s{sup -1} if the weight loss during the pretreatment in steam was also considered. However, the tar yield decreased significantly after the pretreatment in the presence of steam. The UV-fluorescence spectroscopy of tars revealed that the release of large aromatic systems from the steam-treated coal was only affected by the pretreatment in steam if the treatment temperature was very high (e.g. 350{sup o}C). The loss of NaCl and the use of high pressure during the pretreatment of brown coal in steam were not the main reasons for the changes in the observed tar yield. The hydrolysis of O-containing structures such as ethers, esters, and carboxylates during the pretreatment in the presence of steam plays an important role in the fates of these O-containing structures during pretreatment and subsequent pyrolysis, leading to changes in the pyrolysis behavior of the brown coal. 36 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Application of principal-component analysis to the interpretation of brown coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, S.; Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Institute for Analytical Chemistry

    1995-07-01

    The characterization of coal properties using principal-component analysis is described. The aim is to obtain correlations between a large number of chemical and technological parameters as well as FT-i.r. spectroscopic data. A database on 44 brown coals from different deposits was interpreted. After computation of the principal components, scatterplots and component-weight plots are presented for the first two or three principal components. The overlap of the component-weights plot and the scatterplot (biplot) shows how it is possible to classify brown coals by means of selected characteristics. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Quantitative relation between the macromolecular characteristics of brown coal and its reactivity in conversion with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.; Gruber, R.; Brodzki, D. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    The reactivity of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in thermochemical conversion with tetralin is a linear function of the network flexibility, which is primarily controlled by ionic cross-linking with carboxylate bridges via polyvalent cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Selective chemical pretreatments were used to modify specific oxygen functionalities. This allowed better defined correlations with coal characteristics to be evaluated and the principal structural units responsible for coal behaviour to be identified. 24 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. New approach to brown coal pricing using internal rate of return methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We showed that brown coal is the substitute for black coal only at the time of the investment decision. • We compiled the model used in a calculation of the economically justified price for the productive and extractive component. • The resulting economically justified price is on a par with the current black coal price. • The proposed methodological approach is applicable to solve similar tasks not only in the energy sector. - Abstract: Brown coal is one of the dominant local strategic raw materials in Europe, used, to a large extent, in the power-generating industry. The current situation, where the price of gas and electricity precludes the efficient use of gas sources, leads to the extraction of older sources, chiefly brown coal ones. In tandem with a turning away from nuclear power, brown coal is experiencing a renaissance and the issue of brown coal price setting is, and will be, relevant. This paper deals with a proposal of a new method for determining the base price, consisting of defining the reference fuel chain for electricity and heat production based on brown coal. It builds on the notion that the degree of risk of the involved parties should be reflected in the modified amount of revenue per capital invested. The resulting price is then an economically justified price which encourages a respect for the specific features of the market in question and set the base price of the commodity in a way that is acceptable for both the extractive and the productive components of the fuel chain

  11. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  12. Growth strategy of heterotrophic bacterial population along successional sequence on spoil of brown coal colliery substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristufek, V.; Elhottova, D.; Chronakova, A.; Dostalkova, I.; Picek, T.; Kalcik, J. [Academy of Science in Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Soil Biology

    2005-07-01

    The bacterial population of brown coal colliery spoil (Sokolov coal mining district, Czech Republic) was characterized by measuring viable bacterial biomass, the culturable to total cell ratio (C:T), colony-forming curve (CFC) analysis and species and/or biotype diversity. Bacterial representatives that differed in colony-forming growth (fast and/or slow growers) were used for growth-strategy investigation of heterotrophic bacteria. Spoil substrates from the surface (0-50 mm) and the mineral (100-150 mm) layers were sampled on 4 sites undergoing spontaneous succession corresponding to 1, 11, 21 and 43 years after deposition (initial, early, mid and late stages). The bacterial biomass of the surface layer increased during the initial and early stages with a maximum at mid stage and stabilized in the late stage while mineral layer biomass increased throughout the succession. The maxima of C:T ratios were at the early stage, minima at the late stage. Depending on the succession stage the C:T ratio was 1.5-2 times higher in the mineral than the surface layer of soil. An increase in the fraction of nonculturable bacteria was associated with the late succession stage. CFC analysis of the surface layer during a 3-d incubation revealed that the early-succession substrate contained more (75%) rapidly colonizing bacteria than successively older substrates. The culturable bacterial community of the mineral layer maintained a high genera and species richness of fast growers along the succession line in contrast to the surface layer community, where there was a maximum in the abundance of fast growers in the early stage. A markedly lower abundance of slow growers was observed in the mineral in contrast to the surface layer.

  13. Effect of utlrasonics on reduction-oxidation properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandelaki, G.I.; Aleksandrov, I.V.; Kamneva, A.I.

    1988-09-01

    Carries out complex assessment of reduction-oxidation properties of humic acids obtained from brown coal, and establishes effect of ultrasonic treatment on changes in redox characteristics during storage. The investigations into redox properties of potassium humate solutions included the study of chemical activity of preparations separated from Kansk-Achinsk brown coal with various oxidation characteristics. Discusses tests carried out into the dynamics of reduction-oxidation potential changes during storage. States that reduction-oxidation systems in potassium humates separated from ultrasonically treated coal differ in chemical activity to those in humates separated from coal without ultrasonic treatment and indicates that oxidizing potential parameters chacterize redox properties of humic substances. Shows that spontaneous increase in reduction-oxidation potential of humate solutions occurs regardless of humate separation methods. 11 refs.

  14. Do stable carbon isotopes of brown coal woods record changes in Lower Miocene palaeoecology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Dolezych, M.; Kool, J.; Burgh, J. van der; Bergen, P.F. van

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of fossil wood from the Miocene brown coal deposits in former East Germany are compared with palaeobotanical and sedimentological data to test the use of stable isotopes in determining palaeoenvironment. Significant differences in the chemical composition of samples from

  15. Application of overburden stripping complexes at brown coal surface mines in the GDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstadt, K.

    1987-12-01

    In the GDR, brown coal provides 70% of primary energy and 20% of chemical feedstocks. Annual brown coal consumption in power plants is 120 Mt. The present annual output of 310 Mt will be increased to 330-335 Mt in 1990. In order to extract 1 t of brown coal it was necessary to drain 5.2 m/sup 3/ water and to remove 4.2 m/sup 3/ overburden in 1985. In 2000 these numbers will increase to 9-10 m/sup 3/ and 6.3 m/sup 3/ respectively. About 50% of brown coal fields have resources under 100 Mt which does not justify application of overburden conveyor bridges. Mobile, console type stripping complexes present essential advantages, e.g. mobility, selective excavation, capability of overcoming slopes, reliability and efficiency. Stripping complexes used in the USSR and those manufactured by TAKRAF are reviewed. A complex with a capacity of 14,000 m/sup 3//h consisting of an SRs bucket wheel excavator and ARs spreader will be put into operation at the Bitterfeld mine in the near future. The LFG-1 laser type equipment for monitoring position of the bucket wheel is described.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate with brown coal and effect on monomer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Orinak; L. Halas; I. Amar; J.T. Andersson; M. Adamova [University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia). Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography has been applied to the study of the co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with Slovakian brown coal with the aim of finding pyrolysis conditions yielding a maximum amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Effects of pyrolysis temperature and PMMA-coal weight ratios were investigated. Capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detector (cGC-MS) was used for MMA identification. The highest yield of MMA in the pyrolysate was obtained at 750{sup o}C. The optimal PMMA-coal weight ratio for maximum MMA production lies in the interval 0.5 mg PMMA and 0.6-0.8 mg brown coal with an MMA yield of 64%. Coal addition to the sample affects species recombination in gaseous phase, augments MMA production at higher temperatures and eliminates degradation products of PMMA and coal pyrolysis. Different conversion diagrams are characteristic for thermal degradation of single PMMA and in the mixture with coal. Detailed mechanism of synergetic effects arisen during co-pyrolysis are not yet known. It was also found that lower pyrolysis temperatures are more suitable to study degradation mechanism and kinetics while higher temperatures are more applicable for identification purposes. MMA decomposes completely at 900{sup o}C. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Erstling, Stefanie; Brüstle, Andrea; Wlecklik, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 four hard coal mines (at about 1000 m depth) were operating in Germany, three of them are in the Ruhr coal mining district. The mining method used (longwall mining in combination with caving) causes induced earthquakes due to the stress redistribution in the surrounding rock. Seismic events of magnitude 1.2 and larger are generally perceived by the population and thus trigger a wide interest. The Ruhr-University of Bochum routinely monitors the seismicity and its temporal evolution and energy release since the 1980s. The current seismological network consists of 14 stations (broad-band and short-period seismometers) in the Ruhr area. Six stations are located at the Ruhr-University Bochum at distances of approximately 20-40 km to the active coal fields. The remaining 8 stations are located in the vicinity of the mines (app. 1 to 5 km from the active mining). The magnitude of completeness is 0.9 throughout the entire Ruhr coal mining district with a local magnitude of completeness of 0.7 depending on the network configuration. In general, the identified earthquakes have a horizontal location uncertainty of 3 km. The routine detection and location of the seismicity is done by classical methods, e. g. based on first arrivals, and advanced methods like array techniques or cross-correlation of waveforms of master events with recorded seismograms from selected stations. Additionally selected event clusters are studied in more detail by reprocessing sub-datasets with methods like cluster analysis or consistent phase-picking. Reassessing this unique dataset of 30 years continuous recordings with newly developed methods and modern data processing techniques can provide new insights of the nature of mining induced seismicity. This methods may also be usable in the field of geothermal energy, unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs or underground storage of carbon dioxide which also deals with the detection and handling of large amounts of small magnitude earthquakes.

  18. Variability of production in the Tito brown coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, S. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1987-05-01

    Examines daily production fluctuations in the Banovici coal basin from 1978-1985, where 2,800-4,100 workers produced 2-2.3x10{sup 6} t/a from underground and surface mines. The underground mine used mechanized longwall mining, surface mines employed shovel excavators, draglines, dumpers and belt conveyors. Statistical data showed large variations (+/- 2.5%, from 4,630 to 7,792 t/day) in daily coal production; evaluation showed close correlations for surface and underground mines. Highest production was achieved on Saturdays and Sundays, lowest on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. It is suggested that these variations may be due to maintenance work in the coal preparation plant, which was usually carried out on Mondays and Fridays. A stereogram of coal and overburden output for both types of mine and detailed statistical computations are included. 7 refs.

  19. Investigations on the fouling behaviour of Rhenish brown coals in lignite-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In lignite-fired power plants high fouling in heat exchangers can be observed while firing Rhenish brown coals rich in sodium and poor in silicon content. These sulphatic and oxidic deposits reduce the heat transfer and can cause plant damage. It is assumed that fouling is caused by ash softening and partial melting of alkaline phases. The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of the fouling processes in lignite-fired boilers through experimental analysis using the ashes of different Rhenish brown coals and synthetic ash mixtures. In order to estimate the agglomeration potential of the brown coal ashes and synthetic ash mixtures, measurements of shear properties and impedance spectroscopy were performed. Furthermore, exposure tests in air and flue gas were conducted in the temperature range between 600 to 1,200 C to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the crystalline phase compounds and microstructures of the brown coal ashes and synthetic ash mixtures. The exposed samples were compared among each other and with corresponding ash deposits produced in a micro combustion chamber. Another aim of this dissertation is to verify the occurrence of NaOH melt in fouling processes. For this purpose impedance spectroscopy with a special probe was performed in the pilot power plant Niederaussem while firing sodium enriched fouling coal. This research indicates the importance of non-silicate bonded sodium and calcium in fouling processes. The higher their contents are, the higher is the fouling potential of the brown coal. Although the occurrence of NaOH in the boiler can not be directly proven by impedance spectroscopy, the experimental results indicate that it plays an important role in fouling. However, this research shows that silicates reduce the fouling potential of the ashes. Shear property measurements, impedance spectroscopy and the calculation of Na/Si and Ca/Si ratios of 450 C-ashes are applicable methods to predict the

  20. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  1. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  2. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. TAKRAF surface mining equipment in the Greek Ptolomais brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    This paper enumerates heavy surface mining equipment and its technical specifications, delivered by TAKRAF in the German Democratic Republic to four brown coal surface mines at Kozani, in northern Greece. Machinery includes: an A/SUB/2 Rs-B boom spreader with a capacity of 4,500 m/sup 3//h, three coal storage yards (capacity 1 Mt) Ks-S 5,600 stackers and reclaimers (5,600 m/sup 3//h) for the Kardia power plant (4 x 300 MW); two SRs 2000 bucket wheel excavators (3,000 m/sup 3//h overburden, 1,700 m/sup 3//h coal) and four A/SUB/2Rs-B6700 boom spreaders (6,700 m/sup 3//h each) for the Ptolomais South surface mine, and a further five SRs 240 bucket wheel excavators (850 m/sup 3//h) for coal seam cleaning. Since 1982 three more Ks-S 5,600 stacker and reclaimers for a second coal storage yard (1.5 Mt) at the Aghios Dimitros power plant (2 x 300 Mw) are being assembled. For the fourth and latest brown coal surface mine, Amyntaion, two newly designed SRs 4000 bucket wheel excavators (7,600 m/sup 3//h) were ordered, which are being assembled and will enter operation by 1985.

  4. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  5. Effects of fractal surface on rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of modified brown coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Gao; Shuquan Zhu; Mingdong Zheng; Zhaojin Wu; Huihong Lu; Weiming Liu

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of surface fractal structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of raw brown coal and three modified coal water slurries (CWSs). The results show that the fractal structures and physicochemical properties of samples are dependent on various modification processes. The apparent viscosities of the coal water slurries increase with increasing surface fractal dimensions (D), especially with decreasing shear rates. Fur-thermore, it has been proved that the ignition temperatures and apparent activation energies of modified CWSs are lower than that of raw coal water slurry. Compared with the traditional qualitative analysis of the effect of pore structures on CWSs properties, D can more efficiently indicate the quantificational effect of pore structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of CWSs.

  6. Properties of the solid thermolysis products of brown coal impregnated with an alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu.V. Tamarkina; L.A. Bovan; V.A. Kucherenko [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Litvinenko Institute of Physicoorganic and Coal Chemistry

    2008-08-15

    The mechanism of formation of a porous active carbon framework is considered, and the properties of the solid thermolysis products of brown coal (Aleksandriisk deposit, Ukraine) with potassium hydroxide are studied. The yields of the solid thermolysis products and potassium humates, the rate of the interaction of the solid thermolysis products with KOH at 700-900{sup o}C, the specific surface areas, the adsorption capacities for methylene blue and iodine, and the specific activities of surface areas are determined under variation of the KOH/coal ratio KOH < 18 mol/kg and temperature (110-900{sup o}C).

  7. The trace fossil Asthenopodichnium lithuanicum isp nov from Late Neogene brown-coal deposits, Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchman, A.; Gaigalas, A.; Melesyte, M.; Kazakauskas, V. [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Geological Science

    2007-07-01

    A new freshwater ichnospecies of Asthenopodichnium Thenius, A. lithitanicton, is distinguished by its pouch-like shape with a J-shaped limb that is distinctly wider than the remaining part of the pouch. It was produced in a stiffground at the top of a mineral-rich brown-coal layer of Neogene age by a suspension feeder forming pouch-like domichnial cavities. Mayfly larvae may perhaps be considered as candidates for its tracemaker. Other arthropods (amphipods, isopods) are also possibilities. The brown-coal layer was exposed during the Neogene by river erosion, was colonized by the tracemaker (locally two colonization events took place) and in the Pliocene covered by distal crevasse and river channel sands.

  8. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  9. Mechanochemical activation of iron ore-based catalysts for the hydrogenation of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Chumakov, V.G.; Moiseeva, G.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2000-10-01

    Genesis of pyrrhotite catalysts from different iron ore concentrates and pure iron oxides was investigated using the method of mechanochemical treatment in a planetary mill. The dispersion and fine crystalline structure of oxide and pyrrhotite particles were studied as the function of mechanical load, sulfiding temperature and mode of preparation. Methods for the preparation of high performance iron ore-based catalysts for brown coal hydrogenation have been developed. (orig.)

  10. Watermanagement - related and ecological demands on brown-coal mining. A statement of position; Wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologische Forderungen fuer den Braunkohlenabbau. Positionspapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This statement of position aims to identify influences exerted before, during and after brown-coal open-pit mining activities and to assess them in general terms from a water-management and ecological viewpoint. The form chosen is that of individual, concise postulates. Each of these is followed by an explanation. To illustrate the great variety of potentially arising problems, the major German brown-coal mining districts Lausitz, eastern Germany, and Lower Rhine are dealt with. A particular characteristic of the eastern German and Lausitz mining districts is that as the demand structure abruptly collapsed early in the 90s, closures became necessary on a large scale without preparatory measures having been taken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem vorliegenden Positionspapier wurde der Versuch unternommen, die Beeinflussungen vor, waehrend und nach dem Abbau von Braunkohle im Tagebaubetrieb inhaltlich zu erfassen und aus wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologischer Sicht verallgemeinernd zu bewerten. Dabei ist die From einzelner kurzgefasster Forderungen gewaehlt worden. Jede dieser Forderungen ist durch eine Erlaeuterung untersetzt. Um die Vielfalt der auftretenden Probleme zu verdeutlichen, werden beispielhaft in einem Anhang die grossen deutschen Braunkohlenreviere in der Lausitz, in Mitteldeutschland und am Niederrhein vorgestellt. Fuer das Mitteldeutsche und das Lausitzer Revier ist besonders anzumerken, dass mit dem schlagartigen Zusammenbruch der Bedarfsstruktur am Anfang der 90er Jahre in grossem Umfang Stillegungen ohne entsprechende Vorarbeiten notwendig wurden. (orig.)

  11. Research in cleaning water-walls of the TP-45 boiler with water during combustion of Angren brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrutdinov, R.Sh.; Shpakovich, E.Ya.; Guzenko, S.I.; Timofeev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

    1982-08-01

    With the growth of the electric power industry, great significance is placed on combustion of low-grade coals in large deposits with infavorable properties. Angren brown coal is an inexpensive low-grade fuel with 20-22% dry ash. During its combustion in steam generators with a radiant heat surface associated deposits are formed. Research on the problem of preventing slag formation on heating surfaces during the combustion of Angren brown coal is discussed. The use of water to clean these surfaces is also discussed.

  12. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  13. Investigations concerning the mechanism of action of brown-coal coke particles in aerobic biological waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the start of this work experience with the use of brown coal coke in the activated sludge process was lacking entirely. It therefore was necessary to carry through preliminary experiments in order to practically test the effect of Grown-coal coke. In two technical-scale experiments and a pilot test, very good results were obtained with the application of brown-coal coke to activated sludge. These, and previously published results, permitted to evolve moodel concepts of the mechanism of action of coal, especially brown coal coke, in activated sludge. According to these concepts the coal particles act as buffers and a temporary adsorbent of oxygen and waste water constituents. This in turn stimulates the colonization of the surface with microorganisms. In order to corroborate these model concepts, the - adsorption and desorption of solved oxygen to coal in a watery medium and - the effect of coal over a longer period of time were investigated. The results in essence confirm the model concepts. (UWa)

  14. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  15. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%

  16. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  17. Effect of structural alteration on the macromolecular properties of brown and bituminous coals, quantitative relationships to the hydrogenation reactivity with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Gruber, R. [Univ. de Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mobility of macromolecular network has been found to be the fundamental property of both brown and bituminous coals governing the reactivity for hydrogenation with tetralin. In Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, this was primarily affected by carboxylate cross-linking via polyvalent cations like Ca.

  18. The issues of the self-fill aquifer in the north Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halir, J.; Zizka, L. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The brown coal basin in the Czech Republic is located in the northwestern region of the country. Mining activities in the region have led to the flooding of various underground areas. This paper described the dewatering activities conducted as a safety procedure in a mine located in the brown coal basin. Pumping stations were established in various parts of the basin to collect inflows. Average annual pumping for the stations is approximately 990,000 m{sup 3} of mine water. The deepest pumping station in the basin is 90 meters under sea level. The activities are being conducted to ensure that a self-fill system is established to create a large self-filling water horizon after mining activities have stopped. Depressions in the mine will be successively flooded to create reservoirs of self-filling water. A computerized model of the water fluctuation rates in the mine is being prepare to accurately characterize the filling process. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. EPR- study of paramagnetic features of brown coal from Kiyakty coal deposit after mechanic activation and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is known that prospected coal resources exceed, at least by order of magnitude, petroleum reserves decreasing steeply at last time as a result of world oil consumption rise. In this connection the manufacture of different liquid products from coal, especially brown coal, is issue of the day. Liquid fuel yield depends on physical-chemical characteristics and their changes owing to preliminary chemical, mechanical and radiation treatment. In this paper some results of paramagnetic characteristic study of Kiyakty deposit coal as initial one as after its mechanical treatment and electron irradiation are presented. It is discovered that in Kiyakty coal there are, at least, two fractions differed in EPR line width and concentration of free radical states they contained. First fraction has EPR line width ΔH1=4-5 Oe and mean free radical states concentration N1= 2.4·1017 sp/g. For samples of second fraction the EPR line width ΔH2= 6.6-7.2 Oe and N2= 1.8·1018 sp/g are typical. Thus, in the second fraction the EPR line width and free radical states concentration are greater than in the first case. Besides free radical states in coal EPR signals were found from trivalent iron ions with g-factor approximated 2 and with g=4.3. It the signals with g=4.3, are practically identical for both fractions, their concentrations are neighbour and line width is ΔH1= 250 Oe, then for the lines near g=2.0 situation is markedly different. For the first fraction ΔH1= 800 Oe whereas for the second case two signals in this g-factor range are observed. The first signal has line width ΔH1= 550 Oe and g=l .97, the second is more wide with ΔH1= 1000 Oe and g=2.02. We cannot discover significant dependence of free radical states concentration on mechanic activation time. Obviously, life times of complementary free radical states generated in process of coal activation are very low. As Fe3+ ions, for both fractions it is observed intensity growth of their signals with mechanic

  20. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?; Braunkohleausstieg NRW. Welche Abbaumengen sind energiewirtschaftlich notwendig und klimapolitisch moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, Dierk; Hermann, Hauke; Ritter, David; Vogel, Moritz; Winger, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  1. Land management in surface mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.; Skalska, T.

    1986-01-01

    The Belchatow brown coal surface mine will cover 5720 ha of land - 2563 ha of arable land, 831 ha of pasture land, 1598 ha of forests and 678 ha of other land types (e.g. waste, roads, etc.). Regulations on land management and environmental protection in Poland are analyzed. Their effects on land management in the Belchatow mine are evaluated. Types of soils, their agricultural use, types of private and state farms in the mine area are discussed. Problems associated with expropriation, expropriation cost and effects of mine construction on agriculture in the Belchatow area are also analyzed. Selected problems associated with balance of manpower in the area and effects of growing employment in the mine on lack of manpower in agriculture are evaluated. Program for land reclamation, its cost, planned investment, organizational models of land reclamation and types of land utilization after reclamation are described. 1 refs.

  2. Transformation of chlorine in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during the gasification in steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu; Mohammad Asadullah; Rosalie Hocking; LIN Jian-ying; LI Chun-zhu

    2012-01-01

    This study is to examine the changes in Cl volatilizations and chemical forms in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during gasification in steam at 800 ℃ using Cl K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.The char samples were prepared in a novel one-stage fluidised-bed/fixed-bed quartz reactor at a fast heating rate.The samples were then collected and sealed in an argon-filled bag in order to minimise possible oxidation of char and Cl by air prior to analysis by XANES.Char-steam reactions were found to significantly affect the transformation of Cl,including the possible formation of chlorine-containing organic structures.On the other hand,volatile-char interactions during the gasificauon appeared to enhance the Cl retention and prevent the formation of organic chlorine compounds in chars.

  3. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay; Zhang, Lian

    2012-03-30

    The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO(2) capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO(2) capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO(2) was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60°C and a CO(2) partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO(2) capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO(2)/ton fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to cement and in the paper and pulp industry. PMID:22326240

  4. Occurrence and transformation of phyllocladanes in brown coals from Nograd Basin, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G.; Hazai, I.; Grimalt, J.; Albaiges, J.

    1987-08-01

    Phyllocladanes are the major components of the lipid extracts of two series of brown coals from the Nograd Basin (Northern Hungary). In this basin coalification was induced by thermal stress of volcanic origin which determined the isomeric composition of these compounds. Depending on the degree of maturation the 16..cap alpha..(H)-isomer decreases in abundance relative to the more geochemically stable 16..beta..(H)-isomer, the presumed equilibrium ratio being 0.3. Laboratory thermal degradation experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this transformation, showing that phyllocladene and isophyllocladene are intermediate products of the process. Variable amounts of retene and simonellite are also found, but no evidence is obtained of abietane-type precursors. Nevertheless, a close relationship of the retene-phyllocladane ratio with maturity, represented by the H/C ratio, is observed. As an explanation, it is suggested the thermally induced formation of retene from phyllocladanes, simonellite being an intermediate of the proposed reaction. Further evidence for this hypothesis has been obtained from laboratory simulation experiments. Finally, the presumed isomerization and aromatization rates of these diterpenoids have been compared for the series of samples, pointing to a promising tool for assessing the geochemical history of coal basins. 57 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Occurrence and transformation of phyllocladanes in brown coals from Nograd Basin, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gabor; Hazai, Istvan; Grimalt, Joan; Albaigés, Joan

    1987-08-01

    Phyllodactanes are the major components of the lipid extracts of two series of brown coals from the Nograd Basin (Northern Hungary). In this basin coalification was induced by thermal stress of volcanic origin which determined the isomeric composition of these compounds. Depending on the degree of maturation the 16α(H)-isomer decreases in abundance relative to the more geochemically stable 16β(H)-isomer, the presumed equilibrium ratio being 0.3. Laboratory thermal degradation experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this transformation, showing that phyllocladene and isophyllocladene are intermediate products of the process. Variable amounts of retene and simonellite are also found, but no evidence is obtained of abietane-type precursors. Nevertheless, a close relationship of the retene-phyllocladane ratio with maturity, represented by the H/C ratio, is observed. As an explanation, it is suggested the thermally induced formation of retene from phyllocladanes, simonellite being an intermediate of the proposed reaction. Further evidence for this hypothesis has been obtained from laboratory simulation experiments. Finally, the presumed isomerization and aromatization rates of these diterpenoids have been compared for the series of samples, pointing to a promising tool for assessing the geochemical history of coal basins.

  6. Characteristics of Coal Ashes in Yanzhou Mining District and Distribution of Trace Elements in Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂建; 彭子成; 杨萍玥; 桂和荣; 王桂梁

    2001-01-01

    In the process of combustion of coal organic and inorganic materials in it will undergo a complex variation. Part of them will become volatiles and, together with coal smoke, enter into atmosphere, some will remain in micro-particulates such as ash and dust and find their way into atmosphere in the form of solid particles, and the rest will be retained in ash and slag. Coal ashes are the residues of organic and inorganic substances in coal left after coal combustion and the composition of coal ashes is dependent on that of minerals and organic matter in coal This paper deals with the chemical composition of coal ashes, the distribution of trace elements in them and their petrological characteristics, and also studies the relationship between the yield of coal ashes and the distribution of trace elements. In addition, a preliminary study is also under taken on the factors that affect the chemical composition of coal ashes. As viewed from the analyses of coal ash samples collected from the Yanzhou mining district, it can be seen clearly that coal ashes from the region studied are composed chiefly of crystalline materials, glassy ma terials and uncombusted organic matter and the major chemical compositions are SiO2, A12O3,Fe2O3, and CaO, as well as minor amounts of SO3, P2O5, Na2O, K2O and TiO2. During the combustion of coal, its trace elements will be redistributed and most of them are enriched in coal ashes. At the same time, the concentrations of the trace elements in flying ash are much higher than those of bottom ash, i.e. , with decreasing particle-size of coal ashes their concen trations will become higher and higher. So the contents of trace elements are negatively propor tional to the particle-size of coal ashes. There has been found a positive correlation between the trace elements Th, V, Zn, Cu and Pb and the yield of coal ashes while a negative correlation between C1 and the yield of coal ashes.

  7. Integrated district heating in the GDR - an effective contribution to the rational use of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munser, H.; Roschlaub, W.; Walter, K.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1981-03-01

    The state of the art of district heating in the GDR is reviewed with remarks on: 1. Possibilities of energy conservation by cogeneration. 2. Brown coal heating power plants. 3. Specific heat supply cost of a power plant. 4. Energy conservation by the consumer. 5. Integrated district heating systems for big cities. 6. Use of big condensation power plants for district heating.

  8. Sulfur in Coal and Its Environmental Impact from Yanzhou Mining District, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂建; 彭子成; 杨萍玥; 王桂梁

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The concentrations of sulfur are rela tively high in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. When coals are burned, leached and washed, sul fur will be released in the form of sulfide and H2S, which then react with O2, waterand other substances to change into vitriol, and in some places it may form acid rain. And they will im pact water environment, acidify the soil and do great harm to plants and human health. In this paper, on the basis of the data from the Yanzhou mining district, the distribution and concen trations of sulfur are analyzed and the existing forms of sulfur are studied. The variation of sul fur and its impact on the environments also are described when coal is used.

  9. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire extinguishing,the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine.The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation,namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district,increasing the air pressure of the working face,and filling the ground surface fractures.A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire.When the measures fail to increase the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber,the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  10. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire ex-tinguishing, the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine. The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation, namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district, increasing the air pressure of the working face, and filling the ground surface fractures. A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire. When the measures fail to in-crease the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber, the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  11. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  12. Nature of olefins and carboxyl groups in an Australian brown coal resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Vassallo, A.M.; Russell, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical structure of the resin from an Australian soft brown coal (Yallourn) has been investigated by cross-polarization nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning (/sup 13/C CP MAS NMR). Some additional solution /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C data were also obtained. Solid-state experiments were performed with and without a delay period before data acquisition. The resulting free induction decays were Fourier transformed with respect to acquisition time and delay period to produce two-dimensional solid-state spectra. Assignments made from the spectra clearly demonstrate that the gross chemical structure of the Yallourn resin is best described as a polymerized diterpenoid with one axial carboxylic group and two double bonds. One double bond is trisubstituted, the other is monosubstituted. After consideration of various mechanisms for polymerization of diterpenoid units during biogenesis and coalification, it was concluded that polymerization occurs at the C/sub 15/ carbon atoms in the diterpenoids without cyclization of the methylene units at C/sub 8/. 26 references.

  13. Problems in stabilizing the quality of brown coal fuel for powerful state regional electric power plants. Zadachi stabilizatsii kachestva burougol'nogo topliva dlya moshchykh GRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The change in the structure of the fuel balance of thermal electric power plants over the last decades is examined. The growing role of brown coals for coal dust combustion at the present time is shown. Data are cited which characterize the Kansko Achinskiy fuel and energy complex, the deposit of brown coal and the specifications on the quality of the coal. Characteristic to this are thick, complexly structured coal strata of high strength with substantial fluctuations in ash content, moisture level and heat creating capability. The powerful energy producing units of thermal electric power plants require a quite uniform fuel quality. The existing GOST 11717-78 insufficiently regulates the specifications for the quality of fuel for state regional electric power plants (GRES) which come from the different open pits of the Kansko Achinskiy basin. It is proposed that the coal be averaged and ground within the concentrating plant by means of cutting excavators and that corrections to the GOST be introduced.

  14. CO2 adsorption properties of char produced from brown coal impregnated with alcohol amine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Paweł; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Czuma, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction is critical to mitigating climate change. Power plants for heating and industry are significant sources of CO2 emissions. There is a need for identifying and developing new, efficient methods to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods used is flue gas purification by CO2 capture through adsorption. This study aimed to develop CO2 adsorbent out of modified brown coal impregnated with solutions of first-, second-, and third-order amines. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherms and CO2 isotherms were measured for the prepared samples. The results of experiments unexpectedly revealed that CO2 sorption capacity decreased after impregnation. Due to lack of strait trends in CO2 sorption capacity decrease, the results were closely analyzed to find the reason for the inconsistencies. It was revealed that different amines represent different affinities for CO2 and that the size and structure of impregnating factor has influence on the CO2 sorption capacity of impregnated material. The character of a support was also noticeable as well for impregnation results as for the affinity to CO2. The influence of amine concentration used was investigated along with the comparison on how the theoretical percentage of the impregnation on the support influenced the results. The reaction mechanism of tertiary amine was taken into consideration in connection to no presence of water vapor during the experiments. Key findings were described in the work and provide a strong basis for further studies on CO2 adsorption on amine-impregnated support. PMID:27317051

  15. Rehabilitation of residual pits in post-mining area: a goal of Czech brown coal opencast mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure of surface brown coal mines is a complex process with many specific considerations. In the Czech Republic a special project was proposed to analyze the types of environmental disturbance generated by surface mining operations and suggest procedures for the affected areas. It also aims to propose rehabilitation techniques for residual pits, considering their future use for recreational or development purposes. A Chabarovice mine case study demonstrates how to solve the problem of water flooding and utilization of the future residual lake. 2 figs

  16. Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Palynostratigraphy from the Arkhara-Boguchan Brown Coal Mine of Zeya-Bureya Depression, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatyana V. Kezina

    2003-01-01

    A well-preserved Late Cretaceous-Paleogene palynological flora from the middle member of the Tsagajan Formation and the upper member of the Tsagajan Formation including the Kivda Beds is reported for the first time from the Arkhara-Boguchan brown coal mine, southeastern part of the Zeya-Bureya Basin. Four palynocomplexes were established for the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. The climate and phytocoenoses were also analyzed,based on the detailed palynological data. The results are coincident with those of mega-flora studied by Akhmetiev et al. (2002).

  17. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  18. Police Districts, Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2013. Data by this publisher...

  19. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan-Fang; Xing, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ze-Zhou; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yang, Dan; Yuen, Dave A; Sandy, Edward H; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Li, Xiao-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Mining activities are among the major culprits of the wide occurrences of soil and water pollution by PAHs in coal district, which have resulted in ecological fragilities and health risk for local residents. Sixteen PAHs in multimedia environment from the Heshan coal district of Guangxi, South China, were measured, aiming to investigate the contamination level, distribution and possible sources and to estimate the potential health risks of PAHs. The average concentrations of 16 PAHs in the coal, coal gangue, soil, surface water and groundwater were 5114.56, 4551.10, 1280.12 ng g(-1), 426.98 and 381.20 ng L(-1), respectively. Additionally, higher soil and water PAH concentrations were detected in the vicinities of coal or coal gangue dump. Composition analysis, isomeric ratio, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed to diagnose the potential sources of PAHs in different environmental matrices, suggesting the dominant inputs of PAHs from coal/coal combustion and coal gangue in the soil and water. Soil and water guidelines and the incremental lifetime risk (ICLR) were used to assess the health risk, showing that soil and water were heavily contaminated by PAHs, and mean ICLRcoal/coal-gangue and mean ICLRsoil were both significantly higher than the acceptable levels (1 × 10(-4)), posing high potential carcinogenic risk to residents, especially coal workers. This study highlights the environmental pollution problems and public health concerns of coal mining, particularly the potential occupational health hazards of coal miners exposed in Heshan.

  1. Metallization of oxide-ore-containing wastes with the use of brown coal semicoke from Berezovsky deposit of the Kansk- Achinsk Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The research of the metallization process of the roll scale and sludge after gas treatment in the BOF production with the use of brown coal semicoke mined in Berezovsky field of the Kansk-Achinsk Basin was carried out. A flow diagram of “cold” briquetting using a water-soluble binder was offered. The reduction of iron from its oxide Fe2O3 with brown coal semicoke in the laboratory electric-tube furnace in the argon atmosphere was studied. The mathematical models of dependence of the metallization degree on variable factors were developed. The optimal values of technological factors and essential characteristics of the obtained metallized products were revealed.

  2. Impact of Calcium on Pyrolysis and Gasification Characteristics of Brown Coal%钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 余江龙; 尹丰魁; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    综述了钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响,讨论了钙元素对热解产物中挥发分、焦油产率和气体产物分布的影响,以及对褐煤半焦气化的催化作用.结果表明,与酸洗煤相比,热解过程中,钙元素降低焦油产率,提高半焦产率;气化过程中,钙元素的植入提高褐煤半焦的反应活性,缩短了反应时间.高温时钙元素主要以氧化态的形式存在,低温时则不断与半焦基体键合而参与交联反应,少部分挥发.%This paper provides an overview on the impact of calcium on the pyrolysis and gasification characteristics of brown coal. The impact of calcium on the total volatile matter yield, the tar yield and the distribution of gaseous products during pyrolysis as well as its influences on the catalysis of the gasification of brown coal and chars are discussed. It is shown that the tar yield of the Ca-enriched coal is lower than that of the acid-washed coal and the char yield is higher than that of the acid-washed coal in the pyrolysis process. The reactivity of brown coal is increased and the reaction time is shortened in the gasification process because of the calcium implantation into the brown coal. Calcium oxide is the main form existing in the coal at high temperatures, but it is strongly bonded to the char structure and attends cross linking reactions and a small proportion of volatilizes.

  3. "Mendez v. Westminster School District": How It Affected "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Frederick P.

    2005-01-01

    Most Americans are keenly aware of the African American civil rights movement. However, few know about the comparable struggle of Mexican Americans to enjoin the practice of segregated public schools in the Southwest. This article analyzes "Mendez v. Westminster School District," a 1946 federal court case that ruled that separate but equal schools…

  4. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  5. A new approach to precious metals recovery from brown coals: Correlation of recovery efficacy with the mechanism of metal-humic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratskaya, Svetlana Yu.; Volk, Alexandra S.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Ustinov, Alexander Yu.; Barinov, Nikolay N.; Avramenko, Valentin A.

    2009-06-01

    The presence of gold and platinum group elements (PGE) in low-rank brown coals around the world has promoted interest in the industrial exploitation of this alternative source of precious metals. However, due to low efficacy of the methods traditionally used for the processing of mineral ores, there exists a high demand for new strategies of precious metal recovery from refractory carbonaceous materials that could significantly increase the economic potential of gold- and PGE-bearing organic resources. Here we discuss the possibility of gold and PGE recovery from alkaline extracts of brown coals using the difference in colloidal stability of bulk organic matter and its fractions enriched with precious metals. This approach enables one to avoid complete oxidation or combustion of brown coals prior to gold recovery, to minimize organic content in gold concentrate, and to obtain a valuable by-product - humic extracts. Using gold-bearing brown coals from several deposits located in the South Far East of Russia, we show that up to 95% of gold can be transferred to alkaline extracts of humic acids (HA) and up to 85% of this gold can be recovered by centrifugation at pH 4.0-6.0, when only 5-15% of HA precipitated simultaneously. We have shown that the high efficacy of gold recovery can be attributed to the occurrence of fine-dispersed elemental gold particles stabilized by HA, which differ significantly in colloidal stability from the bulk organic matter and, thus, can be separated by centrifugation.

  6. Frequency of musculoskeleton health problems and its relation with demographic variables among cherat coal miners district nowshera khyber pukhtunkhwa pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the frequency of musculo-skeleton health problems among the coal miners and to assess the relation of musculo-skeleton with various demographic variables among cherat coal miners of District Nowshera Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted between July and December 2014 at the cherat coal mines of District Nowshera. A sample size of 400 was selected through cluster sampling technique, in which the study area was divided into four clusters and then from each cluster 40% coal miners were selected based on simple random technique. There are approximately 80-90 Cherat coal mines in which around 1000 of coal miners are working. Coal miner's having more than one year of coal mining job were included in the study while those with less than one year or having any pathological problems were excluded from the study population. Field visits were conducted to collect relevant data from the study areas. The structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect data regarding history of musculo-skeleton problems and was evaluated with the selected demographic variables like age, duration of coal mining job, job satisfaction, and previous history of mine injuries. Results: Our study results showed that approximately 61% of coal miners had history of musculo-skeleton problems. Among those coal miners who gave history of musculo-skeleton problems, 76.64% were due to lack of training, 24.59% to early 1-4 years of coal mining job, 60.23% to less than 30 years of coal miner's age, 75.00% to unsatisfied with job, 83.19% to poor/bad knowledge of mine safety measures; 58.87% for not using personnel protective measures; and 67.62% to positive smoking history while the remaining 32.38 were among non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequency of occupational musculo-skeleton problems among coal miners 61% more and had strong relationship with age, duration of coal mining job, smoking behavior, job satisfaction

  7. Ash removal plants in large power stations designed for higher ash contents in brown coal and the utilization of waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G.; Nicko, K.H.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1984-12-01

    More than 80% of the electric power generated in the GDR is produced on the basis of raw brown coal. Mean ash concentrations of 18 to 20% in raw brown coal and calorific values of 7000 kJ/kg are quite common. This means a higher amount of combustion residues, e.g. slag, fly ash and fly dust. In consequence, ash removal technologies for coal-fired power plants are getting increasingly important. Most of the present systems are combinations of suction and pressure-pneumatic systems. The most widely used system consists of a conveying trough, a pressure vessel conveyor, and a dry ash bunker. This combination is economically efficient, easy to operate, and requires little maintenance.

  8. A transition perspective on alternatives to coal in Chinese district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available China accounts for half of the world’s annual coal consumption. Coal is the primary energy source for heating in urban areas, particularly in northern China. This causes significant challenges for urban air quality problems in China and greenhouse gases emissions. Urban district heating (DH systems penetration is very high in northern China. It supplies space heating to more than 80% of urban buildings in the area. Unlike the electricity and transportation sectors, the heating sector has received little attention from policy makers and researchers in China, DH systems are an enabling infrastructure which facilitates energy efficiency improvements and the use of renewable energy sources. This study explores the dynamics and possibility to expand alternative energy sources (natural gas, biomass, direct geothermal heat, ground-source heat pump, municipal waste heat, industrial waste heat for DH in China. We apply an analytical framework largely based on the multi-level perspective in socio-technical transitions theory, in which transitions are interpreted as the result of the functioning of niche, regime and landscape elements, and interactions between them. The study provides an integrated picture of the socio-technical structure and functioning of DH in China. The results show that an energy transition in Chinese DH systems has barely started. The system is characterised by stability of the coal-based DH regime, while a number of alternative niches are struggling to emerge. Among these, natural gas is the most successful example. However, at local level different niches present opportunities in terms of physical availability, economic viability and technical capacity to address changes in landscape pressures. A sustainable heat roadmap based on integrated energy planning and policy attention at the national level could be developed as one mechanism for instigating a much needed energy transition in DH in China.

  9. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. An investigation of the effectiveness of blending (averaging) brown coal for state regional electric power plants (GRES). Issledovaniye effektivnosti usredneniya burykh ugley dlya GRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The variability of the ash content of coal effects the specific expenditure of fuel by a state regional electric power plant for producing electric power. The studies were conducted at the Aleksandriyskiy thermal power plant (TeTs) number three and at the Zaporozhye, Yermakovskiy and Nazarovskiy state regional thermal power plants. It is established that a reduction in the mean square deviation of the hourly volumes of coal from 3 to 0.5 leads to a savings of 3.2 to 3.8 percent of coal and 2.4 to 2.9 percent brown coal. Regression equations are acquired. Correlation factors are calculated which do not exceed 0.7 percent of the reliable association between indicators.

  11. Estimation of Population Size of Dentaria Enneaphyllos in the Vicinity of the Bełchatów Brown Coal Mine and the Attempt of its Metaplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowski, Józef; Koczywąs, Ewelina; Pieńkowski, Michał

    2012-01-01

    The impact of anthropopressure on the flora in the vicinity of the Bełchatów Brown Coal Mine in Central Poland has been substantially strong. Consequently, certain changes in habitat conditions have been observed, leading to a decline in particular species stands. Mechanical damage, as well as the mine and power plant expansion have contributed to further species decline in the area. Ex situ conservation, e.g. metaplantation from native to secondary localities seems an efficient method of ens...

  12. Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation mechanism studied for demineralised coal in a direct carbon fuel cell. • Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2. • Major fuel cell performance loss occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts. • The anode retained its phase structure with minor other phases formed in operation. - Abstract: The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance

  13. Election Districts and Precincts, Brown County maintains County Supervisor and Voting Ward map layers., Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  14. The Influence Of Calcite On The Ash Flow Temperature For Semi-Anthracite Coal From Donbas District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čarnogurská Mária

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focused on the lowering of ash flow temperature at semianthracite coal from Donbas district by means of additive (calcite dosing. Ash fusion temperatures were set for two coal samples (A, B and for five various states (samples of ash without any additives, with 1%, with 3%, with 5% and with 7% of the additive in total. The macroscopicphotographic method was used for identifying all specific temperatures. Obtained outputs prove that A type coal has a lower value of sphere temperature than B type coal in the whole scope of percentage representation of the additive. The flow temperature dropped in total from 1489 °C to 1280 °C, i.e. by 14% during the test of coal of type A with 7% of the additive; while it was near 10% for coal of type B (from 1450 °C to 1308 °C. Numerical simulations of the process showed that it is not effective to add an additive with a grain size lower than 280 μm by means of wastevapour burners.

  15. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiec, Jan P; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products. PMID:12509065

  16. Biosorption of Fe, Al and Mn of acid drainage from coal mine using brown seaweed sargassum sp. in continuous process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) are leaches as result of a coal mining running, it have low ph and high concentrations of heavy metals that convert them in strong polluter; with the purpose of reduce its concentration, a continuous biosorption system was designed by removing heavy metals from drainages using a cheap biosorbent material. The brown seaweed was pre-treatment with solutions 0,1 N of NaOH, Ca(OH)2 NaCl, CaCl2, NaSO4 y H2SO4 for to study the effect on biosorption process; the removal percentage were determined, which are better than 80% with the exception of pre-treatment with H2SO4 who cancel the algae sorption capacity. The seaweed was packed in plastic mesh and polyester tulle in the shape of a rectangular prism; there isn't effect on the biosorption process by using this packet. The continuous biosorption process was studied in two units of operation: a packed-bed flow-through sorption column and an horizontal vessel like a canal with baffles, which treated adequately 3,5 and 4,71 of AMD respectively, using in each one of them 100 g of algae. The burning of algae was studied like an alternative for the problem of handling of residual algae. The ashes kept the metals removed from AMD, furthermore keep stable too by the attack of solutions of different pH

  17. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabrna, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s., Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Peleska, O. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the coal-mining district of Jiaozuo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pinghua; Chen, Jiansheng

    2012-06-01

    Investigations in the Jiaozuo coal-mining district (China) aim to link water-inrush aquifers with the sources of groundwater recharge. Concentrations of TDS, HCO{3/-}, Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater samples gradually decrease with increasing depth; in contrast, the factor 1 value of the Q-mode analysis gradually increases, which indicates that the deep groundwater may upflow, recharging the aquifers near the faulted zone. Some groundwater samples (above the local meteoric water line and `evaporation line 1') may originate from recharge by infiltrating local rainfall. Spring and river samples are symmetrically distributed on the regression line of the Ordovician and Carboniferous limestone aquifer groundwater (δ2H = 3.76 × δ18O - 31.77) and may, therefore, originate from groundwater recharge in the northern Taihang mountains. This mechanism is supported by the observation that groundwater levels change with rainfall. According to radiocarbon residence-time estimates, two groundwater sample sites may have been recharged during the late glacial stage.

  20. Early Permian coal-forming floras preserved as compressions from the Wuda District (Inner Mongolia, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, Hermann W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Wang, Jun [Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-01-02

    Four different compression/impression floras are preserved in only 4.32 m of the geologic section in the Early Permian Shanxi Formation of the Wuda District of Inner Mongolia, northwestern China. These floras represent four different plant communities and landscapes that followed each other in time. The oldest flora was rooted in sandy clay and initiated peat accumulation that lead to the formation of the lower coal seam. This seam is 230-cm thick and overlain by a 66-cm thick volcanic tuff that preserves a second different flora that grew on the peat at the time of the ash-fall. Standing stems and large plant parts are present. The upper part of the tuff is rooted by a single species of lycopsid (the third flora) again initiating peat accumulation. On top of this second seam of 120 cm thickness rests a roof-shale, deposited as mud in a shallow lake, the formation of which was responsible for the cessation of peat deposition. This fourth flora represents the plants growing around the lake on clastic substrate. Four different environments followed each other in this locality over a geologically short time span and each time conditions prevailed to preserve plant macrofossils. Three of these floras represent peat-forming plant communities of essentially the same time interval. This demonstrates the great variability of vegetation and landscapes in the tropical Cathaysian realm of the Late Paleozoic. (author)

  1. 德国IGOR煤液化工艺及云南先锋褐煤液化%IGOR PROCESS OF DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION AND XIANFENG BROWN COAL LIQUEFACTION IN IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克健; 史士东; 李文博

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, IGOR process of direct coal liquefaction in Germany and experimental results of Xianfeng brown coal in 200 kg/d PDU of IGOR process in Germany are introduced. Compared with other direct coal liquefaction processes, IGOR process is characterized with higher throughout of coal hydrogenation reactor, higher integration degree and higher quality of oils. The results of Xianfeng coal tested in 200 kg/d PDU of IGOR process in Germany showed IGOR process marched Xianfeng brown coal well with 53% of oil yield, 2 mg/kg and 17 mg/kg of N and S contents. Qualified 0# diesel oil can be produced from Xianfeng coal oil with simple distillation and qualified 90# lead free gasoline can be produced from it with reforming step.%介绍了德国IGOR煤直接液化工艺和云南先锋褐煤在IGOR工艺200 kg/d的PDU装置的试验结果. 与其它煤直接液化工艺相比, IGOR工艺具有煤直接液化反应器的空速高、系统集成度高和油品质量好的特点. 云南先锋褐煤在IGOR工艺200 kg/d的PDU装置上的试验结果表明, 先锋褐煤是适宜IGOR煤液化的煤种, 得到的油收率为53%, 油品中氮和硫的含量分别为2 mg/kg和17 mg/kg.煤液化油经过简单蒸馏可得到合格的0#柴油,经过重整可得到合格的90#无铅汽油.

  2. Soil eco-physiological indicators from a coal mining area in El Bierzo District (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Puente, Fco. Javier; Mejuto Mendieta, Marcos; Cardona García, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Gallego, Vergelina; García Álvarez, Avelino

    2010-05-01

    CIEMAT. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid. Spain. The El Bierzo carboniferous basin (León, N.W. of Spain) is placed in a tenth of the surface of this district, in the area called "Bierzo Alto". Coal has been mined in El Bierzo from the late XVIII century, having been intensely exploited during the XX century. The mining activity has left a heritage of withdrawed mining structures. Nowadays some mining activity remains in the area, and new exploitations based on open pit processes, cause the burial of natural soil with overlaying mine tailings. Characterization and study of the edaphic landscapes in the area is a necessary activity within the framework of its overall restoration planning, also providing fundamental information for the design and monitoring of waste coal recovery activities. For this work eight zones were chosen, representing the spatial variability within the upper basin of the Rodrigatos river, into the Bierzo Alto, including reference areas not affected by mining activities. In addition three mine tailings outside the area are included in this work to cover the variability of restoration processes. After a first study, based on physical, physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of soils, we have continued the study including some eco-physiological parameters. The objective of this work is to identify potential soil disruption, its extent and causes. Soil microbial activity is influenced by a wide set of soil characteristics. Eco-physiological parameters analysed in this work are: • Microbial Biomass carbon • Basal Respirometry • Maximum respiratory rate Microbial biomass carbon was analysed according the Substrate Induced Respirometry (SIR) method. Relational parameters such as metabolic quotient (CO2-C/Cmic) and the Cmic/Corg ratio have been obtained from these variables. Our results shown that soil microbial biomass carbon is strongly influenced by the water holding capacity (WHC) of the samples (R=0,895) as well as by organic

  3. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  4. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  5. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  6. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Development of scientific and technological bases for application of brown coal semi coke in the technology of non- milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics is investigated, and the optimum temperature and time modes of carbonization of a briquetted silica fume batch- brown coal semi coke are defined. The complete carbonization of the batch in the conditions of heat treatment is achieved at a temperature of 1923 - 1973 K within 15 - 20 minutes. The conditions and indicators of the chemical enrichment of carbonization products are established. After enrichment, the carbide content is more than 90%. Silicon carbide micro-powder is obtained with a specific surface area 8000 - 9000 m2/kg.

  8. The certification of the gross calorific value and mass fractions of ash, C, H, N, S, Cl, major elements and trace elements in three coal materials: ERM®-EF411 (hard coal), ERM®-EF412 (brown coal) and ERM®-EF413 (furnace coke)

    OpenAIRE

    Linsinger, Thomas; Raffaelli, Barbara; OOSTRA Albert

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the production of ERM-EF411, ERM-EF412 and ERM-EF413, three coal materials certified for proximates and trace elements. The materials have been produced following ISO Guide 34:2009. Industial hard coal, brown coal and furnace coke were obtained, dried, milled (ERM-EF411 and ERM-EF413) and filled into aluminium laminated sachets. Between-unit homogeneity were quantified and stability during dispatch and storage were assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. Wit...

  9. Human-induced Geomorphic Changes caused by Coal Mining: The Example of Mining Subsidence in the Ruhr District (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnischmacher, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    For the first time, an area-wide and large-scale calculation of differences in elevation between 1892 and today was conducted for the Ruhr District (Germany), a metropolitan region influenced by subsidence due to deep-seam coal mining starting in the middle of the 19th century. Elevation data on historical maps from 1892 was digitised with the help of a Geographic Information System and the interpolated historical surface was intersected with a current Digital Elevation Model, in order to calculate the differences in elevation. As a result, the highest values of elevation differences, amounting to more than 25 m, were observed within the coal-fields of the former coal mine "Zollverein" which is distinguished for its long mining history and its World Heritage status. A comparison of single reliable elevation data, derived from surface levelling data of the land registry office, with the interpolated values from 1892 reveals an astonishing correlation with differences of not more than 1 m. Two examples from the cities of Essen and Dortmund analysed in detail reveal that not only depressions but also elevation features are affected by mining subsidence. These kinds of surface transformations are not visible in the field without a comparison of digital topographical models. The change detections allow for a correlation with mining activities, because most of the mining subsidence areas are located next to a former coal mine. Furthermore, tectonic features of the Carboniferous strata are reflected by the location of subsidence areas, since they are located along synclines with a gentle dip of coal seams or confined by the location of predominant faults. The average amount of surface lowering was calculated for all maps digitised and analysed, resulting in a mean net value of 1.6 m or 13.9 mm per year (1892-2007) for the total area un-der investigation (2,827 km2). Even that mean surface lowering rate exceeds nearly all of the highest denudation rates of river catchments

  10. Special Taxing Districts, Published in 2013, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2013. Data by...

  11. Announcement concerning the promotion of research and development projects through the promotion scheme 'Environmental Research and Environmental Engineering' in the field of 'Rehabilitation and ecological design of the landscapes in brown coal mining areas of the new Laender'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMFT intends to promote research projects serving the rehabilitation and ecological re-design of the landscapes bordering the Lausitz and in the region of Leipzig and Halle as they present after the demise of brown coal mining. The following types of projects will be considered for promotion: recultivation projects; projects on environmentally benign design concepts for the landscapes left by mining; on techniques for the water-economical rehabilitation and rehabilitation of old deposits in the brown coal mining areas. Short presentations for project proposals can be submitted until 30 April 1994. (orig./HP)

  12. A STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN COAL MINE WORKERS IN KHAMMAM DISTRICT, TELANGANA-INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepaka Eliya Raju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory system, representing an important adjunct to the various lung imaging studies. It also measures the function of lung capacity and chest wall mechanics to determine whether or not the patient has a lung problem. Spirometry gives an important clue in terms of respiratory chronic airway disorders and can predict early damage to pulmonary system. Occupational exposures to coal dust affect the different systems of the body. The present study has focused on the workers mined in coal workers (drilling and digging who are continuously exposed to air pollutants such as coal dust during duty hours in Khammam population. Thirty healthy non – smoker male working in coal mines for more than fifteen years formed the study group, while thirty healthy non–smoker males who are not exposed to air dust pollutants from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary function test was assessed using computerized spirometer. The pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, FEF25 – 75% and PEFR were significantly decreased in coal mine workers. The results suggest that there in a need to improve control measures and the health status of workers engaged in coal mine dust Pulmonary Function Testing (PFTs is a valuable tool for evaluating the particles.

  13. Element geochemistry and cleaning potential of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wenfeng; QIN; Yong; SONG; Dangyu; SANG; Shuxun; JIAN

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analyses of sulfur and 41 other elements in 8 channel samples of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi, China and 4 samples from the coal preparation plant of this mine, the distribution of the elements in the seam profile, their geochemical partitioning behavior during the coal cleaning and the genetic relationships between the both are studied. The conclusions are drawn as follows. The coal-forming environment was probably invaded by sea water during the post-stage of peatification, which results in the fact that the contents of As, Fe, S, etc. associated closely with sea water tend to increase toward the top of the seam, and that the kaolinite changes into illite and montmorillonite in the coal-sublayer near the roof. These elements studied are dominantly associated with kaolinite, pyrite, illite, montmorillonite, etc., of which the As, Pb, Mn, Cs, Co, Ni, etc. are mainly associated with sulfides, the Mo, V, Nb, Hf, REEs, Ta etc. mainly with kaolintie, the Mg, Al etc. mainly with epigenetic montmorillonite, and the Rb, Cr, Ba, Cu, K, Hg, etc. mainly with epigenetic illite. The physical coal cleaning is not only effective in the removal of ash and sulfur, but also in reducing the concentration of most major and trace elements. The elements Be, U, Sb, W, Br, Se, P, etc. are largely or partly organically bound showing a relatively low removability, while the removability of the other elements studied is more than 20%, of which the Mg, Mn, Hg, Fe, As, K, Al, Cs, and Cr associated mostly with the coarser or epigenetic minerals show a higher removability than that of ash. The distribution of the elements in the seam profile controls their partitioning behavior to a great degree during the coal cleaning processes.

  14. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  15. Comparison of the economic effects of CBM gas utilization in the Rybnik-Jastrzebie coal district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, J. (Krupinski Coal Mine, Suszec (Poland))

    Low quality colliery methane has been utilized for some 30 years at mines in the Rybnik-Jastrzebie coal field, either by selling it to the Upper Silesian Regional Gas Works, Zabrze, or by using it in boilers at the coal mine. In October 1993 the Upper Silesian Gas Utility terminated its contract, current options for mine gas use include: use in water boilers at the colliery; combustion in drying furnaces for drying enriched coal; cogeneration at existing CHP plants; power and heat production in gas turbines or internal combustion gensets with colliery gas utilization; or power and heat production in combined gas and steam cycle power plants. At current methane concentrations none of these processes give a high economic yield - but then the gas is a waste product. Future coalbed methane exploitation technologies should lower the percentage of contaminants, prices could then become much higher, equivalent to those of imported natural gas. 6 figs.

  16. Micro-CT experimental of the thermal cracking of brown coal%褐煤热破裂的显微CT实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟巧荣; 赵阳升; 胡耀青; 冯增朝; 徐素国

    2011-01-01

    Using μCT225kVFCB high precision micro-CT system and a small moveable argon furnace, thermal cracking of brown coal from Pingzhuang mining in Inner Mongolia municipality was studied under different temperature.The results show that for brown coal,the big cracks( >800 μm) occupy leading position at about 100 ℃ ,the medium cracks ( 100 ~ 400 μm) are more important than others at about 200 ℃, the micro-cracks ( < 100 μm)become dominant above 300 ℃ ;threshold temperature of thermal cracking is 300 ℃, more or less;when temperature is lower than 300 ℃, the formation and evolution of crack and pore result mostly from thermal cracking, above 300 ℃, micro-cracks and pores produce mainly because coal pyrolysis produce and release oil gas, and turn coal skeleton into char gradually with temperature.%采用μCT25kVFCB型高精度显微CT试验系统并配以微型气氛炉,研究了内蒙古平庄褐煤热破裂随温度的变化关系.研究结果表明,褐煤在l00℃左右时,大裂隙(>800μm)占主导地位;200℃左右时,中等裂隙(100~400μm)占主导地位;300℃之后微裂隙(<100μm)占主导地位;热破裂的阈值为300℃左右;在300℃之前孔隙裂隙的产生发展主要是因为热破裂,300℃之后,微裂隙和孔隙的产生主要是因为煤体发生热解化学反应,油气逸出,固体骨架逐渐转变为半焦体.

  17. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS. Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  18. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols. PMID:27066076

  19. Review of the study ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast'' from the perspective of brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2014 the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) published an expertise prepared by the EWI, GWS and Prognos institutes entitled ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast''. This study presents probable developments in the energy economy up to the year 2030 (reference forecast) on the assumption of a yet more stringent energy and climate protection policy as well as continuing impediments to its implementation. Complementing the forecast is an outlook up to the year 2050 (scenario of trends). But what do the findings of this expertise say about the future utilization of Germany's greatest domestic energy resource, namely brown coal? This question is addressed in the following article.

  20. Changes in char reactivity due to char-oxygen and char-steam reactions using Victorian brown coal in a fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Yonggang Luo; Chunzhu Li; Yonggang Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study was to examine the influence of reactions of char–O2 and char–steam on the char reactivity evolution. A newly-designed fixed-bed reactor was used to conduct gasification experiments using Victorian brown coal at 800 °C. The chars prepared from the gasification experiments were then collected and subjected to reactivity characterisation (ex-situ reactivity) using TGA (thermogravimetric analyser) in air. The results indicate that the char reactivity from TGA was generally high when the char experienced intensive gasification reactions in 0.3%O2 in the fixed-bed reactor. The addition of steam into the gasification not only enhanced the char conversion sig-nificantly but also reduced the char reactivity dramatical y. The curve shapes of the char reactivity with involve-ment of steam were very different from that with O2 gasification, implying the importance of gasifying agents to char properties.

  1. Organic geochemistry and coal petrology of Tertiary brown coal in the Zhoujing mine, Baise Basin, South China -4. Biomarker sources inferred from stable isotope compositions of individual compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoell, M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Wang, T.-G. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

    Carbon isotopic compositions of extractable compounds derived from higher land plants are with [+-]2[per thousand] of the bulk coal ([delta][sup 13]C -27.0[per thousand]) from Baise Basin. This data suggests that either similar species contributed these compounds or that the plants from which this coal was formed imposed similar biosynthetic fractionations. The terpenoid hydrocarbons form two isotopically distinct groups: the diterpenoids ([delta][sup 13]C 2.50 [+-] 1.4[per thousand]) and the sesquiterpenoids ([delta][sup 13]C 25.9 [+-] 1.5[per thousand]) are on average 1-2[per thousand] enriched in [sup 13]C compared to the bulk coal, whereas the oleanane-ursane-lupane derivatives ([delta][sup 13]C 29.0 [+-] 0.8[per thousand]) are on average 1-2[per thousand] depleted in [sup 13]C compared to the bulk coal. The n-alkanes, ranging from C[sub 15] to C[sub 35], have a mean [delta][sup 13]C value of -32.4 [+-] 0.6[per thousand], whereby averages for the C[sub 17]-C[sub 22] and C[sub 23]-C[sub 33] n-alkanes do not significantly differ from the overall average. Hopane derivatives in this coal extract are depleted in [sup 13]C compared to the bulk coal by 8-34[per thousand] suggesting that bacterial cycling of methane played a role during formation of this coal. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Production of synthetic liquid fuel from run-of-mine oil shales, brown coals and waste of petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern and perspective technologies have been developed for processing run-of-mine oil shales into liquid products foreseen for producing motor fuels and chemical feedstock. Baltic run-of-mine oil shales, high-sulfur oil shales of the Volga basin, brown coals of Kansk-Atchinsk basin, as well as heavy crude oils and oil-bearing sands, solid waste of petrochemical and chemical industry may be processed. The proposed high-efficiency technology enables to produce high yields of naphtha (gasoline fraction) and diesel fuel fraction, feedstock for catalytic and hydro cracking processes, electrode coke, different adhesive materials, refractories, anodic mass, phenols, individual hydrocarbons, Ni- and V- concentrates. The process proposed is carried out using oil shales. Their organic matter has unique hydrogen donor properties which enable them to activate the thermal conversion of brown coals, high-boiling waste of petrochemical industry etc. This complex technology is based on the thermochemical conversion process of oil shales in the hydro carbonic solvent at 333-440 deg C, under the pressure of 3-5 MPa, and volumetric rate 3-6 h-1. A paste-forming substance boiling between 200-340 deg C is used as the medium. The process runs with a deficiency (up to 30 %) of regenerated paste-forming substance and therefore respective measures have been worked out to intensify the process. It enabled to close the process with respect to regenerated paste-forming substance and to design new routes for thermochemical processing of oil shales. These procedures have the following essential advantages: 1.There is no need for previous separation of asphaltenes and metals (Ni, V) from heavy petrochemical feedstock as they precipitate on the mineral part of oil shales and are discharged together with liquid products of the process. 2. Thermal cracking is carried out without molecular hydrogen and thermal hydro cracking without catalysts. 3. Raw material is considerably desulfurized.(author)

  3. CO2 GASIFICATION REACTIVITY OF BROWN COAL CHAR%一种褐煤热解煤焦的CO2气化反应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范冬梅; 张海霞; 朱治平; 吕清刚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the step utilization of brown coal pyrolysis, partial gasification, and residual carbon combustion, a brown coal from Shigouyi Coal Mine in Ningxia was chosen as research object to produce the rapid and slow coal chars at temperature of 700 ℃-950 ℃ in a hori- zontal tube furnace. The effect of pyrolysis conditions on carbon microcrystal structure and BET surface area of chars was investigated. The carbon dioxide gasification reactivity was analyzed by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric technology, and different evolution indexes were used to characterize the reactivity of chars. It is found that the gasification rate of Shigouyi chars increases by more than 50% with the temperature increasing by 50 ℃. When the pyrolysis temperature rises, the carbon microcrystal structure of coal chars becomes more orderly and the BET surface area decreases. However, the gasification reactivity is mainly controlled by gasification temperature. The gasification reactivity of rapid pyrolyzed coal char is better than that of slow pyrolyzed coal char, and the difference between them become greater as gasification temperature rises. Average specific reaction rates of both rapid and slow pyrolyzed chars have a linear relationship with reaction index.%针对褐煤的热解-部分气化-残炭燃烧梯级利用工艺,以宁夏石沟驿褐煤为原料,采用水平管式炉在700℃~950℃温度范围内分别制备快速和慢速热解煤焦,考察了煤焦微晶结构和比表面积随制焦条件的变化.利用热重-质谱联用技术研究煤焦CO2气化反应特性,并采用不同评价指标对煤焦气化活性进行了表征.结果表明:气化温度每升高50℃,煤焦CO2气化反应速率增加50%以上;热解温度升高,虽然煤焦微晶结构的有序化程度加深,比表面积减小,但煤焦CO2气化反应活性主要受气化温度影响;快速热解煤焦的CO2气化反应活性高于慢速热解煤焦,二者的差异随着气化温度升

  4. Comparison of economic effects from CBM gas utilization in the Rybnik-Jastrzebie coal district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, J. (KWK ' Krupinski' , Suszec (Poland))

    1994-03-01

    Several options for coal mine gas (about 50% CH[sub 4]) utilization are discussed and compared. Possible economic effects for different options including letting the gas out into the atmosphere and electric power generation by various methods, are defined after recalculating possible energy produced, related to 1000 m[sup 3] of pure methane. 6 figs.

  5. On the constitutionality of subsidizing regimes for energy sources. Part 2. First the ``coal penny``, then the ``wind penny``, and now perhaps the ``brown coal penny`` to support brown coal mining in eastern Germany?; Zur Verfassungsmaessigkeit energiewirtschaftlicher Subventionsregime. T. 2. Vom ``Kohlepfennig`` ueber den ``Windpfennig`` zum ``ostdeutschen Braunkohlepfennig``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, H.J.; Peilert, A.

    1999-10-01

    While the first part of this review discusses the so-called ``coal penny`` tax and the act for enhanced use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (StrEG) as one of the subsidizing and financing models of the German legislator, this second part deals with the `protection of interest clause` laid down in the recent German legislation for reform of the energy industry law in compliance with European open energy market directives. This clause is intended to protect to a certain extent the brown coal mining industry and the electric power industry in the eastern federal states of Germany from the harsh winds of competition in the liberalized German and European energy market. Those states have been making tremendous efforts after the German re-unification to catch up with modern standards in the energy sector, and the Government wishes to prevent the considerable investments made in those states from becoming ``stranded investments``. The analysis examines economic, political, and legal aspects of the legislative intent and the subsidizing schemes of the German government with regard to the question of whether such shift of financial burden from the public to the private sector is in compliance with constitutional law. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Nachdem im Teil 1 der sog. ``Kohlepfennig`` und die Verguetungsregelung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien als Formen der Subventionierung diskutiert wurden, befasst sich der 2. Teil der Abhandlung mit der Verfassungsmaessigkeit der Schutzklausel zugunsten der ostdeutschen Braunkohle. Diese Schutzklausel ist erstmals im Gesetz zur Neuregelung des Energiewirtschaftsrechts enthalten und soll der Stromwirtschaft in den neuen Bundeslaendern einen gewissen Schutz gegen Verdraengungswettbewerb im liberalisierten Energiemarkt gewaehren, u.a. auch um die erst vor kurzem getaetigten hohen Investitionen in neue Stromerzeugungs- und Verteilungsanlagen in den oestlichen Bundeslaendern davor zu

  6. Storage and source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments downstream of a major coal district in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, O; Mondamert, L; Grosbois, C; Dhivert, E; Bourrain, X; Labanowski, J; Desmet, M

    2015-12-01

    During the 20th century, the local economy of the Upper Loire Basin (ULB) was essentially based on industrial coal mining extraction. One of the major French coal districts with associated urban/industrial activities and numerous coking/gas plants were developed in the Ondaine-Furan subbasins, two tributaries of the upper Loire main stream. To determine the compositional assemblage, the level and the potential sources of contamination, the historical sedimentary chronicle of the 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated. PAH concentrations were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in a dated core, sampled in the Villerest flood-control reservoir located downstream of the Ondaine-Furan corridor (OFC). The most contaminated sediments were deposited prior to 1983 (Σ16PAHs ca. 4429-13,348 ng/g) and during flood events (Σ16PAHs ca. 6380 ng/g - 1996 flood; 5360 ng/g - 2003 flood; 6075 ng/g - 2008 flood), especially in medium and high molecular weight PAHs. Among them, typical pyrogenic PAHs such as FLT, PYR, BbF and BaP were prevalent in most of the core samples. In addition, some PAHs last decade data is available from the Loire Bretagne Water Agency and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC/FLD). These results confirm that the most highly contaminated sediments were found downstream of OFC (Σ16PAHs ca. 2264-7460 ng/g). According to the observed molecular distribution, PAHs are originated largely from high-temperature pyrolytic processes. Major sources of pyrogenic PAHs have been emphasized by calculation of specific ratios and by comparison to reported data. Atmospheric deposition of urban and industrial areas, wood combustion and degraded coal tar derived from former factories of coking/gas plants seem to be the major pyrogenic sources. Specifically, particular solid transport conditions that can occur during major flood

  7. Storage and source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments downstream of a major coal district in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, O; Mondamert, L; Grosbois, C; Dhivert, E; Bourrain, X; Labanowski, J; Desmet, M

    2015-12-01

    During the 20th century, the local economy of the Upper Loire Basin (ULB) was essentially based on industrial coal mining extraction. One of the major French coal districts with associated urban/industrial activities and numerous coking/gas plants were developed in the Ondaine-Furan subbasins, two tributaries of the upper Loire main stream. To determine the compositional assemblage, the level and the potential sources of contamination, the historical sedimentary chronicle of the 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated. PAH concentrations were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in a dated core, sampled in the Villerest flood-control reservoir located downstream of the Ondaine-Furan corridor (OFC). The most contaminated sediments were deposited prior to 1983 (Σ16PAHs ca. 4429-13,348 ng/g) and during flood events (Σ16PAHs ca. 6380 ng/g - 1996 flood; 5360 ng/g - 2003 flood; 6075 ng/g - 2008 flood), especially in medium and high molecular weight PAHs. Among them, typical pyrogenic PAHs such as FLT, PYR, BbF and BaP were prevalent in most of the core samples. In addition, some PAHs last decade data is available from the Loire Bretagne Water Agency and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC/FLD). These results confirm that the most highly contaminated sediments were found downstream of OFC (Σ16PAHs ca. 2264-7460 ng/g). According to the observed molecular distribution, PAHs are originated largely from high-temperature pyrolytic processes. Major sources of pyrogenic PAHs have been emphasized by calculation of specific ratios and by comparison to reported data. Atmospheric deposition of urban and industrial areas, wood combustion and degraded coal tar derived from former factories of coking/gas plants seem to be the major pyrogenic sources. Specifically, particular solid transport conditions that can occur during major flood

  8. Conversion of the compensation measures for the utilization of a FFH area of the brown coal open mining Cottbus North; Umsetzung der Kompensationsmassnahmen fuer die Inanspruchnahme eines FFH-Gebietes durch den Braunkohletagebau Cottbus-Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstgraser, Christoph [gerstgraser - Ingenieurbuero fuer Renaturierung, Cottbus (Germany); Arnold, Ingolf; Dingethal, Heidemarie [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the year 1981, the open mining Cottbus-North (Brandenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) produces brown coal. Presently, 5 million tons of brown coal are produced. This brown coal is used in the power generation at the coal-fired power station Jaenschwalde. Within this area of mining there is the pond's group Lakoma. This pond's group consisted of 22 ponds with a total area of 69 ha. These ponds served for breeding of fishes and accommodated protected animal species. In December 2003, the pond's group Lakoma was suggested as a FFH area by the country Brandenburg. With the planning approval procedure for waters, a FFH area was completely eliminated in the approach of an open mining. A licensing procedure came to the result that a removal of these ponds was permissible with consideration of the public interest, if a reconciliation for the plants and animals is carried out. These compensation measures were realized within short time. Thus the open mining Cottbus-North could be continued according to plan.

  9. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, Elodie; Lorant, François; Hatcher, Patrick G; Marquaire, Paul-Marie; 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.01.004

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature and analytical characterization of our samples by modern 1-and 2-D NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis. Then, artificial maturation of the Morwell coal is performed at low conversions in order to obtain, quantitative and qualitative, detailed evidences of structural evolution of the kerogen upon maturation. The observed chemical changes are a defunctionalization of the carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxy functional groups coupling with an increase of cross linking in the residual mature kerogen. Gaseous and liquids hydrocarbons, essentially CH4, C4H8 and C14+ liquid hydrocarbons, are generated in low amount, merely by clea...

  10. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  11. Automated realtime detection of mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany, using master waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wlecklik, Dennis; Friederich, Wolfgang; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The exploitation of the subsurface by mining, geothermal or petroleum production causes seismic events in the surrounding areas. Shallow focal depths can lead to perceptible ground motions in densely populated areas and in rare cases to damages even for small events (magnitude smaller than 3.5). Thus, the monitoring of this kind of activities is necessary and increasingly requested by governmental agencies. A reliable detection and localisation of small events generally requires a dense and therefore expensive local seismic station network. At the end of 2014 and beginning of 2015, a dense seismic network of 12 stations was set up as a test case in the area of the black coal mine Prosper-Haniel in the Ruhr district, Germany. This network was capable of detecting almost 400 events within 4 weeks. A cluster analysis identified 135 events of magnitude -0.7 or higher, which could be located. This cluster analysis was also used to construct master events for running a real-time single-station cross-correlation detector in the Seiscomp3 software. The results of the real-time cross-correlation detector are compared to the results of the cluster analysis with respect to the number, magnitudes and locations of the events. This two-step monitoring of the source area provides a cost efficient way for long term monitoring of the mining activity.

  12. Ash removal equipment of large power plants designed for increased brown coal ash content and for economic use of waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G.; Nicko, K.H.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1984-12-01

    The design and performance of the pneumatic deashing system of a brown coal fired steam generator with 660 t/h steam capacity are explained. Experiments were carried out aimed at improving the performance of the pneumatic conveyor with its discontinuously working pressure vessel. A modified technology of operating the pneumatic system quasi-continuously was investigated, with which a 100% higher ash throughput, elimination of pipe clogging and a 40% reduction in air requirement were achieved. Equipment for loading ash from bunkers into closed container cars was further studied. Substantial steel wear was noted at the mixing screw of the ash moistening trough. A new ash moistening and mixing drum (4 m long, 1.8 m diameter, 20 kW drive) has been developed, capable of moistening 600 m/sup 3//h of ash with only 15% of the electrical energy and 30% of the maintenance expenditures of mixing screw equipment. The manufacturer, OBV Budapest, will produce 3 sizes of the new ash mixing drum for reconstruction of ash loading facilities at various power plants. 7 references.

  13. 铁元素对褐煤热解及气化特性的影响%Impact of Iron-loading on the Pyrolysis and Gasification Features of the Brown Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利; 王冬梅; 尹丰魁; 余江龙

    2011-01-01

    综述了铁元素对褐煤热解及气化的影响方面的研究进展,在褐煤中植入铁元素对褐煤热解和气化的半焦产物、气体产物的影响,分析了铁在褐煤热解和气化过程中的迁移和转化,并与褐煤中植入的其他金属元素产生的影响进行了简单对比.%Poly-generation system based on coal pyrolysis and gasification is one of the options of clean and efficient utilization of coal in China. In this paper, an overview of current status and progress of studies on the effects of iron loading on the pyrolysis and gasification features of brown coals upon heating has been provided with the changes in char and gaseous products because of iron-loading were summarized. The transformation of iron species during pyrolysis and gasification processes is discussed. The effect of iron-loading is also compared with that of other metals loaded into the brown coal.

  14. Experiments on the gas production of brown coal degraded by exogenous methanogens%外源产甲烷菌降解褐煤产气实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涵; 林海; 董颖博; 隋梦琪; 李洋子

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the ability of exogenous bacteria to degrade brown coal, methanogens were enriched from anaerobic sludge and domesticated using brown coal as the single carbon source. After domestication, the lag time of initial gas production is shortened from 12 to 6 days and the CH4 production increases by 29.2% in 30 days. The generated biogas is composed of CH4 and a little CO2, no heavy hydrocarbons are detected. Experiments on gas production influencing factors demonstrate that the best initial pH for the culture medium is 7.0 and the maximum gas production is 1.9 times and 2.4 times higher than that at pH 6.4 and pH 7.4, respectively. The particle size of coal is one of factors influencing the gas production: the general trend is the smaller the particle size, the bigger the gas production, but the variation of gas production is not significant with decreasing particle size. Gas produced by the culture medium accounts for around 50% of the total gas production and it is likely caused by the addition of L-cysteine (0.5 g/L) and yeast extract (1 g/L) to the medium.%为研究外源菌降解褐煤产气能力,从厌氧消解污泥中提取产甲烷菌群,以褐煤为碳源进行菌种驯化,开展产气实验,并对驯化后菌群的产气影响因素进行实验研究.驯化实验发现:驯化后该菌群初始产气时间由驯化前的12 d缩短为6d,且30d内产气总量增加了29.2%;经检测,生成气体主要为CH4和少量CO2,未检测到重烃气.产气影响因素实验表明:该菌群最佳产气初始培养基pH值为7.0,产气量分别约为初始pH值为6.4、7.4时的1.9倍和2.4倍;煤的粒径也是影响产气量的因素之一,表现为粒径越小,产气量越大,但产气量随粒径变小变化不明显;培养基本身产气量约占总产气量的50%,原因可能是其中添加了微量L-半胱氨酸(0.5 g/L)和酵母浸出液(1 g/L).

  15. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, P.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Francu, J.; Francu, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of a joint Czech-German project, experimental and analytical methods are being applied to improve the understanding of compositional variation of coal-related gas in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic). According to present understanding, the gas composition is controlled by generation (thermal vs. microbial), migration and adsorption/desorption processes. In particular the effects of the sorption processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of coal gases are only poorly explored. During the first stage of this project, the gas adsorption capacity has been determined for coal samples representing the paralic Ostrava Formation (Namurian A) and the limnic Karviná Formation (Namurian B-C). For this purpose, high pressure adsorption isotherms have been measured for methane and carbon dioxide on medium and low volatile bituminous coal (VRr 1.2-1.8%) from the production face of two collieries in the study area. Adsorption isotherms have been measured for pressures up to 25 MPa for CO2 and up to 17 MPa for methane at 20˚ C and 45˚ C. Isotherms were measured on dry, moisture-equilibrated and "as received" samples (moisture content: 0.5-1.7%, mineral-matter-free) using a manometric method. Sorption capacities for CH4 at 45˚ C ranged from 18 to 27 Std. cm3/g (0.7 to 1.1 mmol/g) coal, dry ash-free (daf), showing an increase of sorption capacity with increasing coal rank. For CO2, sorption capacities were generally higher than for methane, ranging from 35-40 Std. cm3/g (1.4-1.7 mmol/g) coal (daf). Equilibrium moisture contents, determined by a modified ASTM method, were significantly higher than the "as received" moisture. Sorption capacities measured on moisture-equilibrated samples were generally lower than those measured on dry or "as received" samples. Methane excess sorption isotherms show a type I Langmuir form and could be approximated using the Langmuir function. Excess sorption isotherms for CO2 show a decrease in

  16. Economy, environmental issues and market requirements. The example of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic coal mining is in a recession stage now. The cost of mining increases and the European market is saturated. The projection of the needs for solid fuels till 2000 was analyzed based on an investigation made among 80 large-scale customers and in the municipal and household sphere. Demands for bituminous coal for power plants exhibit an increasing trend. From the environmental point of view it is unfavourable that, as the district authorities suppose, brown coal and bituminous coal sludges will continue to be used by the households and communities after 2000. The problem of the mining and processing costs and of the related coal prices is a crucial issue in the future development of fuel mining in the Czech Republic. (M.D.). 3 refs

  17. 褐煤本源菌在煤层生物气生成中的微生物学特征%Performance of indigenous bacteria during the biogenic gas generation from brown coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宽; 秦勇

    2011-01-01

    为探明微生物菌群在褐煤生物气生成过程中的作用机制,利用厌氧手套箱为操作平台,从云南昭通盆地新鲜褐煤样品中富集培养本源产甲烷菌群,并通过褐煤生物气生成模拟实验,研究了产气过程中发酵细菌、产氢产乙酸菌数量和纤维素酶、辅酶F420活性的变化特征.结果表明:在生物气产生过程中,发酵细菌始终保持着较高活性(大于7.5×106个/mL),产氢产乙酸菌数量和增殖速率明显小于发酵细菌,但其数量变化趋势与发酵细菌相似,两者在营养生态位上显示出明显的承继关系;纤维素酶始终保持较高的活性(0.018~0.023mg/(mL.h));辅酶F420活性会受到产酸发酵菌所产生的酸性物质的抑制,其最低活性值为峰值的55.91%~67.61%;辅酶F420活性在褐煤生物气产出过程中经历了两个高峰期,指示着褐煤的煤层气生成过程具有阶段性.%In order to verify the functional mechanism of microbial community in biogenic gas generation progress from brown coal,we used anaerobic glove chamber as the experimental platform to enrich and cultivate active methanogen flora from freshly collected brown coal samples from Zhaotong basin,Yunnan Province,China.A simulating experiment of biogenic gas from brown coal was conducted with these indigenous bacteria.The amounts of fermentation and syntrophic acetogenic bacteria,and the activities of cellulase and coenzyme F420 were analyzed during the experiment.The results show that the fermentation bacteria kept quite active(≥7.5×106/mL) throughout the biogas generation process;and both the amount and breeding rate of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria were smaller than that of fermentation bacteria.But the amounts of both kinds of bacteria had the same changing trend,which shows significant inherited food chain-related relationship.The activities of cellulase remained fairly(0.018-0.023 mg/(mL·h));while those of coenzyme F420 could

  18. Scope and results of selective brown coal winning with hydraulic power shovels, as illustrated by the example of Dimnjace opencast mine. Moeglichkeiten und Ergebnisse selektiver Braunkohlegewinnung mit hydraulischen Loeffelbaggern, dargestellt am Beispiel des Tagebaues 'Dimnjace'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, N. (Fakultaet des Bergbaus und der Geologie, Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina)); Marincic, Z. (Kohlenbergwerk ' Gracanica' , Gornji Vakuf (Bosnia and Herzegovina)); Komljenovic, D. (Fakultaet des Bergbaus und der Geologie, Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina))

    1994-09-01

    The present paper discusses the selective winning of brown coal, using hydraulic excavators that are equipped with the TRY-POWER system. Taking the Dimnjace opencast mine as an example, the author examines the scope of selective winning up to a thickness of 0.2 m. In this connection the relationship between the duration of the excavator work cycle and the thickness of the layers to be removed is determined. By correlation the relationships thus determined are expressed by generally valid formulae, and methods of applying these formulae to general cases are indicated. By using the method of selective winning in the Dimnjace opencast mine a considerable saving in costs has been achieved. (orig.)

  19. Soil Erosion Assessment of The Post-Coal Mining Site in Kutai Kartanagera District, East Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Besides of its positive economic impact, mining activity has negative impacts to the sustainability of community development and livelihoods as mining reclamation can’t restore the land condition to its original state. The objective of this study was to determine the main factor that caused soil erosion induced in post-coal mining and defined reclamation activity that caused soil erosion. The observed parameters were site reclamation age of each companies, soil physical properties (density, t...

  20. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  1. Disaster Regularities and Control Measures against Brown Plant­hopper in Gaochun District%江苏高淳地区褐飞虱灾变规律及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏华兴; 唐庆伟

    2016-01-01

    Forecast data of brown plant­hopper in Gaochun District were analyzed, and results showed that since 2005, the outbreak frequency of brown plant­hopper has increased, causing serious harm and loss; its immigration trend changed from the high to the low, showing a wavy situation;the short winged adults emerged early, with high proportion, and the worm rose fast at the heading stage;the high amount of eggs occurred in the seventh (4) generation, the young nymph with long booming period;big differences happened between different region and plots. We found its causes were related to suitable climate, favorable host species, enhanced resistance, different prevention and controlling levels, and other factors. On this basis, we proposed to strengthen the insect monitoring, focus on pre­treatment control, select the right pesticides, and conduct other prevention and control measures.%对高淳区褐飞虱测报资料进行分析表明,2005年以来褐飞虱暴发频率增加,危害损失严重;迁入量由高趋低,呈波浪态势;短翅成虫出现早、比例高,穗期虫量上升快;七(4)代卵量高,低龄若虫盛发期长;地区间、田块间差异性大等特点,其原因与气候适宜、寄主品种有利、抗药性增强、防治水平差异等因素相关。在此基础上提出要加强虫情监测,注重治前控后,选用正确药剂等防控对策。

  2. Regulation of ecology and water household in the coal district of Emscher and Lippe. Regulierung des Oekologie- und Wasserhaushalts im Steinkohlerevier von Emscher und Lippe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobs, H.W. (Emschergenossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany))

    1992-05-01

    The coal district of Emscher and Lippe contains members of the Ruhr region which mining has left already to a large extent on its course to the north, as well as the rather rural Lippe region into which mining penetrates further and further. In order to protect nature and landscape in this area, an environment-friendly northward migration of mining is required. The protection of the waters forms a center of gravity here: Flowing waters and groundwaters. Different hydro-constructional water receiving regulation measures and their effects on environment and ecology are introduced. The maintenance of a natural water state and/or natural reconstruction of technical drain channels has special importance. Above all in the strongly industrialized Emscher area it is intended to free the man-made recipients and tributaries of the Emscher (dirt waters) of wastewater and return them to their natural state. The special difficulties are pointed out. Comparable difficulties are to be avoided in the Lippe area; a non-polluting mining is to be ensured. The country government has therefore designed a northward migration concept for mining. The Lippe concept is based on it; it provides information and supplies solution propositions as to how mining influences on waters, nature and environment can be minimized. (orig.).

  3. Soil Erosion Assessment of The Post-Coal Mining Site in Kutai Kartanagera District, East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides of its positive economic impact, mining activity has negative impacts to the sustainability of community development and livelihoods as mining reclamation can’t restore the land condition to its original state. The objective of this study was to determine the main factor that caused soil erosion induced in post-coal mining and defined reclamation activity that caused soil erosion. The observed parameters were site reclamation age of each companies, soil physical properties (density, texture, permeability, organic material and soil structure, rainfall rate, soil chemical properties, land cover and age of re-vegetation, plant cover. Analysis was carried out to determine the magnitude of erosion at each site unit, tolerable erosion and potential erosion level. Adequate reclamation action with good vegetative cover could be seen from erosion magnitude at five year reclamation age i.e. 1.7 ton/ha/ year- which lower than tolerable erosion i.e. 5.4 ton/ha/year. While inadequate reclamation action could be seen from erosion magnitude at nine year age of reclamation i.e. 201.1 ton/ha/year1 which higher than tolerable erosion i.e. 15.1 ton/ha/ year1. The erosion magnitude at the four month of reclamation age was 4.966,3 ton/ha with tolerable erosion was 5.3 ton/ha. The erosion magnitude that occurs in post-mining site was due to soil compaction that lowering soil permeability rate leading to slow growing of cover crop. This condition made the soil wasn’t covered from raindrop and water run-off.  In order to improve the soil condition of post-mining site into productive land, legume cover crop was recommended to be planted.

  4. 褐煤本源茵生气特征及其作用机理%Generation and mechanism of gas from brown coal under action of parent bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宽

    2012-01-01

    ,产甲烷菌和辅酶F420。活性受到酸性物质的抑制。随后,产氢产乙酸菌成为优势茵,它们利用发酵细菌代谢产物产生乙酸和氢,两者之间具有食物链关系。辅酶F420活性在静止期后增长迅速,并在产气高峰期达到最大,体现本源产甲烷茵对褐煤底物的良好适应性,是评价产气量高低的有效指标。通过改变生气条件,研究底物类型、褐煤粒度、矿井水和煤矸石对褐煤生物气生成的影响。结果表明:不同配比的酵母浸出液、甲醇和乙酸钠溶液对生物气生成具有抑制或激活作用,较小粒度褐煤有利于提高生气率,不同比例矿井水的添加能够有效增加次生生物气产量。煤矸石本身不能作为基质被厌氧细菌利用。%Elucidating the characteristics and mechanism of the reaction of microorganisms and organic matter in coal to produce bio-gas is a very important foundation to the further understanding of the genesis of coalbed gas and the in- novation of coalbed gas exploration. So the brown coal in Zhaotong basin was selected as the research object to study the generation of secondary biogenic coalbed gas, and then discussed its generation mechanism. The results show that, the brown coal samples have active anaerobic bacteria, in which cellulose decomposition bacteria are in the majority and sulfate-reducing bacteria are very few. Local methanogen are successfully enrichment cultivated and they are mainly G+ bacillus, and the individual sizes have large differences. Based on that, the local bac- teria and brown coal samples were selected as bacterial sources and substrates to study the generation of secondary bio- genie gas from the brown coal. The results prove that, after resting period, the local anaerobic bacteria could use the brown coal to produce a large amount of biogenic gas. Secondary biogenic coalbed gas has two generation periods. The substrate that is biodegraded to produce gas in the first period is

  5. Mine water management. Modification of the mine water management in the Ruhr district within the decommissioning of the hard coal mining; Grubenwasserhaltung. Aenderung der Grubenwasserhaltung im Ruhrrevier im Zuge der Stilllegung des Steinkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwelp, Tassilo [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Dezernat 63 - Zentrale Grubenwasserhaltung, Grubenwassernstieg, Schachtverfuellung

    2013-03-15

    Within the so-called Legacy Agreement regarding the overcoming of the burdens in perpetuity of the coal mining of the RAG AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), the Federal States North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany) and Saarland (Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Foundation (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) have regulated the mine water drainage in the decommissioning of the mines. Under this aspect, the department 'Mining and energy in NRW' of the district government Arnsberg (Federal Republic of Germany) as the mining authority increasingly is concerned with the topic mine water in the Ruhr district. In this context, the district government Arnsberg is responsible for an organized mine water control after the withdrawal of the hard coal mining. The main aims of this are the protection of the surface area being mined and mine safety aspects. As part of the withdrawal from the deposit, the rise of the mine water level has to be planned and controlled carefully in order to avoid adverse impacts at the surface of the area to be mined.

  6. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  7. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  8. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  9. Fe对胜利褐煤焦结构和气化反应性能的影响%Effect of iron on Shengli brown coal char structure and its influence on gasification reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐学军; 宋文武; 刘亮

    2015-01-01

    酸洗褐煤负载不同含量的Fe催化剂在固定床反应器上进行热解,然后采用FT-IR、Raman spectra、TPD和TG研究Fe催化剂对煤焦官能团、碳微晶结构、表面活性位和气化反应性的影响。 FT-IR结果表明,催化热解作用下煤焦中-OH、-CH3、-CH2活性官能团数量增加。 Raman光谱测试结果显示,随着Fe含量的增加,IG/Ial由0.095减少到0.087,ID3/Ial由0.090增加至0.097,表明在Fe催化作用下部分大芳香环结构转变为小芳香环结构。 TPD实验结果表明,活性位数量随着煤焦中Fe含量升高而不断增加。在3%含Fe量时煤焦活性位数量随着吸附温度的升高而增加,800℃后煤焦表面活性位数量开始降低。750℃条件下CO2吸附量随着吸附时间的延长而增加,45 min后煤焦达到饱和吸附状态。煤焦-水蒸气等温气化实验表明,煤焦气化反应性与活性位数量有密切的关系,Fe催化剂主要通过增加煤焦表面活性位数量提高煤焦气化反应性。%Acid-washing brown coal samples loaded with different content of iron catalyst were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of iron on coal char functional group, carbon crystallite structure, surface active site and gasification reactivity were investigated by FT-IR, Raman spectra,TPD and TG. FT-IR results reveal that the numbers of -OH、-CH3、-CH2 active functional groups increase significantly during catalytic pyrolysis. Raman spectra results show that IG/Ial reduces from 0. 095 to 0. 087 and ID3/Ial increases from 0. 090 to 0. 097 with the increase of iron loading, respectively. It means that partial large polyaromatic ring structures transform into small polyaromatic ring structures under the catalytic action of iron. TPD experimental results indicate that the numbers of active sites increase with the increase of iron loading. With 3% Fe loading, the numbers of active sites rise with the increase of adsorption temperature until 800℃, and then start to

  10. Elasto-plastic analysis of collapse pressure for deep coal seam drilling based on Hoek-Brown criterion%基于Hoek-Brown准则的深部煤层钻井坍塌压力弹塑性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立松; 闫相祯; 杨秀娟; 田中兰; 杨恒林

    2013-01-01

    Elasto-plastic characteristics of deep coal seam at Pingding region in Qinshui Basin was determined under the effect of high confining pressure using triaxial compression test. Taking Hoek-Brown criterion as the limit equilibrium condition, elasto-plastic calculation method of collapse pressure for deep coal seam was derived based on plastic zone radius, and influence factors which control wellbore collapse were obtained, including Geologic Strength Index ( GSI) , non-uniform stress coefficient and engineering allowable plastic zone radius. Taking CBM well PD-095 in Pingding region as an example, the elasto-plastic results of collapse pressure were compared with elastic results, and the relationship between collapse pressure and influence factors was analyzed. The results show that the elasto-plastic results of collapse pressure decrease 6. 52% ,4. 66% than the elastic results of Hoek-Brown criterion and Mohr-Coulomb criterion when the plastic zone radius is 1. 5 times of wellbore radius;the elasto-plastic results of collapse pressure decrease with the increment of plastic zone radius and the descendent of the stress non-uniform; minus power function relationship between the collapse pressure and the GSI value is presented.%利用三轴压缩实验确定了沁水盆地平定区块深部煤岩在高围压条件下的弹塑性特征.以Hoek-Brown准则为极限平衡条件,提出了基于工程允许塑性区半径的深部煤层井眼坍塌压力弹塑性计算方法,得到控制深部煤层井壁坍塌的主要参数:煤岩地质强度指标GSI值、非均匀地应力系数及工程允许塑性区半径.以平定区块PD-095井为例,分析了深部煤层坍塌压力弹塑性结果与弹性结果的差别,讨论了坍塌压力弹塑性结果随影响因素的变化规律.结果表明,当工程允许塑性区半径为井眼半径的1.5倍时,PD-095井坍塌压力弹塑性结果较Hoek-Brown准则、Mohr-Cou-lomb准则弹性结果分别降低6.52%,4.66%;随着

  11. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Hiller, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N. [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  12. FeCl3的负载对褐煤热解提质中有机硫迁移转化的影响%Effects of FeCl3 Addition on Transformation of Organic Sulfur During the Pyrolysis Upgrading of Ximeng Brown Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常丽萍; 秦政; 王美君; 张玉龙

    2012-01-01

    The removal of organic sulfur and/or water from low-quality coals is the key and foundation in their clean and effective utilization. Ximeng brown coal containing rich organic sulfur was selected as the experimental sample. Effects of the methods and amounts of FeCl3 added into coal on the transformation and release of sulfur were studied in the fixed bed pyrolysis-gas chromatographic analysis apparatus. The results show that methods and amounts of iron added in coal obviously affected the sulfur releasing temperature and the ratio in gases and char. The iron added in coal through mechanical mixing method was mainly dispersed on the surface of coal and had the role of reducing the sulfur released to gas and retaining it in char by formation of Fe1-xS. When iron was added by the method of modified impregnation, it was evenly loaded in coal and ion-exchange occured with the organic functional groups in coal matrix. The action of iron on the transformation of sulfur in the upgrading process of brown coal by pyrolysis changed with the Fe content in impregnation solution. Low content iron promoted the release of sulfur by improving the pyrolysis reactivity of coal, while the role of high loading content iron was mainly to retain sulfur in the char by the reaction between iron and organic sulfur in coal and H2S in gas. Effect of FeCl3 added to coal by different method on the release of COS from the coal pyrolysis primarily presented a promotive action, but the influencing extent was different owing to the distribution of FeCl3 in coal for different methods.%有机硫的脱除与褐煤的提质是低品质煤清洁有效利用的关键.以富含有机硫的锡盟褐煤为研究对象,分别用机械混合和改进的浸渍法负载FeCl3,对其进行固定床热解提质实验研究,以期获得该过程中有机硫的变迁行为及其释放规律.实验结果显示:FeCl3的负载方式及负载量对锡盟褐煤热解提质过程中硫的迁移转化具有较大的影

  13. Reactivity of coal fractions as a probe of coal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown coal has been fractionated by two different methods. Firstly, extraction of the coal with decalin at 320 deg C to separate loosely bound guest material from the macromolecular matrix and secondly, the extraction with 1% caustic soda at 80 deg C to separate humic acid from the insoluble residue of the coal (humin). The various fractions have been reacted under CO and H2 in the presence of promoters previously used in coal liquefaction experiments. The products have been analyzed by a range of techniques, principally proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gas cromatography-mass spectrometry and the results used to gain further insight into brown coal structure. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Fiscal 1996 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Model survey for promotion of advanced coal utilization (survey of a model project to convert sludge into fuel by low grade coal); 1996 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Sekitan kodo riyo sokushin model chosa (teihin`itan ni yoru odei nenryoka model jigyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper made an investigation in the Tohoku district, mainly in Akita prefecture, into whether or not a technology of recycling sewage sludge using pulverized coal will be successful as business. Akita prefecture comparatively generates a little sewage sludge and secures reclaimed land for disposal, and is not in a situation where any immediate measures for disposal of sewage sludge should be taken. However, in Akita, there are clearly seen the attitude toward craving the effective use of sewage sludge and great interest in the pulverized coal law. Upon commercializing, the trially calculated yield was approximately 7%. The economical efficiency of the pulverized coal law is much dependent upon the coal price, but the coal having special specifications is not needed. Therefore, it is possible to select it from among overseas lignite, brown coal, etc. from viewpoints of the price and stable supply. The evaluation of the sludge fuel produced is an important factor for successful recycling. As to the quantity of chlorine contained in coal, particularly, strong measures for it should be taken since chlorine is related with the corrosion problem of incinerating facilities and finally with the quality control of cement to be recycled. 36 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  16. 新疆阜康矿区煤的吸附孔分形特征试验研究∗%The experimental study on the fractal characteristics of coal adsorbed pore in Fukang mining district of Xinj iang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海飞; 程博; 曾强; 严敏; 张超

    2016-01-01

    为研究新疆阜康矿区煤的吸附孔分形特征,进行了低温氮吸附试验,采用BET模型和BJ H 模型计算得到煤的孔隙比表面积及体积,应用 FH H 模型计算煤的孔隙分形维数,分析了分形维数与煤质参数及孔隙参数关系.试验结果表明:阜康矿区煤的孔隙A=D-3在研究尺度范围内分形特征明显,分形维数为2.25045~2.56277;煤的孔隙分形维数与水分呈负相关关系,与灰分呈正相关关系,与固定碳含量呈二次函数关系,与挥发分关系不明显;分形维数与孔隙直径为负相关关系,与孔隙比表面积、孔隙体积呈正相关关系;分形维数与中孔比表面积及体积占比呈负相关关系,与微孔和过渡孔体积占比呈正相关性,但与两者比表面积占比无明显关系.%to study the fractal characteristics of coal adsorbed pore in Fukang mining district of Xinjiang,the experiments of adsorbed with nitrogen at low temperature were carried out,the coal pore specific surface area and volume were calculated by employing the BET and BJ H model, the coal pore fractal dimension was calculated by adopting the FH H model,the relationships of fractal dimension and the parameters of coal quality and pore were analyzed. The experimental results show that the fractal characteristics of coal pore of Fukang mining district are very obvi-ous within the scope of study,the fractal dimension is 2.25045 to 2.56277;the fractal dimension of coal pore is negatively correlated with moisture content and positively correlated with ash con-tent,it exhibits an impact of quadratic relationship on the fixed carbon content,the relationship of fractal dimension and volatile matter is not obvious;the fractal dimension of coal pore is nega-tively correlated with pore diameter and positively correlated with pore specific surface area and volume;the fractal dimension of coal pore is negatively correlated with the mescopore ratios in pore specific

  17. Minneapolis district-heating options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  18. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  19. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  20. Expert test results of the TPP-312A Boiler at the Zuev District Power Station during the combustion of the GSSh grade coal with adding the RA-GEN-F Anaklarid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    The expert test results of the TPP-312 boiler no. 4 at the Zuev District Power Station (DPS) without supply and with the supply of the RA-GEN-F anaklarid to the boiler by means of its introduction in the approved dosing with the secondary air are presented. It is shown that the introduction of anaklarid positively affects the furnace process parameters during the combustion of grade GSSh coal. The possibility of the boiler operation at its minimal (490 t/h) and extremely minimal (440 t/h) steam output without supporting the flame by natural gas and the provision of the mode of liquid slag removal in the night drop of electrical loads.

  1. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-03-10

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  3. Avaliação agronômica e química de dezessete acessos de erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] - quimiotipo citral, cultivados no Distrito Federal Agronomic and chemical evaluation of seventeen accessions of "erva-cidreira" [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] - citral chemotype, cultivated at the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jannuzzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] é uma espécie nativa utilizada como planta medicinal em todo o Brasil. O citral é responsável pela ação sedativa da erva cidreira, sendo um dos principais componentes do óleo essencial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento agronômico, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial e de citral em 17 acessos de L. alba da coleção da Universidade de Brasília - UnB. O experimento foi realizado no período de 19/02/2005 a 18/03/2006, em latossolo vermelho, no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, contendo três plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros área foliar, comprimento da haste, produção de massa fresca (folhas e hastes, produção de massa foliar seca, teor de óleo essencial e de citral, rendimento estimado de óleo essencial e de citral por planta, além da caracterização do perfil aromático do óleo essencial. Os acessos L.41 (0,75%, L.45 (0,66% e L.08 (0,62% apresentaram os maiores teores de óleo essencial. O acesso L.45 (1,32 g pl-1 apresentou o maior rendimento de óleo, seguido dos acessos L.47 (0,73 g pl-1, L.41 (0,67 g pl-1, L.34 (0,67 g pl-1 e L.33 (0,62 g pl-1. Os acessos apresentaram teores de citral variando de 51,7% (L.34 a 75,1% (L.09, com média de 63,6% e predominância do isômero geranial (36,4% sobre o neral (27,8%. O acesso L.45 (0,83 g pl-1 apresentou o maior rendimento de citral. Treze acessos apresentaram o quimiotipo citral; três o quimiotipo citral-limoneno e apenas um apresentou o quimiotipo citral-mirceno. Os resultados evidenciam o potencial de produção de citral do acesso L.45, o qual poderá ser utilizado para melhorar a qualidade da matéria prima de erva-cidreira utilizada nos programas de fitoterapia no país ou em programas de melhoramento genético para esta finalidade."Erva-cidreira" [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Brown] is a native species used as a medicinal

  4. CO2 emission from coal-based electricity generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2013 the coal based electricity generation has increased, mainly because emission trade can actually not produce an adequate tax effect. From 10 coal-fired power plants in Germany nine use brown coal only one uses hard coal. Productivity analyses show that brown coal-fired plants have higher productivities than gas or hard coal fired power plants, but the CO2 emissions are significantly higher in case of brown coal. The oldest (older than 40 years) and least efficient brown coal fired power plants are operated in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Germany has committed itself to reduce CO2 emissions until 2020 by 40% compared to 1990. If this has to be generated by emission trading the prices would have to increase to more than 40 Euro/ton CO2 long before 2020. Otherwise administrative regulations would be necessary to reach the environmental goal.

  5. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  6. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  7. Properties and structure of hard coals from a borehole Niedobczye IG-1 in the Rybnik Coal District, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, their petrographic and group constituents. 3. Changes in the chemical structure of primary tars with increase in coalification degree of the parent coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszewska, A.; John, A.; Jasienko, S. [Silesian University, Sosnowiec (Poland). Dept. of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrography

    1997-02-01

    The primary tars obtained from coals by the Fischer-Schraeder method were studied using infrared (i.r.) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy methods. With the object of achieving a broader evaluation of the properties and structure of these primary tars with increase in coalification of the parent coals - from 78 to 86% C{sup daf}, in the range from gasflame (according to Polish classification) 611-VII (according to international classification and statistical groups) to orthocoking 435-VB coals - they were distilled to the temperature of 543 K under normal pressure. Products obtained were also analysed by the i.r. and {sup 1}H nmr spectroscopy methods, while the distillates (fraction boiling up to 543 K) were additionally analysed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (g.c.-m.s.) and {sup 13}C nmr methods. A comparative X-ray analysis of the coals and the semi-cokes obtained from them was also conducted. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 石莼与褐煤低温共热解热重分析及动力学%Thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolytic kinetic study onco-pyrolysis of brown coal and ulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓晗; 何选明; 戴丹; 张杜; 曾宪灿

    2015-01-01

    将不等量的生物质石莼(SC)加入到褐煤(AL)中进行低温干馏实验,实验表明:随石莼的掺混比增加,热解油产率呈先增加后减少的趋势,在石莼掺混比为30%时热解油产率达到最大值12.50%,热解油中烷烃含量在原有基础上增加了23.54%,在一定程度上提高了热解油品质.利用热重分析仪对石莼、褐煤单独热解及30%最佳掺混比的混合样共热解的热解特性进行了研究,结果表明:石莼的加入使褐煤初始热解温度提前,失重速率变快,在 300~700℃之间,实验所得混合样的残重量小于单独热解残重量的理论加权值,表明石莼的添加一定程度上促进了热解反应的进行.混合热解符合一级动力学方程模型,指前因子A和活化能Ea存在补偿效应,共热解时的A和Ea与褐煤单独热解相比均减小.%The low-temperature pyrolysis experiments of brown coal(AL),ulva(SC) and their blends were performed. The results show that pyrolysis oil appears to decrease after the increase trend with SC ratio increasing. When SC ratio is 30%,the yield of pyrolysis oil rises to the highest of 12.50 %. The content of alkanes in pyrolysis oil increased by 23.54% on the basis of original content,improving the quality of pyrolysis oil to a certain degree. The pyrolysis characteristics of SC,AL and the blend was studied by thermogravimetric analyzer. Results show that the presence of SC lowers the initial pyrolysis temperature and fasters the weight loss of AL. The residual weight of blend is less than the calculated value at 300—700℃,indicating the promoting effect of SC on the pyrolysis process. The co-pyrolysis reactions were in accordance with first order kinetic equation model. There exists compensation effect between activation energy(Ea) and pre-exponential factor(A). BothEa andA of co-pyrolysis decrease compared with those of AL pyrolysis alone.

  9. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  10. Pattern Recognition and Forecast of Coal and Gas Outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a complicated dynamic phenomenon in coal mines, Multi-factor Pattern Recognition is based on the relevant data obtained from research achievements of Geo-dynamic Division, With the help of spatial data management, the Neuron Network and Cluster algorithm are applied to predict the danger probability of coal and gas outburst in each cell of coal mining district. So a coal-mining district can be divided into three areas: dangerous area, minatory area, and safe area. This achievement has been successfully applied for regional prediction of coal and gas outburst in Huainan mining area in China.

  11. School Desegregation under Brown: The Role of Court Master Guidelines and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Eugene E.

    2004-01-01

    The 50th anniversary celebration of "Brown", issues of transportation facilities in many districts like Kansas City, extra-curricular activities and teacher assignment all the major successes of "Brown" are discussed. It is believed that the culture of schooling, that inhibits real life changes for minority youth, remains in place.

  12. The feasibility of underground pumped storage plants in the active coal mines in the Ruhr district; Zur Machbarkeit untertaegiger Pumpspeicherwerke in den aktiven Steinkohlebergwerken des Ruhrreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Andre; Wortberg, Timo [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft; Eilert, Walter [RAG AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Standort- und Geodienste

    2013-08-15

    With the expiration of the coal mining in 2018, the mining is leaving an extensive infrastructure. Shaft depths of up to 1200 m, numerous linings at depth and a large area drainage open perspectives for subsequent use as a subsurface pump storage plant. This could be at the current mining locations a contribution to the energy storage problem. [German] Mit dem Auslaufen des Steinkohlenbaus im Jahre 2018 hinterlaesst der Bergbau eine umfangreiche Infrastruktur. Schachttiefen von bis zu 1200 m, zahlreiche Ausbauten in der Tiefe und eine grossraeumige Wasserhaltung eroeffnen gegebenfalls Perspektiven fuer eine Folgenutzung als untertaegiges Pumpspeicherwerk. Damit koennte an den heutigen Bergbauorten ein Beitrag zur Energiespeicherproblematik verfolgt werden.

  13. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  14. 第一代鲁奇炉在褐煤加压气化中的运行状况及技术改进%Running Condition and Technology Improvement in Brown Coal Pressure Gasification of the First Generation of Lurgi Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝文

    2012-01-01

    The running conditions and problems of the first generation of Lurgi Furnace for ammonia preparation by using of low - quality brown coal pressurized gasification was introduced. The main problems and corresponding technology improvements of the first generation of Lurgi Furnace since 1972 have been summarized. The problem and developing trend of Lurgi Furnace was alanalyzed and outlooked.%介绍了国内首套自行设计利用劣质褐煤加压气化制氨工艺鲁奇炉运行的状况及出现的问题。总结了自1972年以来,第一代鲁奇炉在运行中存在的主要问题及相应的技术改造状况,并对鲁奇炉运行存在的问题及发展方向进行了分析和展望。

  15. Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance at a re-vegetated coal mine in the Middelburg district, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, I.T.; Little, R.M.; Jansen, R.; Crowe, T.M. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-04-01

    Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance were investigated at six re-vegetated sites within the Middelburg Coal Mine (Mpumalanga, South Africa) and compared with those for a site thought to be representative of un-mined biotope within the nearby Witbank Nature Reserve. Age of site since initiation of re-vegetation had little or no apparent effect on richness or abundance. Adjacency to currently active mining and variation in current land management practices appeared to have much more profound effects. Sites surrounded by active mining had lower richness and abundance. Those with 40% or more land left as fallow and strips of un-mowed grass as well as artificial ponds had higher bird richness and abundance.

  16. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  17. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  18. Support of the business management of opencast brown coal mining with an enhanced variability of deposits based on mine surveyoral data management; Unterstuetzung der Betriebsfuehrung von Braunkohlentagebauen mit hoher Lagerstaettenvariabilitaet auf Grundlage des markscheiderischen Datenmanagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipfer, Anja [Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH, Zeitz (Germany). GIS/Risswerkfuehrung

    2012-04-15

    A variable manifestation of the deposit is a particular challenge for the operational management for the continuous supply of coal in a specified range. Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH (Zeitz, Federal Republic of Germany) supports the planning and production process by a GNSS controlled dredging. The storage of all operating conditions at the database level is the basis for the different evaluations. The verification of the data separaed by waste and coal enables a statement to the recoverability of the seams under consideration of a impact mapping and production data. This is an aid for the continuous improvement of the extraction planning and management.

  19. Estudo florístico de segmentos de Mata Atlântica em Parelheiros, São Paulo, SP, para soltura de bugio-ruivo Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940. Floristic survey of Atlantic Rain Forest in the District of Parelheiros, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, for reintroduction of the Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Francischetti GARCIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de minimizar os efeitos da pressão da urbanização sobre bugios-ruivos, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, a Divisão de Fauna em parceria com o Herbário Municipal realiza, desde 1996, o Programa de Reintrodução de Bugios, com o objetivo de viabilizar o retorno à vida livre dos indivíduos aptos. Entre várias áreas prospectadas para possível soltura de bugios-ruivos, o Sítio Roda d’Água, distrito de Parelheiros, município de São Paulo, foi selecionado para realização do presente estudo. Todos os componentes da mata, em uma área de 89,9 hectares, foram amostrados para avaliação da disponibilidade de alimentos. Foram registradas 251 espécies vasculares, sendo 13 pteridófitas, uma gimnosperma e 237 angiospermas. O material testemunho está depositado no Herbário Municipal. Na área estudada foram registradas duas espécies ameaçadas e quatro quase ameaçadas. As espécies dos componentes arbóreo-arbustivo e epifítico, que constituem o hábitat preferencial dos bugios-ruivos, correspondem a 73,7% do total levantado. Dentro deste grupo de espécies, 17,8% já foram registradas como fontes alimentares para a espécie-alvo. Dentre as espécies já referidas na dieta de bugios-ruivos, registradas na área de estudo, todas apresentam distribuição geográfica ampla. Desta forma, a área estudada foi considerada apropriada para a soltura de bugios-ruivos, quanto à disponibilidade de recursos para alimentação. In order to minimize the urbanization pressure effects over Brown Howler Monkeys, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, the Fauna Division in partnership with the Municipal Herbarium carries out a Brown Howler Monkey Reintroduction Program since 1996, with the aim of enabling the return of fit individuals to the wild. Among several areas prospected for possible reintroduction of the Brown Howler Monkey, Roda d’Água Ranch, District of Parelheiros, City of São Paulo, was selected to carry out this study. All

  20. 伊犁盆地ZK0161井褐煤中铀及其它元素的地球化学研究%Geochemistry study of its uranium and other element of brown coal of ZK0161 well in Yili Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建业; 狄永强; 张卫国; 刘善德

    2011-01-01

    用数理统计的方法,对伊犁盆地洪海沟ZKO161井的中下侏罗统11、12号煤层中的铀等59种常量、微量元素的地球化学行为进行了初步探讨.认为元素在灰分的分布和元素在内在水分及固定碳中的分布大体呈互为相反数关系,而和元素-挥发分相关系数则呈同步性变化.ZK0161井煤中u以后生铀为主,分别以可溶态和有机吸附态或结合态形式出现在12号煤和11号煤顶部的煤中内在水和煤有机质中.%The research of geochemistry of 59 kinds constant elements and trace elements in brown coal of ZK0161 well, which located at Honghaigou area in Yili Basin of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, was completed by means of mathematical statistics methods. The results show that the correlation coefficients of ash-elements is each or-ther's opposite number with one of inherent moisture, and has synchronous changes with one of volatile-elements. Uranium in coal of ZK0161 well is mainly epigenetic one and may be respectively in the form of soluble existed in the internal water and organic absorbed or organic phase existed in organic matter on the top of No. 11,12 coal seams.

  1. Biodiversity, bioaccumulation and physiological changes in lichens growing in the vicinity of coal-based thermal power plant of Raebareli district, north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S; Kumari, B

    2010-02-15

    The lichen diversity assessment carried out around a coal-based thermal power plant indicated the increase in lichen abundance with the increase in distance from power plant in general. The photosynthetic pigments, protein and heavy metals were estimated in Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., a common lichen growing around thermal power plant for further inference. Distributions of heavy metals from power plant showed positive correlation with distance for all directions, however western direction has received better dispersion as indicated by the concentration coefficient-R(2). Least significant difference analysis showed that speed of wind and its direction plays a major role in dispersion of heavy metals. Accumulation of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn in the thallus suppressed the concentrations of pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, however, enhanced the level of protein. Further, the concentrations of chlorophyll contents in P. cocoes increased with the decreasing the distance from the power plant, while protein, carotenoid and phaeophytisation exhibited significant decrease. PMID:19818555

  2. Biodiversity, bioaccumulation and physiological changes in lichens growing in the vicinity of coal-based thermal power plant of Raebareli district, north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S; Kumari, B

    2010-02-15

    The lichen diversity assessment carried out around a coal-based thermal power plant indicated the increase in lichen abundance with the increase in distance from power plant in general. The photosynthetic pigments, protein and heavy metals were estimated in Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., a common lichen growing around thermal power plant for further inference. Distributions of heavy metals from power plant showed positive correlation with distance for all directions, however western direction has received better dispersion as indicated by the concentration coefficient-R(2). Least significant difference analysis showed that speed of wind and its direction plays a major role in dispersion of heavy metals. Accumulation of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn in the thallus suppressed the concentrations of pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, however, enhanced the level of protein. Further, the concentrations of chlorophyll contents in P. cocoes increased with the decreasing the distance from the power plant, while protein, carotenoid and phaeophytisation exhibited significant decrease.

  3. Basic properties of Japanese and foreign coals selected for liquefaction. 1. A consideration of the method for proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.

    1984-10-01

    The use of thermogravimetry for the proximate analysis of coals is compared with the Japanese Standard method (JIS M8812). The thermogravimetric method was found to be applicable to a wide range of brown coals, lignites and bituminous coals providing a rapid and simple method requiring only a small sample and giving a direct determination of fixed carbon.

  4. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY COAL MASS STRUCTURE AND LITHOTYPE OF COAL IN MULTI-COAL SEAM MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基文; 赵志根; 陈资平

    1999-01-01

    Through site observation and indoor measurements in XieJiaji No.2 Coal Mine in Huainen and Luling Coal Mine in Huaibei, it is discovered that the fragmentation degree are different in different coal seams in same mining district and even in sublevels of the same coal seam, the coal mass structures exist much difference. By analyzing the relationship between the constitution of coal matters and the epigenesis breakage of coal. This paper points out that the internal factor which causes the diversity of the coal mass structure comes from the diversity in the contents of telocollinite and desmocollinite in the vitrinite. The contenet of desmocollinite is higher than that of telocollinite in intact coal seam (sublevel) but the former is less than the later in breaking sublevel, the diversity of constituent content more affects the epigenetic fragmentation degree of coal seam. The content of desrnocollinite proves lower than that of telocollinite in the broken coal seam. The new understanding has directing, and reference for the study of coal petrology, coal mine gas geology and coal methane.

  5. Distribution of Heavy Hydrocarbon in Coal Seams and Its Use in Predicting Outburst of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋承林; 李增华; 韩颖

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify whether any special gas component exists in outburst samples or not, coal samples from both outburst coal seams and non-outburst coal seams were collected. Some gases were extracted from the samples and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on chromatogram-mass spectrograph. The qualitative analysis show that there is no special gases in coal seams. And the quantitative analysis indicates that the heavy hydrocarbon content in coal samples from outburst coal seams is apparently higher than that from non-outburst district ones, which reflects the damage of geological tectonic movement to coal body in history. Therefore, the heavy hydrocarbon content of coal sample can be used as an index to predict coal outburst.

  6. Reserch process geomigration during underground gasification and coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of subsoil water in the over- and subcoal deposits during underground combustion of brown coal can vary under coals thermal development product and pollution. Analysis of the substances-contaminants migratory in water is one of the main issues of further implementation of technologies UCG and UCC.

  7. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  8. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  9. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  10. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1999; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  11. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1996; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  12. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2000; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  13. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  14. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2001; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  15. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1997; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  16. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  17. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  18. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  19. Combustion of Lausitz brown coal under oxyfuel. Process conditions in a 0,5 MW{sub th} combustion plant; Verbrennung von Lausitzer Braunkohle unter Oxyfuel. Prozessbedingungen in einer 0,5 MW{sub th}-Feuerungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Helge; Jentsch, Norbert; Burboeck, Martin; Panzenboeck, Helmut; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2008-07-01

    For climate policy reasons, future coal-fired power stations are to be built on the basis of the CCS technology (CCS = Carbon Capture and Storage). Thereby, the oxyfuel process combines the advantages of a simple process design at the combustion with the highest separation potential of carbon dioxide. In order to test the oxyfuel process, in the year 2005 an existing 0.5 MW{sub th} test facility of the Centre for Power Technology (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) was selected and extended by substantial components of the oxyfuel process such as for example oxygen supply, flue gas condenser. Subsequently, the oxyfuel process was examined within a test period of two years. The most important cognitions of this test period are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  20. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  1. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Survey of the general situation of Thai coal; 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Thai sekitan sogo jijo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper reported the energy situation in Thailand, the present and future status of coal supply/demand, the present situation of environmental policy and air pollution prevention policy and problems concerning coal and the measures for solution, and a possibility of Japan`s cooperation. In Thailand, the total coal supply amount in 1992 is 16.079 million tons, which is 9.1% of all the primary energy supply amount. The country produces only a few amount of anthracite and subbituminous coal beside brown coal. The domestic coal equals brown coal, the production of which was 15.335 million tons in 1992, 13.9% of all the primary energy demand. Concerning brown coal, 79.7% of all the brown coal supply are for electric power use, and others for industrial use such as the cement industry. The remaining reserve in developed areas is 151.4 billion tons, and the proven reserve in undeveloped areas 756 million tons. The demand for import coal was 11.25 million tons in 1996, and is expected to be 201.73 million tons in 2000. The paper pointed out some problems arising from coal production and spread of coal utilization, and described measures to solve the problems and fields where there are possibilities of Japan`s cooperation. 36 refs., 44 figs., 73 tabs.

  2. 气相色谱法分析褐煤提质低温热解气中含硫化合物的研究%Study on sulfur compounds in low-temperature carbonization of brown coal by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新涛; 李香兰; 张永发; 孙亚玲

    2013-01-01

    Using TXS-Ⅱ sulfur analyzer quantitatively analyzed the sulfur compounds in low temperature carbonization gas. The result showed that the method of eliminating H2 S and COS of high concentration by desulfurizer and using TCP column to analyze the compositions of sulfur compounds by quantitative analysis, leads to a smaller measured value, because the desulfurizer will absorb some organic sulfur. Four different chromatographic columns were made to check their effects in desulfurization. After a series of exploration, a gas chromatography analysis method of simplicity and accuracy to determine the sulfur compounds in low temperature carbonization gas was established. Besides, the sulfur compounds in low temperature carbonization gas of different brown coal were analyzed by this method, providing a data base for desulfurization of pyrolysis gas.%采用TXS-Ⅱ硫分析仪对褐煤提质过程中的低温热解气进行含硫化合物定量分析研究,结果表明:(1)将气样通过脱硫剂脱除高浓度的H2S和COS之后再进行定量,因脱硫剂吸收有机含硫化合物,测定结果偏小;(2)制备了4种新的色谱分离柱,考查了这些色谱柱对有机含硫化合物的分离效果,最终建立了简便、准确检测低温热解气中含硫化合物的气相色谱分析方法,利用该方法分别对3种褐煤的低温热解过程中的气体进行了含硫化合物分析,为低温热解气的脱硫提供了依据.

  3. 77 FR 73486 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...

  4. 76 FR 56211 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3337-EM), dated August..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...

  5. Coal atlas. Data and facts about a global fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany is world champion. In the production of lignite. But not only the brown coal, the coal leaves traces to. A quarter of German greenhouse gas emissions are discharged from the 30 largest coal-fired plants. But with its hunger for coal Germany neither in Europe nor in the world ist not alone. The governments of the 20 largest industrial countries subsidize the search for new fossil fuels each year with many billion dollars, although these projects have no future. In addition, there is the partly dramatic damage to the air, on the environment and on humans. Above all reports the Coal Atlas. It is published at a time, in which in Germany is an intense debate in progress about the future of this energy sector. In fact, it comes to the phasing out of coal for generating elektricity. The coal Atlas shows in understandable texts with illustrative graphics: This is technically possible and necessary.

  6. The effect of biomass on pollutant emission and burnout in co-combustion with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruczek, H.; Raczka, P.; Tatarek, A. [Wroclaw Technical University, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents experimental and numerical results on the co-combustion of different types of biomass with hard and brown coal. The main aim of this work was to assess the impact of the cocombustion of biomass in brown and hard coal-fired systems on the combustion process itself and on the level of pollutant formation and its dependence on combustion temperature stoichiometry. The experimental results obtained have shown that in general biomass addition leads to decreased NO and SO{sub 2} emissions, except with the hard coal Bogdanka. In addition, the biomass has a beneficial effect on the burnout of the coal/biomass mixture. To help to account for this effect, the behaviour of coal and biomass, the coal/biomass mixture and of fuel-N was studied by thermal analysis, in nitrogen and in air. The results obtained have shown that gas phase interactions are dominant in the combustion of biomass/coal mixtures.

  7. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  8. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  9. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  11. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110359 Feng Lijuan(Graduate School,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China);Guo Dali Experimental Study on the Stress Sensitivity of Coal and Its Impact on the Filtration of the Fracturing Fluid(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(2),2010,p.14-17,4 illus.,5 tables,9 refs.)Key words:coal seam,stressIn the paper,the relationship between the stress and permeability in the coal r

  13. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  14. Information on the situation of the German coal minig industry. January - September 1995; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-21

    The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: production, stocks, productivity, employees, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht liefert aktuelle Informationen zur Lage des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus fuer den Berichtszeitraum. Daten ueber den Steinkohlenbergbau sowie ueber den Braunkohlenbergbau geben Auskunft ueber: Produktion, Bestaende, Leistung, Beschaeftigte, Absatz, Ein- und Ausfuhr von Kohle und Kohleprodukten. (orig.)

  15. Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

  16. 50 Years after "Brown": Segregation in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision outlawed de jure segregation in American schools, many school districts remain segregated. Despite numerous efforts aimed at desegregation, residential segregation--the primary barrier to significant school desegregation--remains entrenched throughout the United States. The Miami-Dade…

  17. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  18. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  19. The influence of coal mining on radon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feige, S.; Wiegand, J. [Universitaet Essen Gesamthochschule, Essen (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Pit waters from hard-coal and brown-coal mining as well as sediments and soils along sewers and rivers in the vicinity of collieries are investigated in the scope of radiation protection. The greatest amount of Ra-226 is discharged by hard-coal collieries in the order of several ten Bq l{sup -1} at simultaneous occurrence of high mineralised brines. In contact with sulphate-bearing surface water, Ra-226 co-precipitates with Ba and is deposited as radiobarite. The contamination with Ra-226 leads to high activity concentrations and increased gamma dose rates. The special situation of diadochic incorporation of Ra-226 into the dense crystal lattice prevents Rn-222 from emanating. However, in sediments influenced by brown-coal mining Ra-226 is adsorbed at the surfaces of ferric hydroxides and, therefore, Rn-222 can easily emanate.

  20. Przydatność węgla brunatnego z kopalń Turów i Konin jako ściółki w uprawie hydroponicznej [Utility of brown coal from Turów and Konin mines as the seedbed in hydroponic cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In experiments with 5 vegetables and 5 decorative species – coal from both mines proved to be appropriate as the seedbed. Both types of coal stimulated root growth and maintained iron in soluble form. In general, better and earlier crops were obtained in hydroponic cultures than in pots filled either with soil or with coal watered with nutrient solution.

  1. Przydatność węgla brunatnego z kopalń Turów i Konin jako ściółki w uprawie hydroponicznej [Utility of brown coal from Turów and Konin mines as the seedbed in hydroponic cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Gumińska; M. Gracz-Nalepka; B. Łukasiewicz; M. Leszner; M. Sławka

    2015-01-01

    In experiments with 5 vegetables and 5 decorative species – coal from both mines proved to be appropriate as the seedbed. Both types of coal stimulated root growth and maintained iron in soluble form. In general, better and earlier crops were obtained in hydroponic cultures than in pots filled either with soil or with coal watered with nutrient solution.

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2015.

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2010; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (A) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (B) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-08-28

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  5. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE URANIUM DETERMINATION IN MONGOLIAN COAL, COAL ASH, AND PHOSPHATE ORE

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkashina, Tat`iana Yur`evna; Bolortuya, Damdinsuren; Revenko, Anatolii Grigor`evich; Zuzaan, Purev

    2014-01-01

    The results of the determination of uranium in Mongolian brown coal, coal ash, phosphate rock, and technological samples by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are presented. Technological samples were produced from phosphates by chemical treatment. Powder geological samples and Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were pressed as tablets. For chosen conditions of the sample preparation procedure analytical figures of merit were carefully studied, as exemplified by the rock and uranium ore ...

  7. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  8. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122522 Guo Dongxin ( School of Energy Resource,China University of Geosciences,Bei-jing 100083,China );Tang Shuheng Sequence Strata and the Coal Accumulation of Wunite Coafield,Inner Mongolia ( Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155 / P,39 ( 6 ), 2011,p.1-5,5illus.,16refs. ) Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Inner Mongolia Based on the study of the stratigraphy sequence of the Bayanhua Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Wunite coafield ,

  9. Resources Conditions of Coalbed Methane Districts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The China National Administration of Coal Geology accomplished an assessment of coalbed methane resources of China in 1988. The total amount of coalbed methane resources in China is 14336.944 billion m3,occurring in recoverable coal seams and beneath weathering zones,with coalbed methane content equal to or higher than 4 m3 per ton and buried depths smaller than 2000 m,among which there are 967.51 billion m3 of predicted reserves and 13369.434 billion m3 of future reserves. The resources in coal reservoirs with methane content of more than 8 m3 per ton are 12444.087 billion m3,and those with methane content between 4 to 8 m3 per ton are 1892.856 billion m3. There are 35 districts in which the resources abundance is higher than 150 million m3/km2,49 districts with the abundance between 50 million and 150 million m3/km2,and 31 districts with the abundance less than 50 million m3/km2. There is 9256.078 billion m3 of methane occurring in coal seams with buried depths less than 1500 m,and 5080.866 billion m3 in coal seams with buried depths between 1500 and 2000 m. There are 28 large-scale districts in which coalbed methane resources are more than 100 billions m3,28 medium-scale districts with coalbed methane resources between 20 billion and 100 billion m3 and 59 small-scale districts with resources amount less than 20 billion m3. The Jincheng area is one of the most favourable districts for coalbed methane resources in China.

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  11. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  12. (Industrial dermatoses among the Belthatow brown coal miners)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszyncka-Kuczynska, W.

    1981-01-01

    443 subjects were examined, 235 applying to the physician due to the occurrence of skin dermatoses (group I) and 208 workers referred for periodic examinations (group II). In group I skin dermatoses were found in 100, i.e. 85%, of the subjects and in group II in 99 i.e. 48% of the subjects. In both groups the most frequent dermatosis was feet skin inflammation, especially interdigital intertrigo. Oil acne was diagnosed in 15, ordinary acne in 23, pityriasis versicolor in 19. erythrasma in 10, and eczema and contact dermatitis in 7 subjects of the first group and 3 subjects of the other group. 204 subjects with feet skin pathologies underwent mycologic examinations and 36 subjects--also bacteriologic examinations. The results of those studies indicate that in 23% of the subjects, feet interdigital intertrigo results from mycologic infections. Bacterial infections may contribute to etiopathogenesis. Imidazole compounds are useful for the treatment and prevention of interdigital intertrigo.

  13. Structure-Based Predictive Model for Coal Char Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Hadad; Joseph Calo; Robert Essenhigh; Robert Hurt

    1998-04-08

    Progress was made this period on a number of separate experimental and modelling activities. At Brown, the models of carbon nanostructure evolution were expanded to consider high-rank materials with initial anisotropy. The report presents detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations with non-zero initial layer length and with statistically oriented initial states. The expanded simulations are now capable of describing the development of nanostructure during carbonization of most coals. Work next quarter will address the remaining challenge of isotropic coke-forming coals. Experiments at Brown yielded important data on the "memory loss" phenomenon in carbon annealing, and on the effect of mineral matter on high-temperature reactivity. The experimental aspects of the Brown work will be discussed in detail in the next report.

  14. District heating - environment-compatible, energy-saving and secure for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Annual General Meeting of the AGFW (District Heat Work Study Group), the situation of district heating in the Federal Republic of Germany under the prevailing conditions of energy and economics will be analysed. The following topics will be highlighted: The effect of the low oil price on the expansion of district heat, the reduction of the 'Coal Pfennig' and its consequences for the use of coal in cogeneration plants, the significance of inherent safety in the generation of district heat by nuclear heat reactors, positive effects of subsidisation programmes on the extension of district heat and the main subjects pertaining to the continued expansion of district heat under today's more difficult market conditions. (orig.)

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  16. Determination of Sectional Constancy of Organic Coal-Water Fuel Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A.; Nyashina, Galina S.; Strizhak, Pavel A.

    2016-02-01

    To use widespreadly the waste of coals and oils processing in the great and the small-scale power generation, the key parameter, which is sectional constancy of promising organic coal-water fuels (OCWF), was studied. The compo-sitions of OCWF from brown and bituminous coals, filter cakes, used motor, turbine and dielectrical oils, water-oil emul-sion and special wetting agent (plasticizer) were investigated. Two modes of preparation were considered. They are with homogenizer and cavitator. It was established that the constancy did not exceed 5-7 days for the compositions of OCWF with brown coals, and 12-15 days for that compositions with bituminous coals and filter cakes. The injection of used oils in a composition of OCWF led to increase in viscosity of fuel compositions and their sectional constancy.

  17. Utilization of selected industrial waste through co-pyrolysis with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavla Licakova; Jaroslav Buchtele [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Centre of Environmental Technologies

    2007-07-01

    Difficultly recyclable selected organic waste is possible to process by its co-pyrolysis with coal into the products with high use value. The research subject was to analyse and compare carbonizates yields forming by co-pyrolysis of waste rubber and brown coal mixtures and waste cotton and black coal mixtures. Mixtures were prepared with variable proportion of materials. According to the obtained results both procedures show as technically viable. Addition of rubber to brown coal came to increase specific surface area of activated carbon. The results obtained show that it is possible to prepare by co-pyrolysis of mixtures brown coal with waste rubber granular material with appropriate properties for preparation of sorbent by its sequential activation. The pyrolysis products yields of black coal with the products yields of co-pyrolysis of coal with 30 and 60 % wt. addition of the waste cotton were evaluated and compared. Addition of cotton to black coal came to increase gas volume and tar. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Porosity characteristics of chars from Shengli brown coal gasification under H2O/O2 atmospheres%H2O/O2气氛下胜利褐煤气化半焦的孔隙特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加亮; 王永刚; 王芳; 张锟俊; 王会; 张书

    2015-01-01

    Shengli brown coal was gasified by using a laboratory entrained flow reactor at 900℃under the atmospheres of H2O,O2 and their mixture,and pore structure features were investigated. The shapes of adsorption isothermal curves obtained from the chars under various atmospheres were Type II and the shapes of the adsorption loop curves were Type H3. There was a relatively continuous and integral pore system of chars with similar pore structures. Pore diameter distribution was influenced by reaction atmosphere. The quantity of macropores of char was less under all three atmospheres; the order of mesoporesfrom more to less was H2O>O2>H2O+1%O2,and the order of micropores was the reverse. The specific surface area of char presented the trend of increasing at first,then maintaining steady with the increase of H2O. The specific surface area of char during gasification under H2O+1%O2 mixture atmosphere increased by more than 30 times. It increased linearly with the increase of O2 at low concentration of oxygen. The relational expression for conversion versus ratio of micropore volume and total pore volume,and conversion versus specific surface area was X=0.196(Vm/V)+45.651,X=0.037S+48.066.%采用实验室气流床反应器,在H2O、O2及其混合气氛,900℃条件下进行了胜利褐煤气化实验,研究了气化半焦的孔隙结构特征。结果表明,在所有气氛下,半焦的吸附等温线均属于第II类型,吸附回线为H3型,褐煤气化半焦具有连续的较完整的孔体系,孔隙结构类似。反应气氛影响气化半焦的孔径分布,半焦中的大孔在3种气氛下均较少,中孔从多到少的顺序是:H2O>O2>H2O+1%O2,微孔与之相反。在水蒸气气氛下,随水蒸气浓度增加,半焦的比表面积先增大后趋于稳定。添加1%O2后,比表面积提升30多倍。低浓度O2气氛下,随O2浓度的增加,比表面积呈线性增长。褐煤转化率与微孔容积和总孔容积的比值以及比

  19. 水蒸气对褐煤原位气化半焦反应性能及微观结构的影响%Effects of steam on the reactivity and microstructure of char from in-situ gasification of brown coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许修强; 王永刚; 陈国鹏; 陈宗定; 秦中宇; 戴谨泽; 张书; 许德平

    2015-01-01

    为了揭示水蒸气对半焦反应性和微观结构的影响,在自制两段新型反应器上依次进行了褐煤干燥、热解及“热”焦的水蒸气原位气化研究。利用TGA、BET和Raman光谱仪,对原位气化半焦进行反应性和微观结构解析。结果表明,在反应温度为600℃时,水蒸气对半焦转化率、反应性及微观结构影响很小。温度达到700~900℃,在半焦与水蒸气接触的前2 min,虽然半焦转化率变化不大,但其反应性、小环(3~5个芳环)与大环(≥6个环)体系之比及含氧官能团却急剧降低;大于2 min,半焦转化率逐渐增大,反应性、小环与大环之比及含氧官能团缓慢降低;而半焦孔结构在2 min 前后却具有基本一致的变化趋势。半焦与水蒸气接触的前2 min,小环与大环之比和含氧官能团急剧降低是导致反应性显著降低的重要因素,大于2 min,芳环体系的变化是导致反应性进一步降低的原因。%To examine the effects of steam on the char reactivity and its microstructure, experiments of drying and pyrolysis of brown coal as well as the in-situ gasification of"hot" char were carried out in a newly-designed two-stage reactor. The reactivity and microstructure of in-situ gasification char were characterized by TGA, BET and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The results show that at low temperature of 600 ℃, the steam has little effect on the conversion, reactivity and microstructure of char. When it reaches 700~900℃, there are different change trends before and after 2 min of reaction between char and steam. In the first 2 min, the reactivity, the ratio of small aromatic ring systems ( 3 ~5 rings ) to the large fused rings (≥6 rings ) and O-containing functional groups decrease dramatically although the char conversion varies little; after 2 min, however, char conversion increases gradually, char reactivity, the ratio of small to big aromatic ring systems and O-containing functional groups

  20. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  1. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  2. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene in Jurassic sediments and a set of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the transformation of terrestrial cyclic terpenoids during diagenesis, constituting a general pathway for all terpenoids.

  3. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  6. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  7. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  8. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  9. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...

  10. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  11. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  12. Texas Disaster Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....

  13. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  20. Low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion characteristics of upgraded low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.K.; Kim, S.D.; Yoo, J.H.; Chun, D.H.; Rhim, Y.J.; Lee, S.H. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion characteristics of dried coal produced from low rank coal using the upgraded brown coal (UBC) process were investigated. To this end, proximate properties, crossing-point temperature (CPT), and isothermal oxidation characteristics of the coal were analyzed. The isothermal oxidation characteristics were estimated by considering the formation rates of CO and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures. The upgraded low rank coal had higher heating values than the raw coal. It also had less susceptibility to low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion. This seemed to result from the coating of the asphalt on the surface of the coal, which suppressed the active functional groups from reacting with oxygen in the air. The increasing upgrading pressure negatively affected the low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion.

  1. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui; Yang; Guangxi; Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  2. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  3. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  4. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  5. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  6. SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBUSTION OF BOSNIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  7. Coal mining in Saarland; Der Steinkohlenbergbau im Saarland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Ensdorf (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    In 2004, 6.194 million t of coal were produced in the Saar district. About 6.01 t were produced by DSK, the rest of 180,000 t by Bergwerksgesellschaft Merchweiler mbH, a small independent mining company working abandoned mines at near-surface level. With the set-up of Bergwerk Saar out of the former mines Warndt/Luisenthal and Ensdorf in early 2004, Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft set the pace for future coal mining in the Saar and now owns Germany's biggest coal mine. The results and projecting so far are optimistic for the future. (orig.)

  8. Coal mining in the Saar; Der Steinkohlenbergbau im Saarland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Ensdorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Early in 2004, the Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft set the pace for future coal mining in the Saar district by combining two mines, Warndt/Luisenthal and Ensdorf, into Bergwerk Saar, which is now Germany's biggest coal mine. The measures taken are described in detail in this contribution. Examples are presented of mining technologies, and improvements of the underground infrastructure by means of an optimized bunker and production concept are described. The Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft is optimistic about the future of Saar coal mining. (orig.)

  9. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  11. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-30

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2015.

  12. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  13. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  14. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  15. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  16. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  17. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  18. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  20. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  1. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  2. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  3. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  4. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  5. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  6. Prospects of land-use planning in two mining sectors of Jharia coal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mining in Jharia coal field and other industrial activities in and around the coal field in Dhanbad district have significantly altered the land use pattern in the coal field. Other related activities in the district have also made their impressions on the quality of land by generating barren lands, fire areas, subsided areas, overburden dumps, abandoned quarries, scarcity of water and soil nutrients. Not much effort has been made to rationalize the land-use in the coal field. People are living in households having no sanitation or drainage system. A proper land-use planning procedure with development of multi-crop system with due care in land-use planning and water management, would considerably help in improving the overall land-use pattern. Strategies for this have suggested after a thorough analysis of the data from the area and recommendations have been made for further work. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  8. The behaviour of chemically altered coals in ZnCl{sub 2}-catalysed reaction with hydrogen and methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D.; Gruber, R.; Djega-Mariadassou, G.; Brodzki, D.; Korniyets, E.; Kuznetsova, L.; Krzton, A. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    A series of chemically altered coals was investigated in the reaction with methanol and hydrogen in the presence of ZnCl{sub 2} as a catalyst. Significant beneficial effects were observed when high-rank coals were altered by reductive and radioactively methylating pretreatments. The behaviour of altered low-rank brown and subbituminous coals was affected by both the mode of chemical pretreatment and the reaction conditions. The benefit can be explained by partial depolymerization of the coal matter through the disruption of cross-links and the passivation of hydroxyl groups by methylation. 33 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Survey of associated radioactivity in coal in Leshan, Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the levels of NORMs in coal mining industry in Leshan City, Sichuan Province, onsite air absorbed dose rate γ measurement was made in Shawan District, Ebian County, Jiajiang County, Emeishan City, and Wutongqiao District for determining the specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in coal samples by using of the HPGe γ spectrometer. The results showed that air absorbed γ dose rate on the surface of raw coal heap is 151 nGy/h, on average, and the specific activity of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in raw coal is, respectively, 150 Bq/kg, 82 Bq/kg, 113 Bq/kg and 294 Bq/kg. The external γ maximum annual effective dose to workers near the coal pile in Leshan is 0.252 mSv/a; According to the Monitoring Scope and Objective of NORM Contamination Sources of 2007, the coal mining industry in Leshan City is among the second category of pollution source. (authors)

  10. Coal-Bed Methane Resource of Mesozoic Basins in Jiamusi Landmass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chengrun; Wu Wei; Zheng Qingdao

    2002-01-01

    As a new-replacement of energy resource, coal bed methane is the important gas resource with great strategic significance. There are several number of Mesozoic coal-bearing basins in Jiamusi landmass, eastern Heilongjiang Province. Theresult of the resource assessment revealed that the total resource less than 1 500 m,s depth in the area is about 2 100×108m3. It shows that Jiamusi landmass has great potential of coal-bed gas and is one of the most prospecting districts for developing coal-bed gas in CBM-province Northeast China.

  11. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  12. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    While the black coal markets are expanding worldwide in 2011, the consumption of black coal in Germany stagnated in spite of positive economic impacts. A strong long-term decline may be expected by the structural change in the energy sector and the energy policy turnaround in Germany. Also, the accelerated phasing out nuclear power in 2011 brought any increases for the black coal. Now the discharge of domestic black coal until 2018 has become definitive. The imported coal now covers almost 80 % of the German black coal market.

  13. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  14. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  15. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  16. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  17. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  18. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  19. Distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi coal mine in Huainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhao-xia; WANG Shun-chang; WANG Xing-ming

    2012-01-01

    In China,coal mine spoils have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air,soil and water environments.The coal waste pile occupies lots of arable land and endangers the ecological system in the coal mine district.Vegetation restoration is an efficient approach for controlling the environment pollution of coal waste pile,and is also a topic of current interest in restoration ecology and degradation system ecology.This study focused on the distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine in Huainan.The results show that two stable plant communities (Synodon dactylon+Erigeron bonariensis.L+Setaria viridis community and Humulus scanden+Erigeron bonariensis.L community) exist at the bottom of the pile.Synodon dactylon and Erigeron bonariensis.L have much higher values of summed dominance ratio,which denote that these two species can be used for restoration of coal waste piles.The high levels of pH (8.77) and salinity,low levels of total P and total K in coal mine spoil can be the limiting factors for the residence and growth of vegetation.

  20. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  1. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  2. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  3. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  6. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  7. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  8. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  9. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  10. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  11. Fluorine in Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbeer, W.G.; Swaine, D.J.; Goodarzi, F. (CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology)

    1994-08-01

    Fluorine was determined in 57 samples of coals from western Canada and the Yukon (47 bituminous, 4 subbituminous, 6 lignite) by a pyrohydrolysis method. The range of values is 31-930 ppmw F in dry coal, the lowest values being mainly for the low-rank coals. For bituminous coals most values are in the range 31-580 (mean 174) ppmw F. 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  13. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  14. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  15. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  16. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  17. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  18. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  19. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  20. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  1. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  2. Heeding Black Voices: The Court, Brown, and Challenges in Building a Multiracial Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe R. Feagin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1967, thirteen years after the first Brown v. Board of Education decision, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. voiced great frustration with the lack of progress in societal desegregation: “[e]very civil rights law is still substantially more dishonored than honored. School desegregation is still 90 percent unimplemented across the land. . . . Legislation that is evaded, substantially nullified and unenforced is a mockery of the law.” Dr. King articulated the views of most African-Americans, views stemming from centuries of painful experiences with systemic racism in U.S. society. Thus, for more than a decade after Brown, white officials in southern districts defied the mandates and implications of Supreme Court and lower federal court rulings and, therefore, the black perspective on U.S. racism and racial change. Indeed, by 1960-1961 only a miniscule 0.16 percent of black children were in school with white children in the South.

  3. Effect of several structural features in coal on its tendency to reduce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' eva, E.A.; Bakirova, E.V.; Lesnikova, E.B.; Larina, N.K.; Zharova, M.N.; Dzhalyabova, L.V.

    1981-07-01

    Relationship between the tendency of coal to be reduced and the nature and quantity of the ether and organo-mineral bonds in the structure of coals is studied. The purpose of the study was to determine the intensity of the reaction during coal hydrogenation. Sodium borhydrate was used as a reducing agent because of its selective action on carbonyl groups and because of the possibility of describing the nature of hydrolyzed bonds in coal which form carbonyl groups. By hydrolysis of hard and brown coals and subsequent selective reduction, the effect of various carbonyl groups and organo-mineral bonds formed as a result of the destruction of ether groupings and carbon to carbon cross linkages were demonstrated. (17 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  5. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  6. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  7. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  8. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  9. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  10. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  11. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.-G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene to Jurassic sediments and a set of of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. Aromatized derivatives were the major components, consisting of one or two aromatic ring species with the abietane and occasionally pimarane skeletons. The saturated structures were comprised primarily of the abietane and pimarane skeletons having from three to five carbon (C1, C2, etc.) substituents. Kaurane and phyllocladane isomers were present in only minor amounts. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids as saturated and partial or fully aromatized forms were also common in these samples, but only traces of sesterterpenoids and triterpenoid derivatives were found. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the

  12. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  13. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  14. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  15. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  8. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  9. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge : Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Master plan for Browns Park NWR that discusses the history, wildlife goals, recreation goals, habitat goals, recreational and operational facilities, and estimated...

  10. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  14. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  15. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  16. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  17. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  18. Election Districts and Precincts, Voter districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'Voter districts'. Data by...

  19. School Districts, School districts-Middle, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'School districts-Middle'. Data by this...

  20. Special Taxing Districts, TIF districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'TIF districts'. Data by...

  1. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  2. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  3. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  5. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  6. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  7. Coal in a hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-05-01

    The editor of World Mining Equipment discusses the tangled position of the European coal industry, affected by concerns over acid rain and carbon dioxide emissions, and by subsidies. He outlines the debate in the UK about gas versus coal and about coal subsidies in Germany (which could affect mines in other European countries). The requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to minimise the problem of acid rain will have a direct bearing on coal mining firms and equipment manufacturers so it is possible that the only future for the industry lies with clean coal technologies. Even here, there is no easy answer as it is not clear how developing nations will be able to pay for these more expensive clean coal systems. 2 photos.

  8. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  9. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  10. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  11. Determination of the Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Raw Milk Somatic Cell Count of Brown Swiss Cows Raised in Farmer Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Şahin; Muzaffer Kaşıkcı

    2015-01-01

    In the current research, it was aimed to determine Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and the factors effecting on SCC in milk samples of Brown Swiss cattle raised at different farm conditions in Yıldızeli district of Sivas province in Turkey. Raw milk samples were collected at morning milking in months of May and November in year 2012. In total, 244 milk samples from 122 Brown Swiss cattle were analyzed. The effects of calving age, farm and test month on SCC were statistically significant. In the pres...

  12. NOx EMISSIONS FROM BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION OF LIGNITE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of NOx emission measurements for combustion of two kinds of coal in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor. The tested fuels were Czech brown coal (CBC and German young brown coal (GYC. These fuels have different nitrogen contents. The experiments were performed in the pilot scale BFB experimental unit with power output of 500 kW. The influence of several parameters on NOx formation are investigated in this paper. The parameters studied here include the effect of the nitrogen content in the fuel, the effect of the oxygen concentration in the bed, the effect of bed temperature, the effect of air staging, and the effect of fluidization velocity. Significantly different behaviour of the fuels was found. Although GYC has a lower nitrogen content than CBC, it is more reactive and produces higher NOx emissions. The biggest dependence of NOx production for CBC was found for the effects of air staging and fluidization velocity. As the fluidization velocity increases and the amount of secondary air decreases, there is an increase in NOx emissions. The oxygen concentration in the bed has the strongest effect on the NOx production of GYCs. With increasing oxygen concentration, the production of NOx also increases. On the basis of the NOx measurements, the N-NO conversion factor was calculated and the effect of the operating parameters on this conversion factor was investigated.

  13. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  14. Oxidative desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Lacount, R.B.; Warzinski, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal can be removed by a variety of oxidation techniques, including treatment with NO/sub x/, peroxygen compounds, air in the presence of specific organic media, or air and water at elevated temperature and pressure. The most promising method involves contacting an aqueous slurry of coal with air at pressures up to 1000 psi and temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Coals from different geographic areas of the US have been treated with air and water in this way, resulting in removal of more than 90% of pyritic sulfur and up to 40% of organic sulfur as sulfuric acid, which is separated from the desulfurized coal by filtration. Fuel value losses are usually less than 10%. Costs for processing coal by this procedure will be somewhere between the less efficient, less thorough and less costly physical coal cleaning methods and the more thorough but much more costly coal conversion techniques. Oxidative desulfurization potentially can upgrade up to 40% of the bituminous coal in the US to environmentally acceptable boiler fuel and can bring most of the rest of the bituminous coals at least close to acceptability with relatively little loss in total fuel value.

  15. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  16. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  17. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  18. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  19. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  20. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  1. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  2. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  3. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  6. Inorganic pigments made from the recycling of coal mine drainage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcello, R.R.; Galato, S.; Peterson, M.; Riella, H.G.; Bernardin, A.M. [Bairro University, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    Coal has been used in Brazil as a solid fuel for thermoelectric generators for several years. However, coal exploitation affects the environment intensely mainly because Brazilian coal contains excess ash and pyrite (iron disulfide). According to the local coal industry syndicate, the average annual coal run per mine is 6 million ton/year: 3.5 million ton/year are rejected and disposed of in landfills. Besides pyrite, Brazilian coal contains Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ge, Se, and Co. Additionally, the water used for coal beneficiation causes pyrite oxidation, forming an acid mine drainage (AMD). This drainage solubilizes the metals, transporting them into the environment, making treatment a requirement. This work deals with the use of sedimented residue from treated coal mine drainage sludge to obtain inorganic pigments that could be used in the ceramic industry. The residue was dried ground and calcined (around 1250{sup o}C). The calcined pigment was then micronized (D-50 similar to 2 {mu} m). Chemical (XRF), thermal (DTA/TG), particle size (laser), and mineralogical (XRD) analyses were carried out on the residue. After calcination and micronization, mineralogical analyses (XRD) were used to determine the pigment structure at 1250{sup o}C. Finally, the pigments were mixed with transparent glaze and fired in a laboratory roller kiln (1130{sup o}C, 5 min). The results were promising, showing that brown colors can be obtained with pigments made by residues.

  7. Inorganic pigments made from the recycling of coal mine drainage treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, R R; Galato, S; Peterson, M; Riella, H G; Bernardin, A M

    2008-09-01

    Continuous industrial development increases energy consumption and, consequently, the consumption of fossil fuels. Coal mineral has been used in Brazil as a solid fuel for thermoelectric generators for several years. However, coal exploitation affects the environment intensely, mainly because Brazilian coal contains excess ash and pyrite (iron disulfide). According to the local coal industry syndicate, the average annual coal run per mine is 6 million ton/year; 3.5 million ton/year are rejected and disposed of in landfills. Besides pyrite, Brazilian coal contains Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ge, Se, and Co. Additionally, the water used for coal beneficiation causes pyrite oxidation, forming an acid mine drainage (AMD). This drainage solubilizes the metals, transporting them into the environment, making treatment a requirement. This work deals with the use of sedimented residue from treated coal mine drainage sludge to obtain inorganic pigments that could be used in the ceramic industry. The residue was dried, ground and calcined ( approximately 1250 degrees C). The calcined pigment was then micronized (D(50) approximately 2mum). Chemical (XRF), thermal (DTA/TG), particle size (laser), and mineralogical (XRD) analyses were carried out on the residue. After calcination and micronization, mineralogical analyses (XRD) were used to determine the pigment structure at 1250 degrees C. Finally, the pigments were mixed with transparent glaze and fired in a laboratory roller kiln (1130 degrees C, 5min). The results were promising, showing that brown colors can be obtained with pigments made by residues. PMID:17703872

  8. Brown snow: A long-range transport event in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, H.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Billeck, B.N.; Lockhart, W.L.; Brunskill, G.J.; Kling, H.J. (Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg (Canada)); Olson, M.P. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada)); Lemoine, R.M. (Hardy BBT Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors document the occurrence of a long-range transport event that deposited thousands of tons of fine particulates on the District of Keewatin, central Canadian Arctic, {approximately}63 N. Air mass trajectories, clay mineral composition, soot particles, and visible organic remains point to Asian sources for the brown snow material, probably western China. Semivolatile organic pollutants detected in the brown snow included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ({Sigma}PAH), PCB congeners, and DDT-related compounds ({Sigma}DDT), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), as well as the herbicide trifuluralin and insecticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). {Sigma}PAH, PCB, and PCC concentrations were within the range reported in other studies of Arctic snow but {Sigma}DDT levels were 2-10 times higher than previous reports. High molecular weight PAH may have been associated with soot particles in the brown snow but evidence for Asian sources of the pesticides was not strong because of unknown source signal strengths and possible atmospheric transformations of the compounds. Fluxes of these pollutants were also determined by analyzing sediment cores from two small headwater lakes near the sampling site. The quantities of pollutants deposited in this single event may have comprised a significant fraction (>10%) of total annual input {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}DDT, as determined from lake sedimentation records.

  9. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  10. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  11. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  12. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  13. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  14. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  15. The coal deal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports on the Katowice 2001 coal mining show in Poland. A wide array of mining equipment manufacturers supported the vent including companies from Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Sweden, the USA and the UK. There was a particular focus on underground coal although other sectors, such as copper mining, were also represented.

  16. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  17. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  18. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  19. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  20. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  1. Coal resources of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  2. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  3. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  4. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  5. Investigation of Adsorbed Gases Content in Coal Beds in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadadinovic, J.

    2008-09-01

    desorption index in mining, as well as calculation of the totally adsorbed gas in newly opened mining district and coal beds. This means that it is possible by a quick operative procedure to determine the immediate danger from gas outburst, and apply preventive measures in coal mining of still unexplored coal beds.

  6. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  7. Districting and Government Overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Baqir

    2001-01-01

    The common-pool problem is a central issue in the relationship between the political structure of jurisdictions and the size of public spending. Models predict that, other things being equal, greater political districting of a jurisdiction raises the scale of government. This paper presents new evidence on this and related predictions from a cross-section of city governments in the United States. The main finding is that one additional legislator is associated, on average, with 3 percent larg...

  8. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  10. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  11. Comparison of district heating systems used in China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Li, Hongwei; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the technological differences between the district heating (DH) system used in China and Denmark is discussed. Although the Chinese DH systems are primarily fueled by coal and it is expected to remain this way in the near future, the reduction of network temperatures is a very...... important step towards increasing energy efficiency. If the Danish and the Chinese systems are compared from plant to consumer it can be seen that the Danish DR apply pre-insulated pipes, twin pipes where possible, with high insulation properties compared to the Chinese systems that generally apply single....... The Chinese DH systems are primarily fueled by coal and it is expected to remain this way in the near future....

  12. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  13. Narrowing the Achievement Gap in a (Re) Segregated Urban School District: Research, Policy and Practice. The Achievement Gap, Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpa, Vivian W.; McGuire, C. Kent

    2009-01-01

    The interplay between sociopolitical forces and economic agendas becomes apparent when one examines the June 28, 2007 United States Supreme Court Decision, Parents Involved In Community Schools v. Seattle School District . In a reversal of the 1954 Brown Decision, the United States Supreme Court ruled that public schools could not use race as a…

  14. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  15. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  16. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  17. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  18. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  19. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionDistrict2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class representing the Redistricting Commission Plan 11-15, adopted November 15, 2001. This Commission District Boundary layer becomes effective...

  20. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2, as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  1. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  2. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  3. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  4. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  5. Application of dynamic set-pair analysis in coal and gas outburst prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Qing-kui; LI Li-jie; YU Bing

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the factors which affected the coal and gas outburst, then established the corresponding indicator system. Built a dynamic set-pair analysis prediction model which combined of Markov model and set-pair analysis model, and then it applied to coal and gas outburst prediction. Finally, compared the prediction results with the actual results.As provided a reference to the coalmine in safety decision-making. The research results indicate that there are four districts in high dangerous level, two districts in middle level and one district in low level, which consistent with the actual situation; the dynamic set-pair analysis model has a good effect in predicting coal and gas outburst. Especially in the continuous time intervals, according to the data of mined exploration and the connec-tion degree analysis, we can deduce the dangerous levels of unexplored districts from the historical data. In different districts, the relevant indicators can be adjusted accordingly, so as to enhance the accuracy of the prediction.

  6. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  7. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  8. Districts, spillovers, and government overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Baqir, Reza

    1999-01-01

    The author considers the overspending bias in legislatures when the benefits of public policies are concentrated in particular districts but the costs of financing them are spread over the entire political jurisdiction. He formalizes this idea in a simple theoretic framework, in the context of externalities between districts. His main prediction is that greater districting leads to bigger government, but the effects are mitigated if there are positive spillovers of government spending between...

  9. Comparative risk assessment for radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and toxic substances in solid wastes from coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an evaluation of radiotoxic hazard measures RHM for high and medium level waste from NPP operation and fuel reprocessing. These values are compared to toxic hazard measures for brown coal and hard coal wastes arising in the process of energy production in coal fired power plants. The RHM for radium release due to coal mining and burning is also determined. Low leach rates of radioactive fission products are illustrated on the example of Oklo 'natural reactor' phenomenon and direct comparison of hazard measures for coal and nuclear wastes is graphically presented. It is shown that the RHM for high level nuclear wastes falls below that of brown coal within 150-300 years and below that of hard coal within 200-300 years. The RHM values for medium level wastes from NPP operation are much lower. The data show that there is no LONGTERM increase of radioactive hazards due to nuclear wastes and their potential influence on population health is less than the real hazards due to the existing coal waste dumps and water contamination. (author)

  10. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  11. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  12. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  13. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  14. Proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  15. Hard Pressed for Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Higher prices and the worst snowstorms in 50 years have strained China’s coal supply to the limit There’s little coal left. Jiang Zhangshui wears an expression of worry on his face.As president of Zhejiang Tianma Thermal Power Co. Ltd., he’s had to keep his eyes on the snow falfing in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. During a lull in the storm he drives to the airport and flies to Beijing. Like his counterparts at many other

  16. Deliveries of district heat amounted 5.1 billion FIM in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sales of district heat in 1999 was 26.2 TWh, which is about 5% less than in 1998. The decrease was due to milder weather conditions. The year 1999 was more than 1 deg C warmer than the long-term average. The value of the sales was 5.1 billion FIM. The share of residences of the district heat sales was 52%, corresponding to 2.7 billion FIM. The number of district heated residences at the end of 1999 was 1 080 000. Nearly a half of the buildings in Finland were connected to district heating. In largest cities the share is nearly 90%. In total 28 TWh of district heat was generated in 1999, which is nearly 5% less than in 1998. About 77% of the district heat was generated at combined heat and power plants. About 12.2 TWh of electric power was generated at combined heat and power plants. The share of electric power generated at combined heat and power plants decreased by 4% from the year 1998. About 36% of district heat and co-generation power were generated with natural gas. The share of coal was 26%, which is 3.5% less than in 1998. The shares of indigenous fuels remained on the same level as in 1998. A fifth of the fuels was peat. The share of peat decreased by 1%. The share of other indigenous fuels (wood, biogas, and industrial waste heat) was 8%, being the same as the share of oil. The average price of district heat was 19.5 p/kWh, which is about 1% higher than in 1998. The share of taxes of the price of district heat is 30%. The article is based on the preliminary information on generation and delivery of district heat in 1999. The press release is available in URL http://www.energia.fi/sky/eindex.htm

  17. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  18. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  19. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  20. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa...

  1. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  2. 78 FR 69662 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...: The proposed project would consist of: (1) A new intake structure at the end of a tunnel that transports water from Collins Lake; (2) a new 7,225-foot- long, 36-inch diameter PVC intake pipe running... industrial consumption and not primarily for the generation of electricity. FPA 30(a)(3)(C)(i), as amended...

  3. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  4. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  5. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  6. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  7. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  8. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  9. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  10. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  11. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  12. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  13. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, T E

    2000-06-01

    Alternative models using fish species have been tested in liver toxicity and carcinogenesis bioassays. Similar models have not been developed for skin. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) has shown potential as a model for skin carcinogenesis studies due to its sensitivity to environmental chemical pollutants. The present study is an initial morphologic and biochemical characterization of the normal and neoplastic brown bullhead skin to assess its suitability as a model of skin carcinogenesis. Brown bullhead were removed from Back River in the Chesapeake Bay region, an area historically polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Histology, histochemistry, and electron microscopy were used to stage the morphologic development and progression of neoplasia in skin. The distribution of keratin, a family of structural proteins with altered expression in mammalian tumorigenesis, was analyzed with one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose blots of extracts from normal skin. Keratin expression in skin and other organs was also assessed with immunohistochemistry using AE1, AE3, and PCK 26 antibodies, and the proliferation index in skin and neoplasms with PCNA antibody. Skin lesions appeared to progress from hyperplasia through carcinoma, and the proliferation index was increased in papilloma. Also in papilloma, intercellular interdigitations appeared increased and desmosomes decreased which may in future studies correlate with changes in expression of other molecular markers of neoplastic progression. Both Type I and Type II keratin subfamilies were detected in skin using gel electrophoresis with the complimentary keratin blot-binding assay. For further development of the brown bullhead model, future studies can compare and relate these baseline data to alterations in expression of keratin and other markers in fish neoplasms and to molecular events which occur in man. PMID:10930121

  14. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district...

  15. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  16. Environmental Assessment: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District complex`s existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. This Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality`s regulations; the Department`s Implementing Procedures and Guidelines Revocation; and the May 1993 ``Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements,`` by the Department`s Office of NEPA Oversight. Under the Institutional Conservation Programs, created by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (PL 95--619), the Department is authorized to encourage energy conservation-by providing funding for up to 50 percent of the costs of installation of qualified energy conservation measures by entities such as schools, hospitals, and other buildings owned by local governments. This proposed action to fund partially the installation of a new coal-fired heating system for the Winnett School District is part of this energy conservation program.

  17. Denver Coal Basin boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Denver coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  18. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  19. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCunney, R.J.; Morfeld, P.; Payne, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biological Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal-before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  20. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  1. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  2. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  3. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  4. Presence of commercial coal in the Taimyr coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androsov, B.N.

    1980-05-01

    This article presents the results of a geologic expedition to the Far North of the USSR, where coal resources in the Taimyr Peninsula have been discovered. The surface of the basin is 80,000 square kilometers. Maps provide general information on the geological structure of the basin, location of coal deposits, and the richest seams. Geological structure of the basin, strata in which coal deposits are located, and properties of the coal are described (petrographic components, caking and coking properties, calorific value, ash content etc.). The so-called coefficient of coal content which ranges from 3% or below up to 11% is given for individual regions of the basin. The number of coal seams, their thickness and geological disturbances are described. Taimyr coals represent a full range of various ranks from gas coals to anthracite. The Taimyr coals have lower calorific value and lower nitrogen content than coals from the Donetsk basin. The majority of Taimyr coals have low ash and sulfur content. The best outlook for discovering rich seams of coking and fat coal are in the Taimyr-Ozerskii region of the basin particularly in Chernoyarskoe, Ugol'noe, Ozernoe, and Zayach'e. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  5. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  6. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  7. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  8. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  9. Theory and application of infrared surveying gas gushing technology in coal-rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡康旭

    2002-01-01

    Geological structure and gas expansion when gas pressure was released can affect the distribution of infrared radiation energy or temperature at coal-rock surface. From this, the foundation of roadway infrared surveying technical was formed. According to the thermodynamic principle of ideal gas and the law of energy conservation, the relation was established between gas gushing amount from coal-rock and air temperature to fall in roadway. At the same time, this paper has analyzed coal-rock density change that geological structure aroused and the change exerted influences on infrared radiation power at surface, as well as, has analyzed the infrared radiation feature of gas gushing at geological structure district. Application results show that infrared survey technology can be used to analyze and forecast the change of coal-rock gas gushing effectively, and to guide the enforcement of the roadway gas project of prevention and handling economically.

  10. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  12. Coal analysis by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy gamma ray transmission measurements on coal samples from 17 different coal mines in India gave ash contents varying from 13.5 per cent to 42.5 per cent. This variation is due to varying contents of mineral oxides and silicates present in coal. The measured value of ash contents in coal samples of different origin shows good agreement when compared, with the values obtained by chemical method. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  14. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

  15. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  16. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  17. Detecting and characterizing coal mine related seismicity in the Western U.S. using subspace methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Derrick J. A.; Koper, Keith D.; Pankow, Kristine L.; McCarter, Michael K.

    2015-11-01

    We present an approach for subspace detection of small seismic events that includes methods for estimating magnitudes and associating detections from multiple stations into unique events. The process is used to identify mining related seismicity from a surface coal mine and an underground coal mining district, both located in the Western U.S. Using a blasting log and a locally derived seismic catalogue as ground truth, we assess detector performance in terms of verified detections, false positives and failed detections. We are able to correctly identify over 95 per cent of the surface coal mine blasts and about 33 per cent of the events from the underground mining district, while keeping the number of potential false positives relatively low by requiring all detections to occur on two stations. We find that most of the potential false detections for the underground coal district are genuine events missed by the local seismic network, demonstrating the usefulness of regional subspace detectors in augmenting local catalogues. We note a trade-off in detection performance between stations at smaller source-receiver distances, which have increased signal-to-noise ratio, and stations at larger distances, which have greater waveform similarity. We also explore the increased detection capabilities of a single higher dimension subspace detector, compared to multiple lower dimension detectors, in identifying events that can be described as linear combinations of training events. We find, in our data set, that such an advantage can be significant, justifying the use of a subspace detection scheme over conventional correlation methods.

  18. High capacity stockpile equipment for a coal power plant in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, H.J.; Wolf, G.; Haensig, B.

    1984-11-01

    The design and performance are explained for stacker-reclaimers operating at the 1.3 Mt coal storage facility of the Aghios Dimitrios brown coal power plant. Three Ks-S 5600/5600.48 stacker-reclaimers, built jointly by TAKRAF and BBC, operate in parallel form at this facility serving 4 stockpile lanes. The equipment, with a theoretical stacking capacity of 5600 m/sup 3//h each, is computer controlled. Automated stacking and reclaiming of coal on stockpiles 385 m long and 15 m high is carried out with the Windrow network scheme. Technical specifications, photographs and further features of the equipment are discussed including automation system, frame structure, boom design, belt conveyors and electrical drive. Layout of the storage facility is also shown.

  19. Government Districts, Other - MO 2014 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  20. Zoning Districts - MO 2011 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  1. Government Districts, Other, National Register districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'National Register...

  2. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  3. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO2-free coal: CO2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  4. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern soc

  5. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  7. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  8. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  9. Chemistry of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Further progress has been made in the investigation into uses of residues from hydrogenation of coal in plastic mixtures. Filter residues of oil and rat filtration are suitable as filler for sound barrier plates with particularly good sound attenuation qualities. Success was also achieved in processing coal extracts and coal converted to anthracene oil mixed with commercial plastics into strong sealing material foil. In order to manufacture needle coke of high quality from filtered hard coal tar, a continuous plant was set to work, which can convert about 20 kg/hour of tar filtrate into coke. The calcination of the coke and further processing into experimental electrodes follow. The distillate oils occurring during coking of tar can be converted into isotropic coke after treatment by coking to produce secondary tar. These types of coke can be processed into graphite bodies without binding material, and are suitable for cladding material for nuclear reactors. Experiments for the development of new systems based on waterglass polyisocyanate were successful. They are suitable for solidifying rock in fault zones underground and for sealing against running water. Also single component systems on the basis of polyurethane prepolymers were developed to seal against the ingress of water and to solidify wet rock strata. By using special highly reactive polyoils, polyurethane systems could be formulated, which permit the solidifaction of very loose and wet rock strata. They have good mechanical properties and excellent adhesion to rock and coal. The glue cartridge (KK cartridge) developed from extruded coal-plastic material has continued to prove successful underground. A new resin material was developed for the adhesion anchor on the basis of polyurethane prepolymer.

  10. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  11. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    OpenAIRE

    McCollum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    After years of relatively slow growth, coal is undergoing a renaissance. Some 140 coal power plants are planned, and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the U.S. will consume almost 1,800 million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million tons this year. In addition, while EIA’s estimates do not take coal-to-hydrogen production into consideration, several recent studies suggest that if the hydrogen economy ever comes to fruition coal could be a feedstock of choice...

  12. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  13. A generalized three-dimensional Hoek-Brown strength criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Hoek-Brown strength criterion has been widely used in rock mechanics and rock engineering, it does not take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. Much evidence, however, has been accumulating to indicate that the intermediate principal stress does influence the rock strength in many instances. Therefore, researchers have developed three-dimensional (3D) versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. In this paper, three existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are reviewed and evaluated. The evaluation shows that all of the three 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion have limitations. To address the limitations, a generalized 3D Hoek-Brown criterion is proposed by modifying the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. The proposed 3D criterion not only inherits the advantages of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion but can take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. At a 2D stress state (triaxial or biaxial), the proposed 3D criterion will simply reduce to the form of the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. To validate the proposed 3D strength criterion, polyaxial or true triaxial compression test data of intact rocks and jointed rock masses has been collected from the published literature. Predictions of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion are in good agreement with the test data for a range of different rock types. The difference of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion from and its advantages over the existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are also discussed. It should be noted that the proposed 3D criterion is empirical in nature because it is an extension of the 2D Hoek-Brown strength criterion, which is empirical. Because of the non-convexity of the yield surface for a biaxial stress state, the proposed 3D criterion may have problems with some stress paths.

  14. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  15. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  16. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Hannele Ahvenniemi; Krzysztof Klobut

    2014-01-01

    The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we...

  17. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fertility and occupation: mining districts in prewar Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosk, C

    1981-01-01

    Although many theories of demographic transition claim that diffusion of deliberate family limitation reaches the agrarian segments of populations last, research has shown that the fertility of mining regions usually exceeds that of farming villages during the transition. Examination of Japanese coal mining regions during the mid-1920s, reveals that the mining districts had lower natality than surrounding rural districts. The lower natality rate was apparently caused by lower marital fertility, and not by excessivly high mortality rates. Mortality was found to be only slightly higher in the mining areas, lending credence to the view that health was less robust in mining areas. Japanese mining areas differ from their European counterparts, which are characterized by excessive natality levels. Regression analysis was used to confirm these conclusions. The model advanced by the author to explain the lower fertility levels seen in the Japanese mining areas as compared to European mining areas involves the higher level of employment opportunities that were available outside the home for Japanese females in mining districts. PMID:11633196

  19. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple of sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  20. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....