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Sample records for brown bullhead catfish

  1. Species-specific markers provide molecular genetic evidence for natural introgression of bullhead catfishes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béres, Beatrix; Kánainé Sipos, Dóra; Müller, Tamás; Staszny, Ádám; Farkas, Milán; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Since three bullhead catfish species were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, they have spread to most European countries. In Hungary, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) was more widespread in the 1970s–1980s, but the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) has gradually supplanted since their second introduction in 1980. The introgressive hybridization of the two species has been presumed based on morphological examinations, but it has not previously been supported by genetic evidence. In this study, 11 different Hungarian habitats were screened with a new species-specific nuclear genetic, duplex PCR based, marker system to distinguish the introduced catfish species, Ameiurus nebulosus, Ameiurus melas, and Ameiurus natalis, as well as the hybrids of the first two. More than 460 specimens were analyzed using the above markers and additional mitochondrial sequence analyses were also conducted on >25% of the individuals from each habitat sampled. The results showed that only 7.9% of the specimens from two habitats belonged to Ameiurus nebulosus, and 92.1% were classified as Ameiurus melas of all habitats, whereas the presence of Ameiurus natalis was not detected. Two specimens (>0.4%) showed the presence of both nuclear genomes and they were identified as hybrids of Ameiurus melas and Ameiurus nebulosus. An additional two individuals showed contradicting results from the nuclear and mitochondrial assays as a sign of a possible footprint of introgressive hybridization that might have happened two or more generations before. Surprisingly, the level of hybridization was much smaller than expected based on the analyses of the North American continent’s indigenous stock from the hybrid zones. This phenomenon has been observed in several invasive fish species and it is regarded as an added level of complexity in the management of their rapid adaptation. PMID:28265489

  2. Tumor prevalence in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the South River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The South River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay flowing near Annapolis, Maryland. In March 2005, brown bullheads were collected in a fyke net set about 1.25 km...

  3. Biomarkers of exposure of brown bullheads to contaminants in the lower Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcand, L.D.; Metcalfe, C.D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program

    1995-12-31

    Brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) were collected from contaminated and relatively pristine sites distributed throughout Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Hepatic neoplasms were detected in bullheads from the contaminated sites of Hamilton Harbour (L. Ontario), the Black River (L. Erie) and the Detroit River, but no tumors were observed in bullheads from the relatively pristine Bay of Quinte (L. Ontario) and Old Woman Creek (L. Erie). Analysis of various biochemical markers of exposure to contaminants indicated that bullheads from the contaminated sites had elevated hepatic EROD activity, high levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACS) in bile, and alterations to hepatic retinoid levels. Bullheads captured in the Black River also had an increased incidence of micronucleated hepatocytes in comparison to fish from Old Woman Creek. Although the prevalence of hepatic neoplasms was highest in Detroit River fish, all biomarkers did not necessarily indicate that Detroit River fish were the most highly exposed to contaminants. These data indicate that a suite of several biomarkers should be used to monitor for in situ exposure of fish to contaminants.

  4. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

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    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors.

  5. Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with

  6. Movements of brown bullheads in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania

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    Millard, M.J.; Smith, D.R.; Obert, E.; Grazio, J.; Bartron, M.L.; Wellington, C.; Grise, S.; Rafferty, S.; Wellington, R.; Julian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, was listed as an Area of Concern (AOC) by the International Joint Commission in part because of the high incidence of external tumor in brown bullheads. Verifying the source of the possible contaminant exposure is critical to addressing the AOC designation. We used telemetry tracking (n = 49 fish) to test the hypothesis that adult bullheads captured within the bay during spawning season do not exit the bay during the post-spawning summer and fall months. We analyzed genetic variation at 15 microsatellite loci for 112 adult fish from 5 locations, 4 inside the bay and 1 outside, in order to test for possible differences. Data from fixed-station receivers suggested fish did not leave Presque Isle Bay during the study period. Predicted locations outside Presque Isle Bay were only 0.1% of all predicted locations and were below the 0.2% error rate based on known manual relocations. However, there was evidence for movement within Presque Isle Bay. Most movement was between Misery Bay or Lagoons and the open bay area. Whereas telemetry results showed tendency for adult site fidelity, genetic results showed no differences among locations, indicating that there is a single panmictic population. Our telemetry data suggest that brown bullheads are likely a useful indicator species for environmental conditions in Presque Isle Bay, since adults likely are retained in the system.

  7. Biomarkers of exposure of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) to contaminants in the lower Great Lakes, North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcand-Hoy, L.D.; Metcalfe, C.D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    Brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from three contaminated sites (Detroit River, Hamilton Harbour, and Black River) and two relatively clean reference sites (Old Woman Creek and Bay of Quinte) in the lower Great Lakes were monitored for several biomarkers of exposure to PAHs. Bullheads from the contaminated sites had elevated hepatosomatic indices, increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, decreased hepatic retinoid stores, and a greater incidence of hepatic neoplasms. Fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile were also elevated in bullheads from the Black River and Hamilton Harbour in comparison to fish from reference sites. A correlation was found between reduction of hepatic retinoid stores and induction of hepatic EROD activity in bullheads. Principal component analysis of biomarker data demonstrated that biomarker patterns in Detroit River bullheads were different from those of Black River and Hamilton Harbour bullheads. Biomarkers in fish are useful monitoring tools for detecting contamination of the aquatic environment, but interpretation of results is limited by within- and between-site variability in the responses, some of which may be explained by mobility of the fish. In contaminated areas, bile fluorescent aromatic compounds appear to be the best indicator of recent exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas responses to other biochemical biomarkers appear to be over a longer time period.

  8. Ontogenetic Development of Weberian Ossicles and Hearing Abilities in the African Bullhead Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Lechner; Egon Heiss; Thomas Schwaha; Martin Glösmann; Friedrich Ladich

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th) century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish L...

  9. Pollution-induced behavioural effects in the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckels, Ross D; Neff, Bryan D

    2010-10-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sinks for pollutants which can have adverse effects on biodiversity. Thus, it is important to understand the nature of pollution-induced change in aquatic ecosystems. We show that brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) may have evolved in response to chronic pollution exposure. We collected adults from the Detroit River (polluted site) and Belle River (control site). Both adults and common-garden raised juveniles were tested for aggression, locomotion, and escape response using consecutive unchallenged (clean) and challenged (polluted) trials. Detroit River fish were more aggressive than Belle River fish when challenged. Furthermore, Belle River fish showed increased locomotion when exposed to pollutants, whereas Detroit River fish were unaffected. The consistent difference in adult and juvenile behaviour across trials suggests a genetic response to pollution. Escape response on the other hand, showed inter-population differences, but no consistency between adults and juveniles, indicating that this behaviour is influenced by non-genetic factors. We discuss our data with respect to the potential adaptation of populations to pollution and the implications for prioritizing remediation efforts.

  10. Ontogenetic development of weberian ossicles and hearing abilities in the African bullhead catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Walter; Heiss, Egon; Schwaha, Thomas; Glösmann, Martin; Ladich, Friedrich

    2011-04-12

    The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th) century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish Lophiobagrus cyclurus. Specimens from 11.3 mm to 85.5 mm in standard length were studied. Morphology was assessed using sectioning, histology, and X-ray computed tomography, along with 3D reconstruction. Hearing thresholds were measured utilizing the auditory evoked potentials recording technique. Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments were fully developed in all stages investigated except in the smallest size group. In the smallest catfish, the intercalarium and the interossicular ligaments were still missing and the tripus was not yet fully developed. Smallest juveniles revealed lowest auditory sensitivity and were unable to detect frequencies higher than 2 or 3 kHz; sensitivity increased in larger specimens by up to 40 dB, and frequency detection up to 6 kHz. In the size groups capable of perceiving frequencies up to 6 kHz, larger individuals had better hearing abilities at low frequencies (0.05-2 kHz), whereas smaller individuals showed better hearing at the highest frequencies (4-6 kHz). Our data indicate that the ability of otophysine fish to detect sounds at low levels and high frequencies largely depends on the development of the weberian apparatus. A significant increase in auditory sensitivity was observed as soon as all weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments are present and the chain for transmitting sounds from the swimbladder to the inner ear is complete. This contrasts with findings in another otophysine, the zebrafish, where no threshold changes have been observed.

  11. Ontogenetic development of weberian ossicles and hearing abilities in the African bullhead catfish.

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    Walter Lechner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish Lophiobagrus cyclurus. Specimens from 11.3 mm to 85.5 mm in standard length were studied. Morphology was assessed using sectioning, histology, and X-ray computed tomography, along with 3D reconstruction. Hearing thresholds were measured utilizing the auditory evoked potentials recording technique. Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments were fully developed in all stages investigated except in the smallest size group. In the smallest catfish, the intercalarium and the interossicular ligaments were still missing and the tripus was not yet fully developed. Smallest juveniles revealed lowest auditory sensitivity and were unable to detect frequencies higher than 2 or 3 kHz; sensitivity increased in larger specimens by up to 40 dB, and frequency detection up to 6 kHz. In the size groups capable of perceiving frequencies up to 6 kHz, larger individuals had better hearing abilities at low frequencies (0.05-2 kHz, whereas smaller individuals showed better hearing at the highest frequencies (4-6 kHz. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that the ability of otophysine fish to detect sounds at low levels and high frequencies largely depends on the development of the weberian apparatus. A significant increase in auditory sensitivity was observed as soon as all weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments are present and the chain for transmitting sounds from the swimbladder to the inner ear is complete. This contrasts with findings in another otophysine

  12. Assessment of the fish tumor beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) at selected Great Lakes Areas of Concern

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    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 878 adult Brown Bullhead were collected at 11 sites within the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario drainages from 2011 to 2013. The sites included seven Areas of Concern (AOC; 670 individuals), one delisted AOC (50 individuals) and three non-AOC sites (158 individuals) used as reference sites. These fish were used to assess the “fish tumor or other deformities” beneficial use impairment. Fish were anesthetized, weighed, measured and any external abnormalities documented and removed. Abnormal orocutaneous and barbel tissue, as well as five to eight pieces of liver, were preserved for histopathological analyses. Otoliths were removed and used for age analyses. Visible external abnormalities included reddened (raised or eroded), melanistic areas and raised growths on lips, body surface, fins and barbels. Microscopically, these raised growths included papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteoma and osteosarcoma. Proliferative lesions of the liver included bile duct hyperplasia, foci of cellular alteration, bile duct (cholangioma, cholangiocarcinoma) and hepatocellular (adenoma, hepatic cell carcinoma) neoplasia. The two reference sites (Long Point Inner Bay, Conneaut Creek), at which 30 or more bullhead were collected had a skin tumor prevalence of 10% or less and liver tumor prevalence of 4% or less. Presque Isle Bay, recently delisted, had a similar liver tumor prevalence (4%) and slightly higher prevalence (12%) of skin tumors. The prevalence of skin neoplasms was 15% or less at sites in the Black River, Cuyahoga River and Maumee AOCs, while more than 20% of the bullheads from the Rochester Embayment, Niagara River, Detroit River and Ashtabula River AOCs had skin tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors was greater than 4% at all AOC sites except the Old Channel site at the Cuyahoga River AOC, Wolf Creek within the Maumee AOC and the upper and lower sites within the Niagara River AOC.

  13. Effects of dietary vitamin C and soybean lecithin in the nutrition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus L. fingerlings

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    Ivica Aničić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different forms of vitamin C and soybean lecithin on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lesuer 1819 were evaluated during a 9-week growth trial. A special interest was to investigate a possible combine effect of these nutritional components. The diets used contained three forms of vitamin C (crystallized ascorbic acid, encapsulated L-ascorbic acid and Ca-L-threonate (100 mg/kg with and without the combination of soybean lecithin. Besides control diet (K, one more diet was supplemented with soybean lecithin (L only. One-hundred-ninety-two brown bullhead of about 45 g initial body weight was randomly divided in 24 tanks (115 L each. Testing conditions included 8 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. All diets with supplemented components had higher final weight. Specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and condition factor were significantly higher with encapsulated vitamin C diets (CC, CCL, followed by the results of enriched ascorbic acid diets. Vitamin C and lecithin supplementation showed positive influence on significantly higher number of erythrocytes, haematocrit, triglycerides and total protein. Vitamin C content of muscle and liver tissue was not uniform and was significantly higher in AAL, CCL, CC and AA feeding groups. The fatty acids profile of muscle and liver tissue showed that phospholipids from soybean lecithin and vitamin C diets enhanced the quality of usable part of the fish body. Combine supplementation of vitamin C and soy lecithin indicated positive production effects, but did not cause a statistically significant difference.

  14. Assessment of the "fish tumors or other deformities" beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus): II. Liver neoplasia

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    Blazer, V.S.; Rafferty, S.D.; Baumman, P.C.; Smith, S.B.; Obert, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Liver pathology of fishes, including neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions, is widely used as an indicator of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. By definition, the "fish tumor or other deformities" beneficial use impairment (BUI) at Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC) includes neoplastic and preneoplastic liver lesions in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) or suckers. Unfortunately, adequate guidelines for defining neoplastic and preneoplastic liver lesions or determining rates at unimpacted control sites were not provided and different criteria have been used. In some cases, only neoplastic changes were used to calculate tumor prevalence, in some both neoplastic and preneoplastic changes and in some it is difficult to determine which changes were included. Using standardized criteria, the prevalence of liver neoplasia was compared at eight AOC during 1998-2000. The Cuyahoga River had the highest prevalence (25.0%), while the Maumee River had the lowest (3.9%). The Buffalo (4.8%), Detroit (5.9%), Ashtabula (6.8%), Niagara (7.5%) and Black (8.9%) rivers were intermediate, as was Presque Isle Bay (7.1%). From 2002 to 2007 the prevalence of liver neoplasia at Presque Isle Bay ranged from a low of 2.1% (2002) to a high of 12.0% (2007). Non-AOC sites, as potential reference sites, also were monitored during this time. By combining years and sites, the prevalence of liver neoplasia in bullhead (aged 2 to 12 years) at inland lakes was 0.7%, at bays/harbors was 1.6% and at tributary sites was 4.1%. This is the same trend (inland lakes < bays/harbors < tributaries < Presque Isle Bay) noted for orocutaneous neoplasms.

  15. Glutathione S-transferase expression in pollution-associated hepatic lesions of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Ohio.

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    Henson, K L; Gallagher, E P

    2004-07-01

    In rodents, overexpression of glutathione S-transferase pi is a characteristic feature of foci of cellular alteration (FCA) and neoplastic liver lesions induced by genotoxic chemicals. Alterations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression in hepatic lesions have also been reported in fish exposed to environmental carcinogens, and cellular GST expression may be an important determinant of growth and progression of chemical-associated liver tumors in certain fish species. In the present study, GST expression was examined in hepatic lesions of brown bullheads (n = 44) from the Cuyahoga River, a highly industrialized site located in Cleveland, Ohio. GST proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and polyclonal antibodies that recognize either two major bullhead GST proteins or a pi-like GST isoform. Hepatic lesions were present in 70% of the fish and included biliary hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis; eosinophilic, basophilic, clear cell, and vacuolated FCA; and biliary neoplasms. Eosinophilic FCA and biliary tumors were the most prevalent preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. GST expression in hyperplastic biliary tissue, FCA and tumors did not markedly differ from that of surrounding normal hepatocytes or biliary epithelium. Some hepatocytes within eosinophilic FCA had decreased GST expression. A complete absence of GST immunoreactive protein was not observed in any lesion, and there were no marked differences when comparing GST pi to overall GST expression. Our results indicate that GST expression in hepatic lesions of brown bullhead exposed to environmental carcinogens does not significantly differ from that in surrounding normal cells and is therefore not a useful predictor of environmental carcinogenesis in this species. Furthermore, the regulation and expression of GST pi in bullhead hepatocarcinogenesis appears to differ markedly from that during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and some other fish species.

  16. Flow cytometry, morphometry and histopathology as biomarkers of benzo[a]pyrene exposure in brown bullheads (ameiurus nebulosus)

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    Grady, Andrew W.; McLaughlin, Ronald M.; Caldwell, Charles W.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Stalling, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Brown bullheads were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 0, 5, 25 or 125 mg kg−1 benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and evaluated over 18 months. Flow cytometric analyses of hepatocyte DNA content indicated an increase in DNA synthesis in BaP-exposed fish prior to day 14 post-exposure. Thereafter, all flow cytometric variables returned to initial levels. Histopathological evaluation of livers from fish sampled at 18 months revealed significant differences among treatments in the amount of hepatic macrophage ceroid pigmentation and basophilic staining intensity. No neoplasms or changes in blood cell DNA content were detected. Significant morphometric variations existed among fish, but differences between sexes overshadowed differences attributable to dose. Flow cytometry yielded no evidence of long-term DNA alterations from a single exposure to BaP; however, the differences detected by DNA analysis shortly after the toxic event suggest that flow cytometric cell cycle analysis may be useful for documenting continuing exposures.

  17. Conboy Lake - Bullfrog and Bullhead Control

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to support two AmeriCorps interns for 24 weeks to work on removal of American bullfrogs and brown bullhead to benefit Oregon spotted frogs, a...

  18. Variable growth and longevity of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) in the Everglades of south Florida, USA

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    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow bullhead (Ictaluridae: Ameiurus natalis) is the most abundant ictalurid catfish in the Everglades of southern Florida, USA, and, as both prey and predator, is one of many essential components in the ecological-simulation models used in assessing restoration success in the Everglades. Little is known of its biology and life history in this southernmost portion of its native range; the present study provides the first estimates of age and growth from the Everglades. In total, 144 yellow bullheads of 97-312 mm total length (TL) were collected from canals and marshes of the Everglades between April 2000 and January 2001, and from October 2003 to February 2005. Fish were aged using cross-sections of pectoral spines and ranged from 1-12 years, with the maximum age almost twice that of any yellow bullhead previously reported. Yellow bullheads from south Florida grew relatively rapidly during their first 3 years, but after age 5 growth slowed and fish approached an asymptote of ???214 mm TL. Compared to other populations in the United States, yellow bullhead in the Everglades grew relatively slowly, were smaller at age overall, but survived to older ages. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. 78 FR 71706 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport, Bullhead City, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Mohave... INFORMATION: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the noise exposure maps submitted for Laughlin...

  20. Catfish Biology and Farming.

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    Dunham, Rex A; Elaswad, Ahmed

    2017-11-06

    This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female × blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed. Recent advances in catfish culture elements, including environment, management, nutrition, feeding, disease control, culture systems, genetic improvement programs, transgenics, and the application of genome-based approaches in catfish production and welfare, are reviewed. The current status, needs, and future projections are discussed, as well as genetically modified organism developments that are changing the futur Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 6 is February 15, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  1. The effect of calcium hardness on hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish hybrid catfish eggs

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    The present study was designed to determine the optimal level of calcium hardness in hatching waters to incubate channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish I. furcatus ' hybrid catfish eggs. Hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs was higher (phardness (C...

  2. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

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    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead (Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  3. Brown Syndrome

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    ... extraction) have also been linked to acquired Brown syndrome. Inflammation of the tendon-trochlea complex (from adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sinusitis) can be ... syndrome hereditary? Hereditary cases of Brown syndrome are rare. ...

  4. Cold Fusion: Massive Karyotype Evolution in the Antarctic Bullhead Notothen Notothenia coriiceps

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    Angel Amores

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Half of all vertebrate species share a series of chromosome fusions that preceded the teleost genome duplication (TGD, but we do not understand the causative evolutionary mechanisms. The “Robertsonian-translocation hypothesis” suggests a regular fusion of each ancestral acro- or telocentric chromosome to just one other by centromere fusions, thus halving the karyotype. An alternative “genome-stirring hypothesis” posits haphazard and repeated fusions, inversions, and reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocations. To study large-scale karyotype reduction, we investigated the decrease of chromosome numbers in Antarctic notothenioid fish. Most notothenioids have 24 haploid chromosomes, but bullhead notothen (Notothenia coriiceps has 1. To understand mechanisms, we made a RAD-tag meiotic map with ∼10,000 polymorphic markers. Comparative genomics aligned about a thousand orthologs of platyfish and stickleback genes along bullhead chromosomes. Results revealed that 9 of 11 bullhead chromosomes arose by fusion of just two ancestral chromosomes and two others by fusion of three ancestral chromosomes. All markers from each ancestral chromosome remained contiguous, implying no inversions across fusion borders. Karyotype comparisons support a history of: (1 Robertsonian fusions of 22 ancestral chromosomes in pairs to yield 11 fused plus two small unfused chromosomes, like N. angustata; (2 fusion of one of the remaining two ancestral chromosomes to a preexisting fused pair, giving 12 chromosomes like N. rossii; and (3 fusion of the remaining ancestral chromosome to another fused pair, giving 11 chromosomes in N. coriiceps. These results raise the question of what selective forces promoted the systematic fusion of chromosomes in pairs and the suppression of pericentric inversions in this lineage, and provide a model for chromosome fusions in stem teleosts.

  5. Microbial quality of catfish nuggets

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    The microbiological quality of catfish nuggets is not known. Nuggets, purchased from local retailers in the northeast United States (NJ, NY, PA, and DE), were tested for aerobic plate count (APC) at 22 and 37 deg C, Enterobacteriacea, and Escherichia coli/coliform using Petrifilms**™. The BAX**™ ...

  6. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  7. Growth and Survival of Catfish ( Clarias anguillaris ) Juveniles Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental diets were (i) live maggots, (ii) live tilapia fry, (iii) commercial catfish feed (NIFFR catfish artificial feed of 40% crude protein content) as control, (iv) live maggot + NIFFR catfish feed, (v) live tilapia + NIFFR catfish feed. The diets were fed at 3% of fish body weight per day. Feeding was twice daily, morning ...

  8. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  9. Egg Development of the Ussurian Bullhead Fish, Leiocassis ussuriensis (Pisces: Bagridae) and Morphological Development of Its Larvae and Juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Min; Yim, Hu-Sun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Kim, Heung-Yun; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was examined the ovogenesis of Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis and the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles and to use the results as basic information for the preservation of species and resource enhancement. For artificial egg collection, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was injected at a rate of 10 IU per gram of fish weight. During breeding period, water temperature maintained at 24.5~26.5?C (mean 25.0?0.05?C). The process of ovogenesis reached the ...

  10. MANUAL FOR THE MICROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS OF PROLIFERATIVE LIVER AND SKIN LESIONS IN THE BROWN BULLHEAD (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, in which the US and Canada agreed to restore and preserve the biolgoical, physical and chemical integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, was first signed in 1972. In 1987, a Protocol was signed by both governments which defined Great...

  11. Tumor prevalence in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from Darby Creek, John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, Philadelphia, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum (JHNWRT) is located along Darby Creek near its confluence with the Delaware River, south of Philadelphia,...

  12. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  13. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max

    2014-01-01

    in filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014....... Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly...

  14. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  15. Organoleptic Characteristics and Chemicals Ilabulo Catfish Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marsuci Harmain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of traditional food ilabulo made from raw catfish (Pangasius sp. has the potential to be developed in Gorontalo province to substitute chicken viscera. The research aimed to make ilabulo substitute the raw material of chicken viscera with the catfish fortified Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed and catfish bone meal and to determine the organoleptic and chemical characteristics of ilabulo catfish fortification. Fortified treatment is K. alvarezii  and catfish bone (5 dan 10% ,  B (10 and 15% and  C (15 dan 20%. The organoleptic analysis used a hedonic scale of favorite criteria on the appearance, texture, color, flavor, and taste. The results of organoleptic analysis continued with Bayes test. The chemical analysis used the Association of Official Analytical Chemist method. The result of the hedonic characteristic of ilabulo catfish fortification was on the appearance  neutral criteria – like (5.53–7.03, texture neutral criteria – rather like (5.8–7.1, aroma rather like (6.3–6.73, color neutral – like (6.1–7.03 and taste (6.07–6.53 neutral criteria – rather like. The result of Bayes test obtained by a texture of importance value 5, appearance importance value 5, aroma of importance value 4, color of interest value 3 and taste of importance value 2. Characteristic of ilabulo culture of selected fortified catfish that was the fortification of K. alvarezii seaweed 15% and catfish  bone flour (20% (fortification C obtained by water content 56.46%, ash 11.54%, protein 7.78%, fat 8.91%, coarse fiber 0.61%, carbohydrate 22.07% and calcium 0.315 %.

  16. The economics of catfish farming in central Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayotou, T; Wattanutchariya, S; Isvilanonda, S; Tokrisna, R

    1982-01-01

    A recall survey of 41 catfish farms in the central plain of Thailand during 1979 was undertaken to ascertain why production has been falling since 1974, despite high and rising market prices for catfish...

  17. Socio-economics of catfish production in Port Harcourt, Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appraisal of profitability of catfish production in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria was carried out by identifying socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers, cost and returns of catfish farming and the basic problems hindering effective catfish production. Thirty catfish farmers were randomly selected; administered a ...

  18. Brown recluse spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. It ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin-shaped ...

  19. Cleveland Harbor, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Confined Disposal Facility Project (Site 10B-15 Year)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    15 White Bass 1 1 Largemouth Bass 1 1 1 Smailmouth Bass I Rock Bass 2 5 4 4 3 5 Brown Bullhead 1 1 2 1 1 Yellow Bullhead 3 Channel Catfish 1 Wal leye ...Engineer Center and Draft Environmental Impact Statement ATO:Ntc fitn opeaea 41W tic agencies, and the (DI) Draft Environmental Impact Statement. obtaim...Location of Visit/Conference: fl OUTGOING NAME OF PERSON(S) CONTACTED OR IN CONTACT ;ORGANIZATION (Office. dePt.. bureau. TELEPH4ONE NO. WITH YOU tic

  20. Holding hormone-induced channel catfish females in hatchery pond improves efficiency and reduces the hatchery cost of producing channel X blue hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish is a superior genotype and its superiority is witnessed in the performance of fingerlings and food fish in commercial catfish ponds. Hybrid catfish fry production has increased to 150 million in 2012 (300% increase in the last 5 years) and the demand for hybrid catfish fingerlings is...

  1. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  2. Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial ...

  3. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venny Yuliastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with a temperature of 90°C, analyzed in laboratory. The results organoleptic consumers is the favored smoke catfish without any pre – cooking and catfish-results of pre-cooking for 5 minutes i.e. ten successive sense 8.66; 7.66 smell 8.46; 7.8appearance 8.13;5.93 texture 6.86; 6.93. Organoleptic low on pre-cooked for 15 minutes the sense of 5.66 smell 7 appearance of 2.93 texture 5.53. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes has the highest water content of 26.33%. Pre–cooked for 5 minutes with the lowest value of 16.23%. smoked catfish without any pre–cooking has the highest value of aw 0.82. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes had the lowest value of 0.78. Observation on histology showed fresh catfish the structure of the connective tissue still compact. Precooked catfish, myomer begins damage, catfish smoke without pre-cooking is characterized by the formation of fibrils wafy fibers are separated from one another and pre-cooking smoked catfish, myoseptum damaged and lead to the distance inter myomer but myomer still intact.

  4. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Mokhtar, Doaa M.; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  5. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) in static renewal bioassays. Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Srivastav ...

  6. Catfish science: Status and trends in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Porath, Mark T.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    Catfish science, the study of the fish order Siluriformes, is a diverse and expanding field in terms of advances and breadth of topics. We compiled literature from primary fisheries journals as an index of interest and advances in catfish science to examine temporal trends in the field. The number of catfish scientific publications varied over the past century with strong peaks during 1975–1979 and 2005–2010, which may be the result of interactive scientific and societal influences. Catfish biology was the predominant publication topic until the late 1990s, when ecology, techniques, and management publications became more prevalent. Articles on catfish ecology were most numerous in both the first and second international catfish symposia, but publications on techniques and conservation were more numerous in the second catfish symposium than the first. We summarize the state of knowledge, recent advances, and areas for future attention among topics in catfish science, including sampling and aging techniques, population dynamics, ecology, fisheries management, species diversity, nonnative catfish, and human dimensions, with an emphasis on the gains in this second symposium. Areas that we expect to be pursued in the future are development of new techniques and validation of existing methods; expansion of research to less-studied catfish species; broadening temporal, spatial, and organizational scales; interdisciplinary approaches; and research on societal views and constituent demands. Meeting these challenges will require scientists to span beyond their professional comfort zones to effectively reach higher standards. We look forward to the coming decade and the many advances in the conservation, ecology, and management of catfish that will be shared.

  7. Incubation water temperature and parental effects on the hatching success and progeny performance of Channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue catfish are exclusively produced by hormone-induced spawning of channel catfish and the stripped eggs are fertilized with pooled blue catfish sperm in hatcheries. Even though hybrid fry production has increased in recent years, variable and inconsistent hybrid catfish fry production ...

  8. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6.4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located ... Habitat The Brown Recluse Spider builds small retreat webs behind objects of any type. Symptoms • The severity ...

  9. Profitability analysis of catfish production using fibre glass tank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost and returns of catfish farming using fibre glass tank technology in Ishiagu, Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State, was studied and analyzed in 2010. Purposively, thirty (30) catfish farmers were randomly selected from the pilot communities of the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN) extension outreach centres.

  10. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aims to evaluate the impact of potassium dichromate in armored catfishes' (Hypostomus plecotomus) erythropoiesis, using piscine micronucleus test. Armored catfishes (n = 30) were subjected to 12 mg/L of potassium dichromate, with an equal control group (n = 30). For each 2,000 red blood cells of ...

  11. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  12. Fibrosarcoma in Pond-Cultured African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is dearth of information in literature about the occurrence and pathology of fibrosarcoma in the African catfish. However, there are a few reports of fibrosarcoma in other fish species and most have been virally associated. Twelve moribund and dead African catfishes with ages ranging from two months to one year were ...

  13. Treating catfish diseases: walking the line between excess and moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost savings by using a cheaper disease treatment will increase profitability of any catfish farm. This invited producer presentation will discuss costs savings using copper sulfate in catfish production and a summation of our research, specifically in the hatchery. Copper sulfate is not approved ...

  14. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The policy implication of these findings is that profit inefficiency in catfish production can be reduced significantly overtime as the farmers get more experienced and a more conducive environment is created, to encourage more aged farmers to be involved in catfish production in a bid to alleviate poverty and food insecurity ...

  15. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  16. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  17. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  18. Diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and origins of venomous catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy J

    2009-12-04

    The study of venomous fishes is in a state of relative infancy when compared to that of other groups of venomous organisms. Catfishes (Order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of bony fishes that have long been known to include venomous taxa, but the extent and phylogenetic distribution of this venomous species diversity has never been documented, while the nature of the venoms themselves also remains poorly understood. In this study, I used histological preparations from over 100 catfish genera, basic biochemical and toxicological analyses of fin spine extracts from several species, and previous systematic studies of catfishes to examine the distribution of venom glands in this group. These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. Histological examinations of 158 catfish species indicate that approximately 1250-1625+ catfish species should be presumed to be venomous, when viewed in conjunction with several hypotheses of siluriform phylogeny. Maximum parsimony character optimization analyses indicate two to three independent derivations of venom glands within the Siluriformes. A number of putative toxic peptides were identified in the venoms of catfish species from many of the families determined to contain venomous representatives. These peptides elicit a wide array of physiological effects in other fishes, though any one species examined produced no more than three distinct putative toxins in its venom. The molecular weights and effects produced by these putative toxic peptides show strong similarities to previously characterized toxins found in catfish epidermal secretions. Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes (Order Siluriformes), and venomous catfishes may outnumber the combined diversity of all other venomous vertebrates. The toxic peptides found in catfish venoms may be derived from epidermal secretions that have been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of wounds, rather

  19. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (Pcatfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  20. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  1. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  2. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  3. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  4. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their

  5. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  6. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature of 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin E more stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of soft gell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.

  7. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  8. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...

  9. Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue catfish (I. furcatus), and their F1, F2, F3, and F1 reciprocal backcross hybrids in earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Brad J; Kuhlers, Daryl L; Liu, Zhanjiang; Dunham, Rex A

    2014-10-01

    The F1 hybrid between a channel catfish female (Ictalurus punctatus) × a blue catfish (I. furcatus) male outperforms both parental species in most environments. However, reproductive isolating mechanisms between the species made it difficult to mass produce the F1 hybrid for commercialization until recent improvements in hormone usage. This study was undertaken to mix the genomes of the 2 species in an attempt to obtain faster-growing catfish that would eventually be easier to reproduce. Despite the recent improvements, it would still be advantageous to have an animal that does not require hormone dosing for reproduction and does not require the growing of 2 separate species by breeders. Additionally, a F1 backcross or a multigeneration backcross has the possibility of being an improvement compared to an F1 hybrid. At low density, there was no difference in growth between channel catfish and channel-blue F1 hybrids. At higher densities, the F1 hybrid grew faster (666 g) than channel catfish (577 g), blue catfish × F1 (520 g), F1 × F1 (508 g), F1 × channel catfish (436 g), blue catfish (396 g), F1 × blue catfish (379 g), channel catfish × F1 (359 g), and F2 × F2 (359 g; P F3 hybrids had high coefficients of variation. This gives a high amount of variation for selection, which might be used to select the faster-growing catfish.

  10. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ran

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS, respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05. A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  11. Trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an atlantic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jessica R.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris is a large piscivore that is native to the Mississippi and Rio Grande river drainages but that has been widely introduced across the United States. River ecologists and fisheries managers are concerned about introduced flathead catfish populations because of the negative impacts on native fish communities or imperiled species associated with direct predation and indirect competition from this apex predator. We studied the trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an Atlantic river to further understand the effects on native fish communities. Crayfish (Astacidea) occurred most frequently in the flathead catfish diet, while sunfish Lepomis spp. comprised the greatest percentage by weight. Neither of two sympatric imperiled fish species (the federally endangered Cape Fear shiner Notropis mekistocholas and the Carolina redhorse Moxostoma sp., a federal species of concern) was found in any diet sample. An ontogenetic shift in diet was evident when flathead catfish reached about 300 mm, and length significantly explained the variation in the percent composition by weight of sunfish and darters Etheostoma and Percina spp. Flathead catfish showed positive prey selectivity for taxa that occupied similar benthic microhabitat, highlighting the importance of opportunistic feeding and prey encounter rates. Flathead catfish displayed a highly variable diel feeding chronology during July, when they had a mean stomach fullness of 0.32%, but then showed a single midday feeding peak during August (mean fullness = 0.52%). The gastric evacuation rate increased between July (0.40/h) and August (0.59/h), as did daily ration, which more than doubled between the 2 months (3.06% versus 7.37%). Our findings increase the understanding of introduced flathead catfish trophic relations and the degree of vulnerability among prey taxa, which resource managers may consider in fisheries management and conservation of native fish populations and

  12. Profitability analysis of catfish production in Kaduna state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gross farm income was N 1,172,000 per annum while the net farm income was N559, 950 per annum with a return on investment of 0.915 (91.5%). The result indicates that catfish production was profitable in the study are. This also indicates that there is enough employment opportunities in catfish farm in the area, thus ...

  13. DNA barcoding of catfish: species authentication and phylogenetic assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Wong

    Full Text Available As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene from individuals of 9 species (and an Ictalurid hybrid of domestic and imported catfish in accordance with standard DNA barcoding protocols. These included domestic Ictalurid catfish, and representative imported species from the families of Clariidae and Pangasiidae. Alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (98% similarity on average. These alignments allowed the development and analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species and comparison with limited sequences in public databases (GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems. Validation tests carried out in blinded studies and with commercially purchased catfish samples (both frozen and fresh revealed the reliability of DNA barcoding for differentiating between these catfish species. The developed protocols and consensus barcodes are valuable resources as increasing market and governmental scrutiny is placed on catfish and other fisheries and aquaculture products labeling in the United States.

  14. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  15. Price Volatility Spillover in Agricultural Markets: An Examination of U.S. Catfish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buguk, Cumhur; Hudson, Darren; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2003-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers in the U.S. catfish supply chain are analyzed based on monthly price data from 1980 through 2000 for catfish feed, its ingredients, and farm- and wholesale-level catfish. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model was used to test univariate volatility spillovers for prices in the supply chain. Strong price volatility spillover from feeding material (corn, soybeans, menhaden) to catfish feed and farm- and wholesale-leve...

  16. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  17. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are exclusively produced by strip spawning of channel catfish females, fertilizing stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm, and hatching the fertilized eggs. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on ...

  18. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  19. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  20. Effects of Season, Strain and Body Weight on Testes Development and Quality in Three Strains of Blue Catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) female x blue catfish (I. furcatus) male hybrids has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the last 10 years. Hybrid fry production requires fertilization of channel catfish eggs with blue catfish sperm obtained by surgical removal ...

  1. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  2. THE NUTRITION OF A BROWN TROUT Salmo trutta m. fario IN THE RIVER UNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the contents of gastric–intestine system of a brown trout was made on the base of the capture 103 specimens in the aim of the description of its nutrition. The capture was made at the 15 places in the confluence of the river Una, commune Bihac, by generating sets and sacks. The dissection of a brown trout, extraction of gastric–intestine system and its fixation in 4 % formaldehid was made at the terrain. Further treatment and examination of the contents of gastric–intestine system was made in the laboratory of Ichtiological and Fishing Center of Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo. The obtained results of the analysis of the nutrition of a brown trout are particulary similar with the literature data (Mc Cormac, 1962; Elliot, 1967; Šenk and Aganović, 1968; Tuša, 1968; Kaćanski and Kosorić, 1970; Popovska — Stanković and Georgiev, 1973; Kaćanski et al., 1988. On investigated places, the specimens of a brown trout dominantly fed by macroinvertebrat of the benthos of the bottom. The large percentage of fish use larvae stages of the two–winged insects (45,45% and caddisflies (42,42 % in their nutrition. The small number of fish fed with bullhead (7,07 %. Great dependence was determined in the nutrition of a brown trout by qualitative–quantitative composition of the benthos (Trožić–Borovac, 2001. The very small number of fish fed with algae (1,01 %. According to these results, we can conditionally speak about zoofag. The specimens with empty stomach, but very good developed gastric–intestine system, was also registrated (4,04 %. This data is related to the time of the capture (the season of reproduction of brown trout when it takes less food. The condition factor was calculated for all the specimens of brown trout. The values of the condition factor are from 1,00 to 1,59. According to the average weight 21,77 g and average leingth 133,37 cm the condition factor for the analyzed fish from the confluence of

  3. Feeding ecology and energetic relationships with habitat of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, in the lower Mississippi River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined feeding of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, collected from floodplain lake, secondary (side) river channel, and main river channel habitats in the lower Mississippi River (LMR), U.S.A. We described the feeding ecology of two large river catfish species within the context of whether off-channel habitats in the LMR (i.e., floodplain lakes and secondary channels) potentially provided energetic benefits to these fishes as purported in contemporary theory on the ecology of large rivers. We used diet composition and associated caloric densities of prey consumed as indicators of energetic benefit to catfishes. Differences in diet among habitats were strong for blue catfish, but weak for flathead catfish; consumed foods generally differed among habitats in caloric (energy) content. Caloric densities of consumed foods were generally greatest in floodplain lakes, least in the main river channel, and intermediate in secondary river channels. Strong between-year variation in diet was observed, but only for blue catfish. Blue catfish fed disproportionately on lower-energy zebra mussels in the main river channel during 1997, and higher-energy chironomids and oligochaetes in floodplain lakes during 1998. Results suggested that although off-channel habitats potentially provided greater energetic return to catfishes in terms of foods consumed, patterns of feeding and subsequent energy intake may vary annually. Energetic benefits associated with off-channel habitats as purported under contemporary theory (e.g., the 'flood-pulse concept') may not be accrued by catfishes every year in the LMR.

  4. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  5. Effect of type and concentration of water hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue F1 hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consistent and improved performance of channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish fingerlings in production ponds in the US farm raised catfish industry has prompted an increase in demand of hybrid catfish fingerlings even at higher prices compared to commonly raised channel catfish. Hybrid catfish fry are e...

  6. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  7. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator-Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and Schistosoma host snails using fish may be affected in endosulfan-polluted aquatic systems of Southern Africa because it has been found present at concentrations that are indicated to cause lethal effects on the evaluated hybrid catfish and to inhibit the predation of snails by this hybrid catfish.

  8. The Effect of Addition of Spinach Flour (Amaranthus SP) on Consumer Acceptance of Catfish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    Naibaho, Mychael F; Buchari, Dewita; ', Sumarto

    2014-01-01

    The study was intended to examine the effect of spinach flour on consumer acceptance ofcatfish ball. About 36kg catfish was taken from a fish market in Pekanbaru. Four types of fishballs were prepared from catfish meat which was fortificated with 0%, 2,5%, 5%, and 7,5%spinach flour. The catfish balls were evaluated for consumer acceptance and chemicalcomposition. The results indicate that the catfish balls added with 2,5% spinach flour was themost preferable by consumers. The catfish balls co...

  9. Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the ornamental wood-eating catfishes (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Panaqolus and Panaque) reveals undescribed diversity and parapatric clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Nathan K; Cramer, Christian A; Covain, Raphael; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2017-04-01

    Approximately two-dozen species in three genera of the Neotropical suckermouth armored catfish family Loricariidae are the only described fishes known to specialize on diets consisting largely of wood. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 10 described species and 14 undescribed species or morphotypes assigned to the wood-eating catfish genus Panaqolus, and four described species and three undescribed species or morphotypes assigned to the distantly related wood-eating catfish genus Panaque. Our analyses included individuals and species from both genera that are broadly distributed throughout tropical South America east of the Andes Mountains and 13 additional genera hypothesized to have also descended from the most recent common ancestor of Panaqolus and Panaque. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci totaling 4293bp confirmed respective monophyly of Panaqolus, exclusive of the putative congener 'Panaqolus' koko, and Panaque. Members of Panaqolus sensu stricto were distributed across three strongly monophyletic clades: a clade of 10 generally darkly colored, lyretail species distributed across western headwaters of the Amazon Basin, a clade of three irregularly and narrowly banded species from the western Orinoco Basin, and a clade of 11 generally brown, broadly banded species that are widely distributed throughout the Amazon Basin. We erect new subgenera for each of these clades and a new genus for the morphologically, biogeographically and ecologically distinct species 'Panaqolus' koko. Our finding that perhaps half of the species-level diversity in the widespread genus Panaqolus remains undescribed illustrates the extent to which total taxonomic diversity of small and philopatric, yet apparently widely distributed, Amazonian fishes may remain underestimated. Ranges for two Panaqolus subgenera and the genus Panaque overlap with the wood-eating genus Cochliodon in central Andean tributaries of the upper

  10. THE ADDED VALUE OF SHREDDED LELE AND PATIN CATFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristina Siti Sundari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish is not only perishable product but also has segmented market. Consumption market such wants the fresh fish and certainty size. The problem is when the size of fish is too big for consumption, so that product is not wanted by consumer anymore. This research aimed at knowing the added value of shredded Lele and Patin catfish agribusiness and increasing prosperity of humanitarian society throughout processing the shredded catfishes. The data of this research was analyzed by Added Value Analysis of Hayami. The result showed that the shredded product of Lele catfish gave the added value IDR 14.295,00 per kilograms with the added value ratio was 25,53 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. Whereas, the shredded product of Patin catfish gave the added value IDR 18.295,00 per kilogram with the added value ratio was 29,04 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. The agribusiness toward processing and marketing of shredded Lele and Patin catfish was innovative agribusiness that could develop business opportunity so that it could move on the economical wheel and increasing humanitarian society prosperity actively. The market demand was still very wide either in town or out of town. The partnership among various not only government but also non government associations would be a good matter toward this agribusiness is running well.

  11. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  12. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  13. Book review: Conservation, ecology, and management of catfish: The second international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series published by the American Fisheries Society devoted to catfish research, biology, and management, which was organized as a symposium held in St. Louis Missouri, in 2010 and builds upon the first symposium that was held in Davenport, Iowa, in 1998 (Irwin et al. 1999).  The organizations of the second symposium stated that this was to "serve as an addendum to Catfish 2000" and "to cover the four corners of catfish science: catfish biology, ecology, management, and conservation" (p. xi).  The book meets this standard easily.  With 64 pages organized into nine sections (plenary, catfishes as sport fish, non-game catfishes, nonnative catfishes, movement and habitat use, sampling and population assessment, age and growth, behavior, and future directions), this publication covers these four corners and more.

  14. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  15. A stochastic analysis of tractor overturn costs on catfish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L

    2012-10-01

    An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.

  16. The culture of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecht, T

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available LEGENDS FOR PLATES CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMATICS AND BIOLOGY OF CLARIID CATFISH M N Bruton Introduction Systematics Distribution and habitat preferences Breeding Feeding Growth Sensory systems Problems associated with the translocation of catfish...; the presence of an adipose f i n i n some species; strong. sharply pointed spines i n the pectoral (and i n some species. t he dorsal) f in: whiskerlike. sensory barbels around the mouth: a large and broad head and mouth; small eyes. A l l c a t f i...

  17. Effect of paternal blue catfish strain effects on hatchery fry production and performance of channel catfish X blue catfish F1 hybrid fry production and fingerling performance under commercial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four hundred four-year old mature Gold Kist strain channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with 10 mg common carp pituitary extract (CPE) /kg BW in 8 spawning trials. The stripped eggs were fertilized with sperm of either D&B or Rio Grande blue catfish, I.furcatus to produce D&B ...

  18. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  19. Designing Customer Education Activities to Change People’s Perception of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus Pratama Suwito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most people see catfish as an unhygienic fish, so less people want to consume it. In fact, catfish has better nutrition compared to Gourami. Therefore, catfish producers need to educate people. The purpose of this research is to design customer education activities to change people’s perception towards catfish using marketing communication mix. This research is a qualitative research and it uses in-depth interview method in gathering the required data. Based on the preliminary survey conducted to 50 people in Surabaya, it is known that Surabaya people are considered novice customers. As such, catfish producers can conduct customer education activities until people want to taste the catfish. The company can add picture, video, and oral information about the benefits in consuming catfish or the nutrition and the certificate of hygienic cultivation system. The producers can provide tester for the catfish and show the customers the comparison between good and bad quality catfish. The producers can also add two more marketing communication activities i.e. events and experiences as well as public relations and publicity. The producers need to use reliable sources in informing the catfish’s nutrition facts such as the certificate of catfish breeder, and certification from BPOM.

  20. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    incorporated into pre-selected candidate ration components for evaluation via storage, sensory and chemical analysis. The concentration of inhibitor was...inhibiting Maillard browning, also known as non-enzymatic browning, a complex reaction which can lead to darkening of color, off- odors , off-flavors...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  1. Occurrence and vulnerability of a giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and some biological characteristics of commercially important giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell, 1837) were studied in Mafia Island from October 2010 to October 2011. Samples were collected from artisanal fishing gear, mainly longlines, sharknets and ringnets, which yielded a total of 2,723 kg ...

  2. Performance of Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of boiled mango seed kernel (MSK) as substitute for maize in diets of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings was investigated using four diets were formulated such that T2 , T3 and T4 contained boiled MSK as replacement for maize at 20%, 40% and 60% inclusion levels respectively, while T1 (control) contained ...

  3. Growth Rates of Two African Catfishes Osteichthys: ( Clariidae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yields of two African catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes) in polyculture with Sarotherodon nilotica (Artedi) as trash fish were investigated over a 10 month period. The growth rate of H. longifilis was siginificantly higher (P < 0.05) than of C. gariepinus under identical culture ...

  4. growth performance and nutrient utilization of african catfish (clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Four isocarloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0%, 33.3%, 66.7% and. 100% cassava leaves to replace equal weight of maize meal. All the four treatment diets were fed to catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings in replicate for 16 weeks. The best growth response was obtained in fish fed ...

  5. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  6. Catfish Farmers Perception of Training Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' perception of the effectiveness of University of Nigeria Nsukka-West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme (UNNWAAPP) training on catfish production around the University of Nigeria catchment area in Enugu State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 42 respondents across ...

  7. Formulation, production and evaluation of floating catfish feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was carried out to compare the performance of catfish fed with four experimental diets; a reference foreign diet (Multifeed) and three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic locally formulated diets with different palm oil contents (1, 2 and 3 liters) coded as Feed 1, Feed 2, Feed 3 and Feed 4 respectively. The growth trial ...

  8. Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus , water column and sediments of taylor creek, southern Nigeria. ... The best relationships were observed for Ni-Zn (r=0.72) and Cd-Pb (r=0.65). Partitioning coefficients (£d) of heavy metals between dissolved phase and SPM were generally low, ...

  9. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  10. Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... in water. The effect of diazinon (LC50) 6.6 ppm was further studied to determine the effect on behavioural, blood parameters and plasma biochemistry. The fish in the ... Key words: African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, acute toxicity, lethal dose. .... Application of whole effluent toxicity test procedures to ambient ...

  11. Haematological responses of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological responses of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an oilfield wastewater in Nigeria. ... 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%) of the wastewater for 28 days. Parameters investigated ... Keywords: Blood parameters, oilfield wastewater, toxicity, Clarias gariepinus ...

  12. Dissolved oxygen and aeration in ictalurid catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the United States. The feed biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD) typically is 1.1-1.2 kg O2/kg feed. Feed also results in a substantial increase of carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate to ponds, and this ...

  13. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  14. Breeding seasonality and population dynamics of the catfish Schilbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve consecutive months length frequency data (N = 6999) and FiSAT software were used in the study of the dynamics of exploited population the catfish Schilbe mystus in the Cross River Nigeria. Variation in monthly mean gonadosmtic index showed two peaks, March and September and this indicates that the species ...

  15. Monitoring quantity and quality of striped catfish pond effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Bosma, R.H.; Long, N.; Son, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The production of striped catfish and other fish species in ponds has several possible impacts on the environment, one of which is caused by the discharge of pond waste water (effluent), which is enriched with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds as result of feeding and fish faeces. To restrict the

  16. Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... Abstract. The study examined the antimicrobial effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on smoke-dried catfish stored at ambient temperature (37±20C) for two months. The experimental treatments are the control, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) Moringa oleifera Marinade (MOM) and 5% Brine (w/v) solutions.

  17. Lip histology of the adult farmed African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip histology of the adult farmed African catfish was investigated to fill the knowledge gap in available literature especially those from commercial concrete tanks. This microanatomy is important as the lip is the principal organ involved in prehension. The lip epidermis was lined by stratified squamous epithelium ...

  18. Growth performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus , fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of treated Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal as an ingredient in diet of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, of mean weight 40.18±0.51g was evaluated over a 90-day growth period. Four experimental diets were formulated at 0% (control), 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of treated Leucaena leaf meal.

  19. Anaemia in the freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological changes were studied in freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus exposed for 20 days to 25%, 50% and 100% concentrations of brewery wastewater prepared by dilution using tap water. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts in fish exposed to wastewater were significantly lower than in a ...

  20. Popularisation of amphibian tadpoles in nursing African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of treatments showed that, consumption of tadpoles conferred significantly higher survivals (P < 0.05), number harvested / m2 (P < 0.05) and final average weights (P < 0.02), which were respectively 9.77, 9.02 and 31.96% higher. Therefore, use of tadpoles for catfish feeding could be a low-cost strategy to ...

  1. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful ...

  2. Histopathological changes in the Brain Tissue of Africa Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... post juvenile African catfish C. gariepinus as characterized by severe degeneration of dark-stained purkinje neurons, oedema, vacuolar changes with empty spaces which appeared as moth eaten area and showed proliferation of glial cells. There is need for more research work on the histopathology of brain tissue of fish ...

  3. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  4. Near infrared spectrometers determine stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturation is not synchronized in channel catfish and hence, individual fish are frequently handled and manually stage for maturation based on a selective subjective method. Fully matured fish are more responsive to hormone-induced spawning, and often result in better egg quality, higher relative f...

  5. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... assessment, and relative estimators are dependent on the growth parameters such as mortality. ... as input data for further stock assessment of the spotted catfish off the coast of southwestern of Taiwan. ... 10(ESP/ASP)/10, where the ESP (Explained Sum of Peaks) is computed by summing all the peaks and ...

  6. Growth Performance and Blood Chemistry of African Catfish, Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and blood chemistry of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus post juveniles (154.60 ± 0.55 g mean weight) fed boiled layer chickens that are unfit for human consumption was investigated over a 28-weeks period. Control fish were fed commercial fish feed alone while the test fish were fed equal mixture of ...

  7. Growth Response of Juvenile Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient utilization by catfish (Clarias gariepinus) through the inclusion of Lactobaccillus in either the feed or culture water were studied. A total of sixty three juvenile C. gariepinus average weight 17±1.2 g in a flow through system over a period of 42 days were fed with a conventional feed containing either ...

  8. Performance of locally formulated feeds for rearing of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feed types, namely TAF 1 and TAF 2, denoting TAFIRI feed type 1 and 2 were formulated from fish meal (Rastrineobola argentea) and soybean (Glycine max L.), respectively. Nine concrete tanks of 12 m3 each were stocked with 320 catfish fry each, and fed with formulated feeds at 5% of their mean body weight for four ...

  9. Food and feeding habits of the catfish, Bagrus docmak (Forsskal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural food of the catfish Bagrus docmak was studied from February 1995 to February 1996 in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. The stomach contents of a total of 534 fish samples, ranging in size from 33—99 cm fork length (LF) and 500—17400 g in total weight (WT) were investigated. The diet of B. docmak was composed of ...

  10. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... inhabiting the bottom of estuaries, rivers and coasts. However, few studies have been conducted on the biology of spotted catfish (Mazlan et al., 2008). The age and growth of fish are an important basis for stock assessment, and relative estimators are dependent on the growth parameters such as mortality.

  11. Assessment of the nutritional quality of smoked catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nutritional quality of smoked Catfish Clarias gariepinus obtained in three different markets in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria for a period of three months. Proximate compositions of smoked Clarias gariepinus were determined. The highest protein content (49.27 ± 2.59) was recorded in smoked fish ...

  12. Bioaccumulation Of Heavy Metals In The Catfish Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of liquid effluents either untreated or with only primary treatment into Etelebou Creek, a tributary of Taylor Creek has led to the extensive contamination of Taylor Creek by heavy metals. The catfish species, C. nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, ...

  13. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  14. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  15. Heritable Targeted Inactivation of Myostatin Gene in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) Using Engineered Zinc Finger Nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangji Dong; Jiachun Ge; Kui Li; Zhiqiang Xu; Dong Liang; Jingyun Li; Junbo Li; Wenshuang Jia; Yuehua Li; Xiaohua Dong; Shasha Cao; Xiaoxiao Wang; Jianlin Pan; Qingshun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. However, its small size and lower meat yield limit its edible value. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of mammalian muscle growth. But, the function of Mstn in fish remains elusive. To explore roles of mstn gene in fish growth and create a strain of yellow catfish with high amount of muscle mass, we performed targeted disruption of mstn in yellow catfish using engineered zinc-...

  16. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    structural details of fucoidans. Mild extraction techniques coupled with the use of new tools such as enzymes can provide the much needed knowledge about structural characteristics of different fucoidan molecules and thus pave the way for a better understanding of the structural chemistry and bioactivities......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  17. Pareiorhaphis vetula, a new armored catfish from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Reis, Roberto E

    2016-07-28

    A new species of Pareiorhaphis is described from the upper Rio Doce basin. The description is based on a series of specimens recently collected in small headwater tributaries to the Rio Guanhães, a tributary of the Rio Santo Antonio, left bank of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis vetula, new species, is a small loricariid catfish with dark brown spots irregularly scattered over a brown background on the dorsal surface of body and along flanks. The new species differs from all other Pareiorhaphis species by having the maxillary barbel completely adnate to the lower lip and by adult males possessing a particularly elongate, sharply pointed, conical urogenital papilla. In addition, Pareiorhaphis vetula is further distinguished from most congeners by having a shorter pelvic-fin spine, or by possessing more numerous premaxillary teeth, and by lacking a dorsal-fin spinelet. A comparison with congeners P. nasuta, P. scutula and P. proskynita, which also occur in headwater streams of the Rio Doce basin is also presented.

  18. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  19. Molecular phylogeny of thorny catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce H, Mariangeles; Reis, Roberto E; Geneva, Anthony J; Sabaj Pérez, Mark H

    2013-06-01

    Doradidae is a monophyletic catfish family endemic to continental South America, and composed of 93 valid species here placed in 31 genera. Existing phylogenetic hypotheses for Doradidae are derived from comprehensive analyses of morphological data, and a single molecular-based study on a limited subset of taxa. To provide a robust molecular phylogeny commensurate with those based on morphology, we gathered original and published sequence data for 86 species-level taxa (at least 70 valid species plus 16 new or questionably nominal species) and all genera of Doradidae, as well as 10 species (nine genera) of Auchenipteridae and three species and genera of Aspredinidae as outgroups. 3011 base pairs were aligned for two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal RNA) and one nuclear gene (recombination activating gene 1), and analyzed for a total of 143 specimens (130 doradids, 10 auchenipterids and three aspredinids). Tree topologies generated by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analyses were largely congruent, and are compared to existing phylogenies based on morphology and molecules. Although many of the relationships supported by our molecular analyses corroborated those based on morphology, others are newly hypothesized or remain in conflict. The monotypic Wertheimeria, Franciscodoras and Kalyptodoras, for example, form a newly proposed clade, and the subfamily Astrodoradinae is placed at the base of the doradid tree. The monotypic Doraops and Centrochir, endemic to Caribbean drainages north and west of the Andes, are sister to Pterodoras and Platydoras, respectively, two genera that are widely distributed in Atlantic drainages. Additional biogeographic implications are discussed for hypothesized relationships among doradids. Molecular evidence strongly supports synonymization of monotypic Merodoras with Amblydoras, and transfer of Amblydoras bolivarensis to genus Scorpiodoras. Furthermore, we consider Opsodoras

  20. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is an important farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), disease. The development of a monitoring system for assessing the catfish health status in hatcheries and ponds is in great demanding. Because of the...

  1. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  2. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  3. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  4. A C-type lectin isolated from the skin of Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus) binds a remarkably broad range of sugars and induces blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Dotsuta, Yuma; Ono, Ayaka; Suzuki, Masanari; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological role of skin lectins of the Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus). A skin extract was subjected to affinity chromatography using seven different sugars as ligands. Molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated elution of the same protein by each of the seven respective cognate ligands from sugar affinity columns. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA of this protein [designated as H. japonicus C-type-lectin (HjCL)] identified it as a novel fish subgroup VII C-type lectin evolutionarily related to snake venom lectins. HjCL was predicted to bind to mannose because of the presence of a Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) motif; however, haemagglutination inhibition assays and glycoconjugate microarray analysis demonstrated its binding to numerous structurally diverse sugars. Competitive sugar-binding assays using affinity chromatography indicated that HjCL bound multiple sugars via a common carbohydrate-recognition domain. The mRNA encoding HjCL was specifically detected in the skin, and immunohistochemical analysis detected its expression in uncharacterized large cells in the epidermis. HjCL agglutinated the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda and promoted immediate clotting of shark blood, indicating that HjCL is involved in host defence on the skin surface especially when the shark is injured and bleeds. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of protein by fingerlings of a threatened freshwater catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was made to evaluate the utilization of protein as a dietary energy source by the fingerlings of the threatened freshwater catfish Mystus montanus. Six different diets were formulated from semi-purified ingredients with six different levels of proteins (6.97, 24.77, 30.70, 36.64, 42.57 and 46.72%) and were fed to ...

  6. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins; Sérgio Renato Noguez Piedras; Juvêncio Luís Osório Fernandes Pouey; Denise Calisto Bongalhardo; Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo

    2015-01-01

    Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰) on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold) at 6...

  7. [Brown recluse bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehemya, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Spider bites are not uncommon in our warm climate. The most prevalent species of venomous spiders in Israel are the brown recluse and the black widow. Although the black widow is more notorious than the recluse, for every bite by a black widow there are hundreds of recluse bites reported. Despite the numerous bites, there is little awareness amongst physicians with regard to the clinical signs of recluse bites, and very often the wrong diagnosis is made, resulting in complex and unnecessary treatments. The basis of this error stems from the numerous clinical diagnoses which closely imitate a recluse bite, the relative scarceness of documented recluse bites and the fact that in most cases the spider is not witnessed by the victim. The following article describes three cases of children admitted to our department, presenting with high fever, a necrotic lesion and an extensive maculopapular rash. The children were eventually diagnosed with brown recluse bites. Furthermore, the article summarizes the literature regarding the clinical signs of recluse bites, possible complications and treatment options. The objective of this review is to increase awareness towards recluse bites, thereby preventing misdiagnoses and unnecessary treatments.

  8. Channel catfish virus: a new herpesvirus of ictalurid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K; Darlington, R W

    1971-10-01

    Channel catfish virus was studied in ictalurid fish cell culture, the only system of fish, amphibian, avian, and mammalian cells found to be susceptible. Channel catfish virus infection resulted in intranuclear inclusions and extensive syncytium formation. Replication occurred from 10 to 33 C, but not higher. Best growth was from 25 to 33 C, and the amount of virus released nearly equalled the amount which remained cell-associated. The virus was labile to lipid solvents, and indirect determinations with labeled precursors and a metabolic inhibitor showed evidence of deoxyribonucleic acid. Electron microscopy showed progeny virus, about 100 nm in diameter, in various stages of development in cell nuclei by 4 hr. Present also were nuclear masses of exceptionally electron-dense lamellar material, with a unit dimension of 10 to 15 nm. Virus was enveloped at the nuclear membrane and in cytoplasmic vacuoles, resulting in virions having a diameter of 175 to 200 nm. Negative staining demonstrated icosehedral symmetry and 162 capsomeres. Our data indicate that channel catfish virus is a herpesvirus.

  9. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  10. Channel Catfish Virus: a New Herpesvirus of Ictalurid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ken; Darlington, Robert W.

    1971-01-01

    Channel catfish virus was studied in ictalurid fish cell culture, the only system of fish, amphibian, avian, and mammalian cells found to be susceptible. Channel catfish virus infection resulted in intranuclear inclusions and extensive syncytium formation. Replication occurred from 10 to 33 C, but not higher. Best growth was from 25 to 33 C, and the amount of virus released nearly equalled the amount which remained cell-associated. The virus was labile to lipid solvents, and indirect determinations with labeled precursors and a metabolic inhibitor showed evidence of deoxyribonucleic acid. Electron microscopy showed progeny virus, about 100 nm in diameter, in various stages of development in cell nuclei by 4 hr. Present also were nuclear masses of exceptionally electron-dense lamellar material, with a unit dimension of 10 to 15 nm. Virus was enveloped at the nuclear membrane and in cytoplasmic vacuoles, resulting in virions having a diameter of 175 to 200 nm. Negative staining demonstrated icosehedral symmetry and 162 capsomeres. Our data indicate that channel catfish virus is a herpesvirus. Images PMID:4108571

  11. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  12. Plasma polar lipid profiles of channel catfish with different growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth in channel catfish is an economically important trait and has been used as a criterion for the selection and development of brood fish. Selection of channel catfish toward increased growth usually results in the accumulation of large amounts of fats in their abdomen rather than incr...

  13. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an

  14. Efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the empirical analysis of efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish farmers in Kaduna, Nigeria. The simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting 60 catfish farmers drawn from the sampling frame ...

  15. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  16. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  17. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1882) fry were cultured at three different stocking densities in net hapas (submerged volume 0.75 m3) suspended in an outdoor concrete tank of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Catfish fry (mean weight 0.12 ± 0.10 g) were ...

  18. Diseases, Pathology and Recent Developments in US Farm-Raised Catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and now hybrid catfish (I. punctatus x I. furcatus) have been the most economically important aquaculture species in the United States for many years. As such, they continue to be of considerable research interest. The focus of this presentation concerns some re...

  19. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  20. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  1. Reduced cannibalistic behavior of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae under dark and dim conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yukinori; Sanudin, Noorsyarinah; Firdaus, Rian Freddie; Saad, Shahbudin

    2013-06-01

    In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.

  2. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  3. A Time-Calibrated Mitogenome Phylogeny of Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, Ilias; Vittas, Spiros; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N; Drosopoulou, Elena; Scouras, Zacharias G

    2016-01-01

    A very significant part of the world's freshwater ichthyofauna is represented by ancient, exceptionally diverse and cosmopolitan ray-finned teleosts of the order Siluriformes. Over the years, catfish have been established as an exemplary model for probing historical biogeography at various scales. Yet, several tantalizing gaps still exist in their phylogenetic history, timeline and mode of diversification. Here, we re-examine the phylogeny of catfish by assembling and analyzing almost all publicly available mitogenome data. We constructed an ingroup matrix of 62 full-length mitogenome sequences from 20 catfish families together with four cypriniform outgroups, spanning 15,557 positions in total. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses and Bayesian relaxed clock dating using fossil age constraints provide some useful and novel insights into the evolutionary history of this group. Loricarioidei are recovered as the first siluriform group to diversify, rendering Neotropics the cradle of the order. The next deepest clade is the South American Diplomystoidei placed as a sister group to all the remaining Siluroidei. The two multifamilial clades of "Big Asia" and "Big Africa" are also recovered, albeit nodal support for the latter is poor. Within "Big Asia", Bagridae are clearly polyphyletic. Other interfamilial relationships, including Clariidae + Heteropneustidae, Doradidae + Auchenipteridae and Ictaluridae + Cranoglanididae are robustly resolved. Our chronogram shows that siluriforms have a Pangaean origin, at least as far back as the Early Cretaceous. The inferred timeline of the basal splits corroborates the "Out-of-South America" hypothesis and accords well with the fossil record. The divergence of Siluroidei most likely postdated the final separation of Africa and South America. An appealing case of phylogenetic affinity elaborated by biogeographic dispersal is exemplified by the Early Paleogene split between the Southeast Asian Cranoglanididae and Ictaluridae

  4. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    Four groups of brackish water catfish were fed four diets: N. F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed). A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B. and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil +10.89% vegetable oil respectively. The total amounts of vegetable oil in A., B. and C. included the supplementation of the residual oil in the ingredients with 2%, 4% and 6% respectively with ordinary cooking ...

  5. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Maria Kusharto; Mia Srimiati; Ikeu Tanziha; Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light andoxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidationprocess is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimentalstudy was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with thecontrol oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperatureof 600C. The study ...

  6. Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, A M; Liu, Z; Kucuktas, H; Umali-Maceina, G; Su, B; Dunham, R A

    2014-05-01

    Head length, head depth, head width, body depth, body width, caudal depth, and caudal width and total length and BW were measured for 71 backcross full sibs between the interspecific backcross F1 (female channel catfish [Ictalurus punctatus] × male blue catfish [Ictalurus furcatus]) female × blue catfish male. Body measurements were corrected for both size and the relationship between relative body shape and size, which is critical but usually ignored in fish research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for construction of a QTL map with 44 linkage groups. Eleven of 44 linkage groups had at least 1 significant QTL (P ≤ 0.05) and 11 of 44 at P = 0.10. Linkage group 19 was unique as it had multiple QTL for every trait measured, except for caudal width for which no QTL was identified on any linkage group. Approximately half of the markers measured were associated with positive effects (increase in size) on the traits and half had negative effects (decrease in size). Linkage groups 5, 9, 18, 20, 39, and 40 were significant for multiple traits and always had a trait negative effect. Total length is represented on the map by the most linkage groups and the most markers. The linkage relationships found among BW, total length, and the 7 morphometric traits indicated that multiple trait marker-assisted selection to simultaneously increase BW body depth, body width, and caudal depth while decreasing the head traits with the goal to increase body weight and carcass yield would be very difficult. Multiple genetic enhancement approaches would likely be needed to simultaneously improve BW and body conformation.

  7. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  9. Influence of corn oil and beef tallow on growth of channel catfish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dupree, H.K

    1969-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish were offered a series of 18 purified diets that contained liquid corn oil, solid corn oil, and beef tallow at 4, 8, and 16 percent of the dry diet, and white dextrin at 8...

  10. Improving sustainability of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam through recirculation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to document improvements in sustainability indicators of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) production through the application of recirculation and waste treatment techniques. To be able to document improvements in sustainability, in each system

  11. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  12. Glyptothorax stocki, a new sisorid catfish from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir (Siluriformes, Sisoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirza, M.R.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new catfish, Glyptothorax stocki, belonging to the family Sisoridae, is described and figured. The new species from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir is compared with Glyptothorax platypogonoides from Sumatra, with which it was confused.

  13. Conspecific and heterospecific alarm substances induce behavioral responses in juvenile catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Vogel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recognition of chemical information indicating the presence of a predator is very important for prey survival. In this study we tested antipredator behavioral response of juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen against predator odor released by two different potential predators, Hoplias malabaricus and the snake Helicops infrataeniatus, and alarm cues and disturbance cues released by conspecifics and by non-predator species, Megaleporinus obtusidens and Astyanax lacustris. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min post-stimulus observation period. The behavioral response displayed by silver catfish exposed to alarm cues comprised a decrease in shelter use and an increase in locomotion, and also a longer latency period before feeding. Our results showed that juvenile silver catfish can perceive chemical cues released by predators, heterospecifics and conspecifics.

  14. Analysis Of Masamo Catfish Marketing By Analytical Approach At Farmer Group “Sumber Lancar”, Blimbing, Malang City

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Zainal; Handayani, Wahyu; Fattah, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Masamo as new variety of catfish cultivated by the farmer group "Sumber Lancar" in Blimbing, Malang currently has a lot of demand due to increasing consumers who like to eat fish to meet the need for protein for the body. Increasing of Masamo catfish demand followed by production and marketing efforts. This study wants to know whether the marketing efficient. Therefore, this study uses analytical approach approach in order to identify institutional and channel of Masamo Catfish marketing perf...

  15. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  16. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol I Ronje

    Full Text Available Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821 and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815. Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins

  17. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kevin P.; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A.; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D.; Wells, Randall S.

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  18. Characteristics Of Smoked Catfish (Hemibagrus Nemurus) Prepared Frompond Culture, Cage And Wild Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maskilin, Jippo; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of smoked catfish prepared from pond, cage culture and wild fish. Catfish samples 300-350 grams in weight wastaken respectualy from wild (Kampar river), pond and cage culture in Sungai Paku, Kampar. The fish was smoked using hot smoking method, and the smoked fish was evaluated for smoking yield, sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile.The smoking...

  19. Relative condition factor and food and feeding habits of two ariid catfish from Mumbai waters

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, A.D.; Venkateshvaran, K; Devaraj, M.

    2010-01-01

    Condition factor based on length-weight relationship and food and feeding habits of Arius dussumieri (Black lip sea catfish) and Osteogeneiosus militaris (Soldier catfish) from the Mumbai coast have been studied. Relative Condition Factor showed variations on a monthly basis, and appear to be influenced by feeding and breeding activities. Both the species studied are carnivorous bottom feeders, with crustaceans followed by other smaller fishes forming the major food item in the gut contents.

  20. Generation of Myostatin Gene-Edited Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) via Zygote Injection of CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Karim; Elayat, Medhat; Khalifa, Elsayed; Daghash, Samer; Elaswad, Ahmed; Miller, Michael; Abdelrahman, Hisham; Ye, Zhi; Odin, Ramjie; Drescher, David; Vo, Khoi; Gosh, Kamal; Bugg, William; Robinson, Dalton; Dunham, Rex

    2017-08-04

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene is important because of its role in regulation of skeletal muscle growth in all vertebrates. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 was utilized to successfully target the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, muscle suppressor gene MSTN. CRISPR/Cas9 induced high rates (88-100%) of mutagenesis in the target protein-encoding sites of MSTN. MSTN-edited fry had more muscle cells (p CRISPR/Cas9 is a highly efficient tool for editing the channel catfish genome, and opens ways for facilitating channel catfish genetic enhancement and functional genomics. This approach may produce growth-enhanced channel catfish and increase productivity.

  1. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  2. Business Analysis Enlargement of Fish Pond of Green Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) in Sungai Paku Village, Sub-District of Kampar Kiri, District of Kampar, Riau Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianti, Sari; Yulinda, Eni; Amrifo, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The research about business analysis enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus) was conducted on January, 2016 in Sungai Paku Village, Sub-District of Kampar Kiri, District of Kampar, Riau Province. This study aims to (1) determine the input-output business enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus), (2) analyzed the business enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus) and (3) the feasibility business of enlargement of fish pond of green catfish ...

  3. How brown is brown fat that we can see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2014-04-01

    There are many unanswered questions related to the heterogeneity of adipose tissue depots and the paucity of their function, development, and organization at the cellular level. Much effort has been directed at studying white adipose tissue (WAT), the driver of obesity and the associated metabolic disease. In recent years, the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been appreciated. While BAT depots are prominent in many small mammal species, their detection in adult humans has been technically challenging and the identity of brown human adipocytes found within depots of WAT has remained controversial. We recently reported a peptide probe that binds to BAT vasculature and, when coupled with a near-infrared fluorophore, can be used to detect BAT in whole body imaging. This probe reliably discriminates between endothelium associated with brown or brown-like (beige/brite) adipocytes and endothelium of visceral WAT. Improved probes based on this approach could aid in assessing human adipose tissue body distribution and remodeling, which is a process underlying various pathologies. This commentary aims at discussing open questions that need to be addressed before full clinical advantage can be taken from adipose tissue imaging, as well as its metabolic activation strategies.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-03-18

    The phylogenetic relationships of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitising catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Neotropical region were investigated for the first time. Partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of 40 specimens representing 25 dactylogyrid species were analysed together with sequences from GenBank using Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood and Parsimony methods. Monophyly of dactylogyrids infecting catfishes and the Ancyrocephalinae was evaluated using the Approximately Unbiased test. The Ancyrocephalinae is a paraphyletic group of species clustering in three main clades as follows: (i) clade A comprising freshwater dactylogyrids from the Holarctic parasitising perciforms clustering together with species (Ameloblastella, Unibarra and Vancleaveus) parasitising Neotropical catfishes; (ii) clade B including species of Dactylogyrus (Dactylogyrinae) and Pseudodactylogyrus (Pseudodactylogyrinae) along with Ancyrocephalus mogurndae, and marine dactylogyrids with cosmopolitan distribution, parasites of scorpaeniforms and perciforms, along with the freshwater Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus (infecting African cichlids [Cichlidae]) and (iii) clade C containing exclusively dactylogyrids of siluriforms, freshwater and marine, with Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical distributions; species of Aphanoblastella and Dactylogyridae gen. sp. 4 from the Neotropical region clustering together with species allocated in the Ancylodiscoidinae, along with species of Cosmetocleithrum, Demidospermus and Dactylogyridae gen. spp. The position of the Ancylodiscoidinae within a larger clade of dactylogyrids (ancyrocephalines) indicates that this subfamily does not represent a natural group. Instead, species allocated to this clade (dactylogyrids of siluriforms along with species of the Ancylodiscoidinae) should be considered as a separate subfamily within the Dactylogyridae. The erection of this taxon requires the search for morphological diagnostic characters

  5. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  6. Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CANNON, BARBARA; NEDERGAARD, JAN

    2004-01-01

    .... Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance. Physiol Rev 84: 277–359, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00015.2003.—The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat...

  7. Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Myburgh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a reprint of Myburgh, J.G. Botha, C.J. Booyse, D.G. & Reyers, F., 2008, 'Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus', Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 79(4, 156-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v79i4.265:Pollution affects aquatic systems worldwide and there is an urgent need for efficient monitoring. Fish are generally sensitive to their environment and are thus considered to be valuable bioindicator species. The African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus is particularly important in this respect because of its very wide distribution. In order to use C. gariepinus as a bioindicator species its baseline clinical chemistry must be defined. Existing data are scarce, and the objective of this work was therefore to establish clinical chemistry parameters for C. gariepinus. Blood was collected from male and female catfish and a number of clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Plasma protein values, but particularly those of plasma albumin, were found to be very low, approximately half the value for dogs, but similar to the values in Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Plasma urea values in Sharptooth catfish were found to be much lower than in dogs, but only marginally lower than in Channel catfish. Plasma creatinine in Sharptooth catfish, however, was only a quarter of that of dogs and one third of that found in Channel catfish. These findings may have implications for using urea and / or creatinine as an index of renal glomerular filtration, as is done in mammals. Plasma enzyme activity ranges were much lower in Sharptooth catfish than in dogs, particularly for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. By comparison, Channel catfish have an even lower ALT activity range but an ALP range that is very similar to dogs. The implications for using these enzymes as markers for liver disease are not clear from these data, as factors such as

  8. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  9. Hydrothermal-mechanical dewatering of brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    There are enormous reserves of brown coal in the world. In Australia, brown coal is used to generate most of electricity in the states of Victoria and South Australia. Brown coal is characterised by very high moisture content (around 60 wt% on a wet basis). Therefore, boilers used in the power station are very large and have low thermal efficiency, leading to high cost and large emissions of green house gas. High moisture content also makes brown coal uneconomical for transport...

  10. The estimate of world demand for Pangasius catfish (Pangasiusianodon hypopthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tien Thong, Nguyen; Nielsen, Max; Roth, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This research described in this article aimed to investigate international market potentials for Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypopthalmus). The monthly export data from Vietnam, which accounts for more than 95% of the global export value, in the period 2007 to 2014, were used to estimate a non......-linear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System of the seven market regions. Prices in all markets are found very inflexible, with own-price flexibilities on −0.200 to −0.917, or −0.419 on average, revealing the option of expanding global production and export without inducing a substantial price reduction. Consumers...... in all markets except Latin America evaluate Pangasius as a necessary good, indicating that the Pangasius industry is relatively little affected by recessions and booms in the world economy. The major markets are substitutes for each other; therefore, if demand at one market region is reduced...

  11. A new diminutive sisorid catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes) from northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Heok Hee; Lalramliana, Lalramliana; Lalronunga, Samuel

    2016-04-26

    This study describes a new diminutive sisorid catfish from the upper reaches of the Karnaphuli River drainage in northeastern India. The new species can be distinguished from congeners in having a combination of: length of dorsal-fin spine 18.0-21.6% SL; 4-10 serrations on the anterior edge of the dorsal spine; length of pectoral-fin spine 20.7-26.1% SL; length of adipose-fin base 21.5-26.3% SL; body depth at anus 12.3-15.9% SL; caudal peduncle depth 7.5-9.8% SL; caudal peduncle length 17.0-20.5% SL; pale, y-shaped marking on dorsal surface of head; sides of body with pale yellowish patches and irregular bands.

  12. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  13. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  14. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  15. Scaling of contractile properties of catfish feeding muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; James, Rob S; Aerts, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Biomechanical models are intrinsically limited in explaining the ontogenetic scaling relationships for prey capture kinematics in aquatic vertebrates because no data are available on the scaling of intrinsic contractile properties of the muscles that power feeding. However, functional insight into scaling relationships is fundamental to our understanding of the ecology, performance and evolution of animals. In this study, in vitro contractile properties of three feeding muscles were determined for a series of different sizes of African air-breathing catfishes (Clarias gariepinus). These muscles were the mouth closer musculus adductor mandibulae A2A3', the mouth opener m. protractor hyoidei and the hypaxial muscles responsible for pectoral girdle retraction. Tetanus and twitch activation rise times increased significantly with size, while latency time was size independent. In accordance with the decrease in feeding velocity with increasing size, the cycle frequency for maximal power output of the protractor hyoidei and the adductor mandibulae showed a negative scaling relationship. Theoretical modelling predicts a scaling relationship for in vivo muscle function during which these muscles always produced at least 80% of their maximal in vitro power. These findings suggest that the contractile properties of these feeding muscles are fine-tuned to the changes in biomechanical constraints of movement of the feeding apparatus during ontogeny. However, each muscle appears to have a unique set of contractile properties. The hypaxials, the most important muscle for powering suction feeding in clariid catfish, differed from the other muscles by generating higher maximal stress and mass-specific power output with increased size, whilst the optimum cycle frequency for maximal power output only decreased significantly with size in the larger adults (cranial lengths greater than 60 mm).

  16. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  17. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as biological control agents for Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After

  18. [FINDING OF PARALECITHODENDRIUM CHILOSTOMUM (TREMATODA: LECITHODENDRIIDAE) IN A ROUNDLEAF BAT AND IN THE AFRICAN SHARPTOOTH CATFISH FROM ETHIOPIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, D A; Zhokhov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Adult trematodes Paralecithodendrium chilostomum (Mehlis, 1831) were detected in the roundleaf bat Hipposideros sp. and in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from Tana Lake, Ethiopia. The catfish is an accidental host for P. chilostomum. This is the first record of P. chilostomum from Ethiopia. The description and figures of P. chilostomum from both host species, Hipposideros sp. and Clarias gariepinus are given.

  19. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  20. The impact of elevated water nitrate concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate threshold concentration in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. Female African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 154.3 (7.5) g were exposed to 0.4 (Control), 1.5, 4.2, 9.7 and 27.0 mM nitrate for 42 days. Mean (SD) plasma concentrations of nitrate

  1. The impact of elevated water nitrite concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roques, J.A.C.; Schram, E.; Spanings, T.; Schaik, van T.; Abbink, W.; Boerrigter, J.; Vries, de P.; Vis, van de J.W.; Flik, G.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrite threshold concentration in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 219.7 (57.8) g were exposed to an increasing range of water nitrite from 6 (Control) to 928 µM nitrite for 28 days. Mean (SD) plasma nitrite

  2. Conjoint Analysis of Breaded Catfish Nuggets: Consumer Preferences for Price, Product Color, Cooking Method and Country of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jessica I.; Nelson, Robert G.; Woods-Williams, Kristin L.; Weese, Sondra J.; Whitis, Gregory N.

    2008-01-01

    A new product, marinated, breaded catfish nuggets, was developed. This conjoint study was designed to evaluate consumers’ preferences for certain attributes of the nuggets. An in-store survey was conducted to collect data. The data collected will be used to determine the market potential for the catfish nuggets.

  3. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  4. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  5. Heritable targeted inactivation of myostatin gene in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco using engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangji Dong

    Full Text Available Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. However, its small size and lower meat yield limit its edible value. Myostatin (MSTN is a negative regulator of mammalian muscle growth. But, the function of Mstn in fish remains elusive. To explore roles of mstn gene in fish growth and create a strain of yellow catfish with high amount of muscle mass, we performed targeted disruption of mstn in yellow catfish using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs. Employing zebrafish embryos as a screening system to identify ZFN activity, we obtained one pair of ZFNs that can edit mstn in yellow catfish genome. Using the ZFNs, we successfully obtained two founders (Founder July29-7 and Founder July29-8 carrying mutated mstn gene in their germ cells. The mutated mstn allele inherited from Founder July29-7 was a null allele (mstn(nju6 containing a 4 bp insertion, predicted to encode function null Mstn. The mutated mstn inherited from Founder July29-8 was a complex type of mutation (mstn(nju7, predicted to encode a protein lacking two amino acids in the N-terminal secretory signal of Mstn. Totally, we obtained 6 mstn(nju6/+ and 14 mstn(nju7/+ yellow catfish. To our best knowledge, this is the first endogenous gene knockout in aquaculture fish. Our result will help in understanding the roles of mstn gene in fish.

  6. Heritable targeted inactivation of myostatin gene in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) using engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhangji; Ge, Jiachun; Li, Kui; Xu, Zhiqiang; Liang, Dong; Li, Jingyun; Li, Junbo; Jia, Wenshuang; Li, Yuehua; Dong, Xiaohua; Cao, Shasha; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2011-01-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. However, its small size and lower meat yield limit its edible value. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of mammalian muscle growth. But, the function of Mstn in fish remains elusive. To explore roles of mstn gene in fish growth and create a strain of yellow catfish with high amount of muscle mass, we performed targeted disruption of mstn in yellow catfish using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Employing zebrafish embryos as a screening system to identify ZFN activity, we obtained one pair of ZFNs that can edit mstn in yellow catfish genome. Using the ZFNs, we successfully obtained two founders (Founder July29-7 and Founder July29-8) carrying mutated mstn gene in their germ cells. The mutated mstn allele inherited from Founder July29-7 was a null allele (mstn(nju6)) containing a 4 bp insertion, predicted to encode function null Mstn. The mutated mstn inherited from Founder July29-8 was a complex type of mutation (mstn(nju7)), predicted to encode a protein lacking two amino acids in the N-terminal secretory signal of Mstn. Totally, we obtained 6 mstn(nju6/+) and 14 mstn(nju7/+) yellow catfish. To our best knowledge, this is the first endogenous gene knockout in aquaculture fish. Our result will help in understanding the roles of mstn gene in fish.

  7. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel; Salzburger, Walter

    2006-06-19

    Squeaker catfishes (Pisces, Mochokidae, Synodontis) are widely distributed throughout Africa and inhabit a biogeographic range similar to that of the exceptionally diverse cichlid fishes, including the three East African Great Lakes and their surrounding rivers. Since squeaker catfishes also prefer the same types of habitats as many of the cichlid species, we hypothesized that the East African Synodontis species provide an excellent model group for comparative evolutionary and phylogeographic analyses. Our analyses reveal the existence of six major lineages of Synodontis in East Africa that diversified about 20 MYA from a Central and/or West African ancestor. The six lineages show a clear geographic patterning. Two lineages are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (plus one non-endemic representative), and these are the only two Synodontis lineages that diversified further into a small array of species. One of these species is the cuckoo catfish (S. multipunctatus), a unique brood parasite of mouthbrooding haplochromine cichlids, which seems to have evolved in parallel with the radiation of its cichlid host lineage, the Tropheini. We also detect an accelerated rate of molecular evolution in S. multipunctatus, which might be the consequence of co-evolutionary dynamics. We conclude that the ancestral lineage of today's East African squeaker catfish fauna has colonized the area before the Great Lakes have formed. This ancestor diversified rapidly into at least six lineages that inhabit lakes and rivers in East Africa. Lake Tanganyika is the only lake harboring a small species flock of squeaker catfishes.

  8. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  9. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  10. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer  meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii  and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of  208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves,  45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact,  elastic and color of fillet fish white.

  11. TANTANGAN BISNIS IKAN HIAS TIGER CATFISH (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum MELALUI PENGUASAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMIJAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tiger catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum merupakan salah satu ikan hias hasil introduksi yang berasal dari Sungai Amazon Amerika Latin dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang cukup tinggi terutama untuk komoditas ekspor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang pembenihan ikan tiger catfish secara buatan. Metode yang digunakan untuk pemijahan buatan ikan tiger catfish ini adalah dengan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin. Calon induk ikan hias tiger catfish dapat matang gonad dipelihara dalam kolam beton berukuran 2,5 m x 2,0 m x 0,8 m dengan ke dalaman air antara 50-60 cm dilengkapi dengan sistem sirkulasi. Perbandingan antara jantan dan betina yaitu 1:2. Bobot rata-rata induk yang siap dipijahkan sekitar 2,5 kg dan sudah berumur minimal dua tahun. Jumlah telur yang dihasilkan setiap satu induk dapat mencapai 300.000 butir dengan daya tetas rata-rata 80%. Telur akan menetas semua dalam waktu 15 19 jam pada suhu berkisar antara 26oC-30oC. Larva yang telah menetas tetap dibiarkan dalam akuarium sampai kuning telur yang menempel di tubuh habis termakan. Keberhasilan pembenihan diawali dari pengelolaan induk yang benar untuk dapat matang gonad, sehingga kualitas telur bagus dan akan menghasikan benih-benih yang berkualitas. Teknik pembenihan juga menjadi faktor yang menentukan untuk keberhasilan pembenihan. Teknologi pemijahan buatan dengan menggunakan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin ikan tiger catfish telah dikuasai dan telah berkembang di para breeder ikan hias.

  12. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  13. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-22

    Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35% of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  14. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (<1ms) too short for being detected by the catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  15. Diet Shift and Prey Selection of the Native European Catfish, Silurus glanis, in a Turkish Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet and prey selection of European catfish were studied in Menzelet Reservoir in Turkey. Diet of European catfish composed of 6 prey fish species, 1 crab (Potamon sp. and 1 leech (Hirudo sp.. Diet composition was dominated by fish, including Alburnus kotsychyi, Capoeta angorae, Capoeta erhani, Luciobarbus pectoralis, Silurus glanis and the most important prey item was A. kotsychyi. The diet of European catfish was constituted solely by fish in winter and autumn while crab and leech contributed to a small part of the diet in spring and summer. Therefore, feeding was more heterogeneous in spring and summer than winter and autumn. The values of X2 and G statistics indicated a significant difference (P0.05.

  16. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  17. Sound production and pectoral spine locking in a Neotropical catfish (Iheringichthys labrosus, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. Tellechea

    Full Text Available Catfishes may have two sonic organs: pectoral spines for stridulation and swimbladder drumming muscles. The aim of this study was to characterize the sound production of the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus. The I. labrosus male and female emits two different types of sounds: stridulatory sounds (655.8 + 230 Hz consisting of a train of pulses, and drumming sounds (220 + 46 Hz, which are composed of single-pulse harmonic signals. Stridulatory sounds are emitted during abduction of the pectoral spine. At the base of the spine there is a dorsal process that bears a series of ridges on its latero-ventral surface, and by pressing the ridges against the groove (with an unspecialized rough surface during a fin sweep, the animal produce a series of short pulses. Drumming sound is produced by an extrinsic sonic muscle, originated on a flat tendon of the transverse process of the fourth vertebra and inserted on the rostral and ventral surface of the swimbladder. The sounds emitted by both mechanisms are emitted in distress situation. Distress was induced by manipulating fish in a laboratory tank while sounds were recorded. Our results indicate that the catfish initially emits a stridulatory sound, which is followed by a drumming sound. Simultaneous production of stridulatory and drumming sounds was also observed. The catfish drumming sounds were lower in dominant frequency than stridulatory sounds, and also exhibited a small degree of dominant frequency modulation. Another behaviour observed in this catfish was the pectoral spine locking. This reaction was always observed before the distress sound production. Like other authors outline, our results suggest that in the catfish I. labrosus stridulatory and drumming sounds may function primarily as a distress call.

  18. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P feeding. Collectively, these findings highlight putative roles for RBL in the context of columnaris disease and reveal new aspects linking RBL regulation to feed availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  1. Oxyropsis ephippia, a New Hypoptopomatine Catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Adriana E; Pérez, Mark H Sabaj

    2016-07-05

    Oxyropsis ephippia, a new species of loricariid catfish in the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae, is described from the Essequibo and Branco basins, Guyana. Based on the presence of a keel-like row of relatively enlarged odontodes on trunk median plates immediately above the lateral line canal, the new species is assigned to the genus Oxyropsis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having the keel-like row on each median plate dominated by a single odontode (one closest to the posterior margin of the plate) conspicuously larger than preceding ones, and by having the sides of the trunk below the median series (approximately between median plates 7 to 12) shielded only by plates of the midventral series, with the exclusion of plates from the ventral series. The report of O. ephippia from the Essequibo is the first record of the genus in a river system that drains the north-central portion of the Guiana Shield into the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Thidiazuron uptake, distribution and metabolism in bluegills and channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C O; Benezet, H J; Mayer, F L

    1980-01-01

    Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 0.1 ppm of thidiazuron-14C cotton defoliant for 28 days under continuous flow conditions accumulated relatively low levels of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 5.4 ppm in fillet tissue after 1 day. During a 14 day depuration period, radioactivity declined to 1.0 ppm or less. Fractionation of offal and fillet tissues from bluegills collected at 28 days indicated that most of the radioactive material was water soluble, although appreciable amounts of organosoluble radioactive material also were present. When bluegills were injected intraperitoneally with thidiazuron-14C, metabolism and elimination were relatively rapid. Organosoluble radioactive material isolated from fish tissue included thidiazuron, its 2-hydroxyphenyl derivative, phenylurea, and several unknowns. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed under static conditions to a system containing 0.15 ppm of thidiazuron-14C incorporated into soil also accumulated only low concentrations of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 2.5 ppb in offal tissue at 7 days. In fillet tissue, radioactivity did not exceed 0.5 ppb. There was no evidence from these studies to indicate that thidiazuron would pose a hazard to the aquatic ecosystem.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is...

  4. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  6. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, J K; Archer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991 the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service's Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during the 2008-2010 PDPs. A subset of 202 samples was analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). The average pattern of the individual PCDD/F congener concentrations in the catfish was rather unique in that it had almost no measurable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), but all PCDDs were present. This pattern was more dominant in the domestically produced catfish products than in the imported products (China/Taiwan). Comparison of the pattern to known sources of PCDD/Fs showed strong similarities to the pattern of PCDD/Fs found in kaolin clays which have often been used as anti-caking agents in animal feeds. To investigate whether catfish feeds may be the source of the PCDD/Fs found in the catfish, archived catfish feed data from a US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) database were examined. In 61 out of 112 feed samples, the PCDD concentrations were 50 times higher than the PCDF concentrations and resembled the pattern found in the catfish products and in clays mined in the south-eastern United States. Although the source of PCDD/Fs in domestically marketed catfish products cannot be definitively established, mined clay products used in feeds should be considered a likely source and, given the wide concentration range of PCDD/Fs that has been found in clays, a critical control point for PCDD/Fs entrance to the food supply.

  7. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations

    OpenAIRE

    Rader, RK; Stoecker, WV; Malters, JM; Marr, MT; Dyer, JA

    2012-01-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April–October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April–October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse sp...

  8. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  9. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  10. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  11. The brain and brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cristina; Gonzalez, Francisco; Fernø, Johan; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn humans, but recent data have shown that BAT is also functional in adult humans. On the basis of this evidence, extensive research has been focused on BAT function, where new molecules, such as irisin and bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP7 and BMP8B, as well as novel central factors and new regulatory mechanisms, such as orexins and the canonical ventomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK)-SNS-BAT axis, have been discovered and emerged as potential drug targets to combat obesity. In this review we provide an overview of the complex central regulation of BAT and how different neuronal cell populations co-ordinately work to maintain energy homeostasis.

  12. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  13. The effect of bleeding on the quality of farmed African catfish in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    the rinsing effect of melting ice reduced. Point of rejection. Figure 1. The variation of keeping quality of C. gariepinus fillets held at ambient temperatures (28°C) for 28 hours as determined by organoleptic assessment: illustration ofthe benefits of fish bleeding. Table 2. Variation of iron content in muscle of catfish held at ...

  14. Characterization of Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in Channel Catfish Experimentally Infected with Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh has been the cause of recent motile Aeromonas septicemia epizootic in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus farms in the Southeastern United States. The pathology of the disease caused by vAh has not been studied well yet. Thus, our aim was to determine histopathological and ultrastructural changes in channel catfish following vAh challenge. To accomplish this, catfish fingerlings were challenged with vAh (strain ML09-119 by bath. Six fish per each time point were collected at 1, 3, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h for light microscopy, and six fish were collected at 48 h for transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The first pathological lesions were detected in the spleen and stomach at 1 h post-challenge (HPC while intestine, gills, kidney, and liver lesions were observed at 24 and 48 HPC. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative changes, necrosis, extensive edema, and inflammation in internal organs. The TEM showed severe tissue destruction with multiple bacterial cells secreting outer membrane vesicles, especially in spleen and gills and far number in the stomach. Degenerated bacterial cells were observed in the intestinal lumen and the phagosomes of phagocytic kidney cells. We identified, for the first time, degranulate eosinophilic granular cells, and dendritic cells like (DC-like cells in the necrotic intestinal epithelium. These findings suggest that vAh rapidly proliferated and spread through the catfish organs following bath challenge.

  15. A note on alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: Indications for opposing behavioural strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure of African catfish to alarm cues, a relationship (rp=0.60, N=10, P=0.07) between feed efficiency (measured as residual feed intake) and the change in percentage of time spent swimming in response to damage-released alarm cues was observed. Feed-efficient animals responded with a

  16. Filter-feeding habit of the African catfish Burchell, 1822 (Pisces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habit of the African catfishClarias gariepinus (Burchell) was studied by assessing the stomach contents of 419 fish (287 juveniles - 17.1-44.7 cm TL and 132 adults - 55.2-109.0 cm TL) collected between February 2003 and January 2004 in Lake Chamo. Different kinds of food items were found in the stomachs ...

  17. The use of trilene- as anesthesia and triquilizer for catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus is developing fast that more easier way of handling bigger fish is required both in the transportation and hypophysation/breeding. Such inputs like tranquilizer/anesthesia would help to reduce handling stress thereby reduce injury and death after operation. Trilene ...

  18. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  19. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The

  20. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  1. Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in catfish from U.S. commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that "catfish, as defined by the Secretary," is an amenable species and therefore subject to continuous inspection by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. Since few background data are ...

  2. PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in catfish from U.S. Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, egg products, and farm-raised catfish marketed in the United States. As such the USDA conducts statistical surveys to determine chemical residue concentrations in these domestic products. Little background data...

  3. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. Specifically, the study ascertained the socioeconomic profile of respondents, ascertained costs, returns and net returns of the marketers, determined the marketing margin, marketing efficiency and market share of ...

  4. cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in aba south local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. Specifically, the study ascertained the socioeconomic profile of respondents, ascertained costs, returns and net returns of the marketers, determined the marketing margin, marketing efficiency and ...

  5. Earthy and musty off-flavor episodes in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) by the southeastern U.S. catfish farming industry continues to grow. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to improve management of dissolved oxygen levels and fish waste products (e.g., ammonia) compared to conv...

  6. Dissolved Oxygen management in catfish ponds using electric paddlewheel aerators: new approaches with old technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electric paddlewheel aerator has been the main aerator used in the U.S. catfish industry for the post forty years. While it has its limitations, it is perhaps the most efficient shallow-water aerator yet to be developed. Its shortcomings result not so much from poor design, as from poor usage. U...

  7. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  8. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  9. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  10. Design of mini-barcode for catfishes for assessment of archival biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Maloyjo J; Ghosh, Sankar K

    2014-05-01

    Recovery of DNA barcode sequences is often challenging from the archived specimens. However, short fragments of DNA may be recovered, which would significantly improve many unresolved taxonomic conflicts. Here, we designed a mini-barcode for catfishes comprising several species and many cryptic taxa. We analysed a data set of 3048 publicly available COI barcode sequences representing 547 worldwide catfish species and performed 152 628 interspecies comparisons. A significantly more positively correlated interspecies distance was detected with transversion (0.78, P barcode. The interspecies distance with full-length barcode was 0.212 ± 0.037, while that with 53-bp and 119-bp fragments was 0.325 ± 0.039 and 0.218 ± 0.045, respectively. Survey of 53-bp fragment showed a possibility of only 1144 barcodes, while that of 119-bp fragment showed >4 million barcodes. Thus, the 119-bp fragment is a viable mini-barcode for catfishes comprising >3000 extant species. Experiment with 82 archived catfishes showed successful recovery of this mini-barcode using the designed primer. The mini-barcode sequences showed species-specific similarity in the range of 98-100% with the global database. Therefore, survey of a transversion-rich fragment within the full-length barcode would be an ideal approach of mini-barcode design for biodiversity assessment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  12. Effect of precooking and polyphosphate treatment on the quality of microwave cooked catfish fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and, to a lesser extent, fish products such as tilapia. However, few US catfish products are designed to be microwave cooked or reheated. The first objective of this study was t...

  13. Evaluation of Various Feeding Regimens in A Multiple-Batch Cropping System of Channel Catfish Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-year pond study was conducted to compare gross production, feed conversion, processing yield, and body composition of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed once daily or every other day to satiation, or # 110 kg/ha per day in a multiple-batch cropping system. The greatest amount of feed fed...

  14. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  15. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  16. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  17. Demonstrating the Ecosystem Effects of Armored Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae): A Feasibility Study Using Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    mesocosms to identify ecosystem-level effects of suckermouth catfishes. To minimize intra- and interspecific interactions, the following were used: 1...in North America: A conceptual model. Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program Bulletin (in preparation). Hunt, B.P. 1953. Food Relationships

  18. Annual correlative changes in gonads and pituitary gonadotropes of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Peute, J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of male and female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can be divided into a breeding period (May–August), a resting period (September–February) and a period of full gametogenesis (March–April). The pituitary gonadotropin (GTH) content and the ultrastructure of the

  19. Size distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) affects feeding behaviour but not growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Aanyu, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of size distribution on growth performance and feeding behaviour in juveniles of African catfish. Two thousand sibling fish were grown for 8 weeks until the start of the experiment. Afterwards fish were individually weighed, manually selected and

  20. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  1. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  2. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  3. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  4. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  5. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  6. Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copp...

  7. Experimental evaluation of the effect of winter feeding on channel catfish growout pond plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, 0.25 acre ponds at the UAPB Aquaculture Station were sampled weekly from Dec. 7-Feb. 22 (n=90) for phytoplankton and zooplankton. Five of the ponds were randomly assigned to each of two treatments: no feeding and feeding based on recommended rates. Channel catfish sizes and numbers approximated...

  8. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  9. Generation of myostatin B knockout yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhangji; Ge, Jiachun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Dong, Xiaohua; Cao, Shasha; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-06-01

    Myostatin (Mstn), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, plays an inhibiting role in mammalian muscle growth. Mammals like human, cattle, mouse, sheep, and dog carrying null alleles of Mstn display a double-muscle phenotype. Mstn is conserved in fish; however, little is known whether the fish with mutated mstn display a similar phenotype to mammals because of the lack of mutant fish with mstn null alleles. Previously, we knocked out one of the duplicated copies of myostatin gene (mstna) in yellow catfish using zinc-finger nucleases. In this study, we report the identification of the second myostatin gene (mstnb) and knockout of mstnb in yellow catfish. The gene comprises three exons. It is predicted to encode 373 amino acid residues. The predicted protein exhibits 59.3% identity with yellow catfish Mstna and 57.3% identity with human MSTN. Employing TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) technology, we obtained two founders (from four randomly selected founders) of yellow catfish carrying the mutated mstnb gene in their germ cells. Totally, six mutated alleles of mstnb were obtained from the founders. Among the six alleles, four are nonframeshift and two are frameshift mutation. The frameshift mutated alleles include mstnb(nju22), an 8 bp deletion, and mstnb(nju24), a complex type of mutation comprising a 7 bp deletion and a 12 bp insertion. They are predicted to encode function null Mstnb. Our results will help to understand the roles of mstn genes in fish growth.

  10. Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...

  11. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  12. Comparison of feed intake behaviour and stress response in isolated and non-isolated African catfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Trenovski, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in African catfish Clarias gariepinus feed intake (IF) is stimulated by the presence of conspecifics resulting in higher IF and growth rate. The feeding duration and the frequency of feeding acts were lower in isolated fish as compared with non-isolated fish, indicating a

  13. Effect Of Different Dietary Items On The Growth Of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the growth response of the developmental stages of hybrid catish resulting rom the crossing of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (male) and Clarias gariepinus (female), fed with different feed rations. Hatchlings of the hybrid catfish were cultured in plastic aquaria set up at thefish hatchery complex, Nnamdi ...

  14. Performance and survival of hybrid catfish (hetero x clarias) fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary WCRM at 100% inclusion produced similar results in the mean weight gain (MWG), mean daily weight gain (MDWG), Gross Feed Conversion Efficiency (GFCE), Protein Intake (PI), and survival as the control diet. It could therefore be concluded that WCRM can replace maize in the diet of hybrid catfish effectively up ...

  15. Prevalence of veterinary drug residues and heavy metals in catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seafood, including catfish, can sometimes become contaminated with chemicals and heavy metals at levels which would harm human health. Seafood safety has been increasing concerns to the consumers in the United States and limited availability of domestic fresh products in retail stores have been rais...

  16. Influences of cyclic, high temperatures on juvenile channel catfish growth and feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of high summer temperatures on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are poorly understood, particularly for thermal regimes that mimic pond aquaculture conditions. Therefore, this study examined the effects of three cycling upper-range temperature regimes (23-27ºC, 27-31ºC, and 31-35ºC) cha...

  17. The effect of feed type on the growth of catfish ( Claria-gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feed type on the growth of pond raised catfish (Clarias- garienpinus) is examined using a 2k factorial design. A period of four weeks was used in experimentation. The four factors represent four feed types namely Sharp, Coppens, Euro, Dizeng-golf. Analysis of the experiment reveal a great variation in the ...

  18. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Print A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula ...

  19. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  20. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  1. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  2. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  3. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  4. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  5. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  6. FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ORGANS OF AIRBREATHING CATFISH (CLARIIDAE IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pirog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Airbreathing catfish (CLARIIDAE - is one of the most promising specie of artificial breeding. However, for the reproduction of this specie it is required to conduct appropriate studies. In particular, it is necessary to review the features of morphogenesis during early ontogeny of this type of fish. We investigated prelarvae of airbreathing catfish (CLARIIBAE in 2,3 and 4 days of life. In the embryos, the spinal cord was formed on the 2nd day of life. At this stage, organs of vision were sufficiently developed. On the 4th day, we found hyaline cartilage at the base of the gill arch, arcs were covered with gill filaments; we also discovered fully formed mesonephros, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and intratubular liquid in the kidneys. The heart of the embryo consisted of atrium and voluminous ventricle.Methods. The research of development of airbreathing catfish in early ontogenesis has been carried out on the basis of "RENTOP Agro-5" Ltd. under the conditions of RAS in the Krasnodar region in the spring – summer period of years 2013-14. For morphological analysis we used serial histological sections on prelarvae of 40 airbreathing catfish at age 2, 3 and 4 days developing normally and atypically. The research combines some complex biological methods: ichthyologic, histological, physiological. Materials for the research were handled with the methods of classical histology. Viewing and imaging of the sections were made using Mikmed 6 microscope with a digital camera for imaging and computer analysis.Results. The finding of the study has been the analysis of the morphological structure of airbreathing catfish during early ontogeny, which can contribute to improving the biotechnology of breeding of airbreathing catfish under RAS.Main conclusions. First, in the early ontogenesis of airbreathing catfish we have discovered heterochrony in the development of basic systems: rapidly developing central nervous system and the digestive system

  7. Air breathing and aquatic gas exchange during hypoxia in armoured catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Matey, Victoria; Mendoza, Julie-Anne; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-01-01

    Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O2 supply and utilization. Fish were instrumented with opercular catheters to measure the O2 tension (PO2) of expired water, and air breathing and aquatic respiration were measured during progressive stepwise hypoxia in the water. Armoured catfish exhibited relatively low rates of O2 consumption and gill ventilation, and gill ventilation increased in hypoxia due primarily to increases in ventilatory stroke volume. Armoured catfish began air breathing at a water PO2 of 2.5 kPa, and both air-breathing frequency and hypoxia tolerance (as reflected by PO2 at loss of equilibrium, LOE) was greater in individuals with a larger body mass. Branchial O2 loss, as reflected by higher PO2 in expired than in inspired water, was observed in a minority (4/11) of individuals as water PO2 approached that at LOE. Armoured catfish also exhibited a gill morphology characterized by short filaments bearing short fused lamellae, large interlamellar cell masses, low surface area, and a thick epithelium that increased water-to-blood diffusion distance. Armoured catfish had a relatively low blood-O2 binding affinity when sampled in normoxia (P50 of 3.1 kPa at pH 7.4), but were able to rapidly increase binding affinity during progressive hypoxia exposure (to a P50 of 1.8 kPa). Armoured catfish also had low activities of several metabolic enzymes in white muscle, liver, and brain. Therefore, low rates of metabolism and gill ventilation, and a reduction in branchial gas-exchange capacity

  8. Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu D. Enyidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1 to feed 4 (F4. The treatment diets were included 25% (F1, 15% (F2, 5% (F3 and 0% (F4 green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02 for 25% algal meal diet (F1 and highest (2.98 ± 0.01 for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22 and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09. The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01 and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59. Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets.

  9. Morphology of the gas bladder in bumblebee catfishes (Siluriformes, Pseudopimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birindelli, José L O; Shibatta, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    The gross morphology of the gas bladder is described and compared for representatives of all valid genera of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes). Cephalosilurus albomarginatus and species of Batrochoglanis, and Microglanis have the most basic form: a large, cordiform gas bladder with a simple internal T-shaped septum. Cephalosilurus apurensis, C. fowleri, and C. nigricauda also have a large, cordiform gas bladder, but they have well-developed trabeculae associated with the internal T-shaped septum, and a pair of well-developed constrictor muscles inserted on the external wall; the latter feature is present in most species of Pimelodidae, but absent in all other catfishes. The monotypic Lophiosilurus alexandri also has well-developed constrictor muscles, and its gas bladder is moderately sized. The species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis have a diminutive gas bladder partially divided into two lateral sacs without internal communication, and lack constrictor muscles. The parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is a wide and long shelf connected to the dorsal surface of the gas bladder in most pseudopimelodid genera. However, in the species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis the parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is shorter and has its anterior ramus folded back, partially covering the gas bladder anteroventrally; and the tympanic opening is smaller than in species of the other genera. Five phylogenetic characters are proposed based on the morphology of the gas bladder and associated structures in species of Pseudopimelodidae, and the evolution of those characters in the family is discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Traumatic Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, M O; Flynn, P A; Pang, K A; Hawkins, S A

    2001-09-01

    In the 1840s Brown-Séquard described the motor and sensory effects of sectioning half of the spinal cord. Penetrating injuries can cause Brown-Séquard or, more frequently, Brown-Séquard-plus syndromes. To report the case of a 25-year-old man who developed left-sided Brown-Séquard syndrome at the C8 level and left-sided Horner syndrome plus urinary retention and bilateral extensor responses following a stab wound in the right side of the neck. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a low cervical lesion and somatosensory evoked potentials confirmed the clinical finding of left-side dorsal column disturbance. At follow-up, the patient's mobility and bladder function had returned to normal. This patient recovered well after a penetrating neck injury that disturbed function in more than half the lower cervical spinal cord (Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome).

  11. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  12. Spermatogenesis of male catfish Clarias sp. fed diet supplemeted with purwoceng extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Dea Bertha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purwoceng Pimpinella alpina Molk has been a commercial medicinal plant that their root could be used as aphrodisiac, diuretic, and body fit enhancer. This research was performed to evaluated the effect of purwoceng on spermatogenesis of the male catfish Clarias sp. consisted of testis weight, gonado somatic index (GSI, and spermatocrite levels. The treatment comprised administering purwoceng extract through the feed at a dose of 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5 g/kg of feed. Experimental fish used were male catfish Clarias sp. with initial body weight of 200–300 g at the density of 10 fish/tank. Male catfish were maintained in tank sized 2×1,5×1 m3, filled with water at 60–70 cm deep. The result showed that purwoceng extract at a dose of 5 g/kg mixed in the feed increased testis weight, GSI values, and spermatocrite levels in adult male catfish. Keywords: purwoceng extract, spermatogenesis, catfish  ABSTRAK Purwoceng Pimpinella alpina Molk merupakan tanaman herbal komersial yang akarnya dilaporkan berkhasiat sebagai obat afrodisiak, diuretik, dan tonik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh ekstrak purwoceng terhadap perkembangan testis ikan lele Clarias sp. yang meliputi peningkatan bobot testis, nilai GSI, serta nilai spermatokrit. Perlakuan terdiri atas pemberian ekstrak purwoceng melalui pakan dengan dosis 0; 2,5; 5 dan 7,5 g/kg pakan. Adapun ikan yang diujicobakan pada penelitian adalah ikan lele jantan dengan bobot awal 200–300 g dan padat tebar 10 ekor/bak. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan pada bak berukuran 2×1,5×1 m3 yang diisi air dengan ketinggian  60–70 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak purwoceng dengan dosis 5 g/kg yang dicampur dalam pakan meningkatkan nilai bobot testis, nilai GSI dan kadar spermatokrit  pada lele jantan dewasa. Kata kunci: ekstrak purwoceng, spermatogenesis, ikan lele

  13. Ontogeny of the digestive tract in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P K; Jena, J K; Mitra, G; Sood, N; Gisbert, E

    2012-12-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus from hatching to 30 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract of butter catfish consisted of a straight tube with a smooth lumen dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Between 1 and 2 dph, the mouth opened, oral valves were visible and canine-like teeth and taste buds were detected. During this period, intestine was differentiated into the anterior and posterior intestine, and the digestive accessory glands were also developed. Exogenous feeding started at 2 dph, and there was a 2-day mixed endogenous-exogenous feeding period. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed between 2 and 3 dph, and by 5 dph, the yolk sac was completely depleted and no longer visible in histological sections. Between 3 and 4 dph, several vacuoles (neutral lipids) were observed in the intestine and also in hepatocytes, indicating a functional absorption of nutrients from food. At 8 dph, differentiation of gastric glands was noticed, and by 9-11 dph, there were abundant gastric tubular glands arranged along numerous longitudinal folds. During the same period, pyloric sphincter appeared as an epithelial fold that separated the stomach from the anterior intestine. From 12 dph to the end of the study at 30 dph, no noticeable histological modifications were observed. The development of gastric glands is considered as the last major events in digestive tract development and their presence designates the end of larval period and the onset of the juvenile period. Hence, it is suggested that, butter catfish larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 12 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in butter catfish may lead to a better understanding of the ontogeny and would be useful to improve the larval rearing techniques of this promising catfish species for freshwater aquaculture diversification.

  14. Estradiol and testosterone (11-KT) concentrations in catfish associated with wastewater discharges into Hollis Creek and the Noxubee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report discusses the findings concerning possible water contamination and endocrine disruption in catfish associated with discharge of tertiary treated wastewater...

  15. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  16. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  17. Corydoras ornatus, a new species of callichthyid catfish from the Rio Tapajós Drainage, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A new species of the neotropical callichthyid catfish genus Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. ornatus, is described and figured. It is compared with Corydoras pulcher Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1973, a closely related species.

  18. Use of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf powder as feed additive in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dada, Adekunle Ayokanmi

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal on growth, haematological profile, and body composition was investigated in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Fingerlings of (5.12 ± 0.06 g...

  19. Aspects of the fishery and biology of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) amidst environmental changes in Lake Wamala (Uganda)

    OpenAIRE

    Olokotum, M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes are some of the factors that affect fisheries and biological characteristics of fishes. The African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) has biological characteristics that enable it to persist under various stressful environmental conditions. However, few studies have examined how the African catfish responds to conditions created by a changing climate. The study examined some of the fishery and biological characteristics of African catfish in Lake Wamala (Uganda...

  20. ANALITICAL METHOD VALIDATION OF ANIONIC SURFACTANT SODIUM DODECYL BENZENE SULFONATE (SDBS) IN CATFISH BY UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY USING ACRIDINE ORANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Cahyaning Ratri; Adhitasari Suratman; Roto Roto

    2017-01-01

    The analytical method development on an anionic surfactant of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) in a catfish using spectrophotometer UV-Vis using acridine orange (AO) has been conducted. This research aims to determine the optimum conditions of analysis and to determine validation parameters of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) analysis in a catfish. This study was divided into two steps, isolation of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in the catfish with soxhlet extraction and t...

  1. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  2. Differentiating cave Aspidoras catfish from a karst area of Central Brazil, upper rio Tocantins basin (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Secutti

    Full Text Available Two cave populations of Aspidoras albater catfish with reduced eyes and pigmentation were recently found near the city of Posse, São Domingos karst area, Goiás State, representing the first known case of a troglomorphic callichthyid catfish. Cave specimens are described and compared to epigean specimens of A. albater, but morphometric differences between the epigean and the cave populations are not adequate to delimit as distinct species.

  3. The impact of elevated water ammonia concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The threshold concentration for NH3 in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 141.0 (24) g were exposed to five different Tamm [sum of NH3 and NH4+] concentrations: 0.37 (Control), 1.06, 2.12, 5.16 and 19.7 mM, which

  4. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ronje, Errol I.; Barry, Kevin P.; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A.; Barros, N?lio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Keith D. Mullin; Wells, Randall S.

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. Thes...

  5. Four Alien Monogeneans, Including Trinigyrus peregrinus n. sp., Parasitic on the Invasive Armored Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    ...., and Heteropriapulus heterotylus (Jogunoori, Kritsky, and Venkatanarasaiah, 2004), were collected from the gills of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) (Siluriformes: Loricariidae...

  6. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and persistent organochlorines in catfish and feed from Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Viet, Pham Hung; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Tuyen, But Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-10-01

    Commercial feeds for aquaculture and catfish samples were collected from the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam, for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected persistent organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The most abundant contaminants were DDTs, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 700 ng/g lipid weight, followed by PCBs (1.0-80 ng/g), CHLs (pollutants to the surrounding areas. Contamination pattern in aquaculture feeds revealed elevated levels of PCBs and PBDEs in samples from foreign companies, perhaps implying their higher residues in some imported ingredients. Congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs demonstrated similarity between the farmed catfish and the aquaculture feeds, suggesting these feeds as a major source of pollution to the farmed catfish. On the other hand, the PBDE and PCB profiles in the dumpsite catfish are clearly different from those of the farmed catfish, revealing their exposure to different sources. Risk assessment showed significantly higher intake of the contaminants by people who eat catfish cultured near the dumping areas. Further investigation regarding fate and occurrence of the contaminants in dumping sites is necessary.

  8. Brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, R M; Neufeld, M V; Westfall, C T

    2000-08-01

    To present a photographically documented case of a known brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid. Interventional case report. The wound was photographed daily during an 11-day hospitalization and at 1 month and 6 months after the injury. Treatment included canthotomy and cantholysis; administration of dapsone, antibiotics, and steroids; and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Clinical presentation and course of a known brown recluse spider bite. Complete recovery with cicatrization at the site of the bite. We present a case of a brown recluse spider bite to the left lower eyelid with a discussion of management and outcome of this rarely reported injury.

  9. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  10. Signal transmission in the catfish retina. V. Sensitivity and circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H M; Naka, K

    1987-12-01

    components in the bipolar cells and nonlinear components in the amacrine cells are encoded into spike trains in the ganglion cells. Thus, under our simple stimulus regimen, the ganglion cells transformed the results of the preganglionic signal processing into a spike train without much modification. 5. We propose a tentative diagram of the signal flow in the cone-driven catfish retinal neurons based on this and previous studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  11. Influence of Environmental Conditions in Ichthyophthiriasis Trigger to the Europeans Catfish Juveniles (Silurus Glanis Stocked into a Production System with Partially Reused Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandita (Placinta Ion

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in Romanian aquaculture, the rearing of the European catfish into intensive production systems raises a growing interest determined by its higher technological performances. In comparison with pond traditional aquaculture, the new farming systems are characterized by modified environmental conditions that may lead, in case of exceeding thresholds of tolerability, to occurrence of stress factors, thus setting the disease conditions. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is to present the association circumstances of the predisposed environmental conditions that have weakened the fish body resistance promoting the pathological action of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis after the transfer of European catfish juveniles (G=33.6±1.7 g, L=17.5±2.9 cm from a pond system into a tank culture system with partially reused water. During a 21-day period, some restrictive parameters of water quality have registered values far beyond the optimum interval for wells juveniles growth (t≤16oC, CmaxN-NH4+=3.62mg/l, CmaxNO2-=9.18mg/l, CmaxCl2=0.1mg/l which caused the appearance of some characteristic symptoms, such as the gills brown coloration, masking the first symptoms of ichthyophthiriasis and contributing to the subclinical evolution of the disease. The concentrations of water chemical parameters were determined by spectrophotometer methods using Merck kits, analogous to standard methods. Subsequently, the “ich” diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of the gills and skin scrapings highlighting the presence of parasites. In order to alleviate methaemoglobinaemia and parasite treatment, sodium chloride was gradually added in water till 1 ppt concentration. Maintaining the salinity of the system led to a reduction of gills parasitic intensity, while mature trophonts encapsulated in the skin were protected by mucus hypersecretion. Finally, the destruction of gill epithelium seriously affected the osmoregulation

  12. Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor α gene in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Wu, Chunfa; Maule, Alec G.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2000-01-01

    Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ERα cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ERα variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ERα (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ERα (36 residues longer) and Short-ERα (389 residues shorter). The 5′-end of Long-ERα cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ERα but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ERα binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ERα but lower than reported for catfish ERβ. Short-ERα cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ERα RNAs that include the size range of the ERα cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ERα cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ERα antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ERα antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ERα mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may

  13. Progress report: brown bear studies - 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty-four brown bears (22 adult female, 22 offspring) were captured in the Ayakulik River, Sturgeon River, and Frazer Lake drainages of Kodiak Island in July, 1983....

  14. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  15. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  16. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R K; Stoecker, W V; Malters, J M; Marr, M T; Dyer, J A

    2012-07-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April-October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April-October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse spiders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hodosán, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Lightning is an important electrical phenomenon, known to exist in several Solar System planets. Amongst others, it carries information on convection and cloud formation, and may be important for pre-biotic chemistry. Exoplanets and brown dwarfs have been shown to host environments appropriate for the initiation of lightning discharges. In this PhD project, I aim to determine if lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs can be more energetic than it is known from Solar System planets, what are...

  18. Brown recluse spider bites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Janice D

    2006-02-01

    The brown recluse spider is found more commonly in the Southeast and the Central Midwest. Its bite is not common because it is a shy spider that only bites if cornered. A severe bite may necrose a large area that requires skin grafting; systemic reactions rarely occur. This article discusses the brown recluse spider and presents a case study of a patient with two spider bites that did require extensive grafting.

  19. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko

    2007-01-01

    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  20. Chemical treatments for reducing the yellow discoloration of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Liu, Shaoyang; Cline, David; Chen, Shengshun; Wang, Yifen; Bell, Leonard N

    2013-10-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments on the color and carotenoid content of yellow discolored channel catfish fillets was studied. The color and carotenoid content of the fillets were analyzed by the L*a*b* color system and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Untreated fillets turned more yellow and darker after 12-d storage. Sodium bicarbonate had a beneficial effect on reducing the degree of yellowness, but the fillets still turned darker after storage. Sodium bisulfite gave the best results with fillets becoming less yellow and brighter after storage. Ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, citric acid, and sodium metabisulfite were not successful at reducing the discoloration. The sum of carotenoid contents of untreated fillets decreased significantly (P 0.05) different from the fresh or untreated fillets. The appearance of catfish fillets may be improved during storage by pretreating with sodium bisulfite. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  2. The functional properties and application of gelatin derived from the skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Liping; Cui, Wenzhe; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this work was to extract gelatin from skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to study its functional properties and application in ice-cream and beer. SDS-PAGE patterns showed that channel catfish gelatin (CCG) had more high molecular weight components (β and γ chains) than had calf bone gelatin (CBG). The viscosity of CCG was 42mPa.s at 10°C, which was three times more than that of CBG. Compared to CBG, CCG presented higher emulsion capacity and stability, as well as higher foaming stability. CCG conferred the ice-cream samples and beer with better mouth feel and clarification effect, respectively. The results indicated that CCG had great potential to be utilized in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus . 1. Preliminary investigations on the probable use of vegetable oil in catfish feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Four groups of brackishwater catfish were fed four diets: N.F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed), A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 10.89% vegetable oil respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that growth was best in the group fed diets containing 10.89% vegetable oil and least in those containing 9.09% vegetable oil

  4. Capture antibody targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (CAT-FISH): dual labeling allows for increased specificity in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroot, Joyce M; Leach, Kelly M; Stroot, Peter G; Lim, Daniel V

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen detection using biosensors is commonly limited due to the need for sensitivity and specificity in detecting targets within mixed populations. These issues were addressed through development of a dual labeling method that allows for both liquid-phase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and capture antibody targeted detection (CAT-FISH). CAT-FISH was developed using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus as representative bacteria, and processing techniques were evaluated with regard to FISH intensities and antibody recognition. The alternative fixative solution, methacarn, proved to be superior to standard solid-phase paraformaldehyde fixation procedures, allowing both FISH labeling and antibody recognition. CAT-FISH treated cells were successfully labeled with FISH probes, captured by immunomagnetic separation using fluorescent cytometric array beads, and detected using a cytometric array biosensor. CAT-FISH treated cells were detectable with LODs comparable to the standard antibody-based technique, (~10(3)cells/ml in PBS), and the technique was also successfully applied to two complex matrices. Although immunomagnetic capture and detection using cytometric arrays were demonstrated, CAT-FISH is readily applicable to any antibody-based fluorescence detection platform, and further optimization for sensitivity is possible via inclusion of fluorescently tagged antibodies. Since the confidence level needed for positive identification of a detected target is often paramount, CAT-FISH was developed to allow two separate levels of specificity, namely nucleic acid and protein signatures. With proper selection of FISH probes and capture antibodies, CAT-FISH may be used to provide rapid detection of target pathogens from within complex matrices with high levels of confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John P; Lundberg, John G; Hardman, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Higher-level relationships among catfishes were investigated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of two nuclear genes across 110 catfish species representing 36 of 37 families and Conorhynchos (family incertae sedis). Analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the rag1 and rag2 genes confirms monophyly of Siluriformes, of most siluriform families and of a number of multifamily groups, some recognized, some novel. South American Loricarioidei are recovered as the sistergroup to other catfishes which are divided into Diplomystidae and Siluroidei. This result contrasts with the prevailing hypothesis that Diplomystidae is the sister to all other catfishes. Monophyly of Siluroidei is supported by rag data including a unique three-codon deletion from rag1. Deep within Siluroidei are 12 large, strongly supported groups with poorly resolved interrelationships. Five are single families: Cetopsidae, Plotosidae, Chacidae, Siluridae and Pangasiidae. Four others are monophyletic taxa ranked here as superfamilies: Clarioidea (Clariidae, Heteropneustidae), Arioidea (Ariidae, Anchariidae), Pimelodoidea (Pimelodidae, Pseudopimelodidae, Heptapteridae, Conorhynchos), Ictaluroidea (Ictaluridae, Cranoglanididae). South American Doradoidea (Doradidae, Auchenipteridae) and Aspredinidae are a sistergroup pair. Sisoroidea (without Aspredinidae), Ailia+Laides, Horabagridae, and Bagridae (without Rita) form a large, predominantly Asian clade, "Big Asia." Mochokidae, Malapteruridae, Amphiliidae, Claroteidae, and African schilbids are united as a species-rich African clade, "Big Africa." The three large continental clades, "Big Asia," "Big Africa" and Neotropical Loricarioidei suggest a prevalence of intracontinental diversification of catfishes. South America is the home of the Gymnotiformes, putative sistergroup of catfishes, plus two of the deepest siluriform clades, Loricarioidei and Diplomystidae, thus suggesting an ancient siluriform presence if not origin there. The rag

  7. Expression analysis of the acute phase response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after infection with a Gram-negative bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatman, Eric; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Terhune, Jeffery; Xu, Peng; Nandi, Samiran; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Li, Ping; Wang, Shaolin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2007-01-01

    The acute phase response (APR) is a set of metabolic and physiological reactions occurring in the host in response to tissue infection or injury and is a crucial component of the larger innate immune response. The APR is best characterized by dramatic changes in the concentration of a group of plasma proteins known as acute phase proteins (APPs) which are synthesized in the liver and function in a wide range of immunity-related activities. Utilizing a new high-density in situ oligonucleotide microarray, we have evaluated the APR in channel catfish liver following infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri, a bacterial pathogen that causes enteric septicemia of catfish. Our catfish microarray design (28K) builds upon a previous 19K channel catfish array by adding recently sequenced immune transcripts from channel catfish along with 7159 unique sequences from closely related blue catfish. The analysis of microarray results using a traditional 2-fold change in gene expression cutoff and a 10% false-discovery rate revealed a well-developed APR in catfish, with particularly high upregulation (>50-fold) of genes involved in iron homeostasis (i.e. intelectin, hemopexin, haptoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin). Other classical APP genes upregulated greater than 2-fold included coagulation factors, proteinase inhibitors, transport proteins, and complement components. Upregulation of the majority of the complement cascade was observed including the membrane attack complex components and complement inhibitors. A number of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and chemokines were also differentially expressed in the liver following infection. Independent testing of a selection of differentially expressed genes with real-time RT-PCR confirmed microarray results.

  8. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so the oxygen concentration in the water is no strongly limiting factor, which facilitates high density culture.

    To provide the basis for a production programm...

  9. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to pangasius catfish, basa, and tra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, K G; Chen, Y-T; Hsieh, Y-H P

    2009-04-01

    Four IgG (subclass IgG1) class monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) strongly reactive to Asian farm-raised Pangasius catfish, tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and basa (Pangasius bocourti), have been developed. These MAbs were raised by immunizing an animal with thermal-stable crude sarcoplasmic protein extract of cooked tra. The MAbs were selected by screening hybridoma clones against more than 70 common fish and meat protein extracts. Two MAbs, T7E10 and T1G11, were found to be specific to the Asian Pangasius catfish, tra, and basa, with no cross-reactions with any of the common fish and meat species or with the food additive proteins (bovine serum albumin, soy proteins, milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin) tested. MAb T7E10 recognized 2 antigenic proteins (molecular weight approximately 36 and 75 kDa) in raw and cooked tra and basa extracts, while T1G11 bound to several proteins (molecular weight between 13 and 18 kDa) in tra and basa extracts. Two other MAbs, F7B8 and F1G11, recognized a common protein (36 KDa) and cross-reacted with all the fish extracts tested and with several mammalian species. These MAbs can be employed individually or in combination in various formats of immunoassays for rapid identification of Pangasius catfish, either raw or cooked. They can also be used to study the biological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of thermal-stable antigenic proteins. This is the first study identifying these thermal-stable antigenic proteins present in Pangasius catfish as species-specific biomarkers.

  10. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  11. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  12. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  13. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  14. Constraints to adoption of improved hatchery management practices among catfish farmers in Lagos State

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenetejiri DIGUN-AWETO; Ademuyiwa OLADELE

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture has shown capacities to serve as means of livelihood, improve living standards, provide employment and generate foreign exchange in many countries. Recent investment in Nigerian aquaculture has been target towards catfish farming. However, small quantity and poor quality fish seeds are one of the problems limiting production. Consequently, Lagos State government introduced improved breeding and hatchery management practices as a package to fish hatchery operators with the aim of i...

  15. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  16. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A Potential Cause of Erosion in Disturbed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    of the present state of world trade in ornamental fish . Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Devick, W. S. 1988...BACKGROUND: Suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae), commonly called “plecos,” have been exported from tropical America as aquarium fishes for over a...cultured in outdoor ponds (Grier 1980). Consequent releases by hobbyists and escapes from tropical fish farms resulted in introduced populations of

  17. Scaling of suction-feeding kinematics and dynamics in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Scaling effects on the kinematics of suction feeding in fish remain poorly understood, at least partly because of the inconsistency of the results of the existing experimental studies. Suction feeding is mechanically distinct from most other type of movements in that negative pressure inside the buccal cavity is thought to be the most important speed-limiting factor during suction. However, how buccal pressure changes with size and how this influences the speed of buccal expansion is unknown. In this paper, the effects of changes in body size on kinematics of suction feeding are studied in the catfish Clarias gariepinus. Video recordings of prey-capturing C. gariepinus ranging in total length from 111 to 923 mm were made, from which maximal displacements, velocities and accelerations of several elements of the cranial system were determined. By modelling the observed expanding head of C. gariepinus as a series of expanding hollow elliptical cylinders, buccal pressure and power requirement for the expansive phase of prey capture were calculated for an ontogenetic sequence of catfish. We found that angular velocities decrease approximately proportional with increasing cranial size, while linear velocities remain more or less constant. Although a decreasing (angular) speed of buccal expansion with increasing size could be predicted (based on calculations of power requirement and the expected mass-proportional scaling of available muscular power in C. gariepinus), the observed drop in (angular) speed during growth exceeds these predictions. The calculated muscle-mass-specific power output decreases significantly with size, suggesting a relatively lower suction effort in the larger catfish compared with the smaller catfish.

  18. Prey Selection by African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Larvae Fed Different Feeding Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Bozkurt, Ahmet; GÖKÇEK, Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Live prey selection by African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae was examined under laboratory conditions. Larvae were offered plankton, plankton + trout starter (TS) and plankton + betaine supplemented trout diet (BTS) for 7 days after exogenous feeding. Five larvae were sampled to determine their gut contents and selectivity index for each treatment 15 min after the feeding. It was observed that dry diets (TS and BTS) improved the growth (P < 0.05), but did not significantly influe...

  19. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  20. Antipredator and alarm reaction responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen juveniles exposed to waterborne ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Weber

    Full Text Available Ammonia has relatively toxic effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. This study examined whether juvenile silver catfish exposed to alarm substances released by conspecifics and predators in water with different ammonia levels modify their behaviour in response to the perceived risk of predation. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The fish were raised from the larval stage in the laboratory and kept in 40-L aquaria at waterborne NH3 concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg L-1 for 10 days. The alarm substances used were predator odour and skin extract from conspecifics. The juveniles were transferred to 2-L aquaria for the antipredator and alarm reaction behavioural tests, which were performed on days 1, 5 and 10 after initial exposure to ammonia. The test aquaria contained a shelter at one end of the tank. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min poststimulus observation period. The results of the study suggest that naive juvenile catfish are able to identify predators and skin extract from conspecifics by odour. In addition, waterborne NH3 levels modify the antipredator response of this species.

  1. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  2. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  3. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  4. Determination of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissues by liquid chromatography with precolumn formaldehyde derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Wenhong Luo; Hansen, E.B. Jr.; Freeman, J.P.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. [Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for analysis of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissued. The tissue was extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 4.5), followed by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins and solid-phase (C{sub 18}) extraction. Trace amounts of nonpolar interfering substances present after solid-phase extraction were removed by ether liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA at 100{degrees}C for 30 min. A fluorescent derivative was extracted with ether, concentrated, and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of amoxicillin spiked at 2.5-20 ppb were > 80% for catfish and >75% for salmon muscle tissue, with coefficients of variation of <6%. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for catfish tissue were 0.5 and 1.2 ppb, respectively. LOD and LOQ for salmon muscle tissue were 0.8 and 2.0 ppb, respectively. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  6. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  7. Spine anatomy reveals the diversity of catfish through time: a case study of Synodontis (Siluriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Fara, Emmanuel; Otero, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) is a freshwater catfish endemic to Africa. The 118 extant species are present in almost all hydrographic basins. Some species are restricted to a single stream, whereas others have a vast distribution. Synodontis is known in the fossil record since the Miocene, and its history depends on the connections among African basins through time. The identification of species in the fossil record is essential to reconstruct this historical pattern. Catfish pectoral and dorsal spines are robust, they preserve well and they form most of the fossil remains for the genus Synodontis. Unfortunately, the criteria for the identification of extant Synodontis species are not applicable to fossil specimens. Here, we define 11 original morphological characters that permit to discriminate four extant species from the Chad-Chari hydrographic system. Six of these characters are defined on pectoral spines and five on dorsal spines. We then show that these characters can be used successfully for identifying fossil specimens. In particular, we present a case study in which we identify Synodontis cf. schall and Brachysynodontis cf. batensoda in the hominid-bearing sector Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, northern Chad). We show that spine anatomy can be a powerful tool to recognise catfish species through time and thus to identify historical diversity pattern.

  8. Nocturnal claroteine catfishes reveal dual colonisation but a single radiation in Lake Tanganyika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Claire R; Bills, Roger; Wilkinson, Mark; Day, Julia J

    2014-04-01

    Lake Tanganyika (LT) is a biodiversity hotspot supporting many endemic radiations that provide comparative systems in which to investigate if there are common factors leading to the build-up of its considerable diversity. Despite LT containing the highest diversity of lacustrine catfishes on Earth, the evolutionary relationships of nocturnal catfishes within the sub-family Claroteinae have not been investigated and it is unknown if its constituent genera have diversified via single or independent colonisation events. We report the first molecular phylogeny of the LT claroteine catfishes based on a multigene dataset (three nuclear markers, two mitochondrial totalling 4227 bp), including 85 samples from LT and outside of the lake basin. These data support LT claroteine monophyly, with the exclusion of the LT endemic Chrysichthys brachynema that independently colonised the lake but has not radiated. Multiple sampling localities from LT and the use of Bayesian species delimitation methods reveal additional locally restricted diversity within the LT Claroteinae clade. Fossil calibrated molecular divergence dates suggest that diversification occurred within full lake conditions as demonstrated in other LT lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  10. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas veronii isolates from catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Sung, Kidon; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Steele, Roger

    2006-10-01

    Eighty-one tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas sp. strains were isolated from farm-raised catfish. Morphological and biochemical characteristics indicated that 23 of the 81 aeromonads were Aeromonas hydrophila, 7 isolates were Aeromonas trota, 6 isolates were Aeromonas caviae, 42 isolates were Aeromonas veronii, and 3 isolates were Aeromonas jandaei. However, the AluI and MboI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the PCR-amplified 1.4-kb 16S rRNA gene from all 81 tetracycline-resistant aeromonads from catfish were identical to the RFLP banding patterns of A. veronii ATCC 35626, indicating that all 81 isolates were strains of A. veronii. A multiplex PCR assay successfully amplified the 5 tetracycline-resistant genes (tetA to E) from the genomic DNA of all 81 isolates. The assay determined that tetE was the dominant gene occurring in 73/81 (90.0%) of the aeromonads. Plasmids (2.0 to 20 kb) were isolated from 33 of the 81 isolates. Dendrogram analysis of the SpeI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 15 distinct macrorestriction patterns among the isolates. Our results indicate the need for use of 16S rRNA in the identification of Aeromonas spp. and the prevalence of catfish as a reservoir of tet genes.

  12. Effects of variable periods of food deprivation on the development of enteric septicemia in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, David J; Greenway, Terry; Li, Menghe H; Camus, Alvin C; Robinson, Edwin H

    2008-03-01

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most significant bacterial disease affecting channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Withholding feed during outbreaks of ESC is a widely accepted industry practice used to control losses from the disease. Scientific evidence concerning the validity of the practice is contradictory. Two studies were conducted to further evaluate the survival of channel catfish fingerlings following variable periods of feed deprivation before and after exposure to E. ictaluri in controlled aquarium experiments. In the first study, feed was withheld for varying time periods before bacterial challenge. After bacterial challenge, feed was either withheld or fish were fed daily. The second study utilized fish fed daily or fish deprived of feed 7 d before bacterial challenge. Daily feeding was resumed 4, 48, and 96 h after fish were exposed to E. ictaluri. In both experiments, the prechallenge feed treatments did not affect mortality. In contrast, withholding feed after bacterial challenge reduced mortalities by 52% in experiment 1 and by 45% in experiment 2. The highest mortality was observed when fish were fed immediately after immersion exposure and the lowest when fish were completely denied feed or fed daily starting 96 h after challenge. This reduction in mortality occurred when the concentration of E. ictaluri in aquarium water was negligible. These data suggest that when E. ictaluri is present in the water, feeding fish increases mortality by enhancing oral exposure to the pathogen.

  13. The Pathological Effects of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in the Diet of Walking Catfish (Clarius batrachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirarat, N; Katagiri, T; Chansue, N; Ponpornpisit, A; Endo, M; Maita, M

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of melamine and its analogue in man and animals has been reported widely. The aim of the present study was to examine the pathological effects of feeding melamine and cyanuric acid, separately or in combination, to walking catfish (Clarius batrachus). The catfish developed darkening of the skin as early as 3 days post feeding. Melamine-related crystals were distributed multifocally throughout the liver, kidney, heart, spleen and corpuscle of Stannius of fish fed melamine and cyanuric acid in combination. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy revealed that the melamine-related crystals had structure resembling that of plastic polymer crystals. Elevations in the serum concentrations of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatinine and uric acid were related to the crystal-associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver and kidney of affected fish. None of the catfish died during the 2-week experiment. Melamine and cyanuric acid are therefore systemically toxic to fish in addition to causing renal crystal formation and renal damage as seen in man and animals. The finding of extrarenal crystals implies that the metabolism and biotransformation of these toxic compounds should be further investigated in aquatic animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing the efficacy of four immersion flush and static hydorgen peroxide and copper sulfate treatments on channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water mold infestations on channel catfish eggs lower the hatch rate (egg survival) and ultimately the number of catfish fry available for stocking in production ponds. This study compared the potential of two hydrogen peroxide (HP) and two copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) treatments to increase c...

  15. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  16. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  17. Generation of genome-scale gene-associated SNPs in catfish for the construction of a high-density SNP array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltenboeck Ludmilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have become the marker of choice for genome-wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of performance and production traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. Gene-associated SNPs may fulfill these requirements of large numbers and genome wide distribution. In addition, gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. The objective of this project was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput next generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing was conducted for channel catfish and blue catfish using Illumina next generation sequencing technology. Approximately 220 million reads (15.6 Gb for channel catfish and 280 million reads (19.6 Gb for blue catfish were obtained by sequencing gene transcripts derived from various tissues of multiple individuals from a diverse genetic background. A total of over 35 billion base pairs of expressed short read sequences were generated. Over two million putative SNPs were identified from channel catfish and almost 2.5 million putative SNPs were identified from blue catfish. Of these putative SNPs, a set of filtered SNPs were identified including 342,104 intra-specific SNPs for channel catfish, 366,269 intra-specific SNPs for blue catfish, and 420,727 inter-specific SNPs between channel catfish and blue catfish. These filtered SNPs are distributed within 16,562 unique genes in channel catfish and 17,423 unique genes in blue catfish. Conclusions For aquaculture species, transcriptome analysis of pooled RNA samples from multiple individuals using Illumina sequencing technology is both technically efficient and cost-effective for generating expressed sequences. Such an approach is most effective when coupled to existing EST resources generated using traditional sequencing approaches because the reference ESTs facilitate

  18. RESULTS OF REARING THE MULTIPLE AGE GROUPS OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE WITH THE USE OF PROBIOTIC FEED SUPPLEMENTS NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vashchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of rearing the multiple age groups of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque. Methodology. The study of effect of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of rearing the multiple age groups of channel catfish have been carried out according to conventional methods. The experiments were conducted in the conditions of Pridneprovsky industrial fish farm of Dnepropetrovsk region. Channel catfish larvae were reared in standard trays. Water volume in trays was maintained at a level of 1.4 m3, stocking density of larvae was 20 thousand fish/tray. Rearing of young-of-the-year channel catfish was conducted in 1 m3 cages, stocking density of grown up larvae was 1000 fish/m3. Age 1+ channel catfish was reared in 1 m3 cages, stocking density was 150 fish/m3. Findings. The studies demonstrated that feeding of multiple age groups of channel catfish with balanced combined feeds with the addition of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® compared to the control group, which was fed with the combined feed but without supplements, increased their growth intensity. The use of these feed supplements in the combined feed composition contributes to an increase in fish growth rate and fish output and to a reduction in feed costs for fish rearing. The results of the conducted works allow determining the optimum doses of the addition of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® in the composition of combined feeds for feeding multiple age groups of channel catfish reared in the controlled conditions of aquaculture, which are as follow: NUPRO® when added to the feed of channel catfish larvae – 0.5%, young-of-the-year – 3.0%, age-1+ channel catfish – 5.0%; BIO-MOS® for channel catfish larvae – 0.5%, young-of-the-year and age-1+ channel catfish – 5.0%. Hydrochemical parameters in the experimental ponds were within normal limits, temperature regime was

  19. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Channel catfish BAC-end sequences for marker development and assessment of syntenic conservation with other fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wang, S; Liu, L; Peatman, E; Somridhivej, B; Thimmapuram, J; Gong, G; Liu, Z

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, 25 195 BAC ends for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were sequenced, generating 20 366 clean BAC-end sequences (BES), with an average read length of 557 bp after trimming. A total of 11 414 601 bp were generated, representing approximately 1.2% of the catfish genome. Based on this survey, the catfish genome was found to be highly AT-rich, with 60.7% A+T and 39.3% G+C. Approximately 12% of the catfish genome consisted of dispersed repetitive elements, with the Tc1/mariner transposons making up the largest percentage by base pair (4.57%). Microsatellites were detected in 17.5% of BES. Catfish BACs were anchored to the zebrafish and Tetraodon genome sequences by BLASTN, generating 16% and 8.2% significant hits (E < e(-5)) respectively. A total of 1074 and 773 significant hits were unique to the zebrafish and Tetraodon genomes, respectively, of which 417 and 406, respectively, were identified as known genes in other species, providing a major genome resource for comparative genomic mapping.

  1. A histopathological and biometric comparison between catfish (Pisces, Ariidae) from a harbor and a protected area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; de Almeida, Zafira da Silva; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological lesions and biometric variations in catfish species are statistically associated with chemical contaminant exposure. A histopathological and biometric database for the catfish Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre from São Luís Island (Port Area) and Caranguejos Island (Reference Area) is presented. Branchial and hepatic lesions were classified into three reaction patterns: 1) circulatory or inflammatory disturbances; 2) regressive changes; 3) progressive changes. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at characterizing the biomonitoring potential of catfish from two islands in Brazil, which exhibit great habitat diversity and different levels of human intervention. The weights and lengths of the catfish caught at the Port Area were smaller than those from the Reference Area. No histopathological lesions were observed in S. herzbergii examined at the reference site (Caranguejos Island). In contrast, 90% of S. herzbergii from sites located in the Port Area (São Luís Island) had one or more types of branchial and hepatic lesions. One or more of the five lesions were observed on 16 B. bagre from São Luís Island and Caranguejos Island. The utility of histopathological lesions and biometric data as sensitive indicators of the health of wild catfish populations has been demonstrated. Sciades herzbergii proved to be a better species for biomonitoring because it was more sensitive to the impacted site (Port Area) compared with the region relatively free of contaminants (Reference Area).

  2. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Peterson, B C; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P catfish UCP2b may be the analog to UCP3. Moreover, our results suggest selection toward growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperatures rising: brown fat and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-03-01

    Caloric restriction is associated with a reduction in body weight and temperature, as well as a reduction in trabecular bone volume and paradoxically an increase in adipocytes within the bone marrow. The nature of these adipocytes is uncertain, although there is emerging evidence of a direct relationship between bone remodeling and brown adipocytes. For example, in heterotrophic ossification, brown adipocytes set up a hypoxic gradient that leads to vascular invasion, chondrocyte differentiation, and subsequent bone formation. Additionally, deletion of retinoblastoma protein in an osteosarcoma model leads to increased hibernoma (brown fat tumor). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) becomes senescent with age at a time when thermoregulation is altered, bone loss becomes apparent, and sympathetic activity increases. Interestingly, heart rate is an unexpected but good predictor of fracture risk in elderly individuals, pointing to a key role for the sympathetic nervous system in senile osteoporosis. Hence the possibility exists that BAT could play an indirect role in age-related bone loss. However, evidence of an indirect effect from thermogenic dysfunction on bone loss is currently limited. Here, we present current evidence for a relationship between brown adipose tissue and bone as well as provide novel insights into the effects of thermoregulation on bone mineral density.

  4. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  5. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ˜ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ˜2 km s-1, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  6. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  7. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  8. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  9. A model to environmental monitoring based on glutathione-S-transferase activity and branchial lesions in catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres, Audalio Rebelo

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we validate the glutathione-S-transferase and branchial lesions as biomarkers in catfish Sciades herzbergii to obtain a predictive model of the environmental impact effects in a harbor of Brazil. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Maranhão. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and branchial lesions were analyzed. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. Our mathematic model indicates that when the GST ceases to act, serious branchial lesions are observed in the catfish of the contaminated port area.

  10. Experimental assessment of the effects of sublethal salinities on growth performance and stress in cultured tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc Trong Hong; Do, Huong Thi Thanh; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well.

  11. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  12. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the threatened Neotropical catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri (Silurifomes: Pseudopimelodidae) and phylogenomic analysis indicate monophyly of Pimelodoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso; Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Bastos, Alex Schomaker; da Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Furtado, Carolina; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes. PMID:27648766

  14. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  15. Growth of silver catfish ( Rhamdia quelen exposed to acidic pH at different humic acid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Teixeira da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Humic substances are organic compounds that possess high molecular weight and are formed by the decomposition of plant materials. Humic substances comprise humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. Humic acids (HA have shown to be able to provide some protection to biological membranes of fish in water with low pH, replacing the protective action of Ca2+. Thus, this studyaimed to observe growth of silver catfish ( Rhamdia quelen juveniles exposed to pHs 5.5 and 6.5 and to different levels of HA: 0, 10, 25 and 50mg L-1. Results showed that, irrespective of pH, HA was highly detrimental to silver catfish growth, since the higher the concentration of HA, the lower the weight gain and feed intake, resulting in lower biomass and lower specific growth rate of juveniles. Hence, HA is extremely damaging to the performance of silver catfish juveniles in the tested concentrations.

  16. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  17. Hanbury Brown-Twiss interference of anyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnano, Gabriele; Zilberberg, Oded; Gornyi, Igor V; Feldman, Dmitri E; Potter, Andrew C; Gefen, Yuval

    2012-09-07

    We present a study of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer realized with anyons. Such a device can directly probe entanglement and fractional statistics of initially uncorrelated particles. We calculate Hanbury Brown-Twiss cross correlations of Abelian Laughlin anyons. The correlations we calculate exhibit partial bunching similar to bosons, indicating a substantial statistical transmutation from the underlying electronic degrees of freedom. We also find qualitative differences between the anyonic signal and the corresponding bosonic or fermionic signals, indicating that anyons cannot be simply thought of as intermediate between bosons and fermions.

  18. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  19. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  20. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  1. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  2. Natural history of presumed congenital Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, T J; Smith, K; Orton, R B; Noel, L P; Clarke, W; Cadera, W

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the stability of the ocular alignment in patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. A retrospective review of patients with Brown syndrome with an emphasis on nonsurgical cases. Follow-up of at least 1 year was required for inclusion in the study. Patients were selected for this study from the pediatric ophthalmology services at the Ivey Institute of Ophthalmology, London, Ontario, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa. A cohort of 71 patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. Two cases were bilateral. Eleven cases were excluded because of insufficient length of follow-up, leaving 60 patients with an average follow-up of 46 months. All patients were assessed and followed up by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Of 38 patients who had no hypotropia in primary position at presentation, only two (5%) patients experienced a worsening with the development of a small vertical strabismus during the follow-up period. Six (10%) of the entire group of 60 patients experienced a complete spontaneous resolution of the deficiency in elevation at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 years of age. Among patients with congenital Brown syndrome, those who are orthotropic in the primary position tend to remain stable or improve over time without surgical intervention.

  3. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  4. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  5. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  6. The browning of Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Parent; David. Verbyla

    2010-01-01

    We used twelve Landsat scenes from the 1980s-2009 and regional 2000-2009 MODIS data to examine the long-term trend in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within unburned areas of the Alaskan boreal forest. Our analysis shows that there has been a declining trend in NDVI in this region, with the strongest "browning trend" occurring in eastern...

  7. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  8. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Andersen L. W., Fredsted T., Wincentz T. and Pertoldi C. 2009. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare. Acta Theriologica 54: 97-110. Denmark lies on the edge of the distributional range of the brown hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778, where population......-69.8 respectively). There was no correlation between the geographic and the genetic distance. Population structure was influenced by genetic drift, anthropogenic effects (eg translocation and escapes from hare-farms) and by post-glacial recolonization from southern refuges or refuges north east of the Black Sea...... glaciations or by stocking effects. Colonization from southern refuges was supported by the observation that haplotype 2 in the Danish brown hare was identical to the central European ancestral haplotype c07....

  9. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  10. Gas exchange and brown heart in conference pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otma, E.C.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Brown heart is a tissue disorder found in Conference pears during CA storage. Differences in susceptibility for brown heart have been found between countries, orchards, harvest dates and storage conditions. One hypothesis is that brown heart is caused by increased internal CO2. This research

  11. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  12. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    OpenAIRE

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of t...

  13. Evaluation of Physicochemical Characteristics of Smoked River Catfish Prepared from Fresh and Frozen Raws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustari Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of hotsmoked catfish from freshand frozen fish. River catfish samples (Hemibagrus nemurus Valenciennes, 1840, 240-270 gram in weightwere taken from catfish cage culture in Sungai Paku, Riau. A total fish samples (120 fishes were groupedinto 4 batches, each batch consisted of 30 fish (15 fillets and 15 butterfly like cuts. One batch was smokedfresh and the other 3 batches were smoked after being frozen at -18oC for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively.Before smoked, the fish samples were analyzed for proximate composition and water holding capacity; andafter smoked, the fish samples were determined for smoking yield, proximate composition and sensoryquality. Moisture, fat and protein composition of fish was not different between fresh raw and frozen for10, 20 and 30 days (P>0.05, however, water holding capacity was higher for fresh than frozen fish; andthe value decreased as the longer the frozen storage (P<0.05. Smoking yield correlated stronger to waterholding capacity (r=0.59 than to moisture (r=0.01, fat (r=0.16 and protein (r=0.02 composition of theraw. Moisture, fat and protein of smoked fish was lower for smoked fish prepared from frozen fish than thatfor fresh fish (P<0,05; and the values decreased as the longer the frozen storage. Moisture, fat and proteinloss during smoking was higher for smoked fish prepared from frozen fish than that for fresh fish, exceptfor that frozen for 10 days. Overall, sensory values of smoked fish from frozen fish were lower than that forfresh fish (P<0,05; however, flavor and odor values were not different between smoked fish from fish frozenfor 10 days and fresh fish (P>0,05.

  14. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  15. Size matters: diversity in swimbladders and Weberian ossicles affects hearing in catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Walter; Ladich, Friedrich

    2008-05-01

    Otophysine fish possess Weberian ossicles, which connect the swimbladder to the inner ear and improve hearing ability. There is a high diversity in the morphology of the swimbladder and Weberian apparatus in catfishes, which might affect hearing. We have examined these structures in representatives of six families with large, single bladders (Ariidae, Auchenipteridae, Heptapteridae, Malapteruridae, Mochokidae, Pseudopimelodidae) and five subfamilies from two families (Callichthyidae, Loricariidae) having small, paired, encapsulated bladders. We tested their hearing abilities utilizing the non-invasive auditory evoked potential recording technique. Species with single, non-encapsulated, free airbladders possess one, three or four ossicles, whereas species with encapsulated bladders possess one or two. The relative sizes of the bladders and ossicles were significantly smaller in the latter group. All species were able to detect sound stimuli between 50 Hz and 5 kHz. Interspecific differences in hearing sensitivity varied at most by 24 dB below 1 kHz, whilst this variation increased to more than 50 dB at higher frequencies. Catfishes with free bladders had lower thresholds above 1 kHz than those having encapsulated ones. The relative lengths of swimbladders and of ossicular chains were correlated with hearing sensitivity above 1 and 2 kHz, respectively. The number of ossicles affected hearing at 4 and 5 kHz. These results indicate that larger bladders and ossicles as well as higher ossicle numbers improve hearing ability at higher frequencies in catfishes. We furthermore assume that the tiny bladders have minimized their hydrostatic function but were not completely lost because of their auditory function.

  16. Environmental hypertonicity causes induction of gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Das

    Full Text Available The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the effect of hyperosmotic stress, due to exposure to hypertonic environment (300 mM mannitol for 14 days, on gluconeogenesis in this catfish. In situ exposure to hypertonic environment led to significant stimulation of gluconeogenic fluxes from the perfused liver after 7 days of exposure, followed by further increase after 14 days in presence of three different potential gluconeogenic substrates (lactate, pyruvate and glutamate. Environmental hypertonicity also caused a significant increase of activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase by about 2-6 fold in liver, and 3-6 fold in kidney tissues. This was accompanied by more abundance of enzyme proteins by about 1.8-3.7 fold and mRNAs by about 2.2-5.2 fold in both the tissues with a maximum increase after 14 days of exposure. Hence, the increase in activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes under hypertonic stress appeared to be as a result of transcriptional regulation of genes. Immunocytochemical analysis further confirmed the tissue specific localized expression of these enzymes in both the tissues with the possibility of expressing more in the same localized places. The induction of gluconeogenesis during exposure to environmental hypertonicity possibly occurs as a consequence of changes in hydration status/cell volume of different cell types. Thus, these adaptational strategies related to gluconeogenesis that are observed in this catfish under hypertonic stress probably help in maintaining glucose homeostasis and also for a proper energy supply to support metabolic demands mainly for ion transport and other altered metabolic processes under various

  17. Impacts of Catfish Effluents on Water Quality Parameters of Majidun Stream, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great concern about the level of safety of surface waters, especially in developing countries where there is an exponential increase in water pollution and water-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of catfish pond effluents on water quality of stream water where five catfish farms were located. Water samples were taken on monthly basis, 20 cm of below water surface from the streams that receive effluents from neighboring fishponds. Water quality indicators like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate, nitrite, water temperature, ammonia and Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH were examined in the sampled waters in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. The average values of water quality indicators examined at effluents and non-effluents discharged sites of the stream indicated that water (24.6 ± 0.2, 24.2 ±0.1, (7.29±0.30, 7.30±0.10, (6.90±0.4, 7.07±0.1 mg/l, (0.40±0.04, 0.27±0.01, (3.77±0.26, 2.34±0.16 mg/l, (3.59±0.11, 2.80±0.02 mg/l and (3.51±0.24, 2.46±0.21 mg/l at (p≥0.05 respectively for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and BODs. They were significant differences (P 0.05 excepts temperature and pH, between values obtained at effluents discharged and non-effluents discharged sites, indicating that improper discharges of catfish pond effluents could resulted into environmental contamination

  18. MOTIVATIONS FOR INVOLVEMENT IN URBAN CATFISH FARMING AND SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Monisola TUNDE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farming is known as one of the ways of ensuring food security and alleviating poverty through income generation. It is very common in the urban areas of Nigeria because of great demand for fish. This study determines motivations for involvement in urban catfish farming and sustainable food security in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identifies fish farmers and their socio-demographic characteristics in the study area; it examines motives of fish farming; examines the contributions of fish farming to household food security; and assesses the challenges faced by fish farmers for increased production. Both primary and secondary sources of information were employed and a total of 120 fish farmers were sampled randomly with copies of structured questionnaire. Frequency counts, percentages, tabulations and matrix ranking were employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings revealed that catfish production has actually contributed immensely to sustainable food security by making fish available, accessible and stable within the study area. The main motive for involvement in fish farming by the farmers includes food security (with a mean value of 3.80. This was followed by income supplement (x = 3.50, source of employment (x = 3.42 and increase in price of meat (x = 3.37. It can therefore be concluded that catfish farming in the study area has not only improve practitioners’ food security but has also contributed immensely to their income. The paper recommends the need to include fish farming in urban planning and that it should be encouraged in both rural and urban areas so as to have sustainable food security in the country as a whole.

  19. Does the hearing sensitivity in thorny catfishes depend on swim bladder morphology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Zebedin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thorny catfishes exhibit large variations in swim bladder morphology. These organs are of different sizes, forms and may have simple or branched diverticula. The swim bladder plays an important role in otophysans because it enhances their hearing sensitivity by transmitting sound pressure fluctuations via ossicles to the inner ear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if a form-function relationship exists, the swim bladder morphology and hearing ability were analyzed in six species. The morphology was quantified by measuring the length, width and height and calculating a standardized swim bladder length (sSBL, which was then used to calculate the relative swim bladder length (rSBL. Hearing was measured using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. Two species had simple apple-shaped and four species heart-shaped (cordiform bladders. One of the latter species had short unbranched diverticula on the terminal margin, two had a secondary bladder and two had many long, branched diverticula. The rSBL differed significantly between most of the species. All species were able to detect frequencies between 70 Hz and 6 kHz, with lowest thresholds found between 0.5 and 1 kHz (60 dB re 1 µPa. Hearing curves were U-shaped except in Hemidoras morrisi in which it was ramp-like. Mean hearing thresholds of species possessing smaller rSBLs were slightly lower (maximum 8.5 dB than those of species having larger rSBLs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings reveal a relationship between swim bladder form and its function among thorny catfishes. Relatively smaller swim bladders resulted in relatively better hearing. This is in contrast to a prior inter-familial study on catfishes in which species with large unpaired bladders possessed higher sensitivity at higher frequencies than species having tiny paired and encapsulated bladders.

  20. Gill remodelling and growth rate of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus under impact of hypoxia and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2016-01-01

    Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27 °C and future 33 °C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6 weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate th...... was almost eliminated in the 27 °C normoxic group, with other groups intermediate. In addition, elevated temperature had an astounding effect on growth with the 33 °C group growing nearly 8-fold faster than the 27 °C fish....

  1. Role of various fishmeal ingredients on sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was aimed to evaluate the role of fish meal from different raw materials in improving growth performance of sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. The source of raw materials used were derived from trash fish, salted fish, and head fish eal. Fish reared for 44 days and were given feed test three times per day at 08.00, 12.00, and 16.00. Biomass weight of the experimental fish used were 38.49±1.61 g. The fish reared on the aquarium of 60x50x40 cm3 and by using recirculation system. The results showed that fish meal derived from trash fish provide the best result for feed consumption, daily growth rate, absolute length, biomass, retention of protein, retention of fat, feed efficiency, feed conversion (P>0.05. However, it does not significantly different on the survival of fish (P>0.05. The data showed that the use of trash fish meal resulted on the best growth performance of sangkuriang catfish. It was indicated that the trash-fish meal might be used as the main protein source of sangkuriang catfish feed. Keywords: catfish, growth, at satiation, fish meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pakan uji yang menggunakan sumber tepung ikan dari bahan baku berbeda dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan lele sangkuriang Clarias sp. Sumber tepung ikan yang digunakan berasal dari ikan rucah, ikan asin, dan kepala ikan, yang memiliki umum digunakan sebagai salah satu bahan baku pakan lokal. Ikan diberi pakan at satiation selama 44 hari dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00, dan 16.00. Biomassa rata-rata ikan uji yang digunakan adalah 38,49±1,61 g. Ikan dipelihara dalam akuarium berukuran 60x50x40 cm3 dan dengan menerapkan sistem resirkulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung ikan yang berasal dari ikan rucah mampu memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan uji. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh nilai kinerja pertumbuhan seperti jumlah konsumsi pakan, laju

  2. The Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in South American Catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Luchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that a detailed description of the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the South American catfish Rhamdia quelen pancreatic islets is presented. Evidence is offered to support the contention that the α-granules consist of a central and an outer portion of different electron densities and solubilities, that the δ-cells are most probably morphologically altered but viable α-cells, and that the β-granules possibly possess a repeating substructure and may therefore represent an intracellular crystalline storage form of insulin.

  3. Toxicity of Copper (11) Tetraoxo Sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    F.O. Agbebi; Owoeye, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The range – finding test was conducted twice in order to get reliable values that could be used for the definitive test. The toxicant (copper sulphate) was introduced at varying concentrations of 10g/l, 20g/l, 30g/l and 40g/l in the first range- finding test, while it was introduced at concentrations of 2g/l, 4g/l, 6g/l and 8g/l in the second range- finding test. However, in the de...

  4. Catching a Catfish: Constructing the ‘good’ social media user in reality television

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelock, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article interrogates the cultural work of ‘old’ media texts which take social media use as a narrative focus. Employing the MTV reality show Catfish: The TV Show as a case study, I argue that, in this program, the specific conventions of reality television - authenticity, confession and self-realization – work to produce and circulate normative scripts of “appropriate” and “inappropriate” ways to articulate the self on social media, which align with reality TV’s established investment in...

  5. A new species of torrent catfish, Liobagrus hyeongsanensis (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae), from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Su; Park, Jong-Young

    2015-08-27

    A new species of torrent catfish, Liobargus hyeongsanensis, is described from rivers and tributaries of the southeastern coast of Korea. The new species can be differentiated from its congeners by the following characteristics: a small size with a maximum standard length (SL) of 90 mm; body and fins entirely brownish-yellow without distinct markings; a relatively short pectoral spine (3.7-6.5 % SL); a reduced body-width at pectoral-fin base (15.5-17.9 % SL); 50-54 caudal-fin rays; 6-8 gill rakers; 2-3 (mostly 3) serrations on pectoral fin; 60-110 eggs per gravid female.

  6. A new species of anguilliform catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Bangladesh and northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Heok Hee; Ferraris, Carl J Jr

    2016-02-12

    We describe Olyra praestigiosa, a new anguilliform bagrid catfish, from the Brahmaputra River drainage in Bangladesh and northeastern India. The new species differs from congeners in having the following unique combination of characters: interorbital distance 30-37% HL; body depth at anus 6-9% SL; length of adipose-fin base 99-16% SL; adipose fin separate from upper principal caudal-fin rays; post-adipose distance 15-18% SL; 17-22 anal-fin rays; caudal peduncle length 14-19% SL; and caudal peduncle depth 6-8% SL.

  7. Utilization of various dietary carbohydrate levels by the freshwater catfish Mystus montanus (Jerdon)

    OpenAIRE

    , A. Jesu Arockia Raj; (2), M.A. Haniffa; (2), S. Seetharaman; (1), S. Appelbaum

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of different levels of carbohydrate in artificial diets on growth and feed conversion of freshwater catfish Mystus montanus, six diets with gradual levels of carbohydrates (2%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 12% and 14%) were prepared in pelleted form and fed to the fingerlings of M. montanus to evaluate changes in growth and feed conversion. Higher survival (89%) and specific growth rate (1.06%d-1) as well as better feed conversion ratio (1.04) were observed in fish receiving d...

  8. Molecular analysis reveals hidden diversity in Zungaro (Siluriformes: Pimelodidade): a genus of giant South American catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Antonio A; Ramirez, Jorge L; Galetti, Pedro M; Troy, Waldo P; Freitas, Patricia D

    2017-06-01

    The genus Zungaro contains some of the largest catfish in South America. Two valid species are currently recognized: Zungaro jahu, inhabiting the Paraná and Paraguay basins, and Zungaro zungaro, occurring in the Amazonas and Orinoco basins. Analysing Zungaro specimens from the Amazonas, Orinoco, Paraguay and Paraná basins, based on the sequencing of COI and D-loop, we found at least three MOTUs, indicating the existence of hidden diversity within this fish group. Considering the ecological and economic values of this fish, our results are surely welcomed for its conservation, disclosing new findings on its diversity and pointing out the necessity for a detailed taxonomic revision.

  9. Metabolic costs of changing the cation-anion difference in the diet of juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Tijssen, P.A.T.; Booms, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K - Cl, mEq kg1) on energy metabolism and nitrogen losses in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) was examined in fish exposed to different dietary CAD levels (-146, 116, 497, 713 and 828 mEq kg1 diet). The experiment was

  10. Retention of health beneficial components during hot- and cold-smoking of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Elvevoll, E.O.; Bandarra, N.M.; Cordiero, A.R.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in content of selenium and taurine, and the alteration of fatty acid profile have been studied in African catfish fillets subjected to a commercial cold- or hot smoking process. Selenium content and the fatty acid profile did not change significantly during neither of the smoking procedures.

  11. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  12. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate in headspace and modified atmosphere on Pseduomonas Aeruginosa growth in fresh catfish fillets under abuse temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common spoilage microorganism on fresh catfish products, can grow rapidly at temperatures above 4 deg C during storage and transportation. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), an extract of horseradish oil, and modified atmosphere (MA) can be used to inhibit the growth of P. aerugin...

  13. Cloning and functional characterization of a testicular TSH receptor cDNA from the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, H F; Bogerd, J.

    A cDNA encoding a putative thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (cfTSH-R) was cloned from the testis of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The cfTSH-R showed the highest amino acid sequence identity with the TSH-Rs of other fish species. In addition, an insertion of approximately 50 amino

  14. Reduction of the pectoral spine and girdle in domesticated Channel catfish is likely caused by changes in selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michael L; Lahiri, Shweta; Sullivan, Amanda D H; Mayo, Mark; Newton, Scott H; Sismour, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Locked pectoral spines of the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus more than double the fish's width and complicate ingestion by gape-limited predators. The spine mates with the pectoral girdle, a robust structure that anchors the spine. This study demonstrates that both spine and girdle exhibit negative allometric growth and that pectoral spines and girdles are lighter in domesticated than in wild Channel Catfish. This finding could be explained by changes in selection pressure for spine growth during domestication or by an epigenetic effect in which exposure to predators in wild fish stimulates pectoral growth. We tested the epigenetic hypothesis by exposing domesticated Channel Catfish fingerlings to Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides predators for 13 weeks. Spines and girdles grow isometrically in the fingerlings, and regression analysis indicates no difference in proportional pectoral growth between control and predator-exposed fish. Therefore a change in selection pressure likely accounts for smaller pectoral growth in domesticated Channel Catfish. Decreasing spine growth in older fish suggests anti-predator functions are most important in smaller fish. Additionally, growth of the appendicular and axial skeleton is controlled differentially, and mechanical properties of the spine and not just its length are an important component of this defensive adaptation. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (taurine content. In add...

  16. Effect of precooking and polyphosphate treatment on the quality of catfish fillets cooked in pouch in boiling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum-sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meats and poultry products. However, there are very few examples of vacuum-sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the propert...

  17. Post-prandial protease activity in the digestive tract of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.; Segner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The alkaline proteolytic activity in the gut of African catfish larvae was studied during short time ranges from 30 min to 4 h after ingestion of decapsulated Artemia cysts. The variation in total protease and trypsin activities during the day was monitored during starvation, after one single meal

  18. Two new species and a new genus of neotropical mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae Swainson, 1838 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new monotypic genus and two new species of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related taxa are added. Ricola genus novum is established for the species originally described by Regan (1904) as Loricaria

  19. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquifer used for hybrid catfish hatcheries is less than 10 mg/L of calcium hardness and 1- 25 mg/L of magnesium hardness. Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioti...

  20. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  1. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  2. The dopaminergic regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; van 't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    In several teleost species, including the African catfish, dopamine acts as an endogenous inhibitor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated gonadotropin (GTH) release. The present in vivo study was carried out to investigate whether this inhibitory action of dopamine can be explained by

  3. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  4. Selenium speciation in different organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) enriched through a selenium-enriched garlic based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Murillo, S.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Jakubowski, N.; Madrid, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Speciation of Se in fish is needed to elucidate the metabolism of this element in living organisms in the marine environment. In this paper, selenium concentration and its species distribution in several organs and tissues (liver, gills, kidney, muscle and gastrointestinal tract) of African catfish

  5. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  6. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  7. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  8. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Current Farming Locations of Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.A.; Dang, V.H.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Leemans, R.; Silva, De S.S.

    2014-01-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these

  9. Dose-confirmation of copper sulfate for treating fungus on channel catfish eggs at a commercial hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study at a commercial hatchery was required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to provide independent substantiation of the results of a previous laboratory dose confirmation study to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs with copper sulfate (CuSO4)...

  10. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  11. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each

  12. Ammonia excretion at different life stages of silver catfish - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ammonia excretion at different life stages (eggs, larvae and juveniles in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen and determined the influence of fasting time on ammonia excretion. Eggs and larvae were collected from incubators at different times after fecundation and placed in chambers. Juveniles were separated into two weight classes (2–50 g and 150-320 g and placed in individual chambers after feeding. Water was collected from each chamber to determine ammonia excretion. Ammonia excretion by the eggs was low, but when hatching began approximately 28h after fecundation, excretion increased until 48h after fecundation. In fasting silver catfish juveniles, there was a significant negative correlation between ammonia excretion and weight. Moreover, ammonia excretion decreased significantly after 12 and 48h of fasting (compared to 6h fasting in the smallest and largest specimens, respectively. Consequently, during incubation of silver catfish eggs, water renovation must be increased at hatching time to avoid a build-up in the concentration of ammonia. In addition, as ammonia excretion in this species increases after feeding, feed must be discontinued when ammonia levels in the tanks are high to avoid a further increase of this metabolite and consequent mortality of silver catfish.

  13. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum C014 on Innate Immune Response and Disease Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Hybrid Catfish

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    Sureerat Butprom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain isolated from intestines of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Male × Clarias macrocephalus Female exhibited an in vitro inhibitory effect on a fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila TISTR 1321. By using the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C014. To examine whether L. plantarum C014 had potential for use as an immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish, the fish diet supplemented with L. plantarum C014 (107 CFU/g diet was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly enhanced in the treated fish after 45 days of feeding. Feeding the fish with the L. plantarum C014 supplemented diet for 45 days before challenging them with A. hydrophila at the dose of LD50 could reduce the mortality rate of the fish from 50% (in control group to 0% (in treated group. Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a potential candidate for use as a natural and safe immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish.

  14. Effects of density, PVC-tubes and feeding time on growth, stress and aggression in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de J.W.; Spanings, T.; Flik, G.

    2016-01-01

    Successive exposure to aquaculture-related stressors may compromise the allostatic capacity of African catfish and lead to allostatic overload and poor welfare. Therefore, we tested the effect of (i) feeding during the light or dark phase, (ii) density (51 fish per 140 L versus 51 fish per 43 L) and

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum C014 on innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butprom, Sureerat; Phumkhachorn, Parichat; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak

    2013-01-01

    A bacterial strain isolated from intestines of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Male × Clarias macrocephalus Female) exhibited an in vitro inhibitory effect on a fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila TISTR 1321. By using the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C014. To examine whether L. plantarum C014 had potential for use as an immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish, the fish diet supplemented with L. plantarum C014 (10(7) CFU/g diet) was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly enhanced in the treated fish after 45 days of feeding. Feeding the fish with the L. plantarum C014 supplemented diet for 45 days before challenging them with A. hydrophila at the dose of LD50 could reduce the mortality rate of the fish from 50% (in control group) to 0% (in treated group). Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a potential candidate for use as a natural and safe immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish.

  16. Comparative Histomorphological and Histochemical Studies on the Oesophagus of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

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    Ashraf Sayed Awaad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to describe and compare both gross and microscopic structure of the oesophagus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. For this purpose, 60 specimens of oesophagus of Nile tilapia (omnivorous fish and African catfish (carnivorous fish were collected and processed. Anatomically, the oesophagus of both species appeared as a short tube with longitudinal mucosal folds. Using scanning electron microscope, the epithelial surface of the esophagus showed primary and secondary mucosal folds in both species while tertiary folds were observed in that of tilapia only. Histologically, the oesophagus consisted of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The oesophageal mucosa consisted of stratified epithelium with few mucous secreting cells in catfish and many mucous secreting cells in tilapia. Two types of mucous secreting cells reacted positively with both periodic acid shiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB; rounded and elongated cells that were recognized in the esophageal epithelium of tilapia and only elongated oval cells were observed in that of catfish. In conclusion, the obtained histomorphological differences in esophagus of both fish species may be attributed to their different feeding habits and type of food.

  17. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the

  18. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  19. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  20. Fungal chitosan and Lycium barbarum extract as anti-Listeria and quality preservatives in minced catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed S; Moussa, Shaaban H; Elguindy, Nihal M; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that causes serious health risks. Chitosan (Ch) is a bioactive polymer that could be effectively applied for foodstuffs biopreservation. Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) is ethnopharmaceutical fruit that have diverse health protecting benefits. Chitosan was produced from A. niger and employed with L. barbarum extract (LBE) as blends for Listeria control and quality biopreservation of African catfish mince (Clarias gariepinus). Chitosan could utterly control L. monocytogenes survival in fish mince and its efficacy was strengthened with added LBE at 0.2 and 0.4%. Blending of fish mince with Ch could effectively reduce the progress of chemical spoilage parameters and this protective effect was greatly enhanced with increased addition of LBE. The sensorial assessment of treated minces indicated panelists preferences for the entire attributes of blended samples with Ch and LBE, particularly with storage prolongation. Scanning micrographs elucidated the antibacterial action of Ch against L. monocytogenes. Results recommended the application of fungal Ch/LBE composites as biopreservatives and anti-listerial agents, through their blending with catfish mince, to eliminate bacterial growth, enhance sensory and storage attributes of preserved fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822

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    Christopher Didigwu Nwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L. Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, cellular hemoglobin, and cellular hemoglobin concentration. The levels of white blood cells, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased (P<0.05 while protein levels declined. However, no definite pattern of changes was observed in the number and type of leucocytes. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  2. Molecular identification of intergenus crosses involving catfish hybrids: risks for aquaculture production

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    Diogo T. Hashimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring of the interspecific hybrid production and trade is essential for the appropriate management of these animals in fish farms. The identification of catfish hybrids by morphological analysis is unreliable, particularly of juveniles and post-F1 individuals. Therefore, in the present study, we used five molecular markers (four nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene to detect hybrids in the trade of pimelodid juvenile fish from different stocks purchased of five seed producers in Brazil. Samples commercialized as pintado (pure species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from three fish farms were genetically identified as hybrid cachapinta (♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ P. corruscans . In the stocks purchased as cachandiá (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Leiarius marmoratus and cachapira (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , we suggested the occurrence of intergenus crosses involving the hybrid cachapinta, which was used instead of the pure species P. reticulatum . The problems involving the hybrid cachapinta production were discussed in the present study, especially because these animals have caused genetic contamination and threatened the genetic integrity of natural and cultivated populations. In order to improve the surveillance of the production and provide criteria for the correct management of catfish hybrids, genetic markers has become an excellent alternative to the morphological identification, including juveniles or post-F1 generations.

  3. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  4. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  5. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    Lenise de Lima Silva

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  6. Studies on the cranial osteology of the blind catfish Horoglanis krishnai Menon (Pisces, Clariidae.

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    Mercy T.V. Anna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Horaglanis krishnai Menon is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug- out wells at Kottayam, Kerala, South India. Studies on the cranial osteology of the fish show that the bones on the skull are firmly articulated. The frontoparietal fontanella is very large so that the cranium virtually lacks a roof. The sphenotics and alisphenoids are hardly recognizable and the orbital bones are entirely lacking. In osteological features H. krishnai closely resembles Uegitglanis zammaroni. But in H. krishnai the orbital bones are further reduced or even absent. The fontanella is larger than that of any other known catfish. These two species must have evolved from the same ancester and have taken up nearly identical ways of life. The difference between the skeletons of these two appears to be largely dependent on the relative size of the frontoparietal fontanella. Its greater development in H. krishnai brought about a suppression or reduction of some of the bones clearly visible in Uegitglanis. It would appear that the modification initiated in Uegitglanis gatered momentum in Horaglanis. These two fishes form a group distinct from clariids and bagrids but form a connecting link between the two.

  7. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil

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    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study characterises morphologically Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with Giemsa. Ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of T. heterodentata. Prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host. Trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. In relation to previous reports of T. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.

  8. Parasites of two coexisting invasive sailfin catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in a tropical region of Mexico

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    María Amparo Rodríguez-Santiago

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently many species of Amazon sailfin catfishes (Loricariidae have been introduced to wild environments outside their native range. There is, however, little knowledge about their role as vectors of parasites that can infect native fish or even humans through its consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the parasitic fauna of the invasive sailfin catfish species Pterygoplichthys pardalis (leopard pleco and P. disjunctivus (vermiculated pleco from freshwater systems in the southeast of Mexico. Four ectoparasite species were found in P. pardalis (1 protozoan: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis ; 2 monogeneans: Urocleidoides vaginoclastrum and Heteropriapulus heterotylus ; 1 digenean: Clinostomum sp., and only one in Heteropriapulus disjunctivus (H. heterotylus . No endoparasites were found. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis , U. vaginoclaustrum and Clinostomum sp. , were considered as rare species (prevalence <5% since they were found in a single individual of P. pardalis . H. heterotylus was the only species shared among both host species and it occurs throughout the year. This monogenean species represents 96% of total parasites recorded in P. pardalis and 100% in P. disjunctivus. Monthly values of prevalence, intensity and abundance of H. heterotylus in both host species showed important intra-annual variations, but not differ significantly between both hosts.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural and Non-natural distribution of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 in Turkey

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    Funda TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 is a widespread freshwater species found in the Middle East, and throughout Central and South Africa. C. gariepinus, inhabits natural lakes, fishponds, streams, and natural ponds in both deep and shallow waters. C. gariepinus is naturally found in the Asi, Seyhan, Ceyhan, Goksu Rivers. It was reported that C. gariepinus was translocated to the Aksu River by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. African catfish has increasing commercial importance in fisheries and aquaculture in Turkey. A recently introduced population of C. gariepinus has established in the Sakarya River (Eskişehir due to aquaculture purposes in the north part of the Turkey. C. gariepinus introduction has negative effects on macro invertebrate community that was reflected by decrease in diversity, richness and biomass. There is also community-level impact of introduction that results variation in macro invertebrate composition in the rivers. Stomach contents of C. gariepinus basically rely on Pisces, Arthropod, Mollusca and plant materials to a considerable extent. Therefore, introduction of C. gariepinus in dams, rivers and lakes can cause food competitions with native fish and make irreversible changes in the fish community and cause loses of native fish. The present paper reviews published literature, reports and working papers about distribution and management of C. gariepinus in Turkey’s reservoirs.

  11. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822, fingerlings

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    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swollen abdomen, anorexia, fin and tail rot, and reddish operculum. The LD50 of E. tarda PBB and PBP strains was found to be 8.52 × 106 and 1.68 × 107 cells fish-1, respectively. Histopathological observations on catfish infected naturally revealed lymphocyte infiltration in muscle and focal necrosis, hyperplasia, edema, and swelling of the gill lamellar epithelium. The kidney of diseased fish exhibited ischemic type tubulopathy, necrosis of nephritic tubules, hyperplastic hematopoietic tissue, rupture of the tubular basement membrane, hydropic dystrophy of nephritic cells, neutrophil infiltration, fibrinoid necrosis of nephretic tubules, hemosiderin deposition, and edema. The liver sections revealed lymphocyte infiltration, dilation of hepatic sinusoids, expansion of space between hepatic sinusoids, and focal necrosis. The inflammatory responses observed in kidney and liver in the present study were presumably suppuration and were attributed to the potential virulence factors of E. tarda.

  12. CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO AND NITROGENOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION IN THE INTENSIVE CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus CULTURE

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    Bambang Gunadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum C/N ratio for heterotrophic bacteria (biofloc growth in order to control nitrogenous waste accumulation in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus culture. Twenty fish with an initial individual size of about 50 g were stocked in fiberglass tanks which were filled with 200 L of water. Fish were fed with commercial floating fish feed with a protein level of 31%-33% (manufacturer label. The daily feeding rate was 2.5% of the fish biomass. The inoculation of commercial Bacillus sp. isolates was applied in the first day of the experiment after fish stocking in order to obtain a bacterial density in water of 106 cfu/L. Molases was suplemented daily to the tanks to adjust C/N ratio in water. Four C/N ratios, i.e. 0, 7, 14, and 21, were applied as treatments in this experiment. The results showed that molasses suplementation up to C/N ratio 14 to 21 were able to support the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and to inhibit the accumulation of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite in water therefore increase water quality for better growth of cultured catfish.

  13. Effects of delayed first feeding on growth of the silver catfish larvae Rhamdia voulezi (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae

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    Ariane F. de Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the timing of first feeding on the point-of-no-return (PNR and growth of laboratory reared silver catfish Rhamdia voulezi larvae were studied. The experiment began immediately after the complete absorption of the yolk sac, 3 days after hatching (DAH. The food was provided for the first time on 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th DAH. Zooplankton and newly-hatched Artemia spp. were used to feed the larvae. To evaluate the effect of food deprivation on growth, the standard length and weight of 594 larvae were assessed. Larval growth was significantly affected by the time of first exogenous feeding. The larvae fed from 3rd to 5th DAH showed a significantly higher development than those fed from 6th DAH. The larvae reached the PNR on 6th DAH. Survival and larval growth strongly depended on the timing of initial feeding. In order to avoid potential mortality by starvation and obtain good growth, the silver catfish larvae R. voulezi must establish successful initial feeding within 5 days after hatching.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary β-glucan in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    Janine Di Domenico

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The immunomodulatory effects of dietary β-glucan were evaluated in silver catfish. β-glucan was added to the diet (0.01%, and 0.1% and fed to the fish for 21 days, to evaluate effects on blood and some innate immune parameter, or fed for 42 days, to evaluate growth rate and resistance to challenge with pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. We found that adding β-glucan to the diet had no effect on fish growth and no effect on blood cells, or serum bacterial agglutination and serum myeloperoxidase activity. However, fish that received β-glucan in the diet had the natural hemolytic activity of complement significantly higher compared to control fish. Furthermore, fish fed with β-glucan and challenged with A. hydrophila had fewer bacteria in blood and presented a significantly higher survival rate compared to control fish. Thus, we concluded that β-glucan might be explored as feed additive aiming to improve silver catfish innate immunity and resistance to specific pathogen.

  15. No trade-off between biting and suction feeding performance in clariid catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that biting performance trades off with suction performance in fish because both feeding types may place conflicting demands on the cranial musculo-skeletal system. However, the functional consequences of morphological adaptations enhancing biting on the mechanics and performance of suction feeding in fish remain obscure. In this study, suction feeding performance was compared between three clariid catfish species differing considerably in their biting capacity, by measuring the velocity of a standardized prey being sucked into the buccal cavity using high-speed cineradiography. In addition, buccal volume changes during prey capture were quantified by ellipse modelling. As all species were able to accelerate the prey to similar peak velocities, our results demonstrate the possibility for catfishes to increase bite performance considerably without compromising suction performance. The amount of buccal expansion in the ventral direction is approximately equal for all species. Consequently, the system generating expansion through ventral rotation of the lower jaw, hyoid and pectoral girdle is apparently not constrained (mechanically or architectonically) by the hypertrophy of the jaw adductors. As the effect of a reduced magnitude of lateral expansion (suspensorium abduction) on suction performance in Clariidae appears to be negligible (for example in Gymnallabes typus), these data demonstrate the dominant role of ventral expansion for producing suction in these fish.

  16. Interspecific variation in sternohyoideus muscle morphology in clariid catfishes: functional implications for suction feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Depression of the hyoid apparatus plays a crucial role in generating suction, especially in fishes with a dorso-ventrally flattened head shape. It is generally assumed that shortening of the sternohyoideus muscle, which connects the hyoid to the pectoral girdle, contributes to hyoid depression. However, a recent study on the clariid catfish Clarias gariepinus has shown that this muscle does not shorten but elongates during this phase through retraction of the pectoral girdle. Here, we test whether this pattern is general among clariid catfish, or if variation in the morphology of the sternohyoideus may result in a different sternohyoideus behavior during hyoid depression. First, sternohyoideus mass, effective cross-sectional area, fiber length and fiber diameter were measured and compared for four clariid species. Next, velocity and magnitude of hyoid depression during prey capture (from high-speed videos), as well as patterns of sternohyoideus strain were analyzed (from high-speed X-ray videos) in these species. While morphology and hyoid depression performance varied considerably among these species, only the species with the most massive sternohyoideus, Gymnallabes typus, showed shortening of the sternohyoideus muscle during the initial part of the expansive phase. The data for Channallabes apus demonstrate that increasing the magnitude of hyoid depression does not necessarily require a shortening of the m. sternohyoideus, as it shows elongation of this muscle during hyoid depression. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Malathion exposure induces the endocrine disruption and growth retardation in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Bechan; Sarang, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-01-15

    Many hormones are known for their role in the regulation of metabolic activities and somatic growth in fishes. The present study deals with the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on the levels of metabolic hormones that are responsible for promotion of somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment for thirty days drastically reduced the food intake and body weight of fish. These fish also exhibited a great avoidance to food. Exposure of catfish to malathion reduced the levels of thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E(2)) in a dose dependent manner during all the studied reproductive phases, in general, except that malathion increased the level of GH during the quiescence phase. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content also occurred in the malathion-treated fish. Malathion exposure induced lipolysis too in the liver and muscle. The results thus support that malathion treatment disrupts the endocrine functions and the olfactory sensation responsible for food intake and gustatory feeding behavior, which ultimately leads to retardation of fish growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  19. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  20. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  1. Identifying and misidentifying the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R

    1999-11-01

    The brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, is often implicated as a cause of necrotic skin lesions.[1-3] Diagnoses are most commonly made by clinical appearance and infrequently is a spider seen, captured or identified at the time of the bite.[1, 2, 4-6] The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the U.S. (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely-populated southwest U.S.[7] In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. However, outside the natural range of these recluse species, the conviction that they are the etiological agents behind necrotic lesions of unknown origin is widespread, and most often erroneous. In some states such as California, unsubstantiated reports concerning recluse spider bites have taken on the status of "urban legend" leading to overdiagnosis and, therefore, inappropriate treatment.

  2. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  3. Thermodynamic study of brown-coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, P.; Holub, R.; Schoengut, S.; Schoengut, J.

    1988-04-01

    Describes a method for calculating and assessing results of partial adiabatic oxidation of brown coal from the North Bohemian brown-coal field, which may in future act as a source of raw material for production of energy and synthesis gas. Calculations assume idealized fluid and burner generators and reaction parameters were selected to cover a range of operational values (these parameters include pressure, temperature, gasification ratio, water content, ash content and degree of coal conversion). After describing mathematics involved, concludes that thermodynamic analysis shows burner generator to have some advantages over fluid generator for production of synthesis gas, and vice versa for production of energy gas. However, final conclusions must await experimental evidence with regard to degree of conversion and composition of gas mixture; also, validity of this assessment is limited by the fact that no account was taken of the possibility of using reaction heat for production of steam or of any energy consumption involved. 10 refs.

  4. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sedláček

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  5. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  6. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research.

  7. Effect injection of Ginger Extract on Development and Nucleus position of “Sangkuriang” Catfish Clarias sp. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One of methods could be applied to continuously meet the need of fish fry including catfish (Clarias sp. is artificial propagation by inducing ovulation and spawning.   As an alternative of existing method, in this study, ginger extract was intramuscularly injected to induce development of catfish eggs.  Ginger is known as an important regulator of the balance of arachidonat cycle.  The dose of ginger extract injected was 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg broodstock.  The results of study showed that injection 100% of ginger extracts in all doses was insignificantly inducing development of egg diameter and its nucleus position of catfish.  Other chemicals exist in ginger extract might be functions as an obstacle for egg development of catfish. Keywords: catfish, Clarias sp., ginger, ovulation, egg   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk memenuhi kebutuhan benih ikan termasuk lele (Clarias sp. secara kontinyu adalah penggunaan teknologi pembiakan buatan melalui perangsangan ovulasi dan pemijahan. Sebagai alternatif teknik yang sudah ada, dicobakan perangsangan perkembangan telur ikan lele menggunakan bahan ekstrak jahe yang dilakukan melalui penyuntikan secara intramuskular. Jahe telah dikenal sebagai suatu pengatur penting atas keseimbangan siklus arakidonat. Dosis ekstrak jahe yang disuntikkan adalah 0, 0,5, 1 dan 1,5 mL/kg induk. Penyuntikan 100% ekstrak jahe pada semua dosis perlakuan belum dapat merangsang perkembangan diameter dan posisi inti sel telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Adanya bahan lain yang terdapat pada jahe diduga sebagai penghambat bagi perkembangan telur ikan lele. Kata kunci: Ikan lele, Clarias sp., jahe, ovulasi,  sel telur

  8. ABUNDANCE AND UTILIZATION OF NATURAL LIFE FEED FOR REARING OF ASIAN CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus LARVAE IN OUTDOOR POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Ariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In early rearing period, the larvae of Asian catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were fed with Artemia nauplii at the first 10 days. Since Artemia cyst price is quite expensive, it will be a constraint in development of the Asian catfish hatcheries. This study was conducted to evaluate the abundance of natural life food in pond and utilization of it for substitute Artemia cyst in Asian catfish larvae rearing. The Asian catfish larvae at the age of 5 days after hatching were used as the test fish. Sampling of natural life food in fertilized pond was conducted before the fish stocked. The fish larvae were stocked in pond after ten days from ponds fertilizing. At the 2nd day after larvae fish was stocked, five fish samples were collected for identify the type of food which consumed by fish. The results showed that abundance of natural life food which found in ponds ranged from 70,200 to 180,600 individual/L. Index of diversity, uniformity and dominancy for phytoplankton and zooplankton ranged from 2.407 to 2.732; from 0.032 to 0.043 and from 0.112 to 0.204, respectively. Based on the analysis of digestive tract of fish, it was found that index of selectivity and index of preponderance for natural life food ranged from 0.94 to 0.62 and from 0.17 to 67.03, respectively. This study suggested that Asian catfish larvae at the age of five days after hatching can utilize the natural life food in ponds to replace the use of Artemia cyst in indoor hatchery system.

  9. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosa, Elena; Liu, Shikai; Terova, Genciana; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Terhune, Jeffery; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g) for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, Pcatfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01) after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  10. Effect of feeding and fasting on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan

    2007-03-01

    The impact of feeding (fed to satiation, 13.85% body mass) on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, chasing for 2.5 min) was investigated in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) (38.62-57.55 g) at 25. Cutlets of freshly killed loach species without viscera, head and tail were used as the test meal, and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was adjusted to a standard body mass of 1 kg using a mass exponent of 0.75. Resting VO(2) increased significantly above fasting levels (49.89 versus 148.25 mg O(2) h(-)(1)) in 12 h postprandial catfish. VO(2) and ventilation frequency (V(f)) both increased immediately after exhaustive exercise and slowly returned to pre-exercise values in all experimental groups. The times taken for post-exercise VO(2) to return to the pre-exercise value were 20, 25 and 30 min in 12 h, 60 h and 120 h postprandial catfish, respectively. Peak VO(2) levels were 257.36+/-6.06, 219.32+/-6.32 and 200.91+/-5.50 mg O(2) h(-1) in 12 h, 60 h and 120 h postprandial catfish and EPOC values were 13.85+/-4.50, 27.24+/-3.15 and 41.91+/-3.02 mg O(2) in 12 h, 60 h and 120 h postprandial southern catfish, respectively. There were significant differences in both EPOC and peak VO(2) during the post-exercise recovery process among three experimental groups (pcatfish, (2) both the digestive process and exercise (also the post-exercise recovery process) were curtailed under postprandial exercise, (3) the change of V(f) was smaller than that of VO(2) during the exhaustive exercise recovery process, (4) for a similar increment in VO(2), the change in V(f) was larger during the post-exercise process than during the digestive process.

  11. Optimal Incorporation Level of Dietary Alternative Phosphate (MgHPO4) and Requirement for Phosphorus in Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    ...), which was manufactured from swine manure and phosphorus (P), required by juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus). Graded MHP of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, and 2.0% monocalcium phosphate...

  12. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  13. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  14. Growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed a commercial diet and reared in the biofloc system enhanced with probiotic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Putra Iskandar; Rusliadi Rusliadi; Fauzi Muhammad; Tang Usman M; Muchlisin Zainal A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed a commercial diet and reared in the biofloc system...

  15. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a “browning trend” in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al. 2005, Bunn et al. 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al. 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was...

  16. Finding Brown's peony a sweet attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan. Vance

    2012-01-01

    I first encountered Brown’s peony (Paeonia brownie) with its verdant, lavender-tinged leaves and elegantly nodding maroon flowers growing among bitterbrush and bunchgrass on the eastern flank of the Oregon Cascades. My first thought was “What is a plant like you doing in a place like this?” It would be natural to visualize this native wild peony as...

  17. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Alina; Singh, N.J.; Friebe, A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Laske, T.G.; Fröbert, O.; Swenson, Jon E.; Blanc, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an internal biological clock, or physiological processes dominate? Using state-of-the-art tracking and monitoring technology on fourteen free-ranging brown bears over three winters, we recorded movement, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature (Tb), physical a...

  18. New brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, T.; Moualla, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Raetz, St.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Marka, C.; Rammo, W.; Reithe, A.; Roell, T.; Vaňko, M.

    2009-05-01

    We have performed deep, wide-field imaging on a ˜ 0.4 deg2 field in the Pleiades (Melotte 22). The selected field was not yet target of a deep search for low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Our limiting magnitudes are R˜22 mag and I˜20 mag, sufficient to detect brown dwarf candidates down to 40 MJ. We found 197 objects, whose location in the (I, R-I) color magnitude diagram is consistent with the age and the distance of the Pleiades. Using CTK R and I as well as JHK photometry from our data and the 2MASS survey we were able to identify 7 new brown dwarf candidates. We present our data reduction technique, which enables us to resample, calibrate, and co-add many images by just two steps. We estimate the interstellar extinction and the spectral type from our optical and the NIR data using a two-dimensional χ2 fitting. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich- Schiller-University. Table A3 is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AN/330/439

  19. Disintegration of brown coal using alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydra, J.; Skalicka, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations carried out by the Institute of Geology and Geotechnics of the Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia are discussed. The investigations were aimed at determining the optimum conditions for in situ solution mining of brown coal using alkaline solutions. Twelve brown coal samples with carbon content ranging from 64.5 to 90.7% were treated with sodium hydroxide solution with concentration ranging from 1 to 5%. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (15%) and ethanolamine (5%) also were investigated. Proportion of the 3 compounds in water was the following: 500 ml sodium hydroxide, 100 ml ethanolamine and 20 ml hydrogen peroxide. Effects of coal grain size on its disintegration in the alkaline solution also were analyzed. Conditions of in situ solution mining were simulated in the laboratory. Investigations showed that the optimum coal grain size was 2 mm, in which case disintegration efficiency depended on carbon content in coal. The lower the carbon content was, the more efficient was the alkaline disintegration. Alkaline solutions did not influence brown coal with carbon content higher than 85%. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide was 3%. Addition of hydrogen peroxide and ethanolamine did not influence disintegration. When alkaline solution was pumped 96 h long into a borehole, it penetrated coal to a depth of 2 mm causing swelling of the borehole walls but not coal disintegration. 8 references.

  20. Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanika, Susanne; Kramer, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    During their seasonal runs in the Okavango and other freshwater bodies in southern Africa, the sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, specialises on the bulldog, Marcusenius macrolepidotus, as its main prey. We examined whether the catfish can locate bulldogs by detecting their pulse-type electric organ discharges (EODs). The electrosensory threshold for single-cycle, monopolar square-wave pulses was exceedingly low (down to 13 µVp-p/cm for 4-ms pulses) in trained, food-rewarded sharptooth c...

  1. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  2. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  3. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-04-15

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The full-length nucleic acid sequence of channel catfish CXCR4 cDNA comprised of 1994 nucleotides, including an open reading frame, which appears to encode a putative peptide of 357 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 40.1kDa. By comparison with the human counterpart, the channel catfish CXCR4 peptide can be divided into domains, including seven transmembrane domains, four cytoplasmic domains, and four extracellular domains. The CXCR4 transcript was detected in spleen, anterior kidney, liver, intestine, skin and gill of all catfish examined in this study. Because four CXCL of channel catfish have been identified, the result provides valuable information for further exploring the channel catfish chemokine signalling pathways and their roles in immune responses to infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  5. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  6. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  7. Prevention of Aeromonas hydrophila on catfish juvenile using garlic and shatterstone herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamella Wahjuningrum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the dose of garlic and shatterstone herb mixed into the feed in 11-day old catfish juvenile (body length 1.53±0.26 cm, body weight of 40±16 mg. The study was divided into two steps, the first step was dose determination and the second step was the dose testing. The treatment was carried out for 21 days, then the challenge test was conducted by immersion method for 60 minutes in A. hydrophila density of 104 cfu/mL. Parameters of observation were survival, feed intake, relative growth rate, morphology of the liver, and water quality. The result showed that garlic at 25 g/kg and shatterstone herb at 5 g/kg provided higher fish viability (81.11±3.85% compared with the control (23.00±5.77%. Feed intake and relative growth rate were not different among the treatments. Whereas the liver condition in positive control was paler than other treatments. Thus, prevention of A. hydrophila infection on catfish juvenile was effectively achieved by feeding with diet supplemented by garlic 25 g/kg and shatterstone herb 5 g/kg. Keywords: garlic, shatterstone herb, Aeromonas hydrophila, juvenile, catfish  ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis bawang putih dan meniran yang dicampur ke pakan dalam bentuk tepung pada benih lele berumur 11 hari (berukuran panjang 1,53±0,26 cm dan bobot 40±16 mg. Penelitian ini terbagi menjadi dua tahap, pertama adalah tahap penentuan dosis (dosis 20 ppt bawang putih+5 ppt meniran dan 25 ppt bawang putih+5 ppt meniran dan kedua adalah tahap pengujian dosis. Perlakuan diberikan selama 21 hari, kemudian uji tantang dilakukan dengan metode perendaman selama 60 menit dengan kepadatan bakteri A. hydrophila 104 cfu/mL. Parameter yang diamati adalah kelangsungan hidup, jumlah konsumsi pakan, pertumbuhan relatif, morfologi organ hati, dan kualitas air. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa perlakuan bawang putih 25 g/kg dan meniran 5 g/kg memberikan kelangsungan hidup benih lele

  8. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  9. Effectiveness of Kaempferia galanga extract for the prevention of saprolegniasis on catfish Clarias gariepinus eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvilia Humsari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSaprolegniasis is a disease caused by the infection of Saprolegnia sp. Saprolegniasis can attack catfish eggs causing a decrease in hatching rate. There are some plants which have an antifungal potential, e.g. cutcherry Kaempferia galanga L. This study aimed to obtain the effective concentration of cutcherry rhizome extract for the prevention of saprolegniasis, resulting in a high hatching rate. This study applied five treatments: the extract at concentrations of 0 mg/L; 20 mg/L; 40 mg/L; 60 mg/L; and 80 mg/L applied to catfish eggs. The method applied was the immersion of eggs in cutcherry extract for one hour. The results showed that the immersion method applied in the application of cutcherry rhizome extract could reduce saprolegniasis. This was indicated by the decrease of saprolegniasis compared to control. The use of cutcherry rhizome extract (the treatment at concentrations of 20 mg/L; 40 mg/L; 60 mg/L; and 80 mg/L could prevent saprolegniasis with saprolegniasis levels of 43.5%; 27.5%; 19.5%; and 18.5%, respectively. Keywords :  catfish eggs, cutcherry rhizome extract, saprolegniasis  ABSTRAKSaprolegniasis merupakan suatu penyakit yang timbul karena infeksi Saprolegnia sp.  Saprolegniasis dapat menyerang telur ikan lele yang menyebabkan turunnya daya tetas telur. Terdapat beberapa tanaman yang memiliki daya antifungi seperti tanaman kencur Kaempferia galanga L. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi ekstrak rimpang kencur yang efektif untuk pencegahan penyakit saprolegniasis sehingga menghasilkan daya tetas telur yang tinggi. Penelitian menggunakan lima perlakuan yaitu dosis ekstrak 0 mg/L (kontrol; 20 mg/L; 40 mg/L; 60 mg/L; dan 80 mg/L dengan menggunakan telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Metode yang digunakan yaitu perendaman telur dalam ekstrak kencur selama satu jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode perendaman ekstrak rimpang kencur dapat mengurangi saprolegniasis. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan semakin

  10. Phylogeography of the ancient catfish family Diplomystidae: biogeographic, systematic, and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ramírez, C P; Unmack, P J; Habit, E; Johnson, J B; Cussac, V E; Victoriano, P

    2014-04-01

    The catfish family Diplomystidae is one of the earliest branching lineages within the diverse order Siluriformes and shows a deep phylogenetic split from all other extant and extinct major catfish groups. Despite its relevance in the evolution of siluriforms, phylogenetic relationships within the Diplomystidae are poorly understood, and prior to this study, no phylogenetic hypotheses using molecular data had been published. By conducting a phylogeographic study across the entire distribution of the family, that encompasses river systems from Central-South Chile and Argentina, we provide the first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis among all known species of Diplomystidae, and in addition, investigate how their evolutionary history relates to major historical events that took place in southern South America. Our phylogenetic analyses show four main lineages and nine sub-lineages strongly structured geographically. All Pacific basin populations, with one exception (those found in the Baker basin) clustered within three of the four main lineages (clades I-III), while all populations from Atlantic basins and those from the Baker basin clustered in a single main clade (clade IV). There was a tendency for genetic diversity to decrease from north to south for Pacific basins consistent with an increasing north-south ice coverage during the last glacial maximum. However, we did not find a statistically significant correlation between genetic diversity and latitude. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that river basins and the barrier created by the Andes Mountains explained a high percentage of the genetic variation. Interestingly, most of the genetic variation among drainages was explained among Pacific basins. Molecular phylogenetic analyses agree only partially with current systematics. The geographical distribution of main lineages did not match species distribution and suggests a new taxonomic hypothesis with support for four species of Diplomystes, three

  11. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrannini, Giulia; Namwanje, Maria; Fang, Bin; Damle, Manashree; Li, Dylan; Liu, Qiongming; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Qiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. Methods: We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 1...

  12. Study on enzymatic browning in suspension cultures of licorice cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yali Li; Tingting Meng; Yuxi Wang; Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is one of the main obstacles encountered in the establishment of suspension systems of licorice cells. Browning of cells may result in decreased viability, poor growth and even death. The present study investigated the mechanism of browning reactions and the effective controlling methods. The results showed that the cell viability and membrane permeabilization obviously changed when the cells were transferred to liquid medium. The transformation caused rapid increase in the...

  13. Regulation of glycolysis in brown adipocytes by HIF-1α

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L; Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue takes up large amounts of glucose during cold exposure in mice and humans. Here we report an induction of glucose transporter 1 expression and increased expression of several glycolytic enzymes in brown adipose tissue from cold-exposed mice. Accordingly, these genes were also...... with glucose as the only exogenously added fuel. These data suggest that HIF-1α-dependent regulation of glycolysis is necessary for maximum glucose metabolism in brown adipocytes....

  14. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  15. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  16. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  17. NFIA co-localizes with PPARγ and transcriptionally controls the brown fat gene program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiraike, Yuta; Waki, Hironori; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Brown fat dissipates energy as heat and protects against obesity. Here, we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a transcriptional regulator of brown fat by a genome-wide open chromatin analysis of murine brown and white fat followed by motif analysis of brown-fat-specific open chromatin regions...... results in brown adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, the brown fat of NFIA-knockout mice displays impaired expression of the brown-fat-specific genes and reciprocal elevation of muscle genes. Finally, expression of NFIA and the brown-fat-specific genes is positively correlated in human brown fat...

  18. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, C. G.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V.; Wright, Edward L.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  20. Dan Brown : The Da Vinci Code (Sakrileg)

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Wer in Paris die Kirche Saint-Sulpice besucht, wird dort in mehreren Sprachen vor einem Buch gewarnt: »Le risque de Da Vinci Code: semer le doute«. Die Lektüre von The Da Vinci Code soll also mit einer Gefahr verbunden sein: dass Zweifel gesät werden am katholischen Glauben und an der Autorität der römischen Kirche. Der amerikanische Bestseller-Autor Dan Brown hätte insofern tatsächlich das begangen, was sein 2003 erschienener Thriller über die Suche nach dem heiligen Gral zum deutschen Titel...