WorldWideScience

Sample records for brown bullhead catfish

  1. Decline in liver neoplasms in wild brown bullhead catfish after coking plant closes and environmental PAHs plummet.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, P C; Harshbarger, J C

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both sediment and brown bullhead catfish tissues from the Black River in Lorain County, Ohio, declined by 65% and 93%, respectively, between 1980 and 1982. Sediment PAHs declined an additional 99% by 1987, coincident with the closure of a coking facility in 1983. Contemporaneously, liver cancer in 3- to 4-year-old brown bullheads declined to about one-quarter the 1982 frequency (10% versus 39%) by 1987, while the percentage of livers without any prol...

  2. Mucosubstance histochemistry in control and acid-stressed epidermis of brown bullhead catfish, Ictalurus nebulosus (LeSueur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycoprotein components of epidermal mucous cells in control (pH 6.8) and acid-stressed (pH 5.8, 4.8, 4.0) brown bullhead catfish were studied by histochemical and autoradiographic methods. Following exposure to acid, increased numbers of epidermal mucous cells were noted in all tissue sites studied, particularly dorsal and ventral skin. Mucous cells of control fish and acid-stressed (pH 5.8) fish contained a mixture of neutral and acidic mucosubstances, the latter including both sialomucins and sulfomucins, with sialomucins predominating. An apparent shift toward increased sulfomucin production was observed in skin from fish exposed to pH 4.8 and 4.0. In addition, autoradiographic studies using 35S showed increased labeling of mucous cells in acid-exposed (pH 4.0) epidermis, offering further support for a shift toward sulfomucin production in acid-stressed fish. Absence of appreciable sulfomucin production in younger fish (less than 1 year old) suggested that this shift may be partly age-dependent. The functional significance of increased sulfomucin production in acid-stressed epidermal mucous cells is uncertain but may be related to maintenance of ionic equilibrium

  3. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEAD FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The single cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected...

  4. Mitogenic activity of fetal bovine serum, fish fry extract, insulin-like growth factor-I, and fibroblast growth factor on brown bullhead catfish cells - BB line Atividade mitogênica do soro fetal bovino, extrato de larvas de peixe, fator insulínico de crescimento-I e fator de crescimento de fibroblastos na linhagem celular BB do bagre "brown bullhead"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. P. CYRINO

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Biossays were performed to assess the effects of different levels of growth medium supplementation with fetal bovine serum (FBS, fish fry extract (FE, combinations of FBS and FE, and addition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and fibroblast growth factor (FGF on the proliferation of brown bullhead catfish cells (BB line. Treatments (n = 4 were: 2.5, 5, 10, and 15.0% FBS or FE and 5/2.5, 5/5, 10/2.5, and 10/5 of a FBS/FE combination as supplement to the growth medium, or the addition of 0.1, 1, 2.5, 10, 25, and 75 ng/ml of either IGF-I or FGF to the growth media. Initial cell density was 1.1 x 10(6 cells per well on uncoated 24-well plates. Incubation temperature was 29.5 ± 0.7ºC. Six hours after plating, initial culture medium was removed, plates rinsed with Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, treatment media added, and cells allowed to proliferate for 24 hours. Another bioassay was performed with rat myoblast omega cells (RMo using the same levels of growth medium supplemented with FBS, FE and FBS/FE. Base growth medium was Dulbecco’s MEM. The initial cell density was 7.2 x 10(6 cells per well, and the bioassay was carried out at 36.0 ± 0.5ºC, on a 95% air, 5% CO2 incubator. Increasing levels of FBS had a positive effect (P Foram avaliados os efeitos de diferentes níveis de suplementação do meio de cultivo com soro fetal bovino (FBS, extrato de larvas de peixe (FE, combinações de FBS e FE e adição de fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina I (IGF-I e fator de crescimento fibroblástico (FGF, na proliferação da linhagem de células somáticas do bagre "brown bullhead" (BB. Os tratamentos (n = 4 utilizados foram: suplementação do meio de cultivo com 2,5, 5, 10% e 15% FBS ou FE, ou 5/2,5, 5/5, 10/2,5 e 10/5 da combinação FBS/FE ou, ainda, a adição de 0,1, 1, 2,5, 10, 25 e 75 ng/ml de IGF-I ou FGF ao meio de cultivo. Foi utilizada uma densidade inicial de 1,1 x 10(6 células/câmara, em placas não recobertas de 24

  5. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEADS FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comet assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected from three paired reference sites, ...

  6. Tumor prevalence in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the South River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The South River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay flowing near Annapolis, Maryland. In March 2005, brown bullheads were collected in a fyke net set about 1.25 km...

  7. Patterns of 137Cs accumulation in bullhead catfish inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assayed muscle 137Cs concentrations of bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) in order to determine factors contributing to the bioconcentration of this fission product. Bullhead catfish (N = 173) were obtained from the Pond B reservoir, Savannah River Site, SC. Muscle 137Cs concentration did not differ between sexes (ANOVA, P = 0.631). Age of fish (1--6 yr) appeared to explain variation in 137Cs concentration (P = 0.005), but not when mass of fish was included as a model covariate (P = 0.086). Least-square means, adjusted for the covariate, suggested that 1 and 2 yr old fish (71.09 and 81.38 mean pCi/g, respectively) differed from 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr old fish (94.94, 92.34, 97.27, 90.25 mean pCi/g, respectively). Therefore, the effects of age and mass were evaluated by partitioning the data into young (1--2 yr) and older (3, 4, 5, and 6 yr) age classes. When adjusted for mass, age (young vs. old) significantly accounted for differences in 137Cs concentration (78.98 vs. 94.33 mean pCi/g; P = 0.005). Within older fish, neither age (P = 0.870) or mass (P = 0.361) significantly influenced 137Cs concentration. The effect of age within young fish was nonsignificant (P = 0.971) in contrast to the influence of mass (P = 0.044). This suggests that the contribution of 'size' (mass) to 137Cs body burden is related to early growth and that these fish reach an asymptotic 'steady-state' 137Cs concentration by 3 years of age

  8. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  9. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of 137Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for 137Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music 137Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that 137Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium 137Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium 137Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative 137Cs burden of the population was 4.9 x 106 Bq, representing 137Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of 137Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of 137Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, 137Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size

  10. Pigmented macrophage aggregates as a biomarker of oxidative damage in yellow bullhead catfish, Ameiurus natalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented macrophage aggregates (PMs) occur when peroxidized lipids resulting from oxidative damage in tissues are scavenged by macrophages. Ionizing radiation causes oxidative damage, so the authors evaluated PMs as a biomarker in the pronephros of yellow bullheads (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting Pond B, Savannah River Site, SC, a reservoir contaminated with low levels of 137Cs. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and stepwise regression were used to relate the mean number of PMs, per 0.15 mm2 of tissue section, to fish sex (females: N = 61; males: N = 84), age (1--6 yrs), body-condition, and muscle 137Cs concentration. Mean pronephric PMs differed by six and with fish muscle 137Cs concentration. Among males, PMs were positively correlated with fish age and 137Cs. In females, PMs were also correlated with fish age and 137Cs. ANCOVA, with age as covariate, affirmed that sex and muscle 137Cs were significantly associated with the mean number of pronephric PMs. Using stepwise regression, the interaction of age and 137Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs in males. Among females, the product of age, body-condition, and 137Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs. The positive relationships between the number of pronephric PMs and 137Cs concentration suggest that oxidative damage related to long-term exposure to low-level radiation is detectable in these fish. Secondarily, these results demonstrate the importance of considering covariates such as age and sex when evaluating effects of environmental contaminants

  11. Ontogenetic development of weberian ossicles and hearing abilities in the African bullhead catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lechner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish Lophiobagrus cyclurus. Specimens from 11.3 mm to 85.5 mm in standard length were studied. Morphology was assessed using sectioning, histology, and X-ray computed tomography, along with 3D reconstruction. Hearing thresholds were measured utilizing the auditory evoked potentials recording technique. Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments were fully developed in all stages investigated except in the smallest size group. In the smallest catfish, the intercalarium and the interossicular ligaments were still missing and the tripus was not yet fully developed. Smallest juveniles revealed lowest auditory sensitivity and were unable to detect frequencies higher than 2 or 3 kHz; sensitivity increased in larger specimens by up to 40 dB, and frequency detection up to 6 kHz. In the size groups capable of perceiving frequencies up to 6 kHz, larger individuals had better hearing abilities at low frequencies (0.05-2 kHz, whereas smaller individuals showed better hearing at the highest frequencies (4-6 kHz. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that the ability of otophysine fish to detect sounds at low levels and high frequencies largely depends on the development of the weberian apparatus. A significant increase in auditory sensitivity was observed as soon as all weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments are present and the chain for transmitting sounds from the swimbladder to the inner ear is complete. This contrasts with findings in another otophysine

  12. On behavioural responses to smell and sight of alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel for an allopatric and a sympatric population of brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater sculpins and salmonids coexist in many streams throughout the Northern hemisphere, and often constitute an important component of stream ecosystems. Alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel have been known to predate eggs and fry of brown trout Salmo trutta L., and also to function as a competitor to older brown trout for habitat and prey items. This study was designed to examine possible behavioural differences in activity level and positioning between a sympatric and an allopatri...

  13. Effects of dietary vitamin C and soybean lecithin in the nutrition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus L. fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Aničić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different forms of vitamin C and soybean lecithin on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lesuer 1819 were evaluated during a 9-week growth trial. A special interest was to investigate a possible combine effect of these nutritional components. The diets used contained three forms of vitamin C (crystallized ascorbic acid, encapsulated L-ascorbic acid and Ca-L-threonate (100 mg/kg with and without the combination of soybean lecithin. Besides control diet (K, one more diet was supplemented with soybean lecithin (L only. One-hundred-ninety-two brown bullhead of about 45 g initial body weight was randomly divided in 24 tanks (115 L each. Testing conditions included 8 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. All diets with supplemented components had higher final weight. Specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and condition factor were significantly higher with encapsulated vitamin C diets (CC, CCL, followed by the results of enriched ascorbic acid diets. Vitamin C and lecithin supplementation showed positive influence on significantly higher number of erythrocytes, haematocrit, triglycerides and total protein. Vitamin C content of muscle and liver tissue was not uniform and was significantly higher in AAL, CCL, CC and AA feeding groups. The fatty acids profile of muscle and liver tissue showed that phospholipids from soybean lecithin and vitamin C diets enhanced the quality of usable part of the fish body. Combine supplementation of vitamin C and soy lecithin indicated positive production effects, but did not cause a statistically significant difference.

  14. Conboy Lake - Bullfrog and Bullhead Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to support two AmeriCorps interns for 24 weeks to work on removal of American bullfrogs and brown bullhead to benefit Oregon spotted frogs, a...

  15. Comparative in vitro metabolism and activation of benzo(a)pyrene from two species of catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploch, S.A.; Di Giulio, R.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Cytochrome P4501A activity as measured by hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase EROD in isolated microsomes is consistently found to be 10 to 20 fold higher in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctuatus) than in a closely related species of catfish, the brown bullhead (Ameriurus nebulosus). To measure more directly the ability of these two species to activate a model PAH, microsomes and hepatocytes isolated from naphthoflavone induced channel catfish (CC) and brown bullhead (BB) were incubated with [{sup 3}H]- or [{sup 14}C]benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to compare metabolite formation and binding to DNA and protein. Microsomes from channel catfish produce 4-fold higher levels of BP metabolites (hexane non-extractable) than brown bullhead (253.0, 9.0 vs 58.8, 14.9 pmole/mg, protein/min). Binding of microsome activated BP to salmon sperm DNA demonstrated a similar 5-fold difference between the two species. Using isolated hepatocytes, the two species demonstrated less pronounced, but consistent differences in metabolite formation (29.85, 2.2 vs 20.1, 0.96 pmole/10{sup 6}, cells/min, CC vs BB), DNA binding and total protein binding (13.2, 2.53 vs 10.57, 1.72 pmole BP/mg, protein/min, CC vs BB). Surprisingly, these preliminary data suggest that induced CC liver activate a model PAH carcinogen more quickly and produce higher levels of stable adducts than a cancer prone species (brown bullhead). Other aspects of BP activation, detoxification and genotoxicity in these two species may contribute to species` susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

  16. Variable growth and longevity of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) in the Everglades of south Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow bullhead (Ictaluridae: Ameiurus natalis) is the most abundant ictalurid catfish in the Everglades of southern Florida, USA, and, as both prey and predator, is one of many essential components in the ecological-simulation models used in assessing restoration success in the Everglades. Little is known of its biology and life history in this southernmost portion of its native range; the present study provides the first estimates of age and growth from the Everglades. In total, 144 yellow bullheads of 97-312 mm total length (TL) were collected from canals and marshes of the Everglades between April 2000 and January 2001, and from October 2003 to February 2005. Fish were aged using cross-sections of pectoral spines and ranged from 1-12 years, with the maximum age almost twice that of any yellow bullhead previously reported. Yellow bullheads from south Florida grew relatively rapidly during their first 3 years, but after age 5 growth slowed and fish approached an asymptote of ???214 mm TL. Compared to other populations in the United States, yellow bullhead in the Everglades grew relatively slowly, were smaller at age overall, but survived to older ages. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Histological Changes in Ussurian Bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis, and Korean Bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidevrepaco, in the Early Period of Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Goo, In Bon; Gil, Hyun Woo; Park, In-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The histological changes in the Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis, and the Korean bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidevrepaco, were observed during the early period of growth. The retinas size of both species increased in the 9 days post-hatching (DPH) (p

  18. Phylogeny of European Bullhead (Cottus sp.) in Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Jernej Bravničar; Anja Palandačić; Saša Marić; Radek Šanda

    2015-01-01

    European bullhead sensus lato is a species complex, in which lineage determination based on morphology has proven to be extremely difficult, probably due to low interspecific and high intraspeciefic morphological variation. Therefore, major evolutionary lineages across Europe have been determined based on molecular data, which also to some extent corresponds to known morphological variation. Cottus populations on the Balkan Peninsula have not yet been thoroughly studied. Thus we used mole...

  19. Ameiurus melas (black bullhead): morphological characteristics of new introduced species and its comparison with Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rutkayová, J.; Biskup, R.; Harant, R.; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Koščo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2013), s. 51-68. ISSN 0960-3166 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : morphometry * multivariate analyse * osteology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.564, year: 2013

  20. A potential biomarker of androgen exposure in European bullhead (Cottus sp.) kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeret, Mélanie; Jolly, Sabrina; Wiest, Laure; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Betoulle, Stéphane; Minier, Christophe; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a signal that could be used as an androgen exposure indicator in the European bullhead (Cottus sp.). For this purpose, the ultra-structure of the kidney was characterized to identify normal structure of this organ, and histological changes previously described in the kidney of breeding male bullheads were quantified using the kidney epithelium height (KEH) assay previously developed and validated for the stickleback. In the next step, the effect of trenbolone acetate (TbA), a model androgen, was assessed to identify potential androgenic regulation of bullhead kidney hypertrophy. Measurement of KEH performed on adult non-breeding male and female bullheads exposed for 14 and 21 days to 0, 1.26 and 6.50 μg/L showed that kidney hypertrophy is induced in a dose-dependent manner, confirming the hypothesis that the European bullhead possesses a potential biomarker of androgen exposure. Combined with the wide distribution of the European bullhead in European countries and the potential of this fish species for environmental toxicology studies in field and laboratory conditions, the hypothesis of a potential biomarker of androgen exposure offers interesting perspectives for the use of the bullhead as a relevant sentinel fish species in monitoring studies. Inducibility was observed with high exposure concentrations of TbA. Further studies are needed to identify molecular signals that could be more sensitive than KEH. PMID:23010938

  1. Ontogenetic Microhabitat Shifts in the Bullhead, Cottus gobio L.,in a Fast Flowing Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legalle, Milène; Mastrorillo, Sylvain; Santoul, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis

    2005-06-01

    We investigated differences in microhabitat preference curves for bullheads, Cottus gobio L., of different size-classes during low flow periods, and evaluated the influence of such differences on habitat use through Weighted Usable Area (WUA) predictions in relation to river flow in a piedmont stream in Southwest France. Water depth, current velocity, and substratum composition were used to calculate proportional use values for each size-class (SC), and to quantify size-specific microhabitat preferences. Bullhead used non-cohesive and coarse mineral particles (pebbles, cobbles, boulders), but there was a spatial segregation of individuals from different size classes (SC1-SC4). Smaller bullhead (SC1, total length 60 mm), the latter occurring below (or under) the largest particles, where current velocity is weakened and sand accumulates. SC1 bullhead had a more restricted range for each habitat descriptors, and were thus likely to require a more specific habitat type than other bullhead. The maximum WUA values and the related preferred discharges (0.15-0.75 m3 s-1) depended on the considered size-class. Our results suggest that ontogenetic niche shifts may play a role in the structure and dynamics of populations, by adjusting species' requirements to the spatial and temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including abiotic and biotic conditions.

  2. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  3. Uptake and elimination of radiotungsten in black bullheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black bullheads, Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque), accumulated radiotungsten from food and water. Whole-body activity reached a plateau after the fish had been in tagged water 4 days (mean temperature 1540C). Whole-body elimination of radiotungsten varied with the method of uptake. Fish that had accumulated radiotungsten from water had a single exponential component of elimination with a biological half-life of 2.75 days. Fish that had received radioisotope in a single feeding lost activity at two rates; one component had a biological half-life of 14 hr and the second 6 days. The bone, skin, flesh, blood, and gills contained the greatest percentages of whole-body activity after 1 day of uptake from tagged water; after 8 days, the flesh, gills, bone, and gut together contained 78.6 percent of the total activity. The bone had the longest biological half-life (8.0 days) of the tissues examined and contained 69.8 percent of the whole-body acitivty after 16 days of elimination

  4. Growing catfish in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Surtida, Marilyn B.; Buendia, Romeo Y.

    2000-01-01

    The catfish industry in the Philippines is budding and projected to expand in the coming years. This is evident from conversations with active catfish farmers who all hope to be able to expand production, whether backyard or commercial because their present production can hardly supply the demands of buyers. NIFTDC, a fisheries technology and development center in Dagupan City, Philippines, however, says that unless the government has a catfish program, expansion of the industry would be slow...

  5. Catfish - King of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Godø, Olav Rune; Huse, Irene; Michalsen, Kathrine

    1995-01-01

    During an acoustic tagging experiment on cod in the Barents Sea in March 1995 a hierarchy between different fish species was revealed, and the catfish (Anarhichas sp.) was observed to be dominant in relation to cod and haddock. When catfish are present at the fishing grounds, the dominant feeding behaviour of this species might reduce efficiency on other species. If longline catch data are used for stock assessment purposes, the catfish population might therefore be overestimat...

  6. Evaluation of immune responses against the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish is a dominant aquaculture species in the USA and has been cultured for several decades. Recently, an increasing number of producers are showing an interest in the culture of hybrid catfish (channel catfish × blue catfish) instead of channel catfish due to its performance traits. The ...

  7. The catfish genome database cBARBEL: an informatic platform for genome biology of ictalurid catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shaolin; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    The catfish genome database, cBARBEL (abbreviated from catfish Breeder And Researcher Bioinformatics Entry Location) is an online open-access database for genome biology of ictalurid catfish (Ictalurus spp.). It serves as a comprehensive, integrative platform for all aspects of catfish genetics, genomics and related data resources. cBARBEL provides BLAST-based, fuzzy and specific search functions, visualization of catfish linkage, physical and integrated maps, a catfish EST contig viewer with...

  8. Catfish production using intensive aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last 3 years, researchers at UAPB and NWAC have been monitoring and verifying production yields in intensively aerated catfish ponds with aeration rates greater than 6 hp/acre. We now have three years of data on commercial catfish production in intensively aerated ponds. With stocking densi...

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  10. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG): A biomarker of oxidative damage in yellow bullheads chronically exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), an oxidation product of the nucleotide deoxyguanosine (dG) was used as a biomarker to assess oxidative damage in brain and gill tissues of yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis; n = 18) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir contaminated with low levels of d137Cs (Pond B, Savannah River Site, SC). DNA was isolated by chloroform-isoamyl extraction, enzymatically digested with Nuclease P1/Calf Intestinal Phosphatase, and analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection.Length, weight, age, condition and muscle 137Cs activity of each fish were also determined. Concentrations of 8-OH-dG were greater in brain than in gill tissues. 8-OH-dG in gill tissues decreased as condition of fish increased, but as age increased, the effect of condition declined. Brain 8-OH-dG concentration was not related to age or condition of fish, but was greater in females and the interaction between gender and 137Cs was significant. Brain 8-OH-dG was positively associated with muscle 137Cs concentration among females, but was unrelated to 137Cs concentration in males. At lower 137Cs concentrations, females tended to have fewer oxidative DNA adducts in brian than did males. Deposition of somatic lipids into eggs may provide females some anti-oxidant benefit by diminishing the contribution of lipid peroxidation to DNA damage. 8-OH-dG is a sensitive biomarker of low-level radiation exposure, however, its application in fish requires consideration of factors such as gender, age, body-condition, and the tissue type sampled

  11. Morfometrická studie invazních zástupců rodu Ameiurus na území ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Bušina, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, we can speak about two representatives of freshwater catfish, genus Ameiurus, in waters of the Czech Republic. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819) was imported by Šusta in 1890 and black bullhead (Ameiurus melas Rafinesque, 1820) was introduced at random in 2003. Homelands of these two species are regions of North America, where the occurrences are overlapped and it leads naturally to crossing of species. Both species have been well established and have created a po...

  12. Calcium deprivation during channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish, I. furcatus F1 hybrid catfish embryo development affects hatching success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish are produced by fertilizing eggs from hormone-induced, strippable channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) females with sperm from blue catfish (I. furcatus). Many catfish hatchery supplies have low calcium concentrations and are supplemented with an external source of ca...

  13. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    2003-01-01

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries. Recen

  14. Comparative Oxygen Tolerance of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) have several advantages over channel catfish (I. punctatus) as commercial culture fish. They are more resistant to ESC, PGD, and CCVD, major diseases of channel catfish. They are very easy to seine, with a near-total harvest possible with one seine haul, and may ex...

  15. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Qian; Long-Fa Jiang; Li-Qiang Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15%) extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room te...

  16. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  17. Tumor prevalence in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from Darby Creek, John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, Philadelphia, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum (JHNWRT) is located along Darby Creek near its confluence with the Delaware River, south of Philadelphia,...

  18. Pyridoxine requirements of channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J W; Murai, T

    1979-04-01

    In 20 and 12 week feeding trials, channel catfish fingerlings were fed purified diets containing five levels (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and six levels (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) of supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride. Fish fed unsupplemented diets (pyridoxine content of 1.2 mg/kg) were characterized by anoxeria, nervous disorders, tetany, greenish-blue body coloration, and eventual mortality. Anemia, which has been reported in pyridoxine deficient salmonids, was not observed in pyridoxine deficient catfish. However, a microcytic, normochromic anemia was observed in groups fed high dietary levels of pyridoxine (20 mg/kg or greater). The dietary pyridoxine level required for maximal growth was approximately 3 mg/kg of diet. All other deficiency signs were prevented by 2.2 mg/kg of diet. PMID:430257

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE LOGOS FOR FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Alvin R.; Dellenbarger, Lynn E.

    1993-01-01

    Product differentiation can consist of identifying the corporate firm that produces the product (such as Kraft) or the producer cooperative that produces the product (such as Ocean Spray). The Catfish Institute (funded by producers, feed mills and processors) was created to promote the generic sales of farm-raised catfish. Also, a number of Mississippi catfish processors are differentiating their product by promoting it as Mississippi Farm-Raised Catfish. Louisiana farm-raised catfish are hig...

  20. Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectivity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate for fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined by bath immersion and injection infectivity experiments. Channel catfish exposed by immersion were exposed to baths containing 1012, 1011,...

  1. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E., III

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  2. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max;

    2014-01-01

    . Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly in...... filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014...

  3. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  4. Temperature-dependent Index of Mitotic Interval (τ0) for Chromosome Manipulation in Korean Bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sang Gu; Han, Hyoung Kyun; Gil, Hyun Woo; Park, In-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Korean bullhead (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco) was collected from the Kum River areas of Kangkyung-eup, Nonsan city, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, from April to June, 2012 and was fertilized in order to observe egg development and temperature-related cleavage rates and mitotic intervals (τ0). The fertilized eggs were separative, demersal and light yellowish with 1.5±0.06 mm in diameter, and did not contain oil globules. The first cleavage stages were 90 min, 80 min, 60 min and 50 min at 21°C , 24°C , ...

  5. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  6. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan Univer...

  7. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  8. DYNAMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING U.S. AND REGIONAL CATFISH DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Jack E.; Ermita, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Response to changes in factors influencing consumption of catfish and competing commodities differ between national, South Atlantic, and Southwest Central markets. A modified state adjustment model for catfish, beef, chicken, and other fish explicitly included age distribution, residence, occupation, education, and race/ethnic variables associated with habit formation. Nationally, per capita expenditures on catfish respond to present and past relative prices, and catfish, chicken, and other f...

  9. Comparative production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on growth and yield (kg/ha) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the channel x blue hybrid catfish (I. punctatus female x I. furcatus male), which shared the Jubilee strain of channel catfish as the maternal parent, was evaluated...

  10. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Venny Yuliastri; Ruddy Suwandi; Uju

    2015-01-01

    Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with...

  11. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    2003-01-01

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries. Recently, however, we succeeded in cloning the cDNA encoding the putative cfFSHbeta; the cDNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunit of cfLH have been cloned before. Here we report the expression of biologica...

  12. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  13. Towards the ictalurid catfish transcriptome: generation and analysis of 31,215 catfish ESTs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  14. Recommendations to design environmental monitoring in the European bullhead, Cottus sp., based on reproductive cycle and immunomarker measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Villeret, Mélanie; Geffard, Alain; Palluel, Olivier; Blanchard, Christophe; Le Rohic, Cindy; Besson, Sylvain; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Minier, Christophe; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2015-06-30

    European bullhead is a relevant fish species to assess adverse effects of environmental stress on wild fish. Nevertheless, their complex reproductive cycle is very different between sites and could interfere with many physiological processes. Thus, prior to use biomarker to statute on environmental quality of rivers, we wanted to characterize reproductive profile (spawn number, GSI, gonad development). The major results demonstrated that the two types of reproductive cycle shown were strongly correlated to water temperature variation. In a second time, even if innate immunomarkers are highly relevant on biomonitoring program, hormonal variation seems to impact severely their responses. Thus, the link between reproductive status and immune activity (leucocyte distribution, cellular mortality, respiratory burst, phagocytosis activity) must also be study. Nonetheless, in the present work, immune capacities seems to be more correlated with season and environmental factors than reproduction. PMID:25599631

  15. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  16. Recent improvements in channel catfish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction in fish is a primary requisite for reliable, predictable and quality seed stock for aquaculture production or a stock enhancement program. Channel catfish is the leading aquaculture species in USA, accounting for 335 million pounds with a farm gate value of over $ 400 millio...

  17. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  18. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong Liu; Xianggang Gao; Yunfeng Li; Hao Su; Xueguang Liu; Chongbo He; Lei Gao

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptor...

  19. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  20. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwegiessen, van de, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 2) how age mediates the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 3) the potential effects of chemical ...

  1. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, E.; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in...

  2. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  3. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  4. Weight-Length Relationships in Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus) and Hardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) in Louisiana Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...

  5. Comparative susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J; Reichley, Stephen R; Khoo, Lester H; Ware, Cynthia; Greenway, Terrence E; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David J

    2014-06-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Research supports anecdotal reports from the industry, suggesting that the hybrid of Channel Catfish×Blue Catfish I. furcatus is less susceptible to disease agents that have been historically prohibitive to Channel Catfish production, namely the gram-negative bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, as well as the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. This current research compared the susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to an experimental challenge by B. damnificus. Fish were exposed to 0, 100, 200, and 400 B. damnificus cercariae per fish, and the numbers of metacercariae per fish were determined 14 d postchallenge. Metacercariae were recovered from all challenged fish. There were no significant differences among fish groups challenged with the same dose, suggesting Channel and Blue Catfish and their hybrid are comparably susceptible to B. damnificus infection. As such, it is recommended that producers raising hybrid catfish remain diligent in controlling populations of the snail intermediate host to prevent production losses attributed to B. damnificus, especially when loafing pelicans have been observed at the aquaculture operation. PMID:24895863

  6. Pre-spawning carotenoid fortified diets improve reproductive traits of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and subsequent progeny performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of consistent number of ovulatory competent channel catfish females is a pre-requisite for efficient production of channel catfish ' x blue catfish, I.furcatus ') hybrid in hatcheries. Raising hybrid catfish in production ponds enables the catfish farmer to harness improved growth rate...

  7. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  8. Nutritional Regulation of IGFs in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined changes in hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA, insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2) mRNA, muscle IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in fed (fed daily for 45 days) and restricted (not fed for 30 days followed by feeding for 15 days) channel catfish. By day 30, liver IGF-I mRNA...

  9. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  10. Use of Molecular Markers for Catfish Production and Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish are a diploid species native to North America and the primary product of U.S. aquaculture, and molecular genetic research supports selective breeding of catfish for commercial production. To date, short tandem repeat loci have been used to characterize DNA sequence variation within ...

  11. Production Practices of Commercial Catfish Producers in Northeast Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlow, Richard M.; Verma, Satish

    A study determined the yields obtained and the production practices followed by Louisiana commercial catfish farmers in Catahoula, Concordia, and Franklin Parishes. This information was used by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (LCES) faculty to develop a catfish education program. The study: (1) determined use of selected recommended…

  12. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  13. A liquid oxygen calculator for fasted channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of scientific literature concerning channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus respiration resulted in development of a Microsoft Excel© spreadsheet for estimating the volume of oxygen consumed by a given fasted channel catfish biomass. Entry of ten variables into the spreadsheet provides estimate...

  14. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  15. Reductions in Susceptibility of Channel Catfish (Ictalutus punctatus) to Enteric Septicemia of Catfish (ESC) Through Two Generations of Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of disease resistance in aquaculture species through selective breeding has had some success. At the USDA-ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, a multitrait selection index was utilized to select for growth, carcass yield, and resistance to enteric septicemia of catfish (...

  16. 76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... meetings, interested persons may submit comments on the proposed rule (76 FR 10434) on or before June 24..., 552, 555, 557, and 559-561 Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  17. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  18. Production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the production and water quality responses of the channel x...

  19. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY CHANNEL CATFISH IMMUNE TO ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS ON COHABITED NON-IMMUNE CATFISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish recovered from sublethal ichthyophthiriasis acquire protective immunity against Ichthyophthirius (Ich). This study evaluated the protective effect of cutaneous antibody excreted by channel catfish immune to Ich on cohabited non-immune catfish. Non-immune and immune fish controls were separatel...

  20. "No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  1. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  2. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) constructed by using an interspecific hybrid resource family.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Karsi, Attila; Li, Ping; Cao, Dongfeng; Dunham, R

    2003-01-01

    Catfish is the major aquaculture species in the United States. The hybrid catfish produced by crossing channel catfish females with blue catfish males exhibit a number of desirable production traits, but their mass production has been difficult. To introduce desirable genes from blue catfish into channel catfish through introgression, a genetic linkage map is helpful. In this project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 607 AFL...

  3. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  4. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  5. The Impact of Catfish Imports on the U.S. Wholesale and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Neal, Sammy J.; Hanson, Terrill R.; Jones, Keithly G.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of catfish imports and tariffs on the U.S. catfish industry, with particular focus on the U.S. International Trade Commission ruling on Vietnam in 2003. Given the importance of Vietnam to the U.S. catfish market, it was assumed that catfish import prices would increase by 35 percent if the maximum tariff was imposed on catfish from Vietnam. With the tariff, domestic catfish prices at the wholesale level would increase by $0.06 per l...

  6. Identification and Characterization of Full-Length cDNAs in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Liu, Hong; Liu, Shikai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Ke, Caihuan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. Methodology and Principal Findings Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding f...

  7. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature of 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin E more stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of soft gell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.

  8. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  9. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio ( Listonella) anguillarum from catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Rad, Mehrnaz; Shahsavani, Davar

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated from several organs of some aquarium catfish in a fish population with high mortality. Macroscopic examination of the affected catfish revealed ascites in the abdomen, site-petechiae, and dorsal erection. Although there are some variations in phenotypic characterization among different isolates of Vibrio anguillarum, the majority show a common biochemical profile with distinct microscopic appearance that can provide presumptive identification of Vibrio anguilla...

  10. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Joseph W Kloepper; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including...

  11. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  12. Price Volatility Spillover in Agricultural Markets: An Examination of U.S. Catfish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buguk, Cumhur; Hudson, Darren; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2003-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers in the U.S. catfish supply chain are analyzed based on monthly price data from 1980 through 2000 for catfish feed, its ingredients, and farm- and wholesale-level catfish. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model was used to test univariate volatility spillovers for prices in the supply chain. Strong price volatility spillover from feeding material (corn, soybeans, menhaden) to catfish feed and farm- and wholesale-leve...

  13. EFFECTS OF GENERIC ADVERTISING ON PERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: THE CASE OF CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Venkateswaran, Meenakshi

    1990-01-01

    An eight equation partially-recursive econometric model is specified to indicate the effects of catfish advertising on product awareness, beliefs, attitude and consumption. Results indicate that the ad campaign in its first year (i) increased consumer's awareness on farm-raised catfish 15 percent, (ii) improved consumers' perceptions of and attitude toward catfish 3 to 6 percent, and (iii) increased at-home and restaurant purchases of catfish 12 to 13 percent. The response to the ad campaign ...

  14. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  16. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  17. Breeding strategy of US farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus affects progeny production and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    catfish propagation for decades has been dependent on random mating of male and female channel catfish in ponds. It is simple and has been fairly successful in fulfilling the needs of the US farm-raised catfish industry. However, natural pond spawning is unreliable, unpredictable, and incurs 30 t...

  18. SNP discovery and validation in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish, Ictalurusfurcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally blue catfish x channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodsto...

  19. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  20. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  1. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  2. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE THREAT OF NAFTA ON U.S. CATFISH INDUSTRY USING A TRADITIONAL IMPORT DEMAND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ligeon, Carel; Jolly, Curtis M.; John D. Jackson

    1996-01-01

    The effects of increased exports from NAFTA member countries on the U.S. domestic catfish industry were evaluated. Results showed that the quantity of catfish imported will fall if the domestic price of catfish falls relative to the import price. Past imports have no effect on present imports. The income elasticity was negative indicating that imported catfish may be an inferior good. Doubling present levels of imports from NAFTA member countries is not a threat to the U.S. catfish industry.

  3. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FREQUENCY OF CATFISH CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Drammeh, Lamin; House, Lisa; Sureshwaran, Suresh; Selassie, Haile

    2002-01-01

    Consumption of seafood, including catfish, has become an important part of the diet for consumers in the United States. Per capita consumption of catfish increased from 0.41 pounds in 1985 to 0.90 pounds in 2001. The goal of this study is to investigate factors that influence the decisions to consume and frequency of consumption of catfish. One finding was the main emphasis of the Catfish Institute to market catfish as "farm-raised" and to increase preparation knowledge through distribution o...

  4. Book review: Conservation, ecology, and management of catfish: The second international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series published by the American Fisheries Society devoted to catfish research, biology, and management, which was organized as a symposium held in St. Louis Missouri, in 2010 and builds upon the first symposium that was held in Davenport, Iowa, in 1998 (Irwin et al. 1999).  The organizations of the second symposium stated that this was to "serve as an addendum to Catfish 2000" and "to cover the four corners of catfish science: catfish biology, ecology, management, and conservation" (p. xi).  The book meets this standard easily.  With 64 pages organized into nine sections (plenary, catfishes as sport fish, non-game catfishes, nonnative catfishes, movement and habitat use, sampling and population assessment, age and growth, behavior, and future directions), this publication covers these four corners and more.

  5. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  6. Redescription of the Striped Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822 (Siluriformes: Bagridae, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Darshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bagrid Catfish Mystus tengara was described from a pond located in India under the genus Pimelodus. The validity of the fish has been confused and has frequently been treated as a synonym of Mystus vittatus. In this study, the species is rediagnosed and redescribed on the basis of fresh material collected from the Ganga-Brahmaputra drainage. M. tengara is diagnosed from congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: body with a distinct tympanic spot and four brown stripes which are separated by a pale narrow interspace; origin of adipose-fin not reaching the base of the last dorsal-fin ray, 31-42 gill rakers on first branchial arch, eye rounded with a diameter 19.0-23.8 % HL and dorsal spine length 12.3-17.2 % SL, maxillary barbel length 254.5-360.5 % HL. A key for the identification of Mystus species from Ganga-Bramaputra drainage is also provided.

  7. Utilization of a rapid DNA-based assay for molecular verification of channel catfish, blue catfish, F1 hybrid, and backcross offspring at serveral life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The F1 hybrid offspring of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, females mated with blue catfish, I. furcatus, males contain many desirable traits for commercial production such as enhanced growth and increased survivability. Although at a low efficiency, hybrids can be produced by pond spawning, b...

  8. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  9. Temperature Cycles Induce Early Maturation in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major impediment in improvement of channel catfish by selective breeding is that a high percent of fish do not spawn until the third year. If the generation time could be shortened, genetic improvement could be achieved at a faster rate. The conditions that lead to sexual maturation in fish have...

  10. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and redu...

  11. TOXAPHENE: CHRONIC TOXICITY TO FATHEAD MINNOWS AND CHANNEL CATFISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were continuously exposed to several toxaphene concentrations (13-630 ng) in flow-through diluter systems for 8 to 10 months. Growth and backbone quality of adult fathead minnows were decreased at 97 ...

  12. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  13. Can We Improve Catfish Growth and FCR Through Oxygen Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of channel catfish. Control ponds in each study were maintained with a minimum D...

  14. Prevalence and enumeration of microorganisms on catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish nuggets, either fresh or pre-packed frozen, were purchased from local retailers in the northeast United States (NJ, NY, PA, DE, and MD) and tested for microbiological quality. The microbiological background including total aerobic plate counts (APC) at 22 and 37 deg C, Enterbacteriacea, Esc...

  15. The pathology associated with visceral toxicosis of catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) syndrome was recognized in the late 1990s and recently has been associated with exposure to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin. Tentative diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and ross findings, and is confirmed by bioassay. In April 2009, channel cat...

  16. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, CD63 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD63, also known as lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP-3), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immuno-physiological functions. In this communication, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channel catfish, CD63 transcr...

  17. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behaviou

  18. Analysis of a Blue Catfish Population in a Southeastern Reservoir: Lake Norman, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Grist, Joseph Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This investigation examined the diet, growth, movement, population genetics, and possible consumption demands of an introduced blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus population in Lake Norman, North Carolina. Clupeids, Corbicula fluminea, and Chara were the predominant food items (percent stomach contents by weight) found in blue catfish, and varied by season, lake-region, and fish size-class. Lake Norman blue catfish grow at a slower rate than has been reported for other reservoir populations, wi...

  19. Genomic organization of the channel catfish CD45 functional gene and CD45 pseudogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kountikov, Evgueni; Wilson, Melanie; Miller, Norman; Clem, William; Bengtén, Eva; Quiniou, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, which in mammals plays an important role in T and B cell receptor and cytokine signaling. Recently, a catfish cDNA was shown to contain all characteristic CD45 features: an alternatively spliced amino-terminus, a cysteine-rich region, three fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region, and two phosphotyrosine phosphatase domains. However, analyses of CD45 cDNAs from various catfish lymphoid cell lines demonstrated that catfish CD45 is uniqu...

  20. INTRA-PROCESSOR PRICE-SPREAD BEHAVIOR: IS THE U.S. CATFISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY COMPETITIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of price-spread behavior in the catfish-processing sector of the United States. A model of imperfect competition using conjectural variations was used to test for significant deviations from competition. Results show no significant deviation from competitive behavior, suggesting that catfish processor behave competitively. However, this result is limited by the assumption of equal market shares by each catfish-processing firm.

  1. IQF Catfish Retail Pack: A Study of Consumers' Willingness to Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Quagrainie, Kwamena K.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery retail channel represents a potential for increased sales for catfish products because of the competitive nature that imported catfish fillets pose at foodservice market channels. The study examined the potential for selling a household-size pack of IQF 6-fillets of catfish through the grocery market channels, and consumers' willingness to pay for the product. Data used were obtained from a survey conducted in selected southern U.S. cities. Results suggest that households will pur...

  2. Evaluation of locally available feed resources for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Chau Thi

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared inputs and outputs, economic factors and current feed use in small-scale farming systems producing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in the Mekong Delta. The nutrient content of locally available natural feed resources for striped catfish was determined and growth performance, feed utilisation and body indices were analysed in pond-cultured striped catfish fed diets where fish meal protein was replaced with protein from local feed resources. ...

  3. Comparative susceptibility of channel catfish, blue catfish and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfis...

  4. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  5. Adjusting to Trade Policy: Evidence from U.S. Antidumping Duties on Vietnamese Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Brambilla; Guido Porto; Alessandro Tarozzi

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, after claims of dumping, the U.S. imposed heavy tariffs on imports of catfish from Vietnam. As a result, Vietnamese exports of catfish to the U.S. market sharply declined. Using a panel data of Vietnamese households, we explore the responses of catfish producers in the Mekong delta between 2002 and 2004. We study adjustments not only in catfish aquaculture but also in other economic activities. We find that, over this period, the rate of income growth was significantly lower among ho...

  6. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den, L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and 50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan con...

  7. Dynamic Effects of Grain and Energy Prices on the Catfish Feed and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Zheng, Hualu

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic effects of grain prices and energy prices on catfish feed prices and the price of food-sized catfish at the farm level. Using the autoregressive distributed lag model and bounds testing procedure, a long-run relationship between feed and farm prices and their determinants was confirmed. Given the effect of corn and soybean meal prices on catfish feed prices, and catfish fish feed prices on farm prices, the long-run responsiveness of feed prices to a percentage ...

  8. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Not a transcriptional coactivator?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R.; Miller, Norman W.; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)is driven by the Eμ3′ enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a μE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH tr...

  9. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  10. Factors affecting the decision process of catfish consumers: An empirical study in the two biggest cities in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Mai Thi Xuan

    2007-01-01

    The consumption of catfish in Vietnam has not grown enough to match their increased production. The objective of this study is to explore the factors that influence the decision process of catfish consumers in Vietnam. The findings provide information for the Vietnamese catfish industry to better attract more domestic consumers to eat catfish. This study seeks to address its objective by examining the relationships that exist between the experiences, perceptions of product attr...

  11. Seasonal Differences in Steroids and Maturation-related Genes in Channel Catfish Under Normal and Accelerated Thermoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is hampered by a long generation time. Female channel catfish typically spawn when they are 3-years-old; however, a low percentage of spawning may be observed at two years of age. Mature female channel catfish can spawn once annually. Their...

  12. Comprehensive survey and genomic characterization of toll-like receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: identification of novel fish TLRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of channel catfish Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) was undertaken following a genomic PCR approach based on degenerate primers. Twenty different TLRs were identified in channel catfish. Channel catfish TLR sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on their conserv...

  13. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  14. C DNA CLONING, CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE, 1818) PEROXIREDOXIN 6 GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroxiredoxin 6 gene (Prdx6) of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced. Total RNA from channel catfish tissues was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified. The sequence of the channel catfish Prdx6 gene consists of 1003 nucleotides. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence ...

  15. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  16. In vivo and in vitro CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kristine L; Ganesan, Shobana; Patel, Monali; Metzger, Christine; Quiniou, Sylvie; Waldbieser, Geoff; Scheffler, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Our goal was to study the induction of CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). CYP1B belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of genes, is involved in the oxidation of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and could potentially be a useful biomarker in fish for exposure to AhR ligands. The full-length catfish CYP1B cDNA is 2417 nt to the polyA tail and encodes a putative protein of 536 amino acids. It has 67% amino acid similarity to carp and zebrafish CYP1B and 68% similarity to carp CYP1B2. Male channel catfish were collected from three Mississippi Delta sites: Lake Roebuck, Itta Bena; Bee Lake, Thornton; and Sunflower River, Indianola. Total RNA was isolated from wild-caught catfish gill, blood, gonad and liver tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine relative induction of CYP1B in wild catfish compared to laboratory control and BaP-exposed catfish (20mg/kg i.p. after 4 days). BaP exposure significantly induced CYP1B message in blood, gonad, and liver of laboratory catfish. In these same tissues of wild catfish from sites with relatively low sediment contaminants, CYP1B message was not statistically increased relative to laboratory control catfish. CYP1B transcript abundance was higher in gills compared to other tissues in both laboratory and wild catfish. When primary cultured gill cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BaP, TCDD, and PCBs 77, 126 and 169, CYP1B mRNA was induced more than 10-fold while PCB153 and 4,4'DDT did not cause significant CYP1B induction. Our results suggest that catfish CYP1B is induced by the classic AhR ligands. PMID:16697458

  17. Oral Vaccination of Channel Catfish against Enteric Septicemia of Catfish Using a Live Attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, David J; Greenway, Terrence E; Byars, Todd S; Griffin, Matt J; Khoo, Lester H

    2015-06-01

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are typically administered by immersion when fry are transferred from the hatchery to rearing ponds. While this approach is a practical method of mass delivery, this strategy administers vaccines to very young fish, which lack a fully developed immune system. To circumvent this limitation, an oral vaccination strategy was evaluated as a means of immunizing catfish at the fingerling stage of production, when fish possess a more complete immune arsenal. A virulent E. ictaluri isolate (S97-773) was attenuated by successive passage on media containing increasing concentrations of rifamycin. In laboratory trials, cultured vaccine was diluted and mixed with feed (100 mL diluted vaccine/454 g feed). This mixture was then fed to Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings. Two separate dilutions of cultured vaccine (1:10 and 1:100) were used to create the vaccine-feed mixture, equating to estimated doses of 5 × 10⁷ and 5 × 10⁶ CFU/g of feed, respectively. After 30 d, catfish were exposed by immersion (1 × 10⁶ CFU/mL) to the virulent parental strain of E. ictaluri. The target dose (1:100 dilution, ∼5 × 10⁶ CFU/g of feed) offered exceptional protection (relative percent survival = 82.6-100%). In addition, negligible deaths occurred in fish vaccinated at 10 times the target dose (1:10 dilution, ∼5 × 10⁷ CFU/g of feed). In pond trials, antibody production increased 18-fold in orally vaccinated fish. When compared with nonvaccinated controls, vaccination significantly improved survival, feed fed, feed conversion, biomass produced, and total harvest. This research demonstrates Channel Catfish can be successfully immunized in a commercial setting against E. ictaluri

  18. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  19. DNA damage and radiocesium in channel catfish from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in some of the most radioactively contaminated habitats on earth. Despite evacuation of all human inhabitants from the most contaminated areas, animals and plants continue to thrive in these areas. This study examines the levels of contamination and genetic damage associated with cesium-137 in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from the cooling pond and a control site. In general, catfish from the cooling pond exhibit greater genetic damage, and the amount of damage is related to the concentration of radiocesium in individual fish. Genetic damage is primarily in the form of DNA strand breaks, with few micronuclei being observed in contaminated fish. The possible roles that acclimation and adaption play in the response to high levels of radiation exposure are discussed

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punhal, Lashari; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Waryani, Baradi; Jalbani, Shaista; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Zhang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Eutropiichthys vacha, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red-listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,478 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.06% A, 27.59% C, 15.65% G, and 25.68% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, E. vacha provides the fundamental tool for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:25630731

  1. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  2. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  3. DNA Barcoding of Catfish: Species Authentication and Phylogenetic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Lian; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Kucuktas, Huseyin; He, Shunping; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Na-Nakorn, Uthairat; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from individuals of ...

  4. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study

    OpenAIRE

    Vari, Richard P.; Carl J. Ferraris Jr.; Mário C. C. de Pinna

    2005-01-01

    The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas; C....

  5. Basic steps in the production of the African catfish seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ondhoro, C.C.; Mwanja, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    A typical production cycle for African catfish farming begins with a selection of fingerlings or juvenile fish of good quality for brood stock development. Fish are selected from a family or grow out stock basing on records of the origin,age, strain and performance history of the parents or from the wild in this brochure, we explain the basic steps and requirements a farmer needs in order to achieve good results in the hatchery.

  6. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaolin

    2010-01-01

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing ...

  7. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C

    2010-01-01

    Background Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing ...

  8. A First Generation Bac-Based Physical Map of the Channel Catfish Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the kar...

  9. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2001-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  10. A trap panel for in-pond raceways to capture escaped catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first commercial-scale in-pond raceway system (IPRS) used to produce catfish in west Alabama was constructed from funds by a joint effort involving the Alabama Catfish Producers Association, Dean Wilson Farms, and Auburn University. The goal of this project was to improve profitability of catfis...

  11. Response of channel x blue hybrid catfish to chronic diurnal hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance traits and metabolic responses of the channel x blue hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus female x I. furcatus male) in response to chronic diurnal hypoxia were evaluated in this 197-d study. Sixteen 0.1-ha earthen ponds were stocked with 15,169 hybrid catfish/ha (47 g/fish) and managed t...

  12. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  13. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  14. 2010 Surveillance for Aeromonas hydrophila outbreaks in the Alabama catfish industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severely acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. In a joint effort between the USDA ARS and Auburn University, a combination of appr...

  15. Comparative genomics of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from an epidemic in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Aeromonas hydrophila was identified as the etiologic agent infecting farmed channel catfish in 2009/2010, resulting in higher mortality rates than typical for motile Aeromonas septicemia with over 5 million pounds of catfish lost to this outbreak. The biochemistry, molecular phylogeny, an...

  16. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  17. Expression Profiles of Cloned Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Lymphoid Cell Lines and Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal channel catfish lymphoid cell lines and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) have proven extremely useful in examining immune responses at the cellular and molecular levels. To date clonal catfish cell lines and MLC have been biologically and phenotypically characterized using a variety of techniq...

  18. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned and sequenced using the RACE. The complete sequence of the CC MMP-9 cDNA g...

  19. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  20. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  1. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  2. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  4. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  5. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  6. The use of hematology method and blood endoparasite observation for determining catfish (Clarias gariepinus) health in fishery Mangkubumen, Boyolali

    OpenAIRE

    AGUNG BUDIHARJO; NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI; INTAN ESTETIKA ALAMANDA

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to find out the health condition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) based on hematology and to find out the blood endoparasite type of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) bred in Mangkubumen Boyolali. The sample collection of catfish in this research was conducted in Mangkubumen, Boyolali. The catfish becoming the sample had following criteria: 3 month old, 100-150 gr weight, and 20-25 cm long. The sample of catfish was taked from 5 pools, it was taken 10 fishes from each pool. The ...

  7. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  8. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  9. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  10. Induction of lauric acid omega-hydroxylation by peroxisomal proliferators in bluegill and catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, M.L. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States); Henderson, M.C.; Buhler, D.R. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Peroxisome proliferating agents (PPAs) are a structurally diverse group of chemicals that include environmental chemical contaminants such as certain chlorinated herbicides, solvents and plasticizers. PPAs have previously been shown to induce anti-trout laruci acid hydroxylase immunoreactive proteins in bluegill and catfish. In this investigation, induction of lauric acid hydroxylase activity and immunoreactive proteins was confirmed, and the mass spectral analysis of specific hydroxylation products was performed in order to identify possible species-specific differences in fatty acid metabolism. Male bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were administered clofibrate or ciprofibrate 48 hr prior to hepatic or trunk kidney (catfish only) microsome preparation. While no significant differences were observed in male catfish, male bluegill had significant decreases in hematocrit and plasma protein indicating hemodilution due to possible gill or kidney damage. Both bluegill and catfish exhibited induction of hepatic and kidney (catfish only) anti-trout lauric acid hydroxylase immunoreactive proteins. In general, total metabolism of lauric acid was greater, and higher levels of wP2, wP3, and wP4 products were produced in control catfish than in juvenile male trout. In male bluegill, lauric acid hydroxylation products wP, wP4 and wP5 were significantly induced by clofibrate treatment. Taken together the above data indicate that peroxisome proliferation may be an important consideration for responsive species exposed to PPAs by environmental chemical contamination.

  11. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Clara M. Kusharto; Mia Srimiati; Ikeu Tanziha; Sugeng heri Suseno

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature ...

  12. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. Radioactivity studies on farm raised and wild catfish produced in Mississippi, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the contribution of radiation dose to human from consumption of catfish, a comparative radiological assessment study was performed on farm and river raised fish. Gamma spectroscopic analyses of catfish indicated the presence of isotopes of 40K, 226Ra, and 228Ra with activity values of 99.4 ± 14.5, 0.41 ± 0.05, and 0.89 ± 0.08 Bq kg-1 respectively in farm catfish and 101 ± 15.7, 0.47 ± 0.05, and 0.97 ± 0.050 Bq kg-1 respectively in river catfish. The measured activities in two sets of samples were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test at 95 % confidence interval and results indicated that activities of 226Ra and 228Ra were significantly different. (author)

  17. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  18. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  19. Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Extraction Yield and Quality of Catfish Oil in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimsook Thitiphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave pretreatment of catfish processing waste on oil recovery and quality was investigated. Fish oil was extracted using the enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase enzyme after the microwave pretreatment. The effect of microwave power and microwave pretreatment times was evaluated. The results revealed that a highest yield of 9.25% when catfish waste was treated at 110 W for 60 s. This condition was found as the most appropriate condition of microwave pretreatment since it decreased the extraction time from 150 min to up to 30 min. Analysis of oil quality indices (e.g. acid value, p-anisidine value, peroxide value extracted by microwave pretreatment and non-pretreatment indicated that catfish oil from both processes has comparatively similar fatty acids composition. In addition, catfish oil was extracted by microwave pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis had lower lipid oxidation compared to several standards.

  20. Chronic pathology and longevity of Drepanocephalus spathans infections in juvenile channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a common parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The cercariae of D. spathans have been shown infective to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The developing metacercariae concentrate in the cranial regio...

  1. Disposition of 1-naphthol in the channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited data exists on the disposition of xenobiotics in the channel catfish. The present study examines 1-naphthol as a model compound for phase 2 metabolism and dose dependent kinetics in this species. 14C-Naphthol was administered orally or intravascularly at 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg. Plasma levels of naphthol after intravascular dosing were fitted to a three compartment pharmacokinetic model. There was a dose related change in several pharmacokinetic parameters but little evidence of metabolic saturation. Approximately 60% of the oral dose was renally excreted in 24 hr as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. The bile also contained the glucuronide and an unidentified polar metabolite, but little or no sulfate. The low bioavailability (38%) of naphthol was probably a result of first pass metabolism. The edible flesh had the lowest levels of residual compound while the liver and trunk kidney had the highest. Approximately 1% of the dose remained in the tissues at 24 hr. This study demonstrates that 1-naphthol is readily conjugated and rapidly eliminated in catfish. The dose dependency of kinetic values may have resulted from saturable tissue binding

  2. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly si...

  3. The impacts of non-tariff barriers on the export price of Vietnamese catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Khuu, Thi Phuong Dong

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study to identify the impacts of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on Vietnamese catfish export price in the international market. The time-series monthly data from 1999 to 2011 was used in our paper. Base on the demand and supply equilibrium theory, we constructed the function of Vietnamese catfish export price. The unit toot test results showed that our data was stationary at differenced level. Therefore, the econometric models, such as first-differenced model, Error correction mo...

  4. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    OpenAIRE

    Abernathy Jason; Xu Peng; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Ninwichian Parichart; Wang Shaolin; Jiang Yanliang; Liu Hong; Kucuktas Huseyin; Liu Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of...

  5. College Students' Opinions of U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Terrill R.; Rose, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A survey focusing on factors related to consumption of fish and seafood, including catfish, and targeted at college-aged students was developed and administered in conjunction with Auburn University's Earth Day dining promotion. Six hundred forty completed surveys were obtained over two days in April, 2012. Findings suggest that students had an overall positive opinion toward catfish, citing enjoyment of flavor (44 percent), better texture (38 percent), less expensive (43 percent), and greate...

  6. Whole genome comparative analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with four model fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanliang; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Hong; Sun, Fanyue; Bao, Lisui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to study evolution of genomes. It allows transfer of genome information from the well-studied model species to non-model species. Catfish is an economically important aquaculture species in United States. A large amount of genome resources have been developed from catfish including genetic linkage maps, physical maps, BAC end sequences (BES), integrated linkage and physical maps using BES-derived markers, physical map contig-specific sequences...

  7. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Ninwichian, Parichart; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Xu, Peng(Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190, Beijing, China); Abernathy, Jason; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 B...

  8. Delivering the Goods: Lessons Learned from Direct Delivery of Kentucky Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Tropp, Debra; Clifton, Kimberly; McKenna, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    USDA initiated a pilot study in cooperation with KDA and PAAC that examined the marketing, transportation, and delivery strategies of the catfish processing cooperative. The information gathered should prove useful to many groups involved in this type of enterprise. The study had several emphases: • Describing the marketing channels, customers, and products used by the cooperative in selling catfish. • Describing the procedures and equipment used in PAAC’s direct delivery operation. • Examini...

  9. INCREASING FISHERY ADDED VALUE THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF "OTAK-OTAK" MADE FROM CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Saadah

    2014-01-01

    INCREASING FISHERY ADDED VALUE THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF "OTAK-OTAK" MADE FROM CATFISH Saadah,1 Abu Bakar Tawali.1 Meta Mahendradatta1 Budimawan,2 (1Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, 2 Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University) Abstract This research aimed to 1. Introduce Surimi technology in manufacturing process of otak-otak , 2. Compile Standard Operating Procedure of Surimi processing made from catfish, 3. Compile Standard Operating Procedure of otak-otak p...

  10. Relative condition factor and food and feeding habits of two ariid catfish from Mumbai waters

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, A.D.; Venkateshvaran, K.; Devaraj, M.

    2010-01-01

    Condition factor based on length-weight relationship and food and feeding habits of Arius dussumieri (Black lip sea catfish) and Osteogeneiosus militaris (Soldier catfish) from the Mumbai coast have been studied. Relative Condition Factor showed variations on a monthly basis, and appear to be influenced by feeding and breeding activities. Both the species studied are carnivorous bottom feeders, with crustaceans followed by other smaller fishes forming the major food item in the gut contents.

  11. On-farm feed resources for catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phonekhampheng, Oudom

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to collected information African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production systems, and the chemical composition and nutritive value of potentially available feedstuffs. Moreover, the apparent digestibility (AD) of nutrient and amino acids (AA) in raw, sun-dried and ensiled Golden Apple snails (GAS) was evaluated, as well as the potential of GAS to replace fish meal in the diet for growing African catfish fingerlings. The farmers used traditional feedstuffs such as mai...

  12. Karyotype Analysis of the New Catfish Mystus ngasep (Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukham Sanjabihari; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; WAIKHOM, Gusheinzed

    2013-01-01

    Karyotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of catfish Mystus ngasep, a new species of bagrid catfish described from the Northeast India, Manipur was studied for the first time by examining 200 metaphase spreads chromosome from the kidney cells of 25 healthy specimens. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n=56 and the total fundamental arm number was determined as NF=90. The karyotype consisted of 12 Metacentric (m), 22 Submetacentric (Sm), 8 Subtelocentric (St) and 14 Teloce...

  13. Distribution of catfishes in wetlands of two flood plain districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rajagopal; Davidar, P.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted on the distribution of catfishes in selected wetlands in Kancheepuram and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Different types of wetlands such as tanks, pools, lakes, open wells and estuaries were selected for the study based on their different environmental set up. Fishes were collected with the help of fishermen using cast and seine nets. Twelve species of catfishes from five families (Ariidae, Bagridae, Heteropneustidae, Schilbeidae and Siluridae) wer...

  14. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  15. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  16. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  17. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  18. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  19. G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish: Expression analysis and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the transcriptional profiles of G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish after infection with A. hydrophila compared to that in healthy catfish; 2) to determine whether over-expression of GPR18 in catfish gill cells will offer protec...

  20. Assembly of 500,000 Inter-Specific Catfish Expressed Sequence Tags and Large Scale Gene-Associated Marker Development for Whole Genome Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpo...

  1. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  2. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  3. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  4. The Holocene occurrence of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) in Belgium: the archaeozoological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Neer, W.; Ervynck, A.

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given of the skeletal remains of the European catfish Silurus glanis found thus far in Belgian archaeological sites. These finds demonstrate that the species is autochthonous and allow documenting its occurrence and disappearance during the Holocene in the Scheldt and Meuse basins. Possible causes for the local extinction of this catfish are discussed.

  5. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish. PMID:26747053

  6. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1991 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during ...

  7. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May, 2011) from a channel catfish production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. Only two myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish (Ictalurus puncta...

  8. Feeding Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp. Does Not Improve Growth or Survival of Channel Catfish Experimentally Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major problem in the channel catfish industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Feeding probiotics may prove beneficial in improving disease resistance. The first study examined the effects of a Lactobacillus probiotic (Flor...

  9. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  10. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A recent epidemic outbreak of motile Aeromonas septicemia of catfish caused by highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila is a major threat to the catfish industry in the southeastern United States. The lack of a complete genome sequence for this newly emerged A. hydrophila genotype hampers ef...

  11. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  12. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  13. Effects of Various Corn Distillers By-products on Growth and Feed Efficiency of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of corn distillers by-products in diets and the effects of additional dietary fat on channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, performance. Juvenile channel catfish (initial weight: 12.6 g per fish) were stocked in flow-through aquaria and fed one of six practica...

  14. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: Transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with A. hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in E. coli expression syst...

  15. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  16. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  17. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  18. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  19. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  20. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  1. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Axel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squeaker catfishes (Pisces, Mochokidae, Synodontis are widely distributed throughout Africa and inhabit a biogeographic range similar to that of the exceptionally diverse cichlid fishes, including the three East African Great Lakes and their surrounding rivers. Since squeaker catfishes also prefer the same types of habitats as many of the cichlid species, we hypothesized that the East African Synodontis species provide an excellent model group for comparative evolutionary and phylogeographic analyses. Results Our analyses reveal the existence of six major lineages of Synodontis in East Africa that diversified about 20 MYA from a Central and/or West African ancestor. The six lineages show a clear geographic patterning. Two lineages are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (plus one non-endemic representative, and these are the only two Synodontis lineages that diversified further into a small array of species. One of these species is the cuckoo catfish (S. multipunctatus, a unique brood parasite of mouthbrooding haplochromine cichlids, which seems to have evolved in parallel with the radiation of its cichlid host lineage, the Tropheini. We also detect an accelerated rate of molecular evolution in S. multipunctatus, which might be the consequence of co-evolutionary dynamics. Conclusion We conclude that the ancestral lineage of today's East African squeaker catfish fauna has colonized the area before the Great Lakes have formed. This ancestor diversified rapidly into at least six lineages that inhabit lakes and rivers in East Africa. Lake Tanganyika is the only lake harboring a small species flock of squeaker catfishes.

  2. Detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using AR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davar Giveki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important usages of machine learning is diagnosis of diverse diseases. In thiswork, we introduces a diagnosis model based on Catfish binary particle swarm optimization(CatfishBPSO, kernelized support vector machines (KSVM and association rules (AR as our featureselection method to diagnose erythemato-squamous diseases. The proposed model consisted of two stages.In the first stage, AR is used to select the optimal feature subset from the original feature set. Next, basedon the fact that kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure significantly influences theclassification accuracy and CatfishBPSO is a promising tool for global searching, a CatfishBPSO basedapproach is employed for parameter determination of KSVM. Experimental results show that the proposedAR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM model achieves 99.09% classification accuracy using 24 features of theerythemato-squamous disease dataset which shows that our proposed method is more accurate comparedto other popular methods in this literature like Support vector machines and AR-MLP (association rules -multilayer perceptron. It should be mentioned that we took our dataset from University of CaliforniaIrvine machine learning database.

  3. Detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using AR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davar Giveki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important usages of machine learning is diagnosis of diverse diseases. In thiswork, we introduces a diagnosis model based on Catfish binary particle swarm optimization(CatfishBPSO, kernelized support vector machines (KSVM and association rules (AR as our featureselection method to diagnose erythemato-squamous diseases. The proposed model consisted of two stages.In the first stage, AR is used to select the optimal feature subset from the original feature set. Next, basedon the fact that kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure significantly influences theclassification accuracy and CatfishBPSO is a promising tool for global searching, a CatfishBPSO basedapproach is employed for parameter determination of KSVM. Experimental results show that the proposedAR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM model achieves 99.09% classification accuracy using 24 features of theerythemato-squamous disease dataset which shows that our proposed method is more accurate comparedto other popular methods in this literature like Support vector machines and AR-MLP (association rules -multilayer perceptron. It should be mentioned that we took our dataset from University of CaliforniaIrvine machine learning database.

  4. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  5. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in raw catfish fillets by essential oils and phenolic constituent carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Monil A; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, M Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2012-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of various essential oils and carvacrol was determined on fresh raw catfish fillets against a 4-strain Listeria monocytogenes mixture representing serotypes 1/2b, 3b, 4b, and 4c that were predominantly isolated from catfish processing environments. Thyme oil, oregano oil and carvacrol exhibited concentration and time dependent responses in broth against L. monocytogenes; for example 0.5% concentrations resulted in 4 log CFU/mL reduction within 30 min whereas 0.1% concentrations required more than 24 h for the same level of reduction. Lemon, orange, and tangerine oils, at 0.5% showed listeriostatic effect in which 4 log CFU/mL of the initial L. monocytogenes load was unchanged at 4 °C in 10 d whereas 1% concentrations were listericidal in a time dependent manner. Apart from carvacrol, efficacy of tested essential oils in reducing L. monocytogenes and total microbial load from catfish fillet was very limited. Dipping treatment of catfish fillets in 2% carvacrol solution for 30 min at 4 °C reduced L. monocytogenes to an undetectable level from their initial load of 5 log CFU/g and reduced total microbial load from catfish fillets by approximately 5 log CFU/g. In sensory analysis trained panelist preferred control samples over 2% carvacrol treated samples implying potential limitation in applicability of carvacrol for fillet treatments. PMID:22901012

  6. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ace Baehaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%. The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidrazil, protein content, and molecular weight using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The results showed that catfish protein hydrolysates prepared by papain enzyme has antioxidative activity. The highest degree of hydrolysis was 71.98% at enzyme concentration of 6%. Based on the DPPH scavenging method catfish protein hydrolysates has the antioxidative activity with the value 37.85-67.62%. The protein content of catfish protein hydrolysates were 20.86-54.47 mg/ml. The molecular weight of catfish protein hydrolyzates were 11.90-65.20 kDa.

  7. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  8. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  9. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  10. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  11. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  12. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  13. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  14. Biomarker assessment of the effects of coal strip-mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes how a suite of biomarkers was used to evaluate acute (1-day) to semichronic (3-month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, lctalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, haematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were used to evaluate the importance of exposure routes: one excluding contact with the sediments and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed to both exposure regimens, but evidence of DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. The transient changes in biomarkers followed by a return to reference values represented an initial stress and an acclimation to normal levels

  15. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  16. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Văn Quân

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engine in area will reduce the HC, CO, SOx and NOx emission to the environment. Therefore, with a study on applying the catfish biofuel, it will reduce the climate change by the increasing of sea water level and save energy by using green energy to replace petrol oil.

  17. Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Novel Genes with Sexually Dimorphic Expression in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Zheng, Min; Zheng, Jiajia; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Peng, Lina; Wang, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiushi; Luan, Peixian; Mahbooband, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is a pivotal freshwater aquaculture species in China. It shows sexual size dimorphism favoring male in growth. Whole transcriptome approach is required to get the overview of genetic toolkit for understanding the sex determination mechanism aiming at devising its monosex production. Beside gonads, the brain is also considered as a major organ for vertebrate reproduction. Transcriptomic analyses on the brain and of different developmental stages will provide the dynamic view necessary for better understanding its sex determination. In this regard, we have performed a de novo assembly of yellow catfish brain transcriptome by high throughput Illumina sequencing. A total number of 154,507 contigs were obtained with the lengths ranging from 201 to 27,822 bp and N50 of 2,101 bp, as well as 20,699 unigenes were identified. Of these unigenes, 13 and 54 unigenes were detected to be XY-specifically expressed genes (SEGs) for one and 2-year-old yellow catfish, while the corresponding numbers of XX-SEGs for those two stages were 19 and 13, respectively. Our work identifies a set of annotated genes that are candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide variation (SNV) in yellow catfish. To validate the expression patterns of the sex-related genes, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicating the reliability and accuracy of our analysis. The results in our study may enhance our understanding of yellow catfish sex determination and potentially help to improve the production of all-male yellow catfish for aquaculture. PMID:26242754

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) (Siluriformes, Bagridae) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and red listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,588 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.28% A, 27.80% C, 15.31% G, and 25.57% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala provides the fundamental tools for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:24617486

  19. Influence of Wind Vector Structure Variation of Typhoon "Catfish" Circulation on Its Pathway Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the wind vector structure variation of No.1013 strong typhoon "catfish",and its influence on typhoon pathway mutation.[Method] According to the theory that the asymmetric structure of typhoon vortex had influence on typhoon movement,the center of No.1013 super typhoon "catfish" was as the coordinate origin,and 850,500 hPa tangential rotation speeds within 300-500 km were decomposed into u and v components.The composite force movement tendency of typhoon was analyzed.T...

  20. THE PRESENCE OF FLUOROQUINOLONES AS ANTIBIOTIC ON CATFISH : A RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Titik Budiati

    2010-01-01

    Catfish is a one of freshwater fish which has good nutrition for human but it can be contaminated by antibiotic such as fluoroquinolones. In risk assessment , the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of fluoroquinolones was considered to be 0.0080 g/kg/day and acceptable daily intake (ADI) for fluoroquinolone is 0.15 μg/kg/day on the basis body weight. There are no reports of toxicity in man or animals from the consumption of fluoroquionolones in catfish and the levels of fluoroquinolones...

  1. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Văn Quân; Ho Trung Phuoc

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engin...

  2. Effects of different heat treatments on lipid quality of striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Domiszewski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. As a result of consumer acceptance and low price production, sales of striped catfish fillets continue to grow. Striped catfish fillets, due to their white meat and lack of fish scent, can be an alternative to fish such as cod or hake. The paper analysed the influence of four different kinds of heat treatment: boiling with and without the addition of salt, frying, microwave cooking, microwave cooking without water on the composition of fatty acids and the lipid oxidation and hydrolysis level of striped catfish fillets. Material and methods. Assays were performed on striped catfish fillets (Pangasius hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878, which were bought from local supermarket. Fillets one year before expiration date were assayed. Quality of fish lipids was determined by an analysis of the following factors: peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AsV, TOTOX value, conjugated dienes (CD, acid value (AV, along with an analysis of the composition of fatty acid (FA via gas chromatography. Results. It was shown that conventional cooking and microwave cooking of striped catfish fillets results in an approximately 10% change in the amount of PUFA, including EPA and DHA, whereas the percentages of SFA and MUFA remain unchanged. The amount of the sum of EPA and DHA in 100 g of raw fillet was 16.5 mg, whereas after conventional cooking, microwave cooking and frying the sum of EPA and DHA was respectively: 12, 22 and 23 mg. It was observed that conventional cooking causes an average 10% loss of fat, a change not observed in case of microwave cooking. In spite of a substantial influence of heat treatment on the amount of both primary and secondary oxidation products, striped catfish lipids maintained good quality after the treatment – PV of every sample was below 3 meq O2/kg lipids, and AsV below 1.5. The addition of salt during boiling caused a 16-fold increase in the amount of peroxides and a fourfold increase in the amount of secondary oxidation

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of two isoforms of Vasa gene in Southern catfish Silurus meridionalis

    OpenAIRE

    HU Chong-Jiang; WU, Feng-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Hao; HUANG Bao-Feng; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Wang, De-Shou

    2008-01-01

    Two isoforms of Vasa cDNA, derived from the 5′alternative splicing of the same gene, were isolated and characterized in Southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the full length cDNA of Southern catfish Vasa (scVasa) comprises 2525 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1989 bp, encoding 662 amino acids, while that of Va...

  4. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Adam R; Steinworth, Bailey M; Hale, Melina E

    2016-02-10

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  5. STRUCTURAL CHROMOSOME DIVERSIFICATION IN TWO SOUTHERN ATLANTIC MARINE CATFISHES (ARIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Candeia de Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Siluriforms is one of the most diverse groups of the Neotropical ichthyofauna. About 1,750 species occurs exclusively in the Americas. In view the high number of species, geographical widespread and morphological similarities, there are still many questions about the relationship among some families and species. One of the two families in this Order that inhabit the marine environment, Ariidae shows numerous taxonomic uncertainties. Cytogenetic analysis in Atlantic species are still incipient. To evaluate the karyotype diversity and infer the evolutionary history of this clade are presented here chromosomal data of species Cathorops spixii and Sciades sp. distributed in the northeastern Brazil coastline. Both species have the same diploid number 2n=56, but with marked differences between chromosomal formulas. In fact, C. spixii shows 12m+16sm+24st+4a (NF=108 and Sciades sp. presents 14m+10sm+22st+10a (NF=102. Both species have multiple NORs (nucleolar organizer regions, localized in the terminal portion of two chromosome pairs. The karyotypic patterns of these and other species of Ariidae indicates that pericentric inversion represent that the main mechanism involved in chromosomal diversity of the family. Taxonomic uncertainty in some taxa and the occurrence of interpopulational karyotypic variations in species Ariidae, raise detailed analyzes using the mapping of repetitive sequences in order to identify possible cryptic species in this family along the Brazilian coast. Keywords: Cathorops spixii, Sciades sp., pericentric inversions, fish cytogenetics, marine catfishes.

  6. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  7. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  8. Dietary breadth and trophic position of introduced European catfish Silurus glanis in the River Tarn (Garonne River basin), southwest France

    OpenAIRE

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Crivelli, Alain Jean; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Although being a widely introduced and successfully established species, the European catfish Silurus glanis L. (the world’s third largest freshwater fish) remains poorly studied in its introduced areas. Here we studied the trophic ecology of non-native European catfish in a large river system in south-western France using stomach content and stable isotope analyses (SIA). We used fin samples for SIA of catfish and hence tested the validity of using fin tissue as a proxy for muscle in SIA. Th...

  9. Evaluation of catfish by-products as protein sources for pigs in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preservation methods of catfish by-products (CBP), and the effects of replacing marine fish meal (FM) with these processing byproducts on diet digestibility, performance, feed efficiency and carcass quality in growing-finishing pigs. Paper I presents data on catfish production, processing and the nutritive value of catfish by-product meals (CBM) in the Mekong Delta (MD) of Vietnam. In Paper II, CBP silage made with 20-40% addition of sugar cane molasses (...

  10. Steatitis in wild sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Olifants and lower Letaba Rivers in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Govender, D; Pienaar, D J; Deacon, A R

    2011-07-01

    Large numbers of adult Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti), died from pansteatitis during autumn and winter 2008 in the lower Letaba and Olifants River gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Consequently, the health status of fish from these waters was investigated. The study presents the pathological findings in fish inhabiting these rivers within the boundaries of the Park. Changes typical of steatitis were diagnosed in many of the larger specimens of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), caught within the Olifants River gorge. These fish carried large amounts of mesenteric fat with characteristic small brown granulomata within the adipose tissue. Necrosis and inflammation of the adipose tissues, with characteristic ceroid accumulation within the resultant granulomata and the associated aggregation of ceroid-containing macrophages, were demonstrated histologically and were typical of steatitis. Other changes included mild thickening and pallor of the gill tissues and swollen, orange, fatty livers. Focal hepatic lipidosis was demonstrated histologically, and special stains revealed storage of large amounts of iron in the livers. Blood smears revealed chromatin clumping in erythrocyte nuclei and nuclear and cell membrane irregularities. This is the first record of steatitis in wild-caught C. gariepinus. PMID:21675995

  11. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  12. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  13. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  14. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  15. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  16. Overcoming inconsistencies in mortality rates during winter experimental challenges of channel catfish with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the goals of the ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit is to incorporate disease resistance to ESC, caused by the bacterium, Edwardsiella ictaluri, into our selective breeding program. Through repeated experiments we have determined an optimal challenge dose of E. ictaluri that produces 50-70% ...

  17. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  18. Prevalence of veterinary drug residues and heavy metals in catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seafood, including catfish, can sometimes become contaminated with chemicals and heavy metals at levels which would harm human health. Seafood safety has been increasing concerns to the consumers in the United States and limited availability of domestic fresh products in retail stores have been rais...

  19. Global transcription analysis of vaccinated channel catfish following challenge with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the identities of genes involved in either innate or adaptive immunity, microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed to compare gene expression in vaccinated channel catfish after challenge with a virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to that in sham-vaccinated fis...

  20. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-04-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  1. In-pond raceway systems and catfish disease related cases in west Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split-pond production systems are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish. Currently, there are over 1,300 water acres of production in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Alabama utilizing split-pond production sy...

  2. Plutonium-237: comparative uptake in chelated and non-chelated form by channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation can either enhance or reduce the uptake of ingested plutonium relative to PuOH (monomer) in channel catfish. Reduced uptake of 237Pu-fulvate is due either to the molecular weight of the complex or its stability in metabolic systems. Increased uptake of 237Pu-citrate is attributable to instability of the complex in metabolic systems. (author)

  3. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODELING OF THREE WATERBORNE CHLOROETHANES IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for fish was used to describe the uptake and disposition of three chlorinated ethanes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). atfish were simultaneously exposed to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachlo...

  4. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND CHLOROETHANE GILL FLUX IN THE CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALRUS PUNCTATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fish respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain in ivo respiratory-cardiovascular and chloroethane gill flux data on transected channel catfish (Ictalrus punctatus). ethods used for spinal transection, attachment of an oral membrane (respiratory mask), placement and att...

  5. Biomarker assessment of the effects of strip mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of biomarkers were used to evaluate acute (1 day) to semi-chronic (3 month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, hematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were utilized to evaluate the importance of exposure routes; one allowing exclusive contact with the water column and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed in both regimes, but DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. Transient increases in hemoglobin, ALAD, and hematocrit levels were observed at 1 month for both exposure regimes, followed by a return to control levels for the duration of the study. Environmental conditions (i.e., changes in water quality and temperature) may have contributed to the variable plasma chloride and glucose levels observed in all catfish exposed to strip mine wastes. Further analysis of the data with non-metric clustering techniques and correlations with tissue metal residues may yield more insights into causal relationships

  6. Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in catfish from U.S. commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that "catfish, as defined by the Secretary," is an amenable species and therefore subject to continuous inspection by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. Since few background data are ...

  7. Economic feasibility of an in-pond raceway system for commercial catfish production in west Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endeavor of this project was to improve profitability of catfish farming by demonstrating methods to achieve high levels of survival, feed performance, and efficiency in a commercial farm setting. A commercial-scale, in-pond raceway system was constructed in 2007 in a 6.0 ac earthen pond on a ca...

  8. Molecular responses of ceruloplasmin to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection and iron overload in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruloplasmin is a serum ferroxidase that carries more than 90% of the copper in plasma and has documented roles in iron homeostasis as well as antioxidative functions. In our previous studies, it has been shown that the ceruloplasmin gene is strongly up-regulated in catfish during challenge with Ed...

  9. Commercial catfish pond water color and fish-eating birds: What is the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to test and predict fish-eating bird use and avoidance at catfish production ponds during 2 winters in Arkansas. We measured (1) physical (size, length, width, depth, surface condition, secchi depth), (2) biological (fish size and stocking density, algal species composition ...

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2001-09-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  11. Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich) and Aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish. Currently there is no information available for the effect of coinfection by Ich and A. hydrophila on bacterial load and survival in channel catfish. Two trials were conducted in this stud...

  12. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  13. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TREATMENT DURING EGG INCUBATION IMPROVES CHANNEL CATFISH HATCHING SUCCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus hatching success when administered during egg incubation as a 15 min. bath or as a flow-through treatment. In the first trial, initial treatment with 100 ppm povidone iodi...

  14. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2013-03-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  15. Functioning of catfish electroreceptors: Influence of calcium and sodium concentration on the skin potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, V.J.A.; Bretschneider, F.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. The skin potential of catfish was measured in order to test the hypothesis that it controls electroreceptor sensitivity. 2. 2. The skin potential depends on the “milieu extérieur” in the same way as reported lor goldfish (Fig. 2). 3. 3. The variation of the skin potential is very large compa

  16. Isolation and immunohistochemical identification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from the tissue of catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vinay; Prasad, Yogendra

    2014-03-01

    This study deals with the identification of bacteria in paraffin embedded tissue of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus experimentally infected with F. psychrophilum to ascertain it's precise role in the occurrence and state of carrier stage of coldwater disease in asymptomatic fishes. Significant (P fish pathogenic bacteria in carrier fish where mortality occurs without explicit clinical signs of disease. PMID:24665767

  17. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  18. The regulation of gonadotropin release by neurohormones and gonadal steroids in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R. de; Goos, H.J.Th.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropic hormone (GTH) from the pituitary of teleosts is considered to be regulated by neuropeptides and neuroamines of cerebral origin and steroid hormones from the gonads. This paper reviews our studies concerning the control of GTH release in the African catfish, Clarias gari

  19. Sex Genotype and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Growth Differences Between Male and Female Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish have an XX:XY genotypic system of sex determination, and until the present study, the influence of sex genotype on growth could not be distinguished from sex phenotype. Genotypic male fish (XY) were produced by mating normal (XX) female fish with YY male fish. A subsample from eac...

  20. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  1. Susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish to parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the susceptibility of 3 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) strains (D&B, USDA 101 and USDA 102) to the parasite Ichthyopthirius multifiliis (Ich). In Trial I, a cohabitation study (all strains stocked communally) was conducted and fish were exposed to theronts at 0, 200, 1000, 5,...

  2. Utilization of laserpuncture induction as spawning stimulation in catfish (Clarias spp. crossbreeding toward egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky S.W. Kusuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The induction of laserpuncture on the reproductive acupoint of catfish can accelerate gonadotropin hormone formation from the pituitary especially gonadotropin II (GTH-II which has a role in the final stage of oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning stimulation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of laserpuncture induction toward the egg quality from crossbreeding catfish male var. Paiton and female var. Sangkuriang. The egg quality was measured by the following parameters: fertilization rate (FR, egg hatching rate (HR, and larvae survival rate (SR. The research treatments were conducted using two levels along with eight repetitions. The results show that the crossbreed catfish using laserpuncture induction affected the parameters by increasing the mean value of fertilization rate, egg hatching rate and larvae survival rate significantly (P < 0.05 compared with mean value of fish without induction. This study concluded that laserpuncture induction on the crossbreeding between broodstock of male catfish var. Paiton and female var. Sangkuriang will increase FR, HR and SR.

  3. Maternal Transfer of Vitamin C in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Effects Reproduction and Progeny Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two routes of maternal transfer of vitamin C in channel catfish female broodfish prior to spawning were explored as a strategy to incorporate the vitamin to determine its effect on reproduction and subsequent performance of the progeny. Accumulation of vitamin C was higher (p<0.05) in ovarian tissu...

  4. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  5. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using quantitative PCR technique, the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes [NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin D, hepcidin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 ...

  6. PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in catfish from U.S. Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, egg products, and farm-raised catfish marketed in the United States. As such the USDA conducts statistical surveys to determine chemical residue concentrations in these domestic products. Little background data...

  7. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in split ponds vs. conventional catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  8. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  9. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  10. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  11. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  12. IncA/C Plasmid-Mediated Florfenicol Resistance in the Catfish Pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florfenicol has recently been approved for the treatment of enteric septicemia of catfish caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri. Here we report the identification of florfenicol resistance in a clinical isolate of E. ictaluri. Resistance in this isolate is associated with a mobile IncA/C plasmid conferrin...

  13. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  14. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  15. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  16. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  17. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  18. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  11. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  12. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  3. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  4. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  5. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  6. Final Critical Habitat for the Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei), and the Yaqui chub (Gila purpurea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei),...

  7. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  8. Evaluation of a cohabitation challenge model in immunization trials for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcein marking and cohabitation challenge have not been investigated in fish parasite research. This study evaluated a cohabitation challenge method in immunization trials against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using calcein, a fluorescent dye, to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafi...

  9. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  10. Comparison of stomach contents and condition of two catfish species living at ambient temperatures and in a heated discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower condition factors for two catfish species in water heated by effluents from APCo's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant as compared to control areas probably is not due to lack of food as evidenced by macroinvertebrate sampling and the fact that only 4.3 percent of the catfish stomachs were empty. Results suggested that young-of-the-year channel catfish were nonselectively eating food organisms present at both control and heated stations. The difference between stomach contents of flatheat catfish from the heated site and fauna available at that site indicated that fish were either moving out of the heated area to feed or were selectively feeding on organisms (particularly mayflies) which were in the substrate or drifted into the heated area. Stomach contents of the two species and distribution and abundance of the macroinvertebrate benthos community are detailed

  11. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  12. Male-specific DNA markers from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, B; Egedi, S; Bártfai, R; Orbán, L

    2000-01-01

    We searched for sex-specific DNA sequences in the male and female genomes of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) by comparative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays performed on pooled DNA samples. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified from the male DNA pool and confirmed on individual samples, showing good agreement with phenotypic sex. Both markers were isolated, cloned and characterized. The first marker (CgaY1) was nearly 2.6 kb long, while the length of second one (CgaY2) was 458 bp. Southern blot analysis with a CgaY1 probe showed strong hybridizing fragments only in males and not in females under stringent conditions, indicating the presence of multiple copies of CgaY1 in the male genome. When tested by zoo blot on the genomes of two closely related species from the Clariidae family, CgaY1 hybridized to the DNA of Heterobranchus longifilis and generated a faint male-specific band at low stringency. CgaY2 produced similar hybridization pattern in both sexes of C. gariepinus, C. macrocephalus and H. longifilis. Specific primers were designed to the sequences and the markers were amplified in multiplex PCR reactions together with a control band common to all individuals. This allowed for rapid, molecular sexing of the species on the basis of a simple three band (male) versus one band (female) pattern. According to our knowledge these are the first sex-specific DNA markers isolated from a siluroid fish species. PMID:11766847

  13. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758) from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Yakhchali; Ali-Asghar Tehrani; Mozafar Ghoreishi

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes inclu...

  14. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Norman W; Wilson Melanie R; Kruiswijk Corine P; Ross David A; Hikima Jun-ichi; Lennard Mara L; Warr Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The enhancer (Eμ3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding μE5 site. An orthologue to the Oct2 transcription factor has previously been cloned in catfish and is a functionally active transcription factor. This study was undertaken to clone and characterize the Oct1 trans...

  15. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of Asian catfish oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpisanu Thammapat; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Patcharin Raviyan

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of the concentrating conditions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) extracted from Asian catfish oil was studied to obtain a maximum concentration. The crude fish oil was extracted from the belly flap and adipose tissue of Asian catfish, and the extracted oil was used as fresh crude oil. The EPA and DHA were concentrated by the urea complexation method. A hexagonal rotatable design was applied to examine the effects of crystallization temperatur...

  16. Effect of Oxytetracycline-Medicated Feed on Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Catfish Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    DePaola, A.; Peller, J. T.; Rodrick, G E

    1995-01-01

    The effect of oxytetracycline-medicated feeds on antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria from fish intestines and water in catfish ponds was investigated. In experiments in the fall and spring, using ponds with no previous history of antibiotic usage, percentages of tetracycline-resistant bacteria in catfish intestines obtained from medicated ponds increased significantly after 10 days of treatment. In the fall, resistance of the intestinal and aquatic bacteria returned to pretreatmen...

  17. Quality of antimicrobial products used in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Minh Phu; Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Marie-Louise Scippo; Anders Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatog...

  18. Reproductive behavior, development and eye regression in the cave armored catfish, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis, 1987 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), breed in laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Secutti; Eleonora Trajano

    2009-01-01

    The troglobitic armored catfish, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus (Loricariidae, Ancistrinae) is known from four caves in the São Domingos karst area, upper rio Tocantins basin, Central Brazil. These populations differ in general body shape and degree of reduction of eyes and of pigmentation. The small Passa Três population (around 1,000 individuals) presents the most reduced eyes, which are not externally visible in adults. A small group of Passa Três catfish, one male and three females, reproduced...

  19. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased walleye survival in comparison with controls. In the channel catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for all OTC-HCl treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  1. Influence of Environmental Conditions in Ichthyophthiriasis Trigger to the Europeans Catfish Juveniles (Silurus Glanis Stocked into a Production System with Partially Reused Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandita (Placinta Ion

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in Romanian aquaculture, the rearing of the European catfish into intensive production systems raises a growing interest determined by its higher technological performances. In comparison with pond traditional aquaculture, the new farming systems are characterized by modified environmental conditions that may lead, in case of exceeding thresholds of tolerability, to occurrence of stress factors, thus setting the disease conditions. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is to present the association circumstances of the predisposed environmental conditions that have weakened the fish body resistance promoting the pathological action of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis after the transfer of European catfish juveniles (G=33.6±1.7 g, L=17.5±2.9 cm from a pond system into a tank culture system with partially reused water. During a 21-day period, some restrictive parameters of water quality have registered values far beyond the optimum interval for wells juveniles growth (t≤16oC, CmaxN-NH4+=3.62mg/l, CmaxNO2-=9.18mg/l, CmaxCl2=0.1mg/l which caused the appearance of some characteristic symptoms, such as the gills brown coloration, masking the first symptoms of ichthyophthiriasis and contributing to the subclinical evolution of the disease. The concentrations of water chemical parameters were determined by spectrophotometer methods using Merck kits, analogous to standard methods. Subsequently, the “ich” diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of the gills and skin scrapings highlighting the presence of parasites. In order to alleviate methaemoglobinaemia and parasite treatment, sodium chloride was gradually added in water till 1 ppt concentration. Maintaining the salinity of the system led to a reduction of gills parasitic intensity, while mature trophonts encapsulated in the skin were protected by mucus hypersecretion. Finally, the destruction of gill epithelium seriously affected the osmoregulation

  2. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  3. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  4. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF EUROPEAN CATFISH (SILURIS GLANIS L. SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Dunaevskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study of the microscopic structure and morphometric parameters of European catfish spleen. Methodology. For the study, we used the spleen of clinically healthy age-2 European catfish (Silurus glanis L.. We determined the absolute and relative weight of the organ or the index of spleen development. For the histological studies, pieces of the material were preserved in 10-12 % cooled neutral formalin solution, with subsequent filling in paraffin. Paraffin sections were prepared using a sledge microtome, with a thickness of no more than 10 microns. To determine the cell and tissue morphology under light microscopy, we the staining of histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Determination of spleen linear dimensions, morphometric measurements were carried out using the "Master of Morphology". Quantitative parameters were analyzed in "Statistica 6.0". Findings. European catfish spleen corresponded to general regularities of fish spleen structure: we identified support-contractile apparatus, white and red pulp and inherent cellular composition. Peculiarities of the microscopic structure of this organ in European catfish is underdevelopment of radial trabeculae, poor development of periarterial lymphoid sheaths, absence of the differentiation to zones in lymphoid nodules. The most developed was red pulp (70.82 ± 10.76%, the least developed — support-contractile apparatus (7.04 ± 0.65%. The base of the white pulp (22.14 ± 6.61% is lymphoid nodules without propagation center. The support-contractile apparatus of the spleen, which includes capsule and trabecular system, is developed unevenly. E.g., the capsule thickness in different parts of the body is not the same, the biggest thickness is in porta, where it attains 21.85 ± 7.44 micrometers, its relative area is 3.06 ± 0.32%. Relative area of the trabecular system is 3.98 ± 2.57%, the most developed are vascular trabeculae. Originality. We found the peculiarities of spleen

  5. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  6. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes. PMID:25329264

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, Sisoridae; Siluriformes) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish Bagarius bagarius, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red Listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,457 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.14% A, 27.72% C, 15.62% G and 25.50% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish, B. bagarius provides the basic genetic tools for breeding and conservation program to enhance aquaculture production. PMID:24660912

  9. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin. PMID:8796441

  10. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  11. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  12. Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nor Siti-Azizah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the most suitable extender and theirrespective dilution ratios for African catfish sperm for artificial induced breeding and cryopreservationpurposes. Three natural extenders were tested i.e. coconut water, sugarcane water and soybeansolutions, at three different levels of sperm to extender dilutions of 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. While Ringersolution was used as a control Diluted sperm were fertilized with ready isolated eggs to assess thefertility and hatching rate at 0, 6 and 12 hour intervals. The results showed that the eggs hatchedapproximately 19 to 27 hours after fertilization. In general, the fertilization and hatching rates decreasedwith increasing dilution ratio. With respect to natural extenders, the coconut water showed the highestfertility and hatching rates at 1:20 dilution ratio. Therefore, coconut water at 1:20 dilution ratio was theoptimal condition for African catfish spermatozoa among the natural extenders investigated.

  13. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus . 1. Preliminary investigations on the probable use of vegetable oil in catfish feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Four groups of brackishwater catfish were fed four diets: N.F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed), A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 10.89% vegetable oil respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that growth was best in the group fed diets containing 10.89% vegetable oil and least in those containing 9.09% vegetable oil

  14. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  16. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  17. Karyotype analysis of an endemic sucker catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad,1981 (Actinopterygii: Sisoridae), from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; NAZARI, Narges; GHOLAMIFARD, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The karyotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of southern catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981, was investigated for the first time by examining metaphase chromosome spreads obtained from gill epithelial and kidney cells. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n = 52. The karyotype consisted of 9 pairs of metacentric, 14 pairs of submetacentric, and 3 pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. The arm number was 98. No heteromorphic sex chromosomes were cytologically detected in th...

  18. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

    OpenAIRE

    Ace Baehaki1); Shanti Dwita Lestari; Achmad Rizky Romadhoni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius) enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%). The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidra...

  19. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar; Mallick Prakash Kumar; Adikesavalu Harresh; Banerjee Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swoll...

  20. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Fijan; Peter W. Perschbacher

    2000-01-01

    The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government ins...

  1. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Provenzano R.; Antonio Machado-Allison; Barry Chernoff; Phil Willink; Paulo Petry

    2005-01-01

    Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the b...

  2. Catfishes of the genus Auchenipterichthys (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae): a revisionary study

    OpenAIRE

    Carl J. Ferraris Jr.; Vari, Richard P.; Sandra J. Raredon

    2005-01-01

    The Neotropical auchenipterid catfish genus Auchenipterichthys is reviewed and found to include four species. Auchenipterichthys thoracatus, formerly considered to be widely distributed throughout the Amazon River basin, is found to be restricted to the upper Madeira River basin. The widespread Amazonian species that had been misidentified as A. thoracatus is, instead, A. coracoideus; a species that also occurs in the upper Essequibo River. Auchenipterichthys longimanus, the most widely distr...

  3. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  4. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation in Diet for the Growth of Channel Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Erum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Channel catfish has practically proven to be one of the species with virtually remarkable performance in fresh water pond culture. Due to better growth rate, good adaptation and acceptability towards artificial feed channel catfish was introduced to Pakistan. A study was conducted to see the role of dietary enzyme Laccasse supplementation in a diet (35% CP on growth of fingerlings of channel catfish. For this purpose a six week nutrition study was conducted in Aquaria of Aquaculture and Fisheries program (NARC. Fish was fed a locally prepared (35% CP diet incorporated with three different concentration of Laccasse enzyme i.e., at the rate of 1, 2 and 3 mL/kg. The dietary pellets were prepared and air dried and fed to the fish at the rate of three percent of wet body weight twice daily. Prior to the start of study fish were acclimatized for a period of two weeks on experimental diets. Weights of the fish were recorded at the start and end of trial fortnightly in between. At the end result was deduced through the data of weight gain. The results revealed that Laccasse supplemented at a concentration of 2 mL/kg has higher growth, however it is insignificant (p>0.05 with a concentration of 3 mL/kg. So addition of laccasse in higher concentration or lower concentrations serve no purpose. We concluded that further detailed studies are added to evaluate the role of laccasse enzyme in feed utilization and growth enhancement of channel catfish juveniles.

  5. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on pr...

  6. Comparative study of hatching rates of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) eggs on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Macharia, S.K.; Ngugi, C.C.; Rasowo, J.

    2005-01-01

    The hatching rates of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) eggs on four natural substrates: the roots of Nile cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), pond weed (Ceratophyllum dermasum) and green grass leaves (Commelina sp.), and four artificial substrates: sisal mats, nylon mats, papyrus mats and kakaban mats, was assessed. Concrete slabs were used as control. The natural substrates performed better than the artificial ones. Pistia roots gave the best mean hatching...

  7. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Ribolli; Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de Melo; Evoy Zaniboni-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by n...

  8. Revision of Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from catfishes (Siluriformes) in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C.; Jirků, Miloslav; Mahmoud, Z. N.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2011), s. 83-107. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA AV ČR KJB600960813; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Wenyonia * catfishes * Africa * key to the identification * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2011

  9. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Luciana Segura de; Andrade Rafael Luiz Barboza de; Becker Alexssandro Geferson; Baldisserotto Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control). Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with ch...

  10. Studies on certain aspects of behaviour in the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercy T.V. Anna; Pillai N. Krishna; Balasubramanian N. K.

    2001-01-01

    Horaglanis krishnai is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug-out wells at Kottayam, Kerala. This fish has great zoogeographical importance as a similar blind clariid, Uegitglanis zammaroni is found only in the artesian wells of the former Italian Somaliland. Studies on certain behavioural aspects of the fish in captive conditions showed that, this fish even though is blind, exhibited a high degree of thigmotactism. Locomotion, comfort behaviour, feeding and light sensitivity of the fish were stu...

  11. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    OpenAIRE

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so the oxygen concentration in the water is no strongly limiting factor, which facilitates high density culture.To provide the basis for a production programme of any species the various phases of its culture proce...

  12. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    OpenAIRE

    German, Donovan P.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the structure and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of wood-eating catfishes, the gross morphology, length, and microvilli surface area (MVSA) of the intestines of wild-caught Panaque nocturnus, P. cf. nigrolineatus “Marañon”, and Hypostomus pyrineusi were measured, and contrasted against these same metrics of a closely related detritivore, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus. All four species had anatomically unspecialized intestines with no kinks, valves, or ceca o...

  13. Ituglanis agreste, a new catfish from the rio de Contas basin, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio M. Q. Lima; Cinara P. Neves; Rafael M. Campos-Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Ituglanis agreste, a new species of catfish, is described from a tributary stream of the rio Gongogi drainage, rio de Contas basin, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, from a transition area between the Atlantic Rain Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga savanna. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: elongate interopercle plate with high number of odontodes (26-30), high number of ribs (5-6), fewer vertebrae (36), number of branchiostegal rays (7), number of ...

  14. Redescription of the Striped Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) (Siluriformes: Bagridae), India

    OpenAIRE

    A. Darshan; Mahanta, P. C.; Barat, A.; P. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The Bagrid Catfish Mystus tengara was described from a pond located in India under the genus Pimelodus. The validity of the fish has been confused and has frequently been treated as a synonym of Mystus vittatus. In this study, the species is rediagnosed and redescribed on the basis of fresh material collected from the Ganga-Brahmaputra drainage. M. tengara is diagnosed from congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: body with a distinct tympanic spot and four bro...

  15. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein Concentration and L-carnitine on Growth, Processing Yield, and Body Composition of Channel X Blue Catfish Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate effects of dietary protein concentration and L-carnitine supplementation on production and processing traits of channel catfish × blue catfish hybrids. Hybrid fingerlings, mean initial weight = 66 g, were stocked into 20, 0.04-ha earthen ponds at a...

  17. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Fish Meal at Different Water Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike warm-blooded animals, channel catfish do not feed consistently when water temperatures are below 20°C and generally stop eating at temperatures of 10°C and below. Many catfish producers choose not to feed during winter months for various reasons, one of which is that it is difficult to see a...

  18. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  19. The brown fat secretome: metabolic functions beyond thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat is highly active in fuel oxidation and dissipates chemical energy through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated heat production. Activation of brown fat leads to increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and lower plasma glucose and lipid levels, thus contributing to better homeostasis. Uncoupled respiration and thermogenesis have been considered to be responsible for the metabolic benefits of brown adipose tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes also se...

  20. Mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon): structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R-Q; Wang, D-Z; Li, C-T; Yang, X-R

    2016-01-01

    The complete 16,532-nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon) was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method, and compared with the mitochondrial genome sequences of 49 other catfish species belonging to the order Siluriformes. The locations of protein-coding genes and ribosomal ribonucleic acids (RNAs) were identified by comparison with known sequences of other catfishes, including P. fulvidraco and P. nitidus. The P. eupogon mitochondrial genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order was identical to that of other Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets were carried out to further clarify the relative phylogenetic position of P. eupogon, and identify phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) 8.0.X were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of P. eupogon with Amblycipitidae than Siluridae. We therefore concluded that this species appears to be closely related to the Amblycipitidae. In the phylogenetic tree, the Amblycipitidae appeared as the most basal extant lineage within the Siluriformes, while the Bagridae appeared as the sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The mitochondrial genome sequence of P. eupogon has been deposited in GenBank (accession No. KJ001784). PMID:27323031

  1. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  2. Sex biased expression of ghrelin and GHSR associated with sexual size dimorphism in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ma, Wenge; He, Yan; Wu, Junjie; Dawar, Farman Ullah; Ren, Fan; Zhao, Xiaohan; Mei, Jie

    2016-03-10

    Sexual size dimorphism has been observed in many cultivable fish species including yellow catfish, in which male fish grow much faster than female fish. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of pituitary growth hormone (GH) release and known to potentially promote food intake and body weight gain. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism of sexual size dimorphism in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), ghrelin and its functional receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) cDNAs were cloned. Real-time PCR indicated that both ghrelin and GHSR were more highly expressed in hypothalamus and gut of male fish than female. During normal larval development, expression of ghrelin and GHSR genes was significantly higher in males than in females. 17a-Methyltestosterone (MT) treatment enhanced the expression of ghrelin in female larval fish and GHSR in both sexes, whereas the expression of ghrelin in male larval fish increased in the beginning, then decreased as the treatment time prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of ghrelin and GHSR in male juvenile was significantly increased compared with female juvenile, in short and long term fasting periods, suggesting that male fish may have a better appetite than female during fasting. Our results demonstrate that sex difference in the expression of ghrelin and GHSR may be involved in sexual size dimorphism by regulating feeding and GH/IGF signaling in yellow catfish. PMID:26692148

  3. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  4. Effect of anolyte on background microflora, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on catfish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher H

    2012-04-01

    Near-neutral electrolyzed water (anolyte), having a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 ± 0.02, oxidation reduction potential of greater than 700 mV, and a residual chlorine level of 10 to 200 ppm, was reported to have a potential use to decontaminate food surfaces. An electrolyzing cell was developed that is capable of producing neutral electrolyzed water containing a chlorine level of greater than 700 ppm in the form of hypochlorous acid (anolyte). Anolyte with a chlorine level of 300 ppm was used to determine its effect on Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes cells after a 3-min contact. Transmission electron micrograph results showed disruption of the outer cellular membrane for both bacteria. The anolyte (300 ppm) was used as a washing solution to decontaminate catfish fillets inoculated with either Salmonella or L. monocytogenes. After a 3-min contact time with the anolyte, there was a 1-log reduction for Salmonella, and after 8 days of refrigerated storage (4°C), this bacterial reduction was maintained. There was no reduction of L. monocytogenes on the catfish fillet surfaces. The anolyte was an effective wash solution for Salmonella reduction on the catfish fillet surfaces. PMID:22488069

  5. Determination of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissues by liquid chromatography with precolumn formaldehyde derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Wenhong Luo; Hansen, E.B. Jr.; Freeman, J.P.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. [Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for analysis of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissued. The tissue was extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 4.5), followed by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins and solid-phase (C{sub 18}) extraction. Trace amounts of nonpolar interfering substances present after solid-phase extraction were removed by ether liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA at 100{degrees}C for 30 min. A fluorescent derivative was extracted with ether, concentrated, and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of amoxicillin spiked at 2.5-20 ppb were > 80% for catfish and >75% for salmon muscle tissue, with coefficients of variation of <6%. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for catfish tissue were 0.5 and 1.2 ppb, respectively. LOD and LOQ for salmon muscle tissue were 0.8 and 2.0 ppb, respectively. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from alkaline-aided channel catfish protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Ann E; Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2008-08-27

    Antioxidative activity of hydrolyzed protein prepared from alkali-solubilized catfish protein isolates was studied. The isolates were hydrolyzed to 5, 15, and 30% degree of hydrolysis using the protease enzyme, Protamex. Hydrolyzed protein was separated into hydrolysates and soluble supernatants, and both of these fractions were studied for their metal chelating ability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and their ability to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in washed tilapia muscle containing tilapia hemolysate. Both hydrolysates and supernatants were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of catfish protein hydrolysates decreased, whereas the ORAC value, metal chelating ability, and ability to inhibit TBARS increased, with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Hydrolysate samples showed higher DPPH radical scavenging ability and Fe(3+) reducing ability, and supernatant samples had higher metal chelating ability. In general, low molecular weight (MW) peptides had high ORAC values and high metal chelating ability, and high MW peptides had a higher reducing power (FRAP) and were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals. In a washed muscle model system, the ability of catfish protein hydrolysates and their corresponding supernatants to inhibit the formation of TBARS increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. PMID:18662014

  7. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture. PMID:27038482

  8. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  9. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  10. Construction and characterization of a BAC library from a gynogenetic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Melanie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was constructed by cloning HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA from a gynogenetic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, into the vector pBeloBAC11. Approximately 53 500 clones were arrayed in 384-well plates and stored at -80°C (CCBL1, while clones from a smaller insert size fraction were stored at -80°C without arraying (CCBL2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 100 clones after NotI digestion revealed an average insert size of 165 kb for CCBL1 and 113 kb for CCBL2. Further characterization of CCBL1 demonstrated that 10% of the clones did not contain an insert. CCBL1 provides a 7.2-fold coverage of the channel catfish haploid genome. PCR-based screening demonstrated that 68 out of 74 unique loci were present in the library. This represents a 92% chance to find a unique sequence. These libraries will be useful for physical mapping of the channel catfish genome, and identification of genes controlling major traits in this economically important species.

  11. Evasion of mucosal defenses during Aeromonas hydrophila infection of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Ruijia; Su, Baofeng; Luo, Yupeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Beck, Benjamin; Peatman, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The mucosal surfaces of fish serve as the first line of defense against the myriad of aquatic pathogens present in the aquatic environment. The immune repertoire functioning at these interfaces is still poorly understood. The skin, in particular, must process signals from several fronts, sensing and integrating environmental, nutritional, social, and health cues. Pathogen invasion can disrupt this delicate homeostasis with profound impacts on signaling throughout the organism. Here, we investigated the transcriptional effects of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish skin, Ictalurus punctatus. We utilized a new 8 × 60 K Agilent microarray for catfish to examine gene expression profiles at critical early timepoints following challenge--2 h, 8 h, and 12 h. Expression of a total of 2,168 unique genes was significantly perturbed during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation of genes involved in antioxidant, cytoskeletal, immune, junctional, and nervous system pathways. In particular, A. hydrophila infection rapidly altered a number of potentially critical lectins, chemokines, interleukins, and other mucosal factors in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and invade the catfish host. PMID:23219904

  12. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  13. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  14. Impact of a widely cultivated tree (moringa oleifera) on the health of commercially important hybrid catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plantations of the tree Moringa oleifera often lead to increase levels of leaf dust in nearby freshwater environments, and there is concern that, this could have a negative impact on catfish, which are important for aquaculture. Therefore, this study, determined the biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus ( ) Heterobranchus bidorsalis ( ) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. oleifera leaf dust in a static renewable bioassay system during a medium term exposure period. The fish (mean length, 16.33 cm, mean weight, 9.90 g) were exposed to 0.16, 0.12, 0.08, 0.04 and 0.00 mg/L concentrations of the plant leaf dust in triplicate exposure. After 21-days of exposure period, the fish were sacrificed for the biochemical parameters: glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, g-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Fish exposed to leaf dust showed significant differences (P0.05), in the liver and kidney, respectively, in the test fish. Other parameters were not significantly different (P>0.05) in their respective tissue-organs. Ipso-facto, the alteration in biochemical parameters of hybrid catfish exposed to M. oleifera leaf dust was concentration dependent with 0.16 mg/L showing the highest negative alterations thus fish exposed to concentrations above 0.16 mg/L for longer durations may suffer impaired health effect. (author)

  15. Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, T R; Di Domenico, J; Kirsten, K S; Nied, C O; Frandoloso, R; Kreutz, L C

    2016-07-25

    Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60-80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species. PMID:27464022

  16. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  17. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  18. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  19. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear Ursus arctos from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  20. Black-Brown Relations: Are Alliances Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klor de Alva, J. Jorge; West, Cornel

    1997-01-01

    Dialogue between Cornel West and Jorge Klor de Alva explores the question of black-brown alliances, those between African Americans and Hispanic Americans. If minority groups can put aside the difference of skin color and join to combat economic and social racism, they can have far-reaching and meaningful impacts on society. (SLD)

  1. From a Brown to a Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    instruments such as taxes and subsidies. In this way, renewable energy sources and green industries become more competitive, thus enhancing the transition from brown to green economy. Not only can these economic incentives accelerate the so-called switch point in time from fossil fuel–based energy sources to...

  2. The White, the Brite and the Brown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lone Møller

    development, also termed adipocyte differentiation, and the role played by adipocytes in wholebody energy metabolism is therefore of utmost importance. Mammals harbour two general types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) that carry out essentially opposite functions...

  3. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  4. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  5. Evaluation of the flathead catfish population and fishery on Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, with emphasis on the effects of noodling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    I conducted a 3-year study at Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma to estimate effects of various fishing gears on the flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris population. Managers were particularly interested in the effect of handfishing or noodling on this population. I used a phone survey to assess angler effort and electrofishing and gill nets to calculate standard population metrics to assess composition of the current population. Survey data indicated that fishing effort and harvest were highest for trotlines and juglines and lowest for noodling. Size distribution of fish harvested by noodlers was not different from sizes that were available in the fishery and was similar to those fish harvested with other gears. Flathead catfish Sampled in Lake Carl Blackwell ranged in size from 38 to 1,220 mm total length, and 77% of the population was less than 508 mm (minimum legal size). Estimated total annual mortality was about 11%. Proportional size distribution (PSD) of flathead catfish for Lake Carl Blackwell indicates that about 70% of legal-sized flathead catfish were over the preferred size of 710 mm. Overall, the Lake Carl Blackwell flathead catfish population appeared healthy. There were a wide range of sizes and ages in the population, and PSD indicated a well-balanced population with many preferred and memorable-sized fish. Due to its rarity, noodling is probably not adversely influencing the population. Additionally, noodling at Lake Carl Blackwell does not appear to be as size-selective as previously thought. 

  6. Example of the application the microsatellite DNA fragments in the study of farmed European catfish (Silurus glanis, L. broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuciñski Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available European catfish, Silurus glanis L., is the second largest freshwater fish in Europe. The species is very popular among the farmers, as it is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Despite the growing importance of European catfish in freshwater aquaculture, the genetic data available on this species are still limited. The main purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable, feasible genetic protocol for future studies on European catfish populations and broodstocks in Poland. The genetic characteristics of the tested fish group were based on genetic parameters such as the polymorphism information content (PIC, the effective population size (Ne, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, and the Garza-Williamson index (M, among others. Additionally, the potential effects of a genetic bottleneck on the genetic variation of the broodstock were examined. The genetic analysis protocol described in this study can be used to establish genetic-based records for European catfish broodstocks, including for sperm cryobanking. This approach will be useful for elaborating the selection procedures that allow for optimal assemblages of spawning pairs in artificial reproduction. The application of the genetic analysis protocol in practice will permit maintaining high quality in European catfish broodstocks.

  7. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation 1 . Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans 2-5 , BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome 1 . Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and...

  8. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation1. Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans2-5, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome1. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anato...

  9. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  10. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and kinetic analysis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Luo, Zhi; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Up to date, only limited information is available on genetically and functionally different isoforms of CPT I enzyme in fish. In the study, molecular characterization and their tissue expression profile of three CPT Iα isoforms (CPT Iα1a, CPT Iα1b and CPT Iα2a) and a CPT Iβ isoform from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco is determined. The activities and kinetic features of CPT I from several tissues have also been analyzed. The four CPT I isoforms in yellow catfish present distinct differences in amino acid sequences and structure. They are widely expressed in liver, heart, white muscle, spleen, intestine and mesenteric adipose tissue of yellow catfish at the mRNA level, but with the varying levels. CPT I activity and kinetics show tissue-specific differences stemming from co-expression of different isoforms, indicating more complex pathways of lipid utilization in fish than in mammals, allowing for precise control of lipid oxidation in individual tissue. PMID:23238057

  11. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  12. Growth of silver catfish ( Rhamdia quelen exposed to acidic pH at different humic acid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Teixeira da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Humic substances are organic compounds that possess high molecular weight and are formed by the decomposition of plant materials. Humic substances comprise humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. Humic acids (HA have shown to be able to provide some protection to biological membranes of fish in water with low pH, replacing the protective action of Ca2+. Thus, this studyaimed to observe growth of silver catfish ( Rhamdia quelen juveniles exposed to pHs 5.5 and 6.5 and to different levels of HA: 0, 10, 25 and 50mg L-1. Results showed that, irrespective of pH, HA was highly detrimental to silver catfish growth, since the higher the concentration of HA, the lower the weight gain and feed intake, resulting in lower biomass and lower specific growth rate of juveniles. Hence, HA is extremely damaging to the performance of silver catfish juveniles in the tested concentrations.

  13. Histological and computed tomographic evaluation of a parasitic conjoined twin in hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus [Rafinesque] X Ictalurus furcatus [Lesueur]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C A; Thomas, M W; Cooley, A J; Waldbieser, G C; Bosworth, B G; Torrans, E L; Khoo, L H

    2014-06-01

    There is growing use of hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus ♀ X Ictalurus furcatus ♂) in commercial aquaculture to utilize hybrid vigour to improve production A conjoined twin specimen found during the course of production studies by the United States Department of Agriculture Catfish Genetic Research Unit (USDA-CGRU) was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL). After preliminary inspection, it was transported to Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine for further evaluation. The specimen was examined using both computed radiography and computed tomography antemortem. Following humane euthanasia, the specimen was examined both grossly and histologically. Tissues from both fish were also submitted for genetic analysis to determine whether twins were derived from the same egg. This report records the presentation and examination of a pair of conjoined hybrid catfish (I. punctatus X Ictalurus furcatus). PMID:23991936

  14. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  15. A Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptor Subset Is a Marker of Antiviral Cytotoxic Cells in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin B; Moulana, Mohadetheh; Stuge, Tor B; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2016-03-15

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes Ig superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. In this study, we demonstrate the use of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish and determine that CC41 binds to a subset of LITRs on the surface of catfish clonal CTLs. Homozygous gynogenetic catfish were immunized with channel catfish virus (CCV)-infected MHC-matched clonal T cells (G14D-CCV), and PBL were collected at various times after immunization for flow cytometric analyses. The percentage of CC41(+) cells was significantly increased 5 d after primary immunization with G14D-CCV and at 3 d after a booster immunization as compared with control fish only injected with G14D. Moreover, CC41(+) cells magnetically isolated from the PBL specifically killed CCV-infected targets as measured by (51)Cr release assays and expressed messages for CD3γδ, perforin, and at least one of the CD4-like receptors as analyzed by RNA flow cytometry. When MLC effector cells derived from a G14D-CCV-immunized fish were preincubated with CC41 mAb, killing of G14D-CCV targets was reduced by ∼40%, suggesting that at least some LITRs have a role in target cell recognition and/or cytotoxicity. The availability of a LITR-specific mAb has allowed, to our knowledge for the first time, functional characterization of LITRs in an autologous system. In addition, the identification of an LITR subset as a cytotoxic cell marker will allow for more effective monitoring of catfish immune responses to pathogens. PMID:26856701

  16. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  17. The Effect of Grain Prices on the U.S. Catfish Industry: Implications of U.S. Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hualu; Muhammad, Andrew; Herndon, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the relationship between catfish feed prices (per-unit cost) and relevant economic factors such as the price of farm-raised catfish, farm inputs, and feed ingredients, which include com, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and wheat middling. Given changes in these economic factors it was assumed that the responsiveness of feed cost not instantaneous, and a partial-adjustment model was used in estimation. Results show that a one-percent increase in com prices will cause a 0.062...

  18. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Suardi Laheng; Mia Setiawati; Dedi Jusadi; Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) leaf flour in the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus). Catfish with a weight of 319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days of maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1% cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 ti...

  19. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  20. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  1. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  2. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  3. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  4. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special atten...

  5. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special...

  6. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  7. Brown fat and vascular heat dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Current efforts to treat obesity and associated disorders focus on the stimulation of energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis, for instance through activating brown adipose tissue or more recently “beige” or “brite” fat, a relatively novel type of adipose tissue with putative thermogenic potential. In this commentary, we aim to provide an alternative perspective on the current trend of analyzing and manipulating thermogenesis, brought about by our recent publication, in which we invest...

  8. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  9. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  10. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  11. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  12. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  13. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  14. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  15. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae, a revisionary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Vari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas; C. minutum, Essequibo River; C. morenoi, central and western portions of río Orinoco; C. orientale, coastal rivers of Suriname and French Guiana, and tentatively rio Tocantins and rio Xingu; C. pemon, new species, río Caura, río Caroni, río Meta, and rio Branco; and C. roae, new species, Rupununi River. Cetopsis includes 21 species: C. amphiloxa, río San Juan, río Atrato, and río Patia, western Colombia, and rivers of northwestern Ecuador; C. arcana, new species, rio Tocantins; C. baudoensis, río Baudo; C. caiapo, new species, rio Tocantins; C. candiru, Amazon basin; C. fimbriata, new species, río Truando; C. coecutiens, rio Amazonas, rio Tocantins, and río Orinoco; C. gobioides, upper rio São Francisco, rio Paraná, río Uruguay, and rio Juquiá; C. jurubidae, río Jurubidá; C. montana, new species, western portions of Amazon basin; C. motatanensis, Lago Maracaibo basin; C. oliveirai, Amazon basin; C. orinoco, río Orinoco, río Aroa, and río Yaracuy; C. othonops, río Magdalena and río Sinú; C. parma, western Amazon basin; C. pearsoni, new species, upper portions of rio Madeira; C. plumbea, western portions of rio Amazonas; C. sandrae, new species, rio Tapajós; C. sarcodes, new species, rio Tocantins; C. starnesi, new species, northwestern río de La Plata and southern rio Madeira; and C. umbrosa, new species, western río Orinoco. Cetopsis chalmersi is a synonym of C. gobioides. Cetopsis macroteronema is a synonym of C. plumbea

  16. Early biochemical biomarkers for zinc in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitemperger, Jossiele; Menezes, Charlene; Santi, Adriana; Murussi, Camila; Lópes, Thais; Costa, Maiara; Nogueira, Lygia Sega; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals causes various biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. Silver catfish were exposed to six concentrations of zinc (Zn): 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/L for 96 h to determine the mean lethal concentration (LC50). The value obtained was 8.07 mg/L. In a second experiment, fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.0 or 5.0 mg/L Zn and a control for 96 h. Afterward, the tissues were collected for biochemical analysis. Lipid peroxidation, as indicated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), decreased in the liver and brain for all Zn concentrations tested, while in the gills TBARS levels increased at 1.0 mg/L and declined at 5.0 mg/L. Zn increased protein carbonyls in the muscle of silver catfish and decreased it in the other tissues. The enzyme superoxide dismutase increased in both exposed groups. However, catalase did not change. Glutathione S-transferase decreased in the liver and increased in the gills (1.0 mg/L), muscle (5.0 mg/L) and brain (1.0 and 5.0 mg/L). Nonprotein thiols changed only in brain and muscle tissue. Zn exposure inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain at both concentrations tested, but did not change it in muscle. Exposure to Zn inhibited the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the gills and intestine at both concentrations tested. Our results demonstrate that Zn alters biochemical parameters in silver catfish and that some parameters such as AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase could be considered as early biomarkers of waterborne Zn toxicity. PMID:26744269

  17. Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity (32P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

  18. Optimizing de novo transcriptome assembly and extending genomic resources for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Njaci, Isaac; Yoon, Byoung-Ha; Chand, Vincent; Tuan, Nguyen Viet; Thu, Vo Thi Minh; Mather, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a commercially important freshwater fish used in inland aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The culture industry is facing a significant challenge however from saltwater intrusion into many low topographical coastal provinces across the Mekong Delta as a result of predicted climate change impacts. Developing genomic resources for this species can facilitate the production of improved culture lines that can withstand raised salinity conditions, and so we have applied high-throughput Ion Torrent sequencing of transcriptome libraries from six target osmoregulatory organs from striped catfish as a genomic resource for use in future selection strategies. We obtained 12,177,770 reads after trimming and processing with an average length of 97bp. De novo assemblies were generated using CLC Genomic Workbench, Trinity and Velvet/Oases with the best overall contig performance resulting from the CLC assembly. De novo assembly using CLC yielded 66,451 contigs with an average length of 478bp and N50 length of 506bp. A total of 37,969 contigs (57%) possessed significant similarity with proteins in the non-redundant database. Comparative analyses revealed that a significant number of contigs matched sequences reported in other teleost fishes, ranging in similarity from 45.2% with Atlantic cod to 52% with zebrafish. In addition, 28,879 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 55,721 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the striped catfish transcriptome. The sequence collection generated in the current study represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for P. hypophthalmus available to date. Our results illustrate the utility of next-generation sequencing as an efficient tool for constructing a large genomic database for marker development in non-model species. PMID:25979246

  19. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Odir A Dellagostin; Heden Luiz M Moreira; João Carlos Deschamps

    2010-03-01

    The silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an endemic American fish species. The sperm of each species has its own peculiarities and biological characteristics, which influence the success of mass DNA transfer methods. Our objective in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. Different treatments for the incorporation of a foreign pEGFP plasmid group were used: (1) dehydrated/rehydrated (DR), (2) dehydrated/rehydrated/electroporated (DRE), (3) electroporated (E), (4) incubated with seminal plasma (INC); and (5) incubated in the absence of seminal plasma (INCSP). Sperm motility, time of activity duration (TAD), fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR) and sperm morphology were also evaluated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity rates for the presence of the transgene were: DRE 60%; DR 40%; E 25%; INC 5% and INCSP 25%. The rates of embryo EGFP expression were: DRE 63%; DR 44%; E 34%; INC 8% and INCSP 38%. The fertilization rate in the control and DRE treatments groups were higher than in the DR group, but the E, INC and INCSP treatment groups had the lowest rate. The hatching rates of the DRE, DR and control groups were higher than in the INCSP, INC and E treatment groups ( > 0.05). There were no differences among the DRE and DR, E and DR, E and INCSP groups in expression and PCR positivity rates of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in embryos. Scanning electron microscopy also did not show any change in sperm morphology among treatment groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on transgene transmission of exogenous DNA into silver catfish larvae through SMGT technology

  20. Functioning of catfish electroreceptors: Influence of calcium and sodium concentration on the skin potential

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, V.J.A.; Bretschneider, F.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. The skin potential of catfish was measured in order to test the hypothesis that it controls electroreceptor sensitivity. 2. 2. The skin potential depends on the “milieu extérieur” in the same way as reported lor goldfish (Fig. 2). 3. 3. The variation of the skin potential is very large compared with the normal stimulus range of electroreceptors. 4. 4. Calcium strongly influences the skin potential, but the latter “adapts” to calcium concentrations of 0.3-3.0 mM (Fig. 3). 5. 5. Ion-depen...

  1. ACE inhibitory activity of pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) skin and bone gelatin hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodani, Fatemeh; Ghassem, Masomeh; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Khosrokhavar, Roya

    2012-01-01

    Skin and bone gelatins of pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) were hydrolyzed with alcalase to isolate Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. Samples with the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) were separated into different fractions with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) sizes of 10, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively and assayed for ACE inhibitory activity. Skin and bone gelatins had highest DH of 64.87 and 68.48 % after 2 and 1 h incubation, respectively. Results from this study ind...

  2. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on...... processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  3. Biological information of Taunayia bifasciata (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae): a threatened and unknown catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Giulianna Rondineli; Alberto Luciano Carmassi; Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    2011-01-01

    Taunayia bifasciata (Eigenmann & Norris, 1900) is a small catfish that inhabits headwater streams of the Tietê and Paraíba do Sul river basins, southeastern Brazil, being restricted to the Atlantic rain forest. The species is found on lists of threatened species of Brazil and the state of São Paulo. Despite that, there is no literature information about the biology of the species. In the present study we endeavored to collect data on the biology of T. bifasciata. A total of 37 specimens were ...

  4. Culture possibility of scheilbeid catfish using formulated feed in natural pond

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaque, M. A.; Mazid, M.A.; M. N. Islam; Mansur, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A research study was conducted to investigate the culture possibility of fresh water catfish Pangasius pangasius with formulated feed in natural ponds. The stocking density was chosen as 8000 fry/ha with an initial weight of 42.57+ 2.51 g. The formulated feed contained 45% fishmeal, 30% mustard oil cake, 15% wheat bran and 10% rice bran to supply 40.48% protein in feed. The growth of Pangasius pangasius in terms of net weight gain was found as 266.49g, which was statistically significant (p

  5. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  6. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  7. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  8. Genome-wide identification of Hsp70 genes in channel catfish and their regulated expression after bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin; Li, Chao; Xie, Yangjie; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Chen; Li, Yun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock proteins 70/110 (Hsp70/110) are a family of conserved ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins which are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions. Besides the chaperone and housekeeping functions, they are also known to be involved in immune response during infection. In this study, we identified 16 Hsp70/110 geness in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) through in silico analysis using RNA-Seq and genome databases. Among them 12 members of Hsp70 (Hspa) family and 4 members of Hsp110 (Hsph) family were identified. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses provided strong evidence in supporting the orthologies of these HSPs. In addition, we also determined the expression patterns of Hsp70/110 genes after Flavobacterium columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri infections by meta-analyses, for the first time in channel catfish. Ten out of sixteen genes were significantly up/down-regulated after bacterial challenges. Specifically, nine genes were found significantly expressed in gill after F. columnare infection. Two genes were found significantly expressed in intestine after E. ictaluri infection. Pathogen-specific pattern and tissue-specific pattern were found in the two infections. The significantly regulated expressions of catfish Hsp70 genes after bacterial infections suggested their involvement in immune response in catfish. PMID:26693666

  9. Impacts of Bolbophorus damnificus digenea: Bolbophoridae on production characteristics of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, raised in experimental ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolbophorus damnificus was recognized as a threat to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, production in Louisiana and Mississippi in 1997 and 1999, respectively. Severe to moderate outbreaks (=34% prevalence) are correlated to heavy losses, but impact of mild outbreaks with low prevalence (<33%) wa...

  10. Adjusting to trade-policy changes in export markets : evidence from U.S. antidumping duties on Vietnamese catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Irene; Porto, Guido; Tarozzi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A large literature studies the effects of trade policy changes on developing-country exports on household incomes, and recent contributions have increasingly addressed the effects of administered protection, such as anti-dumping duties. In 2003 the United States imposed anti-dumping tariffs on imports of catfish from Vietnam ranging from 37 to 64 percent. As a result, Vietnamese exports of...

  11. GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF CHANNEL CATFISH AND YELLOW PERCH EXPOSED TO LOWERED CONSTANT AND DIURNALLY FLUCTUATING DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth and survival were determined for duplicate lots of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed for 69 and 67 days, respectively, to nearly constant dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations at near air saturation (control), 6.5, 5....

  12. Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

  13. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF REGENERATION FOLLOWING HEPATOTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE CYANOTOXIN MICROCYSTIN-LR IN THE HARDHEAD CATFISH AND GULF KILLIFISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), causes liver damage in several freshwater fish species. The damage appears to be acute and irreversible. In the present study, two estuarine species, hardhead catfish, Arius felis, and gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, were inject...

  14. Can reduced stocking rates and natural forage utilization produce market sized catfish from fingerlings in one growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of growing marketable channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from pond-run fingerlings (15.9 g/fish) using low stocking densities (7,413 or 14,826 fish/ha) and electrified bug lights to enhance natural forage available to fish. Even at low sto...

  15. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish. PMID:26704851

  16. Binding and Phagocytosis by Opsonized and Nonopsonized Channel Catfish Macrophages of Viable DsRed-fluorescent-labeled Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phagocyte-mediated killing of bacterial pathogens is one of the major defensive mechanisms in fish. The binding, uptake and destruction of recombinant fluorescent protein DsRed transformed Edwardsiella ictaluri by opsonized and nonopsonized channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) macrophages was chara...

  17. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Current Farming Locations of Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.A.; Dang, V.H.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Leemans, R.; Silva, De S.S.

    2014-01-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these i

  18. In vivo activity of native GnRHs and their analogues on ovulation in the American catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, T.; Radics, F.; Barth, Tomislav; Horváth, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2007), s. 140-146. ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3028; GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GnRH * ovulation * African catfish Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2007

  19. Effects of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) parasitism on survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri was studied. Fish were exposed to E. ictaluri one day prior to Ich in the following treatments: 1)- infected by...

  20. Development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were IP injected with 4×105 colony-forming units (CFU) of the mutants, no fish die...

  1. Transcriptional profiles of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish vaccinated with an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 22 uniquely expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive cDNA library at 12h post vaccination with an attenuated A. hydrophila (AL09-71 N+R). Of the 22 ESTs, six were confirmed to be significantly (P<0.05) induced by the vaccination. Of 8...

  2. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  3. Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulence of three 2009 West Alabama isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila in the presence or absence of extracellular products (ECP) from overnight bacterial culture to channel catfish fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3g) was investigated by both bath immersion and intraperitoneal ...

  4. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque 1818, Tetraspanin Membrane Protein Family: Characterization and Expression Analysis of CD81 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD81, also known as the target of an antiproliferative antibody 1 (TAPA-1), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immune functions. In this report, we characterized and analyzed expression of the channel catfish CD81 transcript. T...

  5. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  6. Ammonia excretion at different life stages of silver catfish - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ammonia excretion at different life stages (eggs, larvae and juveniles in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen and determined the influence of fasting time on ammonia excretion. Eggs and larvae were collected from incubators at different times after fecundation and placed in chambers. Juveniles were separated into two weight classes (2–50 g and 150-320 g and placed in individual chambers after feeding. Water was collected from each chamber to determine ammonia excretion. Ammonia excretion by the eggs was low, but when hatching began approximately 28h after fecundation, excretion increased until 48h after fecundation. In fasting silver catfish juveniles, there was a significant negative correlation between ammonia excretion and weight. Moreover, ammonia excretion decreased significantly after 12 and 48h of fasting (compared to 6h fasting in the smallest and largest specimens, respectively. Consequently, during incubation of silver catfish eggs, water renovation must be increased at hatching time to avoid a build-up in the concentration of ammonia. In addition, as ammonia excretion in this species increases after feeding, feed must be discontinued when ammonia levels in the tanks are high to avoid a further increase of this metabolite and consequent mortality of silver catfish.

  7. Efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, female Ictalurus punctatus X male Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    study was conducted to examine the efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Two 28% protein alternative diets supplemented with l-lysine HCl at the required level based on 62% (previously published value) or 10...

  8. The effect of feeding diets containing deoxynivalenol contaminated corn on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish were fed practical corn-soybean meal diets for 10 weeks that contained various weighed amounts of ground, dried field corn contaminated with 20 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg. Weighed amounts of DON corn were blended with weighed amounts of ground clean corn that contained no DON (0 mg/k...

  9. Two new species and a new genus of neotropical mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae Swainson, 1838 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new monotypic genus and two new species of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related taxa are added. Ricola genus novum is established for the species originally described by Regan (1904) as Loricaria (

  10. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  11. NRAMP, TNF, TLR5, and Hepcidin Expression in Resistant and Susceptible Families of Channel Catfish Following Challenge With E. ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression of Nramp, TNF, TLR5, and Hepcidin, in spleen and liver tissue from two families of channel catfish, one resistant and one susceptible to ESC, following challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri. There were no significant differences in relative copy numbe...

  12. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (Pskin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. PMID:26304317

  13. Biochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes of gutted and ungutted sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, P; Tanuja, S; Ninan, George; Lalitha, K V; Zynudheen, A A; Binsi, P K; Srinivasagopal, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (sutchi catfish) is a fresh water catfish extensively being cultured in the South East Asian countries in the recent years. The present study provides the first report on the effects of gutting on the quality characteristics of aquacultured sutchi catfish stored in ice. pH of whole ungutted and gutted catfish didn't show significant difference (p > 0.05) during ice storage period. Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVB-N), Alpha Amino Nitrogen (AAN), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) and Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) were lower in gutted fish compared to whole ungutted fish at any particular day during ice storage. However, gutted fish expressed higher rate of primary lipid oxidation than ungutted fish. Textural degradation of the fish muscle as indicated by hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness was lower in gutted fish. Results of sensory evaluation revealed that gutting has significantly improved the sensory quality of the fish. However, microbiological analysis revealed higher Total Plate Count (TPC) and Enterobactereaceae count in gutted fish. The shelf life of gutted and whole ungutted sutchi cat fish as determined by microbiological analysis was 16-18 days and 18-20 days respectively while storage in ice. PMID:26028712

  14. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (taurine content. In add...

  15. Retention of health beneficial components during hot- and cold-smoking of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Elvevoll, E.O.; Bandarra, N.M.; Cordiero, A.R.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in content of selenium and taurine, and the alteration of fatty acid profile have been studied in African catfish fillets subjected to a commercial cold- or hot smoking process. Selenium content and the fatty acid profile did not change significantly during neither of the smoking procedures.

  16. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  17. Use of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal to replace soybean meal in diets for pond raised channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prices of soybean meal and corn he two most commonly used, traditional feed ingredients in channel catfish diets ave increased dramatically in recent years. Using less-expensive alternative feed ingredients to partially replace soybean meal and corn would reduce feed cost. The present study eval...

  18. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  19. An in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using catfish gill cells G1B and four chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate, and D-mannose), the feasibility of using an in vitro screening method to identify potential effective chemotherapeutants was evaluated in this study. In vitro screening results revealed that,...

  20. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  1. Thermal inactivation of non-0157:H7 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in catfish fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STECs) are emerging pathogens which have been involved in numerous foodborne illness outbreaks. It is not unusual for STEC associated foodborne illness outbreaks to be associated with consumption of fish in many countries. In this study catfish fi...

  2. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia W Pridgeon; Phillip H Klesius; Gregory A Lewbart; Harry V Daniels; Megan Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify bacteria isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine whether they are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Methods:Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues of diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). The isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification followed by virulence study in fish. Results: Based on biochemical analysis, the 25 isolates were found to share homologies with either Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). Based on sequencing results of partial 16S rRNA gene, 15 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified E. tarda strain TX1, whereas the other 10 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified A. hydrophila strain An4. When healthy fish were exposed to flounder isolate by intracoelomic injection, the LD50 values of flounder isolate E. tarda to channel catfish or Nile tilapia [(10±2) g] were 6.1í104 and 1.1í107 CFU/fish, respectively, whereas that of flounder isolate A. hydrophila to channel catfish and Nile tilapia were 1.4í107 and 5.6í107 CFU/fish, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first report that E. tarda and A. hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder are virulent to catfish and tilapia.

  3. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each trea

  4. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  5. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  6. Categorical perception for red and brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the widely accepted evidence in support of categorical perception of color may be a confound of effects due to low-level sensory mechanisms that are unrelated to color categories. To reveal genuine category effects, we investigated the category boundary least prone to spurious effects of low-level mechanisms: the boundary between red and brown. We tested for low-level sensory and high-level cognitive effects of categories on color discrimination, while carefully controlling potential factors of color vision that are not related to color categories. First, we established the red-brown boundary through a naming task and measured just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for colors across the boundary. If low-level sensitivity to color differences was categorical, JNDs should decrease toward the boundary. However, this was not the case. Second, we measured performance in terms of response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task with color pairs that were equalized in discriminability based on the empirical JNDs. There was a boost of performance (lower response times and error rates) for identifying color differences in equally discriminable color pairs, when the colors crossed the boundary. Given the particularity of the red-brown boundary, these results prove that the observed effects were due to color categories rather than low-level visual mechanisms. These findings support the idea that category effects are due to a shift of attention to the linguistic distinction between categories, rather than being a pure product of perception. These category effects do not depend on the hemispheric lateralization of language. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569337

  7. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg...

  8. The fire at Browns Ferry station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cable fire broke out at Browns Ferry-1 and -2 power station when sealing material which had been used as a make-shift seal for a cable duct caught fire in the course of a leakage test with an open light. Both blocks of the power station were scrammed manually so that nobody was injured and no activity was released. On the basis of the information supplied by NRC and TVA (the operator), the IRS has attemped a tentative evaluation of the incident. The results are presented in a summarized version. Note: a detailed description of the incident as published by the operator is available at ZAED. (orig./AK)

  9. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  10. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special attention in order to unravel the heat producing capacity of human BAT, the recruitment of the tissue and its functionality.

  11. Evaluation of an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda to channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Aeromonas hydrophila (causative agent of motile aeromonas septicemia) and Edwardsiella tarda (causative agent of enteric septicemia) are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in aquatic environments, affecting many fish species worldwide, including channel catfish and tilapia. To control ba...

  12. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) tetraspanin membrane protein family: Identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of tetraspanin 3 and tetraspanin 7 (CD231) transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Tetraspanins, a large cell surface protein superfamily characterized by having four transmembrane domains, play many critical roles in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report the identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the channel catfish t...

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of potassium permanganate treatment efficacy for the control of acute experimental infection of flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium permanganate against an acute and systemic experimental infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The infection was produced by waterborne exposure to the bacteria after mechanical cutaneo...

  14. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822, fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swollen abdomen, anorexia, fin and tail rot, and reddish operculum. The LD50 of E. tarda PBB and PBP strains was found to be 8.52 × 106 and 1.68 × 107 cells fish-1, respectively. Histopathological observations on catfish infected naturally revealed lymphocyte infiltration in muscle and focal necrosis, hyperplasia, edema, and swelling of the gill lamellar epithelium. The kidney of diseased fish exhibited ischemic type tubulopathy, necrosis of nephritic tubules, hyperplastic hematopoietic tissue, rupture of the tubular basement membrane, hydropic dystrophy of nephritic cells, neutrophil infiltration, fibrinoid necrosis of nephretic tubules, hemosiderin deposition, and edema. The liver sections revealed lymphocyte infiltration, dilation of hepatic sinusoids, expansion of space between hepatic sinusoids, and focal necrosis. The inflammatory responses observed in kidney and liver in the present study were presumably suppuration and were attributed to the potential virulence factors of E. tarda.

  15. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  16. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  17. Analysis of matrix proteins of otolith in upside-down catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Okamoto, N.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    We have previously suggested that the calcium density of the otolith in upside-down swimming Synodontis nigriventris is lower than that in upside-up swimming Synodontis multipunctatus Biol Space Sci 2002 In this study we examined EDTA-soluble matrix proteins of otolith in the utricle of the catfish S nigriventris S multipunctatus and upside-up swimming Synodontis brichadi and goldfish Carassius auratus We detected two main bands about 55 kD and 80 kD with SDS-PAGE in the 3 species of the catfish In cntrast goldfish had the about 55 kD band alone The band of about 80 kD was consisted of two sub-bands a lighter and a heavier band A lighter band was observed in S brichadi and a heavier band was observed in S nigriventris S multipunctatus had the both bands Furthermore mass spectrometric analysis showed there were some proteins of molecular weight under 14 kD The molecular weights of the proteins were different among the fishes These results suggest that many different kinds of matrix protein may cause different degree of calcification in otolith formation

  18. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  19. Development of the lateral line mechanoreceptors in the catfish Silurus glanis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anton

    2010-07-01

    In fish the neuromasts of the lateral line develop as follows: a “migrating primordium” (MP) migrates from the postotic placode along the future posterior lateral line canal to the tail fin. Its placodal cells are assumed to be the basis for the development of the neuromasts. However, an MP was not found in all fish, e.g., in catfish. In the present study, a search was made for the MP in the larvae of the catfish Silurus glanis. Using light and electron microscopy, an MP was found to migrate along the ventral rim of the tail. It precedes the formation of a ventral row of free neuromasts. An MP preceding the main lateral row of the future canal neuromasts was not found. The necessity of the MP for the ventral-free neuromast development is shown by making incisions which block its migration. The result: caudal to the incision site neuromasts do not develop. On the other hand, the same incision procedure applied to the assumed migration route of a—hypothetical—lateral MP does not block the development of the lateral neuromasts. It is concluded that in this case an MP is not necessary for the development of the canal neuromasts.

  20. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A; Shoemaker, Craig; Newton, Joseph C; Xu, De-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by an emergent, high virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using a waterborne challenge method, and the distribution of vAh over a time course was detected and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 77.8% of fish died within 48 h post challenge with mean day to death of 1.5 days. At 2 h post challenge, vAh (inferred from genomic DNA copies or genome equivalents) was detected in all external and internal tissues sampled. Gill had the highest vAh cells at 1 h post challenge. Spleen harbored the most vAh cells among internal organs at 4 h post challenge. The tissues/organs with most vAh cells detected at 8 h post challenge were adipose fin, blood, intestine, kidney and skin, while liver showed the highest vAh cells at 24 h post challenge. These results suggest that vAh was able to rapidly proliferate and spread, following wound infection, through the fish blood circulation system and cause mortality within 8-24 h. PMID:27044300