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Sample records for brown alga laminaria

  1. Cultivable Alginate Lyase-Excreting Bacteria Associated with the Arctic Brown Alga Laminaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhong Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some alginate lyases have been isolated from marine bacteria, alginate lyases-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga have not yet been investigated. Here, the diversity of the bacteria associated with the brown alga Laminaria from the Arctic Ocean was investigated for the first time. Sixty five strains belonging to nine genera were recovered from six Laminaria samples, in which Psychrobacter (33/65, Psychromonas (10/65 and Polaribacter (8/65 were the predominant groups. Moreover, 21 alginate lyase-excreting strains were further screened from these Laminaria-associated bacteria. These alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to five genera. Psychromonas (8/21, Psedoalteromonas (6/21 and Polaribacter (4/21 are the predominant genera, and Psychrobacter, Winogradskyella, Psychromonas and Polaribacter were first found to produce alginate lyases. The optimal temperatures for the growth and algiante lyase production of many strains were as low as 10–20 °C, indicating that they are psychrophilic bacteria. The alginate lyases produced by 11 strains showed the highest activity at 20–30 °C, indicating that these enzymes are cold-adapted enzymes. Some strians showed high levels of extracellular alginate lyase activity around 200 U/mL. These results suggest that these algiante lyase-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga are good materials for studying bacterial cold-adapted alginate lyases.

  2. Competitive adsorption of nickel and copper ions from aqueous solution using nonliving biomass of the marine Brown alga laminaria japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue Song; Li, Zhi Zhong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2009-08-15

    The adsorption of nickel and copper in a bicomponent system using the nonliving biomass of the marine brown alga Laminaria japonica was investigated in batch systems as a function of initial solution pH, contact time and temperature. The adsorption of nickel and copper was strongly pH dependent. Kinetic studies pointed to a rapid uptake with an equilibrium time of about 30 min. The kinetic curves were successfully fitted by linear regression to pseudo first and pseudo-second-order equations. The equilibrium data was analyzed using several models, including the extended Langmuir equation, modified extended Langmuir model and combined extended Langmuir-Freundlich model. The results suggested that the competitive adsorption of nickel and copper at all temperatures was best represented by the combined extended Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. The isotherms indicated competitive uptake, with copper being preferentially adsorbed followed by nickel with an increase in the amount of solute in solution. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the simultaneous adsorption of nickel and copper ions could be considered to be a spontaneous, endothermic process, with increased randomness. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Study of the mechanisms of iodine accumulation by the brown alga Laminaria digitata and by the mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the Nuclear Environmental Toxicology program which aims at a better understanding of the iodine biological transfer and concentration paths, this research thesis first reports a literature survey on the presence of iodine in laminaria and vanadate-containing halo-peroxidases. The author describes the development and the implementation of a screening test and the obtained results. He comments the results of in vivo investigations of the iodine capture inhibition in the Laminaria digitata. He describes chemical imagery experiments enabling the identification of tissue and sub-cellular distributions of iodine in L. digitata samples. The second part of the report deals with the mammal case, describes the strategies used for target protein identification, the development of the synthesis of inhibitors and of their photo-active analogues, as well as their biological assessments. Finally, he describes the various experimental protocols used in the different investigations

  4. Laminaria species and usefulness in obstetrics and gynecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkti

    2016-01-01

    Laminaria species is a group of marine algae that is generally known as sea brown algae. It can be seen around the world and the coastal people have known it for years. The use ofLaminaria spp. in medicine is very interesting. In this short article, the authors summarized and discussed onLaminaria spp. and usefulness in obstetrics and gynecology.

  5. Laminaria species and usefulness in obstetrics and gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria species is a group of marine algae that is generally known as sea brown algae. It can be seen around the world and the coastal people have known it for years. The use of Laminaria spp. in medicine is very interesting. In this short article, the authors summarized and discussed on Laminaria spp. and usefulness in obstetrics and gynecology.

  6. PECULIARITIES OF THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE BROWN ALGAE IN THE WHITE AND BARENTS SEAS

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    Константин Григорьевич Боголицын

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of macro (Mg, Na, Ca, K, Cl, S and trace elements (I, Br, Fe, Cr, Ti, P, Si, Sr, Zn, Cu, Al, as well as toxic heavy metals (Pb, Hg was analyzed in 25 samples of four brown algae (Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus J.V.Lamouroux, Laminaria digitata (Hudson J.V.Lamouroux, Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus, Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, harvested during the complex research expedition "The Arctic Floating University 2012", in the White and Barents Seas. Conclusions are drawn on the patterns in the accumulation of elements in brown algae depending on family and growth conditions, and also regarding the nutritional value of brown algae.

  7. Integrated bioethanol and protein production from brown seaweed Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Hansen, Jonas Høeg; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2015-12-01

    A wild-growing glucose-rich (i.e. 56.7% glucose content) brown seaweed species Laminaria digitata, collected from the North Coast of Denmark in August 2012, was used as the feedstock for an integrated bioethanol and protein production. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are the two most abundant amino acids in the algal protein, both with proportional content of 10% in crude protein. Only minor pretreatment of milling was used on the biomass to facilitate the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) resulted in obviously higher ethanol yield than the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). High conversion rate at maximum of 84.1% glucose recovery by enzymatic hydrolysis and overall ethanol yield at maximum of 77.7% theoretical were achieved. Protein content in the solid residues after fermentation was enriched by 2.7 fold, with similar distributions of amino acids, due to the hydrolysis of polymers in the seaweed cell wall matrix. PMID:26342344

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. Study of the mechanisms of iodine accumulation by the brown alga Laminaria digitata and by the mammals; Etude des mecanismes d'accumulation de l'iode chez l'algue brune laminaria digitata et chez les mammiferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, E

    2007-11-15

    Within the frame of the Nuclear Environmental Toxicology program which aims at a better understanding of the iodine biological transfer and concentration paths, this research thesis first reports a literature survey on the presence of iodine in laminaria and vanadate-containing halo-peroxidases. The author describes the development and the implementation of a screening test and the obtained results. He comments the results of in vivo investigations of the iodine capture inhibition in the Laminaria digitata. He describes chemical imagery experiments enabling the identification of tissue and sub-cellular distributions of iodine in L. digitata samples. The second part of the report deals with the mammal case, describes the strategies used for target protein identification, the development of the synthesis of inhibitors and of their photo-active analogues, as well as their biological assessments. Finally, he describes the various experimental protocols used in the different investigations.

  10. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  11. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  12. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  13. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  14. Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.

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    Diego O Croci

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice

  15. Sub-canopy light conditions only allow low annual net productivity of epiphytic algae on kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Troels Møller; Fredriksen, Stein

    2014-01-01

    The stipes of older Laminaria hyperborea individuals are heavily covered by epiphytic assemblages that are dominated by macroalgae, and we hypothesized that the production of these algae may contribute significantly to total primary production of the kelp forest ecosystem. The epiphytic assemblages...... profiles of the epiphytic assemblages indicated that they were acclimated to shade, and the poor sub-canopy light conditions were nevertheless sufficient to ensure positive net photosynthesis for at least 2 to 3 h daily throughout the year. Photosynthetic efficiency at low light and dark respiration varied......-March and rose through spring as surface irradiance increased. Annual net productivity was relatively low, ranging from 42 to 96 g DW m-2 seafloor depending on site. We conclude that the net productivity of these macroalgal epiphytes is insignificant relative to that of kelp itself, and that the large...

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  18. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  19. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  20. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  1. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...... thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, it was found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that...

  2. Laminarin from Irish Brown Seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria hyperborea: Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, Characterization and Bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam, Shekhar U.; Colm P. O'Donnell; Rai, Dilip K.; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Burgess, Catherine M.; Des Walsh; Brijesh K. Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of laminarin from Irish brown seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminarina hyperborea were investigated. UAE was carried out using 60% ultrasonic power amplitude and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min. Separately, solid-liquid extraction was carried in an orbital shaker using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid at 70 °C for 2.5 h. UAE with hydrochloric acid resulted in the highest concentration of laminarin, 5.82...

  3. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  4. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae. PMID:26108508

  5. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; ZHANG Quanbin; ZHANG Zhongshan; HOU Yun; ZHANG Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminariajaponica,an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT).The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content,sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  6. Laminarin from Irish Brown Seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria hyperborea: Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, Characterization and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar U. Kadam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE, purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of laminarin from Irish brown seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminarina hyperborea were investigated. UAE was carried out using 60% ultrasonic power amplitude and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min. Separately, solid-liquid extraction was carried in an orbital shaker using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid at 70 °C for 2.5 h. UAE with hydrochloric acid resulted in the highest concentration of laminarin, 5.82% and 6.24% on dry weight basis from A. nodosum and L. hyperborea, respectively. Purification of all extracts was carried out using molecular weight cut off dialysis at 10 kDa. Characterization of the laminarin fraction was carried out using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of A. nodosum and L. hyperborea extracts had 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH inhibition levels of 93.23% and 87.57%, respectively. Moreover, these extracts have shown inihibition of bacterial growth of Staphylcoccus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

  7. Laminarin from Irish Brown Seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria hyperborea: Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, Characterization and Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Shekhar U; O'Donnell, Colm P; Rai, Dilip K; Hossain, Mohammad B; Burgess, Catherine M; Walsh, Des; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of laminarin from Irish brown seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminarina hyperborea were investigated. UAE was carried out using 60% ultrasonic power amplitude and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min. Separately, solid-liquid extraction was carried in an orbital shaker using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid at 70 °C for 2.5 h. UAE with hydrochloric acid resulted in the highest concentration of laminarin, 5.82% and 6.24% on dry weight basis from A. nodosum and L. hyperborea, respectively. Purification of all extracts was carried out using molecular weight cut off dialysis at 10 kDa. Characterization of the laminarin fraction was carried out using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of A. nodosum and L. hyperborea extracts had 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition levels of 93.23% and 87.57%, respectively. Moreover, these extracts have shown inihibition of bacterial growth of Staphylcoccus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. PMID:26184235

  8. THE COMPARISON OF VEGETABLE OILS MACERATION OF LAMINARIA SACCHARINA (LAMINARIACEAE L.)

    OpenAIRE

    PAMPUKHA A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences of edible vegetable oils maceration of brown algae Laminaria saccharina (Laminariaceae L.) (L. saccharina) dry species. The method of UV-spectroscopy was used to quantify the extracted sum of chlorophylls. Pure acetone was used as a solvent. As a result it was established that using of the Camelina oil is the most perspective for the chlorophylls extraction from the dried L. saccharina.

  9. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  10. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Results Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can si...

  11. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  12. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  13. Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Changhyun Roh; Min-Kyoung Park; Uhee Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the ...

  14. Arsenic content in certain marine brown algae and mangroves from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Chinnaraj, S.; Inamdar, S.N.; Untawale, A.G.

    Arsenic has been estimated in 7 species each of brown algae and mangroves, including different parts of Sargassum cinereum. Arsenic is more concentrated in brown algae [concentration /factor(CF) range 1.5 - 7 x 10 super(3)] as compared to mangroves...

  15. Biochemical composition of some brown algae from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of brown algae collected in Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Totally eight brown algae samples (Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira corniculata, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyota dichotoma, Padina pavonia, Sargassum vulgare, Stypocaulon scoparium, Stypopodium schimperii) were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from S. schimperii ...

  16. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Mori

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  17. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  18. Brown Algae (Phaeophyceae) from the Coast of Madagascar: preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Eight species of brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from the coast of Madagascar have been investigated for their chemical constituents. Fucosterol (3) was obtained as the most abundant compound. The brown alga Sargassum ilicifolium was the source for the first isolation of the terpenoid C27-alcohol 1,1′,2-trinorsqualenol (1) from marine sources. From S. incisifolium we isolated the highly unsaturated glycolipid 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-stearidonoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (4) and we repor...

  19. Transcriptome-wide evolutionary analysis on essential brown algae (Phaeophyceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; LIU Tao; YU Jun; WANG Liang; WU Shuangxiu; WANG Xumin; XIAO Jingfa; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; REN Lufeng; ZHAO Yuhui

    2014-01-01

    Brown algae (Chromista, Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae) are a large group of multicellular algae that play im-portant roles in the ocean's ecosystem and biodiversity. However, poor molecular bases for studying their phylogenetic evolutions and novel metabolic characteristics have hampered progress in the field. In this study, we sequenced the de novo transcriptome of 18 major species of brown algae in China, covering six orders and seven families, using the high-throughput sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. From the transcriptome data of these 18 species and publicly available genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we identified 108 nuclear-generated orthologous genes and clarified the phy-logenetic relationships among these brown algae based on a multigene method. These brown algae could be separated into two clades:Clade Ishigeales-Dictyotales and Clade Ectocarpales-Laminariales-Desmares-tiale-Fucales. The former was at the base of the phylogenetic tree, indicating its early divergence, while the latter was divided into two branches, with Order Fucales diverging from Orders Ectocarpales, Laminariales, and Desmarestiale. In our analysis of taxonomy-contentious species, Sargassum fusiforme and Saccharina sculpera were found to be closely related to genera Sargassum and Saccharina, respectively, while Petalonia fascia showed possible relation to genus Scytosiphon. The study provided molecular evidence for the phylo-genetic taxonomy of brown algae.

  20. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  1. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  2. Detection and activity of iodine-131 in brown algae collected in the Japanese coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (physical half-life: 8.04 days) was detected in brown algae collected off the Japanese coast. Brown algae have been extensively used as bioindicators for radioiodine because of their ability to accumulate radionuclides in high concentration factors. The maximum measured specific activity of 131I in brown algae was 0.37 ± 0.010 Bq/kg-wet. Cesium-137 was also detected in all brown algal samples used in this study. There was no correlation between specific activities of 131I and 137Cs in these seaweeds. The specific activity of 137Cs ranged from 0.0034 ± 0.00075 to 0.090 ± 0.014 Bq/kg-wet. Low specific activity and minimal variability of 137Cs in brown algae indicated that past nuclear weapon tests were the source of 137Cs. Although nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are known to be pollution sources of 131I, there was no relationship between the sites where 131I was detected and the locations of nuclear power facilities. Most of the sites where 131I was detected were near big cities with large populations. Iodine-131 is frequently used in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. On the basis of the results, we suggest that the likely pollution source of 131I, detected in brown seaweeds, is not nuclear power facilities, but nuclear medicine procedures.

  3. Anticancer and Antitumor Potential of Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin, Two Main Metabolites Isolated from Brown Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is one of the largest producers of biomass in marine environment and is a rich arsenal of active metabolites and functional ingredients with valuable beneficial health effects. Being a staple part of Asian cuisine, investigations on the crude extracts of Phaeophyceae or brown algae revealed marked antitumor activity, eliciting a variety of research to determine the active ingredients involved in this potential. The sulfated polysaccharide of fucoidan and carotenoid of fucoxanthin were found to be the most important active metabolites of brown algae as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents. This review strives to provide detailed account of all current knowledge on the anticancer and antitumor activity of fucoidan and fucoxanthin as the two major metabolites isolated from brown algae.

  4. Sexual maturity and performance of pullets fed different preparations and concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium) in pre-laying and early laying periods

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harthi, Mohammed A.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium) as alternative feed source for pullets was studied in three processed and at three concentrations in the pullets from 14-42 weeks. The processing forms were sundried brown marine algae (SBMA), sundried and boiled brown marine algae (BBMA) and sundried and autoclaved brown marine algae (ABMA). The concentrations of BMA were 2%, 4% and 6% that composed 10 treatments along with control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times using 30 p...

  5. Disulfides with Anti-inflammatory Activity from the Brown Alga Dictyopteris membranacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimou, Maria; Ioannou, Efstathia; Daskalaki, Maria G; Tziveleka, Leto A; Kampranis, Sotirios C; Roussis, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    Six new (1, 2, and 4-7) and two previously reported (3 and 8) disulfides, along with 4-butyl-2,6-cycloheptadienone, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol, were isolated from an organic extract of the brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea, collected at Gerolimenas Bay, Greece. The structure elucidation of...

  6. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  8. Toward systems biology in brown algae to explore acclimation and adaptation to the shore environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Thierry; Eveillard, Damien; Prigent, Sylvain; Bourdon, Jérémie; Potin, Philippe; Boyen, Catherine; Siegel, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to land plants and animals. They are almost exclusively found in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment where organisms are submitted to marine and terrestrial constraints. In relation with their unique evolutionary history and their habitat, they feature several peculiarities, including at the level of their primary and secondary metabolism. The establishment of Ectocarpus siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques have been developed, in particular, to study the response of these organisms to abiotic stresses. With the recent publication of medium to high throughput profiling data, it is now possible to envision integrating observations at the cellular scale to apply systems biology approaches. As a first step, we propose a protocol focusing on integrating heterogeneous knowledge gained on brown algal metabolism. The resulting abstraction of the system will then help understanding how brown algae cope with changes in abiotic parameters within their unique habitat, and to decipher some of the mechanisms underlying their (1) acclimation and (2) adaptation, respectively consequences of (1) the behavior or (2) the topology of the system resulting from the integrative approach. PMID:22136637

  9. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  10. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg;

    A new Danish macroalgae project (Acronym MAB3) financed by the Danish Strategic Research Council presents an integrated macroalgae biorefinery concept. It was started from march 2012 and will continue for the next 4 years (2012-2016). Initial studies on the first harvested materials of wild Lamin...

  11. Investigation of uranium biosorption from aqueous solutions by Dictyopteris polypodioides brown algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of uranium from aqueous solutions by Dictyopteris polypodioides brown algae was investigated. The effect of pH, uranium concentration, mass of the adsorbent, temperature and contact time on the removal efficiency were studied and the results were simulated by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Kinetics data could be satisfactorily reproduced by the pseudo-second order equation and thermodynamic parameters were determined in order to evaluate the uranium uptake behavior. SEM/EDS and FTIR were additionally used to characterize the algae and comprehend the sorption process which can be described as a combination of several mechanisms, including physical sorption, ion exchange and complexation. (author)

  12. Influence of the Brown Marine Algae on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristcs of the Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Sălăgean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to asses the influence of the brown algae on the quality in manufacturing of a certain halfsmoked sausages assortment.  Exploiting the natural plant resources as well as reducing the animal fat in the finished product by replacing it with proteins, fibers and minerals (provided by the brown marine algae were also intended. Two technological variants with different ratios of algae (V1-10% respectively V2-15% from those 25% of fat (the remaining of 75% beeing represented, in each case, by beef were experienced and compared with the control sample (VM, without algae, 75% beef and 25% fat. The finished products were analyzed in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical, in different stages of storage, at 24 hours after obtaining and seven days of storage at 10 to 12 degrees. The correlations between investigated quality parameters and the ratios of algae were also established. The physicochemical analysis highlighted the highest values regarding the protein, moisture, sodium chloride and the lowest fat content values in the case of the V2 variant compared to the V1 and VM variants. Furthermore, an increase in protein, fat, sodium chloride and a decrease of the moisture content have been found in all variants observed during the storage. The shelf life of the product was not negatively affected by the addition of algae due to their antimicrobial activity. The addition of algae in combination with beef components led to obtaining a higher quality product with functional characteristics.

  13. Seasonal variations in halides in marine brown algae from Porbandar and Okha coasts (NW coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Seasonal variation of halides and their ratios were estimated in three brown algae, namely Cystoseira indica, Sargassum tenerrimum) and S. johnstonii from Porbandar and Okha Coasts. Halides were found to be higher in early stages of growth. The Br...

  14. Thraustochytrid and fungal component of marine detritus. 1. Field studies on decomposition of the brown alga Sargassum cinereum J. Ag.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe-Pathak, V.; Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.

    Thraustochytrid protists and fungi were isolated and enumerated in culture from detritus of the brown alga Sargassum cinereum. Both groups occurred epi- and endobiontically in the detritus. The thraustochytrid Labyrinthuloides minuta occurred...

  15. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION BIOACTIVE PROTEINS BROWN ALGAE Sargassum duplicatum FROM LAE - LAE ISLAND, SOUTH SULAWESI AS ANTIBACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Zulviana

    2014-01-01

    All protein fractions from the brown algae Sargassum duplicatum isolated compounds showed a bioactive protein that has the inhibition of the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Sthpylococus aureus and Echercia coli.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the invasive brown alga Sargassum muticum (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an invasive canopy-forming brown alga, expanding its presence from Northeast Asia to North America and Europe. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. muticum is characterized as a circular molecule of 34,720 bp. The overall AT content of S. muticum mitogenome is 63.41%. This mitogenome contains 65 genes typically found in brown algae, including 3 ribosomal RNA genes, 25 transfer RNA genes, 35 protein-coding genes, and 2 conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The gene order of mitogenome for S. muticum is identical to that for Sargassum horneri, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis. Phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. muticum has a close evolutionary relationship with S. horneri and a distant relationship with Dictyota dichotoma, supporting current taxonomic systems. The present investigation provides new molecular data for studies of S. muticum population diversity as well as comparative genomics in the Phaeophyceae. PMID:24983154

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; BAIK, JONG SEOK; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and...

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of brown algae from the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    ZELIHA DEMIREL; FERDA F. YILMAZ-KOZ; ULKU N. KARABAY-YAVASOGLU; GUVEN OZDEMIR; ATAKAN SUKATAR

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, as well as the essential oils of brown algae (Phaeophyta) Colpomenia sinuosa, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyota dichotoma var. implexa, Petalonia fascia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. The essential oil of the macroalgae was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was determined using the procedures ...

  20. Anticancer and Antitumor Potential of Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin, Two Main Metabolites Isolated from Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Hamed Karimian; Ramin Khanabdali; Mahboubeh Razavi; Mohammad Firoozinia; Keivan Zandi; Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed is one of the largest producers of biomass in marine environment and is a rich arsenal of active metabolites and functional ingredients with valuable beneficial health effects. Being a staple part of Asian cuisine, investigations on the crude extracts of Phaeophyceae or brown algae revealed marked antitumor activity, eliciting a variety of research to determine the active ingredients involved in this potential. The sulfated polysaccharide of fucoidan and carotenoid of fucoxanthin were...

  1. Acute Toxicity Study and Antipyretic Effect of the Brown Alga Turbinaria Conoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S Sadish; Kumar, Y; Khan, M. S. Y; J Anbu; Sam, K G

    2009-01-01

    The active principles of brown alga, Turbinaria conoides (J.Agardh) Kuetz. (Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats after administration of extracts orally. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 5g/kg for methanol and ethano...

  2. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  3. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium) meal in the diet of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harthi, Mohammed A.; Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2011-01-01

    Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium) were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae) in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae). The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%....

  4. Symbiotic associations in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy S Balakirev

    Full Text Available The brown alga Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is a highly polymorphic representative of the family Laminariaceae, inhabiting the northwest Pacific region. We have obtained 16S rRNA sequence data in symbiont microorganisms of the typical form (TYP of S. japonica and its common morphological varieties, known as "longipes" (LON and "shallow-water" (SHA, which show contrasting bathymetric distribution and sharp morphological, life history traits, and ecological differences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences shows that the microbial communities are significantly different in the three forms studied and consist of mosaic sets of common and form-specific bacterial lineages. The divergence in bacterial composition is substantial between the TYP and LON forms in spite of their high genetic similarity. The symbiont distribution in the S. japonica forms and in three other laminarialean species is not related to the depth or locality of the algae settlements. Combined with our previous results on symbiont associations in sea urchins and taking into account the highly specific character of bacteria-algae associations, we propose that the TYP and LON forms may represent incipient species passing through initial steps of reproductive isolation. We suggest that phenotype differences between genetically similar forms may be caused by host-symbiont interactions that may be a general feature of evolution in algae and other eukaryote organisms. Bacterial symbionts could serve as sensitive markers to distinguish genetically similar algae forms and also as possible growth-promoting inductors to increase algae productivity.

  5. Microbiota influences morphology and reproduction of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Esteban Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Associated microbiota play crucial roles in health and disease of higher organisms. For macroalgae, some associated bacteria exert beneficial effects on nutrition, morphogenesis and growth. However, current knowledge on macroalgae-microbiota interactions is mostly based on studies on green and red seaweeds. In this study, we report that when cultured under axenic conditions, the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus sp. loses its branched morphology and grows with a small ball-like appearance. Nine strains of periphytic bacteria isolated from Ectocarpus sp. unialgal cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and assessed for their effect on morphology, reproduction and the metabolites secreted by axenic Ectocarpus sp. Six of these isolates restored morphology and reproduction features of axenic Ectocarpus sp. Bacteria-algae co-culture supernatants, but not the supernatant of the corresponding bacterium growing alone, also recovered morphology and reproduction of the alga. Furthermore, colonization of axenic Ectocarpus sp. with a single bacterial isolate impacted significantly the metabolites released by the alga. These results show that the branched typical morphology and the individuals produced by Ectocarpus sp. are strongly dependent on the presence of bacteria, while the bacterial effect on the algal exometabolome profile reflects the impact of bacteria on the whole physiology of this alga.

  6. Radioactivity in brown algae in the Oslo Fjord during a flooding event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study of marine radioactivity brown algae have been used as bio-indicators. The algae reflect changes in sea water concentrations of radionuclides rapidly, and concentrate most radionuclides. The inner and outer areas of the Oslo Fjord was mapped in 1995 and 1996 in order to study the influence of 137Cs runoff from land. During 1995 there was also a major flood, resulting in 300 000 tonnes of particles deposited around the Hvaler archipelago in the outer Oslo Fjord. The influence of the flood could be detected in the 137Cs levels in fucus in this area, mainly because of a decrease in the salinity. The flood did not result in a general increase in 137Cs levels in sea water or fucus. The present main source to 137Cs in the studied area is the outflow of water from the Baltic Sea. (author)

  7. Kinetic study of metal biosorption to a brown alga, Kjellmaniella crassiforia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2002-02-15

    A kinetic study of cadmium and lead biosorption to a brown alga, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, was carried out. The shrinking core model derived by M. Gopala Rao and A. K. Gupta (Chem. Eng. J.24, 181, (1982)) was modified and adapted for description of the rate process of cadmium and lead biosorption to the alga. The biosorption rate process was well described and average apparent diffusion coefficient of about 9 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) was found for both cadmium and lead ions. The value was 20 to 50 times higher than the apparent diffusion coefficients of cadmium and lead ions in strong-acid resins like Dowex 50W-X8. PMID:16290409

  8. Phylogenomic analysis of transcriptomic sequences of mitochondria and chloroplasts of essential brown algae (Phaeophyceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Shangang; LIU Tao; WU Shuangxiu; WANG Xumin; LI Tianyong; QIAN Hao; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; YU Jun; REN Lufeng; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast and mitochondrion of brown algae (Class Phaeophyceae of Phylum Ochrophyta) may have originated from different endosymbiosis. In this study, we carried out phylogenomic analysis to distinguish their evolutionary lineages by using algal RNA-seq datasets of the 1 000 Plants (1KP) Project and publicly available complete genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts of Kingdom Chromista. We have found that there is a split between Class Phaeophyceae of Phylum Ochrophyta and the others (Phylum Cryptophyta and Haptophyta) in Kingdom Chromista, and identified more diversity in chloroplast genes than mitochondrial ones in their phylogenetic trees. Taxonomy resolution for Class Phaeophyceae showed that it was divided into Laminariales-Ectocarpales clade and Fucales clade, and phylogenetic positions of Kjellmaniella crassi-folia, Hizikia fusifrome and Ishige okamurai were confirmed. Our analysis provided the basic phylogenetic relationships of Chromista algae, and demonstrated their potential ability to study endosymbiotic events.

  9. Potentiating effect of ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using brown alga: antimicrobial and anticancer activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRI VISHNU PRIYA RAMASWAMY; S NARENDHRAN; RAJESHWARI SIVARAJ

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities of biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles was assessed by well diffusion method. The anticancer activity of brown algae-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was determined by MTT assay against the cell line (MCF-7). Maximum activity was observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. Effective growth inhibition of cells was observed to be more than 93% in antibacterial activity. Thus, the results of the present study indicates that biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles can be used for several diseases, however, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  10. Mitochondrial genome of Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): comparative mitogenomics of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh is a perennial brown alga native to coral reef ecosystems of tropical areas of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Very little is known about its organellar genome structure. In the present work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. ornata was determined and compared with other reported brown algal mtDNAs. The circular mitogenome of 34,981 bp contains a basic set of 65 mitochondrial genes. The structure and organization of T. ornata mitogenome is very similar to Sargassum species. Turbinaria ornata genes overlap by a total of 164 bp in 12 different locations from 1 to 66 bp, and the non-coding sequences are 1872 bp, constituting approximate 5.35 % of the genome. The total spacer size has positive correlation with the brown algal mitogenome size with the correlation coefficient of 0.7972. Several regions displaying greater inconsistency (rnl-trnK spacer, cox2 gene, cox3-atp6 spacer, rps14-rns middle region and trnP-rnl spacer) have been identified in brown algal mtDNAs. The observed uncertainty regarding the position and support values of some branches might be closely associated with the heterogeneity of evolutionary rate. PMID:25893565

  11. Temperature and light tolerance of representative brown,green and red algae in tumble culture revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Shaojun; SHAN Tifeng

    2008-01-01

    Laminaria japonica,Undaria pinnatifida,Ulva lactuca,Grateloupia turuturu and Palmaria palmata are suitable species that fit the requirements of a seaweed-animal integrated aquaculture system in terms of their viable biomass,rapid growth and promising nutrient uptake rates. In this investigation,the responses of the optimal chlorophyll fluolescence yield of the five algal species in tumble culture were assessed at a temperature range of 10~30℃.The results revealed that Ulva lactuca was the most resistant species to high temperature,withstanding 30℃ for 4 h without apparent decline in the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield. While the arctic alga Palmaria palmata was the most vulnerable one,showing significant decline in the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield at 25℃ for 2 h.The cold-water species Laminaria japonica,however,demonstrated strong ability to cope with higher temperature(24~26℃)for shorter time(within 24 h)without significant decline in the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield.Grateloupia turuturu showed a general decrease in the optimal chiorophyll fluores-cence yield with the rising temperature from 23 to 30℃,similar to the temperate kelp Undaria pinnatifida.Changes of chio-rophyll fluorescence yields of these algae were characterized differently indicating the existence of species-unique strategy to cope with high light.Measurements of the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield after short exposure to direct solar irradiance revealed how long these exposures could be without significant photoinhibition or with promising recovery in photosynthetic activities. Seasonal pattern of alternation of algal species in tank culture in the Northern Hemisphere at the latitude of 36°Nwas proposed according to these basic measurements.

  12. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  13. Production of brown algae pyrolysis oils for liquid biofuels depending on the chemical pretreatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of Saccharina japonica, brown algae to produce hydrocarbons. • Sulfuric acid pretreatment of macroalgae to remove inorganic elements. • CaCl2 treatment of macroalgae to remove valuable fucoidan. • Sulfuric acid pretreatment suppressed the formation of large biochar chunks. • The pretreatment methods allowed the continuous operation of pyrolysis. - Abstract: Based on observations of rapidly growing biochar in fluidization beds, kelp (Saccharina japonica), a species of brown algae, was pretreated for the efficient operation of pyrolysis processes to produce pyrolysis oils. The removal of catalytically active inorganic minerals and the softening of polymeric seaweed structures were performed by means of chemical treatments, including a CaCl2 treatment to isolate valuable and sticky fucoidan and a sulfuric acid treatment to remove catalytically active minerals. The sulfuric acid pretreatment significantly reduced the inorganic elements but did not significantly affect the properties of the pyrolysis oil compared to the non-treated kelp pyrolysis oil. Whereas the non-treated kelp produced significantly large chunks of biochar, which hindered the continuous operation of pyrolysis, the kelp treated with sulfuric acid did not produce aggregated large particles of biochar, thereby offering a means of developing reliable continuous pyrolysis processes

  14. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

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    Alessandro Busetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds.

  15. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  16. Preliminary investigation of a highly sulfated galactofucan fraction isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Maria I; Grachev, Alexey A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Thuy, Thanh Thi Thu; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Ly, Bui Minh; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2013-08-01

    A fucoidan preparation was isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum (Fucales, Sargassaceae). The preparation was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and two highly sulfated fractions F3 and F4 were obtained. The fractions were quite similar in composition, but different in chemical structure. F4 was analyzed by chemical methods, including desulfation, methylation, Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis with mass-spectrometric monitoring, as well as by NMR spectroscopy. Several 2D NMR procedures, including HMQC-TOCSY and HMQC-NOESY, were used to obtain reliable structural information from the complex spectra. Molecules of F4 were shown to contain a backbone built up mainly of 3-linked α-L-fucopyranose 4-sulfate residues, as in many other fucoidans, but rather short sequences of these residues are interspersed by single 2-linked α-D-galactopyranose residues also sulfated at position 4. This rather unusual structural feature should have a great influence on the conformation of the polymeric molecule and may be important for biological activity of the polysaccharide. Hence, F4 is an example of a new sulfated galactofucan isolated from the brown alga. According to the data obtained, the distribution of galactose residues along the polysaccharide backbone seems to be not strictly regular, but the definitive sequence of monomers in the polymeric molecules awaits additional investigation. PMID:23810980

  17. Acute toxicity study and antipyretic effect of the brown alga Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Sadish; Kumar, Y; Khan, M S Y; Anbu, J; Sam, K G

    2009-01-01

    The active principles of brown alga, Turbinaria conoides (J.Agardh) Kuetz. (Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats after administration of extracts orally. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 5 g/kg for methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts whereas n-hexane and cyclohexane extracts were found to be toxic at the dose levels of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg respectively. In biochemical analysis, n-hexane, cyclohexane and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts caused a significant (P<0.01) increase in serum cholesterol, protein and alkaline phosphatase levels. In haematological studies, a significant difference was observed for cyclohexane and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts in polymorphs, lymphocytes and eosinophils when compared to the control. Antipyretic activity of extracts (100-400 mg/kg doses) was carried out on yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Cyclohexane extract exhibited more significant antipyretic activity (P<0.01) than the other extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg (54.43%), which was comparable to that of paracetamol at a dose of 33 mg/kg. The findings validated the use of this brown alga in traditional cure of children's fever. PMID:20448848

  18. The physiology and biochemistry of the Laminaria pallida/Carpoblepharis minima and Ecklonia maxima/Suhria vittata associations from south-western Cape waters, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two laminarian brown algae Laminaria pallida Grev. ex. J. Ag. and Ecklonia maxima were studied. The red algae, growing attached to the brown algae namely, Carpoblepharis minima Bart. and Suhria vittata (L.) J. Ag. Pallida/C. minima and E. maxima/S. vittata associations were studied. Carpoblepharis minima has only been observed on L. pallida, whereas S. vittata has been found attached to various substrates as well as to E. maxima. Physiological studies were undertaken on both brown and red algae. Translocation was found to occur in the brown algae at a velocity of 50-100mm h-1 in L. pallida and 240-300mm h-1 in E. maxima after incubation in seawater containing 14C-sodium bicarbonate (1μCi ml-1). Movement of 14C-assimilates in L. pallida was slower than in E. maxima probably due to a difference in the medulla structure. The only 14C-labelled assimilates in the brown/red algal association were the acyclic polyol mannitol and certain amino acids. Mannitol was the major translocant in L. pallida and E. maxima. The mannitol concentration varied seasonally. Studies using 15N-potassium nitrate showed that the major 'free' amino acids in L. pallida were alanine, glutamic acid and histadine, whereas in E. maxima they were alanine, glutamic acid and glutamine. The red algae contained mannitol and the major 'free' aminoacids were alanine, glutamine and histadine in C. minima and glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine in S. vittata. Both red algae were found to possess photosynthetic pigments, undergo 14C-assimilation and to incorporate exogenously supplied mannitol. There was transfer of the 14C-labelled assimilates of photosynthesis from the brown to the red algal partner in the L. pallida/C. minima association, but this did not occur in th E. maxima/S. vittata relationship

  19. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  20. Normalisation genes for expression analyses in the brown alga model Ectocarpus siliculosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousvoal Sylvie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown algae are plant multi-cellular organisms occupying most of the world coasts and are essential actors in the constitution of ecological niches at the shoreline. Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model for brown algal research. Its genome has been sequenced, and several tools are being developed to perform analyses at different levels of cell organization, including transcriptomic expression analyses. Several topics, including physiological responses to osmotic stress and to exposure to contaminants and solvents are being studied in order to better understand the adaptive capacity of brown algae to pollution and environmental changes. A series of genes that can be used to normalise expression analyses is required for these studies. Results We monitored the expression of 13 genes under 21 different culture conditions. These included genes encoding proteins and factors involved in protein translation (ribosomal protein 26S, EF1alpha, IF2A, IF4E and protein degradation (ubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme or folding (cyclophilin, and proteins involved in both the structure of the cytoskeleton (tubulin alpha, actin, actin-related proteins and its trafficking function (dynein, as well as a protein implicated in carbon metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The stability of their expression level was assessed using the Ct range, and by applying both the geNorm and the Normfinder principles of calculation. Conclusion Comparisons of the data obtained with the three methods of calculation indicated that EF1alpha (EF1a was the best reference gene for normalisation. The normalisation factor should be calculated with at least two genes, alpha tubulin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme or actin-related proteins being good partners of EF1a. Our results exclude actin as a good normalisation gene, and, in this, are in agreement with previous studies in other organisms.

  1. Annual variations of elemental quantities in brown sea algae hijiki Hizikia fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative variation of 12 elements such as K, Ca, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Rb, I and Pb in a brown algae, hijiki, Hizikia fusiforme, was observed from June 1982 through July 1983, using simultaneous multi-element analysis of PIXE. The patterns of variation on the elemental concentration were found to be classified into three groups. Br and Sr were complex in their annual variation patterns, showing minimum values in Jan., Mar. and Aug., which may relate to the physiological aspects of the sea algae concerned. Though three hollows were also found for Ca, its variation was typical in demonstrating minimum values just after the respective harvestings by fishermen. Fe, Co, Cu, Rb and Pb were elements with peaks showing a maximum only in Aug., probably influenced by environmental causes such as atmospheric pollution or seasonal changes of tides and currents around the experimental area. No variation was found for the element K, which is considered as a main component of algae tissues. A similar pattern was observed for such element as As, which also behaves as essential elements in the algae tissue. Iodine showed an irregular variation pattern, presenting triple peaks during the period. How-ever, the corresponding hollows did not coincide with the results given by elements like Sr and Br, which had similar patterns. The ranges of the variations between maximum and minimum values had a factor of 2-3. Radioecologically, the differences may explain significance of the results as certain indicators, when submitting more precise radiation doses applying concentration factors for radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea

  2. Biochecmial composition of marine brown alga Lobophora variegata from Mandapam in the South East Coast of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyaseelan Thennarasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are well-known as a functional food for their richness in lipids, minerals, certain vitamins and also several bioactive substances like polysaccharides, proteins and polyphonies. Thus, the brown alga was analyzed for its biochemical properties for rich source of all essential nutrients which is promising as a source of pharmacognosical value. In the present study, brown alga Lobophora variegata was studied for the biochemical properties, such as Carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, sterols, fatty acid and minerals composition were carried out by using gas chromatography method and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method respectively. Among biochemical content total protein were present in higher quantity 23.13 ± 0.05%, followed by total carbohydrates-19.34 ± 0.10% and total lipid-0.27± 0.5%. Also the experimental alga were rich in vitamins (especially vitamin C, Fatty acids (Omega fatty acid, and minerals (calcium respectively. Comparatively the sterols also been noted. Thus, the results of biochemical composition of marine brown alga seem to be more valuable for the nutraceutical as well as pharmaceutical industry as a potential source.

  3. Determination of nanogram levels of lanthanoids in a marine macro-alga by neutron activation analysis combined with separation by selective precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preseparation of lanthanoids by substoichiometric precipitation of calcium oxalate and simple radiochemical separation of lanthanoids by lanthanum oxalate have been developed. They were combined with neutron activation analysis of a marine macro-alga (Laminaria religiosa, brown alga) sample. Quantitative recovery of lanthanoids throughout the procedure was examined by radiotracer technique. Eleven lanthanoids, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Er, Yb and Lu, at 0.7-140 ng g-1 were determined with a relative standard deviation of 1-7% (n=3). Concentrations of lanthanoids in the marine macro-alga were compared with land plant and sea water. (author) 22 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  4. Biosorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by brown algae: Equilibrium, dynamic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption characteristics of nickel(II) ions using the brown algae (Cystoseria indica, Nizmuddinia zanardini, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina australis) were investigated. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH level, contact time, initial metal concentration and temperature were studied. The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir adsorption model in the concentration range of nickel(II) ions and at all the temperatures studied. Evaluation of the experimental data in terms of biosorption dynamics showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) onto algal biomass followed the pseudo-second-order dynamics well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at the temperature ranges of 293-313 K.

  5. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd ∼ Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups

  6. Direct quantification of brown algae-derived fucoidans in human plasma by a fluorescent probe assay

    CERN Document Server

    Warttinger, Ulrich; Harenberg, Job; Krämer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Fucoidan is a generic term for a class of fucose rich, structurally diverse sulfated polysaccharides that are found in brown algae and other marine organisms. Depending on the species from which the fucoidan is extracted, a wide variety of biological activities including antitumor, antiinflammatory, immune-modulating, antiviral, antibacterial and pro- and anticoagulant activities has been described. Fucoidans have the advantage of low toxicity and oral bioavailibiity and are viable drug candidates, preclinical and pilot clinical trials show promising results. The availability of robust assays, in particular for analysing the blood levels of fucoidan, is a fundamental requirement for pharmacokinetic analysis in drug development projects. This contribution describes the application of a commercially availbale, protein-free fluorescent probe assay (Heparin Red) for the direct quantification of several fucoidans (from Fucus vesiculosus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Undaria pinnatifida) in human plasma. By only minor...

  7. Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ehrig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%. Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81, fucose content (86.1% and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8 and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 μg/mL. Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum hemiphyllum (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): comparative analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Chen, Weizhou

    2016-01-01

    Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C. Agardh is a common low intertidal brown alga in the northwestern Pacific, and two varieties (var. chinense and var. hemiphyllum) of this alga have been determined based on morphological and molecular data. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. hemiphyllum var. chinense. The circular-mapping S. hemiphyllum mitogenome of 34,686 bp has an overall A+T content of 63.43%, and contains 65 densely packed genes. The total intergenic spacer regions are 1597 bp, constituting 4.60% of the mitogenome. The gene content and genome organization of S. hemiphyllum are identical to that of other reported Sargassum species. The identity comparison of overall mitogenome sequences and phylogenomic analyses indicate that S. hemiphyllum has a closer evolutionary relationship with Sargassum muticum than other Sargassum species analyzed. The present mitogenomic data provide a powerful tool for definition of varieties and studies of population structure in S. hemiphyllum. PMID:25162799

  9. Biosynthesis of antibacterial gold nanoparticles using brown alga, Stoechospermum marginatum (kützing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiya Aarthi Rajathi, F.; Parthiban, C.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Anantharaman, P.

    2012-12-01

    Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by brown alga, Stoechospermum marginatum biomasses through a green route was reported in this study. The formation of the gold nanoparticles was observed within 10 min. The properties of prepared nanoparticles were characterized by photoluminescence spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis and quantified by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be photoluminescent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by the presence of an absorption peak at 550 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. TEM image revealed that most of the particles are spherical in shape and some are hexagonal and triangle with size ranged from 18.7 to 93.7 nm. The nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and it was confirmed by XRD pattern and the presence of elemental gold (45.92%) was confirmed by WD-XRF. From the FTIR measurements it is noticed that the reduction has been carried out by hydroxyl groups present in the diterpenoids of the brown seaweed. Furthermore the biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be effective against bacterial pathogens.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BROWN ALGAE SARGASSUM SPECIES EXTRACTS FROM THE COASTLINE OF JAVA ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti A. Budhiyanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastlines with rocky shores at Java Island Indonesia, Gunung Kidul (Yogyakarta and Jepara (Central Java, have abundant resource of brown algae Sargassum sp. Little effort, however, has been made to explore the antioxidant potential of the algae harvested from these area. Tropical brown algae have proven to produce a very effective antioxidant defence system due to the strong UV radiation in the tropical environment. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC of the extracts were evaluated by using Follin Ciocalteau reagent, while antioxidant activities were evaluated by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrzyl Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH-RSA and Ferrous Ion-Chelating (FIC ability. The effects of treatments on TPC and antioxidant activities were analysed using analysis of variance models. There were four treatments and three replicates. These treatments were extract types (cytoplasmic and membrane bound, harvest sites (Gunung Kidul and Jepara, harvest seasons (dry and rainy and various Sargassum species. The TPC of extracts varied from 0.006-0.65 and 6.72-21.99 g phloroglucinol equivalent/100 g dried extract for cytoplasmic and membrane bound extract, respectively. The DPPH-RSA in extracts concentration of 0.45 mg mL-1 were in the range of 14.61-48.71 % for membrane bound and 0.17-44.05 % for cytoplasmic extracts. The FIC in extract concentration of 3.3 mg mL-1 were in the range of 2.0512.51 and 26.77-68.80 % for cytoplasmic and membrane bound extract, respectively. Nevertheless, these extracts had lower activity when compared with BHT and EDTA as positive control of RSA-DPPH and FIC, respectively. The antioxidant activities of Sargassum were influenced by types of extracts, harvest sites, seasons and species. The antioxidant activity of membrane bound was higher than cytoplasmic extract. The increasing of DPPH-RSA and FIC were proportional to TPC. The highest antioxidant activity was found at S. hystrix from Gunung Kidul area harvested during dry

  11. Isolation of stigmast-5,24-dien-3-ol from marine brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum and its antipredatory activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Adel, H.; Shirodkar, D.; Tilvi, S.; Furtado, J.

    Bio-organic Chemistry Laboratory, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula Goa 403 004, India; bPresent address: Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa India. ∗Email: majikms@gmail.com; Phone: + 91(0) 832-2450392 Abstract... algae. In continuation of our research in marine natural product chemistry, herein we have reported the isolation of major metabolite from brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum and effect of their organic fractions on fish feeding. The main goal of present...

  12. In vitro cancer chemopreventive properties of polysaccharide extract from the brown alga, Sargassum latifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Ahmed, Eman F; Abo-Zeid, Mona A

    2009-06-01

    Polysaccharides of edible algae attracted extensive interest due to their numerous biological activities. Sargassum latifolium (Turner) C. Agardh, belongs to Sargassaceae, is a brown algae in red sea shores in Egypt. This work is a novel attempt to explore the cancer chemopreventive activity of different fractions of water-soluble polysaccharide extract derived from S. latifolium. Estimation of cancer chemopreventive activity, specifically anti-initiation, including the modulation of carcinogen metabolism and the antioxidant capacity, revealed that E1 and E4 were potent anti-initiators, where they lead not only to an inhibition in the carcinogen activator cytochrome P450 1A (IC50 2.54 and 10.30 microg/ml, respectively), but also to an induction in the carcinogen detoxification enzymes glutathione-S-transferases (144% and 225% of the control, respectively). E1 and E4 inhibited 59% and 63% of the induced-DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Similarly both E1 and E4 possessed potential anti-promoting properties as indicated by their anti-inflammatory activity. E1 and E4 enhanced the macrophage proliferation; however they dramatically inhibited the stimulated NO (30.7% and 59.3%), TNF-alpha (38.2% and 54.9) and COX-2 (20% and 18%), respectively. E3 showed a selective cytotoxicity against lymphoblastic leukemia (1301 cells), while other fraction extracts had no cytotoxic effect against all tested cell lines. E3 led to a major disturbance in cell cycle including arrest in both S-phases in 1301 cells. This disturbance was associated with an induced-cell death due to apoptosis, but not necrosis. In conclusion, E1 and E4 are promising cancer chemopreventive fractions, since they had tumor anti- initiating activity via their protective modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and tumor anti-promoting activity via their anti-inflammatory activity, while E3 can be considered as a promising anti-cancer agent against leukemia. PMID:19306910

  13. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Jena, K.B.; Pise, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H sub(2) O sub(2) were measured as oxidative stress markers...

  14. First report of the North Atlantic myrionematoid brown alga Ulonema rhizophorum Foslie (Phaeophyceae, Chordariaceae in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. TASKIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The myrionematoid brown alga Ulonema rhizophorum Foslie (Phaeophyceae, Chordariaceae is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. This species was collected growing as an epiphyte on Ulva sp. from the Dardanelles (Sea of Marmara, Turkey in the midlittoral zone. Ulonema rhizophorum is characterized by downwardly produced rhizoids from the basal system. A key to the Mediterranean related genera of Ulonema is provided.

  15. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals in the brown alga Lobophora variegata: A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New Caledonia is a small South Pacific island whose main economic resources are derived from nickel exploitation. Local mining activities inevitably result in metal contamination of the surrounding environments. In particular, these long term activities are responsible for large inputs of metals into the SW lagoon and thereby constitute a threat to the local coastal marine ecosystems. Available information on metal contamination in biota from New Caledonia is extremely scarce. However, a recent study has screened metal contamination levels in a variety of local marine organisms in different locations of the SW lagoon. This study showed that several species could be considered as potential bioindicators. Among these, the brown alga Lobophora variegata appeared as one of the most valuable candidates. Indeed, this species is abundant, widely distributed in the lagoon as well as in other tropical ecosystems, and displays high levels of metals within its tissues. The aim of this work was to investigate metal bioaccumulation kinetics in L. variegata in order to further assess its value as a sentinel species for identifying and monitoring environmental contamination. Uptake and loss kinetics of six different metals (Cr, Co, Zn, Cd, Ag, and Ni) were determined using multi-element exposures with carrier-free or high specific activity radiotracers (51Cr, 57Co, 65Zn, 109Cd, 110mAg, 63Ni) in order to carry out the experiments at realistic contaminant levels. In another set of experiments, mono-element exposures were carried out with five increasing concentrations of each metal (14d of exposure followed by 21 d of depuration) in order to assess the possible influence of ambient dissolved concentration on metal bioconcentration and retention capacity in the alga. The ranges of concentrations for each metal were selected in order to cover the range of dissolved concentrations encountered in the lagoon. Results showed that all the metals tested were readily incorporated

  16. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium meal in the diet of laying hens

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    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae. The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%. The diets were given with or without enzyme supplementation. This resulted in 3 (preparation methods × 2 (concentrations of supplemented BMA, i.e. 3 and 6 % × 2 (with and without enzyme supplementation diet programs plus two control groups (with and without enzyme supplementation for a total of 14 treatments. Each treatment was represented by six replicates of five hens each. Sun dried or autocalved brown marine algae at 3% without enzyme supplementation in the laying hen diet could be fed to laying hens without any adverse effect on laying performance. However, enzyme supplementation to a diet containing 6% autocalved brown marine algae improved productive performance and eggshell quality.

  17. Anti-snake venom effect of secodolastane diterpenes isolated from Brazilian marine brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against Lachesis muta venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Francielle S. Domingos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a Brazilian algae extract and also a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol that were isolated from the marine brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis were evaluated against biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom. In vitro assays showed that the crude extract and the diterpenes were able to inhibit the clotting and proteolytic activity induced by L. muta crude venom, but not the hemolytic activity. However, only the diterpenes inhibited the hemolysis caused by a purified phospholipase A2 previously isolated from L. muta venom, denoted LM-PLA2-I. Interestingly, the crude algal extract and the diterpenes were able to protect mice from hemorrhage induced by L. muta venom. Thus, we may conclude that marine algae are rich and powerful sources of molecules that may be used against L. muta accidents in order to improve treatment of envenomation by this snake.

  18. Evaluation of Marine Brown Algae and Sponges from Brazil as Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Products

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    Suzi Meneses Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ischemic disorders, in which platelet aggregation and blood coagulation are involved, represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. The antithrombotic therapy has unsatisfactory performance and may produce side effects. So, there is a need to seek molecules with antithrombotic properties. Marine organisms produce substances with different well defined ecological functions. Moreover, some of these molecules also exhibit pharmacological properties such as antiviral, anticancer, antiophidic and anticoagulant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through in vitro tests, the effect of two extracts of brown algae and ten marine sponges from Brazil on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. Our results revealed that most of the extracts were capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and clotting measured by plasma recalcification tests, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogenolytic activity. On the other hand, five of ten species of sponges induced platelet aggregation. Thus, the marine organisms studied here may have molecules with antithrombotic properties, presenting biotechnological potential to antithrombotic therapy. Further chemical investigation should be conducted on the active species to discover useful molecules for the development of new drugs to treat clotting disorders.

  19. Radiolabelling studies on the lipid metabolism in the marine brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid metabolism of the marine brown alga D. membranacea was investigated using [2-14C]acetate, [1-14C]myristate, [1-14C]oleate and [1-14C]arachidonate as precursors. On incubation with [2-14C]acetate, 18:1 and 16:0 were the main products formed by de novo synthesis and incorporated into polar lipids. With all the exogenous substrates used, DGTA was strongly labelled and the subsequent rapid turnover of radioactivity suggested a key role for this lipid in the redistribution of acyl chains and most likely also in the biosynthesis of the eukaryotic galactolipids produced in the absence of PC. In the glycolipids a continuous accumulation of radioactivity was observed with all the substrates used. The labelling kinetics of molecular species of MGDG suggested the desaturation of 18:1 to 18:4 and of 20:4 (n-6) to 20:5 (n-3) acids on this lipid. Both PG and PE were primary acceptors of de novo synthesized fatty acids and exogenous [1-14C]oleate, but no evidence exists for a further processing of acyl chains on these lipids. TAG, although strongly labelled with all exogenous [1-14C]acids, was not labelled when [2-14C]acetate was used as a precursor indicating the flux of endogenous fatty acids to be different of that of exogenously supplied fatty acids. (author)

  20. A novel thyroglobulin-binding lectin from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingjiang; Tong, Changqing; Wu, Yue; Liu, Shuai; Li, Wei

    2016-06-15

    A lectin (HFL) was isolated from the brown alga, Hizikia fusiformis, through ion exchange on cellulose DE52 and HPLC with a TSK-gel G4000PWXL column. SDS-PAGE showed that HFL had a molecular mass of 16.1 kDa. The HPLC (with a TSK-gel G4000PWXL column) indicated that HFL is a tetramer in its native state. The total carbohydrate content was 41%. Glucose, galactose and fucose were the monosaccharide units of HFL, and the normalized mol% values were 6, 14 and 80, respectively. HFL contains a large amount of the acidic amino acid, Asx. The β-elimination reaction suggested that the oligosaccharide and peptide moieties of HFL may belong to the N-glucosidic linkage. The amino acid sequences, of about five segments of HFL, were acquired by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and the sequences have no homology with other lectins. HFL was found to agglutinate sheep erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by thyroglobulin, from bovine thyroid, but not by any of the monosaccharides tested. The lectin reaction was independent of the presence of the divalent cation Ca(2+). HFL showed free radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals. PMID:26868541

  1. Cytotoxic activity of some marine brown algae against cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Nabavi, Maryam; Sadati, Nargess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammadreza; Sohrabipour, Jelve; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad B; Ghaeli, Padideh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract of MeOH (70%) and partition fractions of hexan, chloroform (CHCL3), ethylacetate (EtOAc) and MeOH-H2O of brown algae species (Sargassum swartzii, Cystoseira myrica, Colpomenia sinuosa) found in the Persian Gulf against in different cell lines including HT-29, Caco-2, T47D, MDA-MB468 and NIH 3T3 cell lines by MTT and AnnexinV-PI assay. The hexan fraction of S. swartzii and C. myrica showed selective cytotoxicity against proliferation of Caco-2 cells (IC50 hexan fraction of C. myrica on T47D parent cells was lower than it was on T47D-TR cells (IC50 99.9 ± 8.11 vs. 143.15 ± 7.80). This finding suggests a role for the MDR-1 in the development of possible future tolerance to the extract. PMID:21157630

  2. Dolabelladienols A-C, new diterpenes isolated from Brazilian brown alga Dictyota pfaffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; de Barcelos Oliveira, Ingrid; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; de Palmer Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A-C (1-3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4-6). The elucidation of the compounds 1-3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  3. Dolabelladienols A–C, New Diterpenes Isolated from Brazilian Brown Alga Dictyota pfaffii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Oliveira, Ingrid de Barcelos; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A–C (1–3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4–6). The elucidation of the compounds 1–3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  4. Potential antibacterial and antioxidant properties of a sulfated polysaccharide from the brown marine algae Sargassum swartzii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pandian Vijayabaskar; Noormohamed Vaseela; Ganapathy Thirumaran

    2012-01-01

    AIMS:Sulfated polysaccharide extracted from the brown algae Sargassum swartzii was studied for antioxidant potential.METHODS:The extracted sulfated polysaccharide was analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics,TAC,reducing power,free radical scavenging potentials (DPPH,ABTS,H2O2 radical) and antibacterial properties.RESULTS:The extract showed a high percentage of carbohydrate (7.40 ± 0.63) %,followed by sulfate (5.3 ± 1.54) %.The highest antioxidant activity was observed in ABTS (55 ± 3.61)%,followed by H2O2 (47.23 ± 2.81)% and DPPH (25.33 ± 2.52) %; significant differences were observed at (P ≥ 0.05).Among the ten human pathogenic strains tested,E.coli was the more sensitive.The characterization and mobility of the sulfated polysaccharide was examined by the FT-IR spectrum and assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis which showed highest mobility at higher pH buffer in carbonate-bicarbonate (pH 10) buffer.The molecular weight of the sulfated polysaccharide was determined by gradient PAGE and was found to be 50 KDa.Finally,GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to dimethyl-4-nitroaniline (26.34%).CONCLUSIONS:It is suggested that the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum swartzii could be a better source of natural antioxidant,as well as an antibacterial agent.

  5. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae: A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivid Costa Soares

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL, and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): genome architecture and taxonomic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Luo, Minbo

    2016-01-01

    Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell (=Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura) is one of the most important economic seaweeds for mariculture in China. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. fusiforme. The genome is 34,696 bp in length with circular organization, encoding the standard set of three ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 35 protein-coding genes, and two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). Its total AT content is 62.47%, lower than other brown algae except Pylaiella littoralis. The mitogenome carries 1571 bp of intergenic region constituting 4.53% of the genome, and 13 pairs of overlapping genes with the overlap size from 1 to 90 bp. The phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. fusiforme has a closer evolutionary relationship with Sargassum muticum than Sargassum horneri, indicating Hizikia are not distinct evolutionary entity and should be reduced to synonymy with Sargassum. PMID:24989050

  7. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  8. DNA variation in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakirev Evgeniy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is an economically important and highly morphologically variable brown alga inhabiting the northwest Pacific marine waters. On the basis of nuclear (ITS, plastid (rbcLS and mitochondrial (COI DNA sequence data, we have analyzed the genetic composition of typical Saccharina japonica (TYP and its two common morphological varieties, known as the “longipes” (LON and “shallow-water” (SHA forms seeking to clarify their taxonomical status and to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within S. japonica. Results The data show that the TYP and LON forms are very similar genetically in spite of drastic differences in morphology, life history traits, and ecological preferences. Both, however, are genetically quite different from the SHA form. The two Saccharina lineages are distinguished by 109 fixed single nucleotide differences as well as by seven fixed length polymorphisms (based on a 4,286 bp concatenated dataset that includes three gene regions. The GenBank database reveals a close affinity of the TYP and LON forms to S. japonica and the SHA form to S. cichorioides. The three gene markers used in the present work have different sensitivity for the algal species identification. COI gene was the most discriminant gene marker. However, we have detected instances of interspecific COI recombination reflecting putative historical hybridization events between distantly related algal lineages. The recombinant sequences show highly contrasted level of divergence in the 5’- and 3’- regions of the gene, leading to significantly different tree topologies depending on the gene segment (5’- or 3’- used for tree reconstruction. Consequently, the 5’-COI “barcoding” region (~ 650 bp can be misleading for identification purposes, at least in the case of algal species that might have experienced historical hybridization events. Conclusion Taking into account

  9. The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orphal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.

  10. The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orphal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.

  11. Antioxidant Effects of Brown Algae Sargassum on Sperm Parameters: CONSORT-Compliant Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Alireza; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Natami, Mohammad; Fallahi, Soghra

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of oxidative stress during the sperm freeze-thaw cycles affects the sperm parameters and eventually leads to a decrease in its reproductive potential. Sperm protection against oxidative reactions during freezing is done by antioxidants. Since the selection of a suitable sperm cryopreservation bank is effective in maintaining acceptable reproductive potential and motility of sperm during cryopreservation.This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of different doses of the extract of brown algae Sargassum on oxidative stress and frozen human sperm parameters.We conducted a randomized controlled trial on the semen samples from 11 healthy men in the age group of 25 to 36 years. The samples were collected by masturbation after 3 to 5 days of abstinence from ejaculation. The specimens were divided into 3 equal parts, including 1 control group and 2 experimental groups.The 2 experimental groups were frozen using the rapid solidification technique with Sargassum extract at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL.Motility and morphology of sperms were measured using a computer system and CASA software and the amount of reactive oxygen species was determined using Oxisperm kit.Sargassum extract significantly decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (P < 0.005) and at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL, significantly increased the overall motility (P < 0.006) and progressive motility (P < 0.007) after solidification, but did not affect the normal morphology of sperms.The addition of ethanol extract of Sargassum prevents reactive oxygen species production during the solidification process and improves sperm motility at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL. PMID:26717354

  12. Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Sargassum mcclurei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35% galactofucan, and the main chain of the polysaccharide contains a →3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→ motif with 1,4-linked 3-sulfated α-l-Fucp inserts and 6-linked galactose on reducing end. Possible branching points include the 1,2,6- or 1,3,6-linked galactose and/or 1,3,4-linked fucose residues that could be glycosylated with terminal β-d-Galp residues or chains of alternating sulfated 1,3-linked α-l-Fucp and 1,4-linked β-d-Galp residues, which have been identified in galactofucans for the first time. Both α-l-Fucp and β-d-Galp residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 (and some C-6 of β-d-Galp and potentially the C-3 of terminal β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp and 1,4-linked α-l-Fucp residues. All fucoidans fractions were less cytotoxic and displayed colony formation inhibition in colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions are potential antitumor agents.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China); Zou, Huixi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pang, Qiuying, E-mail: qiuying@nefu.edu.cn [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival.

  15. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs. The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

  16. Rapid Mass Spectrometric Analysis of a Novel Fucoidan, Extracted from the Brown Alga Coccophora langsdorfii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav D. Anastyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel highly sulfated (35% fucoidan fraction Cf2 , which contained, along with fucose, galactose and traces of xylose and uronic acids was purified from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii. Its structural features were predominantly determined (in comparison with fragments of known structure by a rapid mass spectrometric investigation of the low-molecular-weight fragments, obtained by “mild” (5 mg/mL and “exhaustive” (maximal concentration autohydrolysis. Tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS of fucooligosaccharides with even degree of polymerization (DP, obtained by “mild” autohydrolysis, were the same as that observed for fucoidan from Fucus evanescens, which have a backbone of alternating (1 → 3- and (1 → 4 linked sulfated at C-2 and sometimes at C-4 of 3-linked α-L-Fucp residues. Fragmentation patterns of oligosaccharides with odd DP indicated sulfation at C-2 and at C-4 of (1 → 3 linked α-L-Fucp residues on the reducing terminus. Minor sulfation at C-3 was also suggested. The “exhaustive” autohydrolysis allowed us to observe the “mixed” oligosaccharides, built up of fucose/xylose and fucose/galactose. Xylose residues were found to occupy both the reducing and nonreducing termini of FucXyl disaccharides. Nonreducing galactose residues as part of GalFuc disaccharides were found to be linked, possibly, by 2-type of linkage to fucose residues and were found to be sulfated, most likely, at position C-2.

  17. Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 13 (2014), s. 590-595. ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : algae * life cycle * evolution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.571, year: 2014

  18. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the enumeration of brown tide algae Aureococcusanophagefferens in coastal waters of Qinhuangdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; LIU Yongjian; ZHANG Qi; YUAN Xiutang; ZHANG Weiwei; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens, a small pelagophyte algae, has caused brown tide blooms in coastal waters of Qinhua-ngdao in recent years, presenting significant negative impacts on the shellfish mariculture industry. Under standard light microscopy, it is visually indistinguishable from other small algae in field samples due to its extremely small size. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on 18S rDNA sequences was developed and used to detect and enumerate A. anophagefferens. A linear regression (R2=0.91) was generated based on cycle thr-esholds value (Ct) versus known concentrations of A. anophagefferens. Twenty-two field samples collected in coastal waters of Qinhuangdao were subjected to DNA extraction and then analyzed using qPCR. Results showed that A. anophagefferens had a wide distribution in coastal waters along Qinhuangdao. Elevated A. anophagefferens abun-dance, category 3 brown tide blooms (>200 000 cells/mL) occurred at Dongshan Beach and Tiger-stone Beach in August in 2013. In shellfish mariculture areas along coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, 4 stations had category 3 blooms, and 6 stations had category 2 blooms (35 000–200 000 cells/mL) in August and all stations had category 1 blooms (>0 to ≤35 000 cells/mL) in October. Quantitative PCR allows for detection of A. anophagefferens cells at low levels in filed samples, which is essential to effective management and prediction of brown tide blooms.

  19. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  20. The cultivable surface microbiota of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysaccharides do not accumulate in nature, these bacteria and their unique polysaccharidases must not be that uncommon. We, therefore, looked at the polysaccharide-degrading activity of the cultivable bacterial subpopulation associated with Ascophyllum nodosum. From A. nodosum triplicates, 324 bacteria were isolated and taxonomically identified. Out of these isolates, 78 (~25% were found to act on at least one tested algal polysaccharide (agar, ι- or κ-carrageenan, or alginate. The isolates active on algal-polysaccharides belong to 11 genera: Cellulophaga, Maribacter, Algibacter, and Zobellia in the class Flavobacteriia (41 and Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Cobetia, Shewanella, Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Paraglaceciola in the class Gammaproteobacteria (37. A major part represents likely novel species. Different proportions of bacterial phyla and classes were observed between the isolated cultivable subpopulation and the total microbial community previously identified on other brown algae. Here, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be the most abundant and some phyla (as Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria frequently encountered on brown algae weren’t identified. At a lower taxonomic level, twelve genera, well-known to be associated with algae (with the exception for Colwellia, were consistently found on all three A. nosodum samples. Even more interesting, 9 of the 11 above mentioned genera containing polysaccharolytic isolates were predominant in this common core. The

  1. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  2. Enhanced high energy efficient steam drying of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology (HC) were proposed. • HC was developed on exergy recovery through exergy elevation and heat pairing. • The energy efficiency of the proposed drying processes was evaluated. • Significant reduction of energy input and CO2 emission in drying is readily achieved. - Abstract: State-of-the-art brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology were proposed, and their performance with respect to energy consumption was evaluated. Heat circulation technology was developed using the principle of exergy recovery performed through exergy elevation and effective heat pairing for both sensible and latent heat. Two steam drying processes based on heat circulation technology for algae drying were proposed, involving heat circulation with or without steam recirculation. The proposed processes were compared with the conventional heat recovery system employing heat cascade technology. Brown algae Laminaria japonica was selected as the test sample. From the results, it is very clear that both proposed drying processes can reduce the required drying energy significantly by up to 90% of that required in conventional heat recovery drying. Furthermore, the temperature–enthalpy diagram for each process shows that in heat circulation technology based drying, the curves of both hot and cold streams are almost parallel, resulting in the minimization of exergy losses

  3. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Multicellular Green, Red and Brown Algae: Phylogenetic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Kapraun, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae.

  4. Pattern of distribution of selected trace elements in the marine brown alga, Sargassum filipendula Ag. from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R

    1994-06-01

    Baseline concentrations together with biological variations of 29 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn and Zr) were investigated in the brown alga, Sargassum filipendula collected from the western coast of Sri Lanka. Several elements (Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Ni, Sc, Se, Th, Zr and the rare earth elements) were found to be enriched in S. filipendula compared to NIES No. 9 Sargasso reference material. Concentration of strontium in S. filipendula was highest at all sites. Chemical abundance of the rare earth elements decreased approximately linearly with increasing atomic numbers. The pattern of elemental distribution appears to be due to the fact that S. filipendula seems capable of concentrating high levels of trace elements under conditions of their very low availability in sea water. Concentration factors for elements in S. filipendula lie in a higher range compared with those reported in the literaure for brown algae. PMID:24197034

  5. Antimycobacterial, antiprotozoal and cytotoxic potential of twenty-one brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from British and Irish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Casey, Rosalyn; Hingley-Wilson, Suzie; Lalvani, Ajit; Guiry, Michael D; Blunden, Gerald; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2010-11-01

    In the continuation of our research on seaweeds, crude extracts of 21 brown algae collected from the south coast of England and the west coast of Ireland were screened for in vitro trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and antimycobacterial activities. Mammalian stages of a small set of parasitic protozoa; i.e. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as test organisms. The extracts were also evaluated for selectivity by testing on a mammalian cell line (L6 cells). Only four extracts were moderately active against T. cruzi, whereas all algal extracts showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense, with Halidrys siliquosa and Bifurcaria bifurcata (Sargassaceae) being the most potent (IC50 values 1.2 and 1.9 μg/mL). All algal extracts also displayed leishmanicidal activity, with H. siliquosa and B. bifurcata again being the most active (IC50s 6.4 and 8.6 μg/mL). When tested against M. tuberculosis, only the B. bifurcata extract was found to have some antitubercular potential (MIC value 64.0 μg/mL). Only three seaweed extracts, i.e. H. siliquosa, B. bifurcata and Cystoseira tamariscifolia showed some cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activity of brown algae from British and Irish waters. PMID:20564461

  6. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Wild, Christian; Schneider, Martha; Voolstra, Christian R; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions,...

  7. The determination of technetium-99 in the brown marine alga Fucus spiralis collected along the Belgian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus spiralis (Fucales) grows along the Belgian coast in sufficient amount to permit regular sampling. The algae were collected at four different places (Nieuwpoort, Oostende, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge) from March 1985 to February 1986. The concentration of 99Tc (Bq kg-1 dry weight) in whole plants was found to increase as a function of time. In addition, analyses on separated parts have revealed that, generally, apical fragments possess a lower content of 99Tc than the middle and basal ones. These results suggest that the old tissues of the algae, present in middle and basal fragments, have integrated technetium uptake over a period of a few years, in contrast to the young ones of the apices, which have probably fixed this radionuclide only during a short period of time. The concentration factors, evaluated on the basis of 3 mBq 99Tc l-1 seawater, varied from 8,000 to 36,000 in whole plants, reaching however 51,000 in middle fragments. These figures are of the same order of magnitude than those reported for related species of Fucus collected along the French coast of the Channel. It adds further evidence that Fucus spiralis may be used as a bioindicator for 99Tc contamination of coastal waters. 18 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 table

  8. A Simple and Effective Method for High Quality Co-Extraction of Genomic DNA and Total RNA from Low Biomass Ectocarpus siliculosus, the Model Brown Alga

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Maria; Claudio A Sáez; Brown, Murray T.; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The brown seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model species distributed worldwide in temperate coastal ecosystems. Over 1500 strains of E. siliculosus are available in culture from a broad range of geographic locations and ecological niches. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its capacity to cope with different environmental and biotic stressors, genomic and transcriptomic studies are necessary; this requires the co-isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In brown alga...

  9. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: Kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Olga M.M. [LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ramiro J.E. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Delerue-Matos, Cristina M. [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L{sup -1}. The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents.

  10. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL. PMID:26728965

  11. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of Laminaria japonica against oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Si Young

    2013-06-01

    Laminaria japonica is a brown alga, which is consumed widely in Korea, Japan, and China. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of L. japonica against oral microbial species to assess the possible application of L. japonica extracts in dental care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined in culture medium using a microdilution method. The MICs of ethanol extracts of L. japonica with oral streptococci were 62.5-500 μg/ml and the MBCs were 125-1000 μg/ml. The MICs of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs of A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus were 500 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. The MICs were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The killing of Streptococcus mutans and P. gingivalis was dependent on the incubation time. The killing of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis was significantly dependent on the extract concentration. Bacterial treatment with L. japonica extracts changed the cell surface texture of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis. The results of this study suggest that L. japonica extracts may be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents to combat oral pathogens. PMID:23583539

  12. Reproductive morphology and DNA sequences of the brown alga Platysiphon verticillatus support the new combination Platysiphon glacialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kai, Atsushi; Lane, Chris E; McDevit, Dan; Küpper, Frithjof C; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-10-01

    Platysiphon verticillatus, a brown alga endemic to the Arctic, was described based on vegetative specimens collected at Inglefield Bay, West Greenland. The species is distinctive in having a lanceolate blade-like thallus terminated by a terete portion, both covered with hair-like assimilatory filaments. Punctaria glacialis was described from Eastern Greenland, and the species differs from other Punctaria species in lacking hairs and plurilocular zoidangia. Unilocular zoidangia were reported, but instead of zoids being released they formed cell walls in situ developing the appearance of plurilocular zoidangia. However, the fate of the zoids, as well as the walled cells was not traced, and the life history of the alga has remained unclear. By comparing DNA sequences (cox1, cox3, and rDNA ITS2) of specimens morphologically referable to Platysiphon verticillatus and Punctaria glacialis collected at Baffin Island, as well as re-examining morphology and studying crude cultures, we concluded that they are the same taxonomic entity. Furthermore, their cox3 sequence and vegetative morphology agreed with those of the type specimen of Punctaria glacialis. Consequently, we propose Platysiphon glacialis comb. nov. The life cycle could not be completed in culture, but we hypothesize that in situ germination of the unizoids produces reduced gametophytes housed in peripheral tissue of erect sporophytic thalli. PMID:26986887

  13. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  14. Laminaria's worldclass lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the chequered history of Australia's FPSO (floating production, storage and offloading vessels) Laminaria project in the Timor Sea from start to finish covering the problems with contracts, increasing cost estimates, construction, installation, and communication problems. Details are given of Laminaria's hull and topside, and mileposts from the discovery of the Laminaria field in 1994 to the first oil in 1999 are listed. (UK)

  15. BIOACTIVITY OF PROTEIN FRACTION IN BROWN ALGAE, Turbinaria decurrens, AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dali, Seniwati; Natsir, Hasnah; Usman, Hanapi; Ahmad, Ahyar

    2013-01-01

    A research on the ability of protein fraction from chocolate algae Turbinaria decurrens in territorial of South Sulawesi to inhibit the growth of Salmonella thypi and Staphylococcus aureus has been conducted. Proteins was fractionated from the whole extract using salting out method with 0-20%, 20-40%, 40-60% and 60-80% ammonium sulphate saturation. Protein was purified by a dialysis method using a selophan membrane. The protein level was determined by a Lowry method, the highest protein conce...

  16. Molecular phylogeny of two unusual brown algae, Phaeostrophion irregulare and Platysiphon glacialis, proposal of the Stschapoviales ord. nov. and Platysiphonaceae fam. nov., and a re-examination of divergence times for brown algal orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Draisma, Stefano G A; Wilce, Robert T; Andersen, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    The molecular phylogeny of brown algae was examined using concatenated DNA sequences of seven chloroplast and mitochondrial genes (atpB, psaA, psaB, psbA, psbC, rbcL, and cox1). The study was carried out mostly from unialgal cultures; we included Phaeostrophion irregulare and Platysiphon glacialis because their ordinal taxonomic positions were unclear. Overall, the molecular phylogeny agreed with previously published studies, however, Platysiphon clustered with Halosiphon and Stschapovia and was paraphyletic with the Tilopteridales. Platysiphon resembled Stschapovia in showing remarkable morphological changes between young and mature thalli. Platysiphon, Halosiphon and Stschapovia also shared parenchymatous, terete, erect thalli with assimilatory filaments in whorls or on the distal end. Based on these results, we proposed a new order Stschapoviales and a new family Platysiphonaceae. We proposed to include Phaeostrophion in the Sphacelariales, and we emended the order to include this foliose member. Finally, using basal taxa not included in earlier studies, the origin and divergence times for brown algae were re-investigated. Results showed that the Phaeophyceae branched from Schizocladiophyceae ~260 Ma during the Permian Period. The early diverging brown algae had isomorphic life histories, whereas the derived taxa with heteromorphic life histories evolved 155-110 Ma when they branched from the basal taxa. Based on these results, we propose that the development of heteromorphic life histories and their success in the temperate and cold-water regions was induced by the development of the remarkable seasonality caused by the breakup of Pangaea. Most brown algal orders had diverged by roughly 60 Ma, around the last mass extinction event during the Cretaceous Period, and therefore a drastic climate change might have triggered the divergence of brown algae. PMID:26986888

  17. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    . vesiculosus therefore makes this alga particularly attractive for the development of new natural antioxidants. While the in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts are widely studied, studies evaluating the antioxidant efficacy of such extracts in food and skin care products are scarce. This...... PhD study investigated the possibilities of using extracts from Nordic F. vesiculosus as natural antioxidants in food and skin care products. All tested food products were fortified with fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil was added specifically in order to examine the...... of the extracts, and how each specific phlorotannin contributed to the overall antioxidant activity. All extracts examined and also the phlorotannin-rich fraction were somewhat able to improve the oxidative stability of the food and skin care products. The effectiveness of these extracts was to a...

  18. Potential Use of Polysaccharides from the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida as Anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Faggio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida is a highly invasive species and has caused concern all over the world because it has invaded coastal environments, has the potential to displace native species, significantly alters habitat for associated fauna, and disturbs navigation. Any attempt to eradicate it would be futile, owing to the elusive, microscopic gametophyte, and because the alga thrives in sites rich in anthropic activities. Venice Lagoon is the largest Mediterranean transitional environment and the spot of the highest introduction of non-indigenous species, including U. pinnatifida, which is removed as a waste. We demonstrated that polysaccharide extracts from U. pinnatifida have an anticoagulant effect on human blood in vitro and are not cytotoxic. The results obtained by PT (normal values 70-120% and APTT (normal values 28-40s assays were significantly prolonged by the polysaccharide extracts of U. pinnatifida, therefore algal extracts are ideal candidates as antithrombotic agents.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of a new compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Myung; Lee, Seung-Hong; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the natural antioxidative compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol (PPB) isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava was assessed in vitro by measuring the radical scavenging activities (DPPH, alkyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide) using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, and DNA damage assay. According to the results of these experiments, the scavengin...

  20. Marine brown algae (Phaeophyta) from the north coast of Papua New Guinea, with a description of Dictyota magneana sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; De Clerck, O; Leliaert, F

    2001-01-01

    The marine benthic brown algae of the north coast of Papua New Guinea (mainly from Madang province) are documented, based on collections made by the first author, between 1980 and 1990. All records [34 identified taxa (+Sargassum spp.)] are listed with bibliographic, taxonomic, nomenclatural and biogeographical notes. The specimens belonging to the genus Dictyota are identified according to recent species definitions. D. magneana De Clerck et Coppejans is described as new to science. Only som...

  1. Cloning, expression and purification of cytochrome c6 from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis and complete X-ray diffraction analysis of the structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of cytochrome c6 from the brown alga H. fusiformis has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution. The amino-acid sequence and tertiary structure of H. fusiformis cytochrome c6 were very similar to those of red algal cytochrome c6 rather than those of green algal cytochrome c6. The primary sequence of cytochrome c6 from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis has been determined by cDNA cloning and the crystal structure has been solved at 1.6 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 84.58, c = 232.91 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The genome code, amino-acid sequence and crystal structure of H. fusiformis cytochrome c6 were most similar to those of red algal cytochrome c6. These results support the hypothesis that brown algae acquired their chloroplasts via secondary endosymbiosis involving a red algal endosymbiont and a eukaryote host

  2. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies on aluminum biosorption from aqueous solution by brown algae (Padina pavonica) biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies on aluminum biosorption from aqueous solution by brown algae (Padina pavonica) biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were determined as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of Al(III) by P. pavonica biomass. The biosorption capacity of P. pavonica biomass was found as 77.3 mg/g. The metal ions were desorbed from P. pavonica using 1 M HCl. The high stability of P. pavonica permitted a slight decrease about 20% in the recovery of Al(III) ions after 10 times of adsorption-elution process. The mean free energy value evaluated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of Al(III) onto P. pavonica biomass was taken place by chemical ion exchange. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo showed that the biosorption of Al(III) onto P. pavonica biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data was also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Al(III) onto P. pavonica biomass followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  3. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  4. Antiviral property and mechanisms of a sulphated polysaccharide from the brown alga Sargassum patens against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Chiu, L C M; Ooi, V E C; Chan, P K S; Ang, P O

    2006-11-01

    A sulphated polysaccharide (SP-2a) from the brown alga Sargassum patens (Kütz.) Agardh (Sargassaceae) was found to significantly inhibit the in vitro replication of both the acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), in dose-dependent manners, with 50% inhibitions occurring with 1.5-5.3 microg/ml of the polysaccharide. SP-2a exhibited extracellular virucidal activity only against the ACV-sensitive strains, but not the resistant strain, at the concentration of 100 microg/ml. The strongest antiviral activities against the different strains of HSV-1 were observed when this polysaccharide was present during and after adsorption of the virus to host cells. The inhibitory effect of SP-2a on virus adsorption occurred dose-dependently in all the HSV-1 strains tested, and the adsorption of the ACV-resistant DM2.1 strain was reduced by 81.9% (relative to control) with 4 microg/ml of the polysaccharide. This study clearly demonstrated that the antiviral mode of action of SP-2a is mediated mainly by inhibiting virus attachment to host cells, and this sulphated polysaccharide might have different modes of action against the ACV-sensitive and -resistant strains of HSV-1. PMID:16427262

  5. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Creis

    Full Text Available A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70, which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast, which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo, which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of

  6. Biosorption of chromium(III) by two Brown algae macrocystis pyrifera and undaria pinnatifida: equilibrium and kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazon, Josefina Plaza H.; Benitez, Leonardo; Donati, Edgardo; Viera, Marisa [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 y 115 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    Two brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida, were employed to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Both seaweeds were characterized in terms of alginate yields. The alginate contents were 20 and 30% of the dry weight for M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, respectively. Kinetics experiments were carried out at different initial pH values. Cr(III) biosorption was affected by the solution pH. The highest metal uptake was found at pH 4 for both biosorbents. Different models were applied to elucidate the rate-controlling mechanism: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. The application of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models to the equilibrium data showed a better fitting to the first model. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity (q{sub m}) and the affinity coefficient (b) were very similar for both biosorbents: 0.77 mmol/g and 1.20 L/mmol for M. pyrifera and 0.74 mmol/g and 1.06 L/mmol for U. pinnatifida. The free energy of the sorption process was estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The values indicate that the processes are chemical sorptions. To evaluate the significance of the ion-exchange mechanism, the light metals (Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +}) and pH were measured during the experiments. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown algaTurbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ali Deyab; Fatma Mohamed Elnabawy Ward

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods:T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton.T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results:The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shoresbelong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth ofT. ornata with maximum abundance (24%) during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 ×108 cell/L) recorded during October. Analysis ofT. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight) and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight) contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight), lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight), polysaccharides (agar and alginates), carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight), minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions:The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth ofT. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  8. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Deyab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  9. Enemy release an unlikely explanation for the invasive potential of the brown alga Sargassum muticum: experimental results, literature review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Johnsen, Kathrine L.; L. Halle, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The enemy release hypothesis predicts that non indigenous species (NIS) are released from natural enemies (e.g. grazers etc.) in their new environment, thus facilitating invasion. Sargassum muticum is a conspicuous and successful invasive brown alga and several studies have investigated...... competitors to S. muticum, but slower than more fast-growing sub-canopy species and more opportunistic algae. We question therefore that enemy release can explain the invasion success of S. muticum.......- and multiple-choice experiments, where S. muticum was generally consumed faster than F. vesiculosus and H. siliquose, but slower than S. latissima and the two most fast-growing algal species (U. intestinalis and C. virgatum). We screened the literature for comparable data and found 26 experiments with 27...

  10. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  11. Vitamin B12, a chlorophyll-related analog to pheophytin a from marine brown algae, promotes neurite outgrowth and stimulates differentiation in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ina, Atsutoshi; Kamei, Yuto

    2006-01-01

    We previously isolated an analog to chlorophyll-related compounds, pheophytin a, from the marine brown alga Sargassum fulvellum and demonstrated that it is a neurodifferentiation compound. In the current study, we investigated the effects of the pheophytin a analog vitamin B12 on PC12 cell differentiation. In the presence of a low level of nerve growth factor (10 ng ml−1), vitamin B12 demonstrated neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in PC12 cells. The effect was dose-dependent in the range o...

  12. Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations. Cylindrical specimens (100 mm x 200 mm were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO2 for 120 days. The compressive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control.Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración. Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm x 200 mm fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO2 por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control.

  13. Light demands of juvenile Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiugeng; Jiang, Benyu; Ding, Meili; Wu, Yajing; Huang, Ruyi; Li, Hanchang

    1989-03-01

    The light demands of seaweeds is an interesting and rather complex phenomenon because they depend not only on the species but also on their different development stages. Even different parts of the same plant sometimes have different light demands. Light control is an important procedure at large scale Laminaria nursery stations in China. Technicians and scientists have different viewpoints on the best method to regulate light. A culture study on Laminaria japonica starting from zoospores to several centimeter sporophytes to find the optimal and critical irradiance ranges for juvenile Laminaria at different development stages added more knowledge on this aspect. Experiment results show gametophytes can not tolerate irradiance of more than 150 μE m-2s-1 while sporophytes can tolerate more than 519 μE m-2s-1. This big difference starts from the very early stage of 1-to 2-celled sporophytes. The biological basis and mechanism of this phenomenon need further research.

  14. Investigation of the influent concentration effect on the uranium bio sorption by cystoseira indica brown alga in a packed bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, bio sorption of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution by Cystoseira indica brown alga was studied in a continuous packed bed column. The experiments were performed at room temperature and p H 4. The uptake capacity of uranium ions was investigated by Ca-pretreated biomass in a flow rate of 2.3 ml/min, superficial velocity of l.3 cm/min, and different influent concentrations. The results showed that by increasing the influent concentration from 30 to 120 mg/l, despite increasing the uptake capacity from 266.61 to 371.39 mg/g, leads to reduction of the metal removal percentage. The experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using Thomas, Yoon and Nelson and dose-response models. The investigations showed that these models are suitable for the breakthrough curves prediction.

  15. Oxidative stability and microstructure of 5% fish-oil-enriched granola bars added natural antioxidants derived from brown algaFucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadağ, Ayşe; Hermund, Ditte Baun; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard;

    2016-01-01

    oil droplets in granola bars. The oxidative stability of the bars at 20°C was evaluated over a period of 10 weeks by measuring the development of peroxides and volatile compounds using dynamic headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (DHS GC-MS). The physical microstructure was determined using......The aims of this study were to; 1) investigate the ability of Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation in granola bars fortified with fish oil-in-water emulsion; 2) investigate whether addition of the seaweed extracts affected the physical microstructure of the...... efficacy of these two extracts was among other related to an improved incorporation of the fish oil-in-water emulsions in the bars, high total phenolic content, high radical scavenging activity together with high interfacial affinity of phenolic compounds and probably regeneration of tocopherol. Practical...

  16. Soil algae in brown coal and lignite post-mining areas in central Europe (Czech Republic and Germany)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 341-350. ISSN 1061-2971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : algae * cyanobacteria * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  17. Aqueous extracts of the marine brown alga Lobophora variegata inhibit HIV-1 infection at the level of virus entry into cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Kremb

    Full Text Available In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs. Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  18. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan

    2014-08-21

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  19. A simple and effective method for high quality co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from low biomass Ectocarpus siliculosus, the model brown alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Maria; Sáez, Claudio A; Brown, Murray T; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The brown seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model species distributed worldwide in temperate coastal ecosystems. Over 1500 strains of E. siliculosus are available in culture from a broad range of geographic locations and ecological niches. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its capacity to cope with different environmental and biotic stressors, genomic and transcriptomic studies are necessary; this requires the co-isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In brown algae, extraction of nucleic acids is hindered by high concentrations of secondary metabolites that co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Here, we propose a reliable, rapid and cost-effective procedure for the co-isolation of high-quality nucleic acids using small quantities of biomass (25-, 50- and 100 mg) from strains of E. siliculosus (RHO12; LIA4A; EC524 and REP10-11) isolated from sites with different environmental conditions. The procedure employs a high pH extraction buffer (pH 9.5) which contains 100 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl, with the addition of 5 mM DTT and 1% sarkosyl to ensure maximum solubility of nucleic acids, effective inhibition of nuclease activity and removal of interfering contaminants (e.g. polysaccharides, polyphenols). The use of sodium acetate together with isopropanol shortened precipitation time and enhanced the yields of DNA/RNA. A phenol:chlorophorm:isoamyl alcohol step was subsequently used to purify the nucleic acids. The present protocol produces high yields of nucleic acids from only 25 mg of fresh algal biomass (0.195 and 0.284 µg mg(-1) fresh weigh of RNA and DNA, respectively) and the high quality of the extracted nucleic acids was confirmed through spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analyses. The isolated RNA can be used directly in downstream applications such as RT-PCR and the genomic DNA was suitable for PCR, producing reliable restriction enzyme digestion patterns. Co-isolation of DNA/RNA from different strains indicates that this method

  20. A simple and effective method for high quality co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from low biomass Ectocarpus siliculosus, the model brown alga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Greco

    Full Text Available The brown seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model species distributed worldwide in temperate coastal ecosystems. Over 1500 strains of E. siliculosus are available in culture from a broad range of geographic locations and ecological niches. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its capacity to cope with different environmental and biotic stressors, genomic and transcriptomic studies are necessary; this requires the co-isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In brown algae, extraction of nucleic acids is hindered by high concentrations of secondary metabolites that co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Here, we propose a reliable, rapid and cost-effective procedure for the co-isolation of high-quality nucleic acids using small quantities of biomass (25-, 50- and 100 mg from strains of E. siliculosus (RHO12; LIA4A; EC524 and REP10-11 isolated from sites with different environmental conditions. The procedure employs a high pH extraction buffer (pH 9.5 which contains 100 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl, with the addition of 5 mM DTT and 1% sarkosyl to ensure maximum solubility of nucleic acids, effective inhibition of nuclease activity and removal of interfering contaminants (e.g. polysaccharides, polyphenols. The use of sodium acetate together with isopropanol shortened precipitation time and enhanced the yields of DNA/RNA. A phenol:chlorophorm:isoamyl alcohol step was subsequently used to purify the nucleic acids. The present protocol produces high yields of nucleic acids from only 25 mg of fresh algal biomass (0.195 and 0.284 µg mg(-1 fresh weigh of RNA and DNA, respectively and the high quality of the extracted nucleic acids was confirmed through spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analyses. The isolated RNA can be used directly in downstream applications such as RT-PCR and the genomic DNA was suitable for PCR, producing reliable restriction enzyme digestion patterns. Co-isolation of DNA/RNA from different strains indicates

  1. Laminaria: a new Timor Sea [petroluem] discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Tilbury, L.A.; Chatfield, A.; Senycia, P.; Thompson, N. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Laminaria-1 discovery in the southeast of AC/P8 petroleum exploration area is a major new Timor Sea oil accumulation. It is one of several significant oil discoveries made in Australia during the last decade, and when developed, being in about 350 m of water, it should be the deepest yet undertaken. This paper describes the exploration background to the discovery, its regional setting, seismic data and interpretation, and reservoir stratigraphy and characteristics. Since the discovery, a comprehensive appraisal campaign has been undertaken to delineate the accumulation, including the acquisition of a large 3D seismic survey over almost the entire AC/P8 permit, and the drilling of a further two wells and a sidetrack. The Laminaria horst is now interpreted to comprise a series of tilted fault-blocks, oriented ENE to WSW and dipping to the southeast. (author). 19 figs., 18 refs.

  2. An updated and annotated list of marine Brown Algae (Phaeophyceae) of the Caribbean Coast of the Republic of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Wysor, B.; De Clerck, O

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-six taxa of brown macroalgae (Phaeophyceae) are reported for the Caribbean coast of the Republic of Panama including 16 new records. Most of the species diversity is restricted to two families, Dictyotaceae and Sargassaceae. This updated list represents an increase in known algal diversity for Panama of approximately 80%, but diversity is probably underestimated as revealed by comparison to the Colombian and Costa Rican floras which harbor many species not yet recorded in the marine fl...

  3. Study on brown algae protein's content from different strains of Laminaria japonica%不同品系海带中褐藻蛋白含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 付学军; 金海珠; 袁安祥; 李晓婕

    2016-01-01

    通过对11种品系海带中褐藻蛋白含量的测定,可以得出,不同品系海带中褐藻蛋白的含量存在一定的差异,其中连杂和宁津东方五号比其他品系的海带中总的褐藻蛋白的含量多,而东方七号和连杂中水溶性褐藻蛋白质的含量较其他品系的海带的含量多.

  4. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  5. A study of gamma-emitting radionuclides present into the sediments and algae of the ''Baie de l'Orne'' (Central Normandy Coast) collecting during the years 1980 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of some environmental effects of existing sources of gamma-emitting radionuclides, along the Central part of the Normandy Coast (Calvados shores and river Orne mouth) was determined. A systematic study was made on the behaviour of the marine sediments and brown alga 'Laminaria digitata' with regard to their properties as indicators of radioactive contamination. Marine sediments were collected into the river Orne at fixed locations and into the sea in and around the estuary from 1977 to 1982. Algae samples were picked up along the coast from 1980 to 1982, mostly on the western part of the Orne estuary. Dosimetry techniques employed have produced accurate and reliable results, despite the very low levels of activity involved. Gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment (chiefly 106Ru, 137Cs, 95Zr) were identified and measured. Their behaviour into the marine sediments and into Laminaria Digitata were determined. This study provides evidence on the presence of numerous gamma-emitting radionuclides into the marine environment of the Central part of the Normandy coast, but, altogether with very low levels of radioactivity

  6. The genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus contains a series of viral DNA pieces, suggesting an ancient association with large dsDNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boland Wilhelm

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectocarpus siliculosus virus-1 (EsV-1 is a lysogenic dsDNA virus belonging to the super family of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV that infect Ectocarpus siliculosus, a marine filamentous brown alga. Previous studies indicated that the viral genome is integrated into the host DNA. In order to find the integration sites of the viral genome, a genomic library from EsV-1-infected algae was screened using labelled EsV-1 DNA. Several fragments were isolated and some of them were sequenced and analyzed in detail. Results Analysis revealed that the algal genome is split by a copy of viral sequences that have a high identity to EsV-1 DNA sequences. These fragments are interspersed with DNA repeats, pseudogenes and genes coding for products involved in DNA replication, integration and transposition. Some of these gene products are not encoded by EsV-1 but are present in the genome of other members of the NCLDV family. Further analysis suggests that the Ectocarpus algal genome contains traces of the integration of a large dsDNA viral genome; this genome could be the ancestor of the extant NCLDV genomes. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that the EsV-1 genome might have originated in these viral DNA pieces, implying the existence of a complex integration and recombination system. A protein similar to a new class of tyrosine recombinases might be a key enzyme of this system. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that some dsDNA viruses are monophyletic and evolved principally through genome reduction. Moreover, we hypothesize that phaeoviruses have probably developed an original replication system.

  7. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). From the results obtained, chemically modification leads to higher capacity of biosorption. → The equilibrium experimental data were tested using the most common isotherms. The results are best fitted by the Freundlich model among two-parameter models and the Toth, Khan and Radke-Prausnitz models among three-parameter isotherm models for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), respectively. → One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities after five cycles of sorption and desorption. → The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. From the results obtained, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes best the biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead ions. - Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Batch shaking adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, biomass concentration, biomass treatment and initial metal concentration on the removal process. The optimum sorption conditions for each heavy metal are presented. One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities

  8. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer-Rahmati, Mohammad Mehdi, E-mail: mrahmati@ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran 4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Parisa; Abdolali, Atefeh [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran 4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshtkar, Ali Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). From the results obtained, chemically modification leads to higher capacity of biosorption. {yields} The equilibrium experimental data were tested using the most common isotherms. The results are best fitted by the Freundlich model among two-parameter models and the Toth, Khan and Radke-Prausnitz models among three-parameter isotherm models for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), respectively. {yields} One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities after five cycles of sorption and desorption. {yields} The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. From the results obtained, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes best the biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead ions. - Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Batch shaking adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, biomass concentration, biomass treatment and initial metal concentration on the removal process. The optimum sorption conditions for each heavy metal are presented. One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical

  9. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  10. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups. PMID:27384013

  11. The effect of iron-ore particles on the metal content of the brown alga Padina gymnospora (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron ore deposits mat be the source of metals found in the brown alga Padina gymnospora. - The iron-ore particles discharged by a pellet processing plant (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil) cover the seabed of Camburi Beach and consequently, the epibenthic community. In order to determine the importance of the contribution of the iron-ore deposits to the metal concentration in macroalgae of Espirito Santo Bay, four methods of cleaning particulate material adhered to the surface of thalli were tested prior to metal tissue analysis (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of Padina gymnospora. In addition, heavy metal concentrations were determined in individuals of P. gymnospora from a site (Frade Island) not affected by the iron-ore particles. The most efficient cleaning treatment, a combination of scraping and washing with an ethanol-seawater solution (NA+SC+ET) removed a number of particles on the surface of thalli 10 times higher than that observed in the control (C). Using this treatment, the total-metal concentrations were reduced by 78% for Fe and 50% for Al respect to the control. However, Fe, Al and Cu concentrations after treatment NA+SC+ET were significantly higher than those found at Frade Island. It is suggested that the iron-ore deposit might be a source for metal availability to macroalgae exposed to the dumped material at Espirito Santo Bay

  12. Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brkljača

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15 and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6–8, and 11–14 bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9, and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 5–7, and 10–12 other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2 in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration.

  13. The Effect of Sulfated (1→3-α-l-Fucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia S. Vishchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1→3-α-l-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the α-l-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer.

  14. The production of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafiroh, Siti; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Sari, Ilma Indana

    2016-03-01

    The majority of energy was used in this period is from fossil fuel, which getting decreased in the future. The objective of this research is production and characterization of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) for alternative energy. PEMFC was produced with 4 variations (w/w) ratio between chitosan and sodium alginate, 8 : 0, 8 : 1, 8 : 2, 8 : 4 (w/w). The production of membrane was mixed sodium alginate solution into chitosan solution and sulfonated with H2SO4 0.72 N. The characterization of the PEM was uses Modulus Young analysis, water swelling, ion exchange capacity, FTIR, SEM, DTA, methanol permeability and proton conductivity. The result of the research, showed that the optimum membrane was with ratio 8 : 2 (w/w) that the Modulus Young 8564 kN/m2, water swelling 31.86%, ion exchange capacity 1.020 meq/g, proton conductivity 8,8 × 10-6 S/cm, methanol permeability 1.90 × 10-8 g/cm2s and glass transition temperature (Tg) 100.9 °C, crystalline temperature (Tc) 227.6 °C, and the melting temperature (Tm) 267.9 °C.

  15. Inhibitory effect of a Brazilian marine brown alga Spatoglossum schröederi on biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Francielle Souza Domingos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of crude extracts of the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi to counteract some of the biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom was evaluated. In vitro assays showed that only the extract of S. schröederi prepared in ethyl acetate was able to inhibit the clotting of fibrinogen induced by L. muta venom. On the other hand, all extracts were able to inhibit partially the hemolysis caused by venom and those prepared in dichloromethane or ethyl acetate fully neutralized the proteolysis and hemorrhage produced by the venom. Moreover, the dichloromethane or ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the hemolysis induced by an isolated phospholipase A2 from L. muta venom, called LM-PLA2-I. In contrast, the hexane extract failed to protect mice from hemorrhage or to inhibit proteolysis and clotting. These results show that the polarity of the solvent used to prepare the extracts of S. schröederi algae influenced the potency of the inhibitory effect of the biological activities induced by L. muta venom. Thus, the seaweed S. schröederi may be a promising source of natural inhibitors of the enzymes involved in biological activities of L. muta venom.

  16. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  17. Climate-driven range shifts explain the distribution of extant gene pools and predict future loss of unique lineages in a marine brown alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, J; Serrão, E A; Claro, B; Perrin, C; Pearson, G A

    2014-06-01

    The climate-driven dynamics of species ranges is a critical research question in evolutionary ecology. We ask whether present intraspecific diversity is determined by the imprint of past climate. This is an ongoing debate requiring interdisciplinary examination of population genetic pools and persistence patterns across global ranges. Previously, contrasting inferences and predictions have resulted from distinct genomic coverage and/or geographical information. We aim to describe and explain the causes of geographical contrasts in genetic diversity and their consequences for the future baseline of the global genetic pool, by comparing present geographical distribution of genetic diversity and differentiation with predictive species distribution modelling (SDM) during past extremes, present time and future climate scenarios for a brown alga, Fucus vesiculosus. SDM showed that both atmospheric and oceanic variables shape the global distribution of intertidal species, revealing regions of persistence, extinction and expansion during glacial and postglacial periods. These explained the distribution and structure of present genetic diversity, consisting of differentiated genetic pools with maximal diversity in areas of long-term persistence. Most of the present species range comprises postglacial expansion zones and, in contrast to highly dispersive marine organisms, expansions involved only local fronts, leaving distinct genetic pools at rear edges. Besides unravelling a complex phylogeographical history and showing congruence between genetic diversity and persistent distribution zones, supporting the hypothesis of niche conservatism, range shifts and loss of unique genetic diversity at the rear edge were predicted for future climate scenarios, impoverishing the global gene pool. PMID:24766057

  18. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saderne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  19. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  20. Isolation of a new phlorotannin, a potent inhibitor of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, from the brown alga Sargassum patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura-Konishi, Yasuko; Watanabe, Natsuko; Saito, Miki; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Takane; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2012-06-01

    Ethanol extracts from 15 kinds of marine algae collected from the coast of the Noto Peninsula in Japan were examined for their inhibitory effects on human salivary α-amylase. Four extracts significantly suppressed the enzyme activity. An inhibitor was purified from the extract of Sargassum patens . The compound was a new phloroglucinol derivative, 2-(4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy) benzene-1,3,5-triol (DDBT), which strongly suppressed the hydrolysis of amylopectin by human salivary and pancreatic α-amylases. The 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) for α-amylase inhibition of DDBT (3.2 μg/mL) was much lower than that of commercially available α-amylase inhibitors, acarbose (26.3 μg/mL), quercetagetin (764 μg/mL), and α-amylase inhibitor from Triticum aestivum (88.3 μg/mL). A kinetic study indicated that DDBT was a competitive α-amylase inhibitor with a K(i) of 1.8 μg/mL. DDBT also inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase with an IC(50) value of 25.4 μg/mL for sucrase activity and 114 μg/mL for maltase activity. These results suggest that DDBT, a potent inhibitor of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, may be useful as a natural nutraceutical to prevent diabetes. PMID:22594840

  1. Proteome changes driven by phosphorus deficiency and recovery in the brown tide-forming alga Aureococcus anophagefferens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie L Wurch

    Full Text Available Shotgun mass spectrometry was used to detect proteins in the harmful alga, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and monitor their relative abundance across nutrient replete (control, phosphate-deficient (-P and -P refed with phosphate (P-refed conditions. Spectral counting techniques identified differentially abundant proteins and demonstrated that under phosphate deficiency, A. anophagefferens increases proteins involved in both inorganic and organic phosphorus (P scavenging, including a phosphate transporter, 5'-nucleotidase, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, an increase in abundance of a sulfolipid biosynthesis protein was detected in -P and P-refed conditions. Analysis of the polar membrane lipids showed that cellular concentrations of the sulfolipid sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG were nearly two-fold greater in the -P condition versus the control condition, while cellular phospholipids were approximately 8-fold less. Transcript and protein abundances were more tightly coupled for gene products involved in P metabolism compared to those involved in a range of other metabolic functions. Comparison of protein abundances between the -P and P-refed conditions identified differences in the timing of protein degradation and turnover. This suggests that culture studies examining nutrient starvation responses will be valuable in interpreting protein abundance patterns for cellular nutritional status and history in metaproteomic datasets.

  2. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  3. Variability in δ15N of intertidal brown algae along a salinity gradient: Differential impact of nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is generally agreed that δ15N of brown macroalgae can discriminate between anthropogenic and natural sources of nitrogen, this study provides new insights on net fractionation processes occurring in some of these species. The contribution of continental and marine sources of nitrogen to benthic macroalgae in the estuary-ria system of A Coruña (NW Spain) was investigated by analyzing the temporal (at a monthly and annual basis) and spatial (up to 10 km) variability of δ15N in the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and three species of the genus Fucus (F. serratus, F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus). Total nitrate and ammonium concentrations and δ15N-DIN, along with salinity and temperature in seawater were also studied to address the sources of such variability. Macroalgal δ15N and nutrient concentrations decreased from estuarine to marine waters, suggesting larger dominance of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the estuary. However, δ15N values of macroalgae were generally higher than those of ambient nitrogen at all temporal and spatial scales considered. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these macroalgae is strongly affected by fractionation during uptake, assimilation or release of nitrogen. The absence of correlation between macroalgal and water samples suggests that the δ15N of the species considered cannot be used for monitoring short-term changes. But their long lifespan and slow turnover rates make them suitable to determine the impact of the different nitrogen sources integrated over long-time periods. - Highlights: • Variability of Fucacean δ15N indicates N sources along a salinity gradient. • δ15N of Fucaceae and seawater are not correlated at short time scales. • Isotopic fractionation in macroalgal tissue varies at seasonal and at local scale. • Fucacean species are suitable for monitoring chronic N loadings

  4. Variability in δ{sup 15}N of intertidal brown algae along a salinity gradient: Differential impact of nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Inés G., E-mail: inesgviana@gmail.com; Bode, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    While it is generally agreed that δ{sup 15}N of brown macroalgae can discriminate between anthropogenic and natural sources of nitrogen, this study provides new insights on net fractionation processes occurring in some of these species. The contribution of continental and marine sources of nitrogen to benthic macroalgae in the estuary-ria system of A Coruña (NW Spain) was investigated by analyzing the temporal (at a monthly and annual basis) and spatial (up to 10 km) variability of δ{sup 15}N in the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and three species of the genus Fucus (F. serratus, F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus). Total nitrate and ammonium concentrations and δ{sup 15}N-DIN, along with salinity and temperature in seawater were also studied to address the sources of such variability. Macroalgal δ{sup 15}N and nutrient concentrations decreased from estuarine to marine waters, suggesting larger dominance of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the estuary. However, δ{sup 15}N values of macroalgae were generally higher than those of ambient nitrogen at all temporal and spatial scales considered. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these macroalgae is strongly affected by fractionation during uptake, assimilation or release of nitrogen. The absence of correlation between macroalgal and water samples suggests that the δ{sup 15}N of the species considered cannot be used for monitoring short-term changes. But their long lifespan and slow turnover rates make them suitable to determine the impact of the different nitrogen sources integrated over long-time periods. - Highlights: • Variability of Fucacean δ{sup 15}N indicates N sources along a salinity gradient. • δ{sup 15}N of Fucaceae and seawater are not correlated at short time scales. • Isotopic fractionation in macroalgal tissue varies at seasonal and at local scale. • Fucacean species are suitable for monitoring chronic N loadings.

  5. Contrasting geographical distributions as a result of thermal tolerance and long-distance dispersal in two allegedly widespread tropical brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tronholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many tropical marine macroalgae are reported from all three ocean basins, though these very wide distributions may simply be an artifact resulting from inadequate taxonomy that fails to take into account cryptic diversity. Alternatively, pantropical distributions challenge the belief of limited intrinsic dispersal capacity of marine seaweeds and the effectiveness of the north-south oriented continents as dispersal barriers. We aimed to re-assess the distribution of two allegedly circumtropical brown algae, Dictyota ciliolata and D. crenulata, and interpret the realized geographical range of the respective species in relation to their thermal tolerance and major tectonic and climatic events during the Cenozoic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species delimitation was based on 184 chloroplast encoded psbA sequences, using a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent method. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyzing a six-gene dataset. Divergence times were estimated using relaxed molecular clock methods and published calibration data. Distribution ranges of the species were inferred from DNA-confirmed records, complemented with credible literature data and herbarium vouchers. Temperature tolerances of the species were determined by correlating distribution records with local SST values. We found considerable conflict between traditional and DNA-based species definitions. Dictyota crenulata consists of several pseudocryptic species, which have restricted distributions in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Central America. In contrast, the pantropical distribution of D. ciliolata is confirmed and linked to its significantly wider temperature tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tectonically driven rearrangements of physical barriers left an unequivocal imprint on the current diversity patterns of marine macroalgae, as witnessed by the D. crenulata-complex. The nearly circumglobal tropical distribution of D. ciliolata, however

  6. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  7. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    OpenAIRE

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contai...

  8. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  9. Seasonal variations in Na, K, Mg and Ca charge balance in marine brown algae from Saurashtra Coast (NW coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    ) strongly correlated with Cl content suggesting that these cations were balanced by chloride ions. Divalent cations (Ca + Mg) seem to be balanced by the anion sulphate. Ash content of the algae was accounted by these major cations and anions. Charge...

  10. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Adana (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Marine algae and seagrasses were researched in the upper infralittoral zone of Adana (Turkish Mediterranean coasts) in this study. 381 algae and 5 seagrasses (Liliopsida) were determined (Total 386 taxa). 27 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae(195)], 78 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 72 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (18), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophor...

  11. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Hatay (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Hatay (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 377 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 30 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 201 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae (192)], 73 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 73 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (5), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (24...

  12. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Mersin Shore (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Okudan, E. S.; Erdugan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Mersin (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 396 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 36 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (6), Florideophyceae(I94)], 82 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 74 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (25...

  13. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  14. Heavy Metal Biosorption Sites Studies of Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Aihong; WANG Xian; DENG Yongzhi; CHEN Lidan

    2005-01-01

    The role played by the functional groups of Laminaria japonica treated by methanol and formaldehyde in biosorption of the heavy metals was investigated.Infrared spectroscopy analysis and biosorption experiments show that both carboxyl and amino groups join in the sorption; chemical treatment decreased the biosorption efficiency of the heavy metals.

  15. Effect of fermentation conditions on fucoxanthin extraction rate from Laminaria japonica%发酵条件对海带中岩藻黄素提取率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲荣荣; 张春枝

    2012-01-01

    Fucoxanthin is a major carotenoid of edible brown seaweeds, and is considered to be one of major active compound of marine algae. The fucoxanthin extraction from Laminaria japonica by Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Bacillus natto was optimized by microbial solid fermentation . The results showed that the optimum microbial strain was Bacillus natto, best fermentation condition of which was inoculum volume was 8% at 37 "C for 3 d. Under above conditions, the fucoxanthin extraction rate was 1. 03 mg/g.%岩藻黄素是可食用褐藻中一种主要的类胡萝卜素,被认为是海洋藻类主要的活性成分之一.本文研究了以海带为原料,比较了黑曲霉、米曲霉和纳豆菌对海带中岩藻黄素提取率的影响,从而探索出应用微生物固态发酵法提取海带中岩藻黄素的最优菌种,并通过单因素试验对其发酵条件:发酵时间、发酵温度和接种量进行了优化.研究结果表明,纳豆菌对海带的发酵效果最佳,其最佳发酵条件为时间3d、温度37℃、接种量8%,在此条件下海带中岩藻黄素的提取率为1.03 mg/g,较发酵前提高了1.05倍.本实验为利用发酵法生产岩藻黄素产品提供了一定的理论依据.

  16. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  17. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  18. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial biofilms on the kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Mia M.; Sjøtun, Kjersti; Øvreås, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variations of the cell density and bacterial community composition in biofilms growing on the surface of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea from 2 sites on the southwestern coast of Norway were investigated using total cell enumeration and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. The major taxonomical groups of bacteria inhabiting the biofilms were identified by DGGE band sequence classification. The microbial cell density of the biofilm appeared to be ...

  19. UV-Effekte auf Zoosporen von Laminaria digitata

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Ansgar

    2004-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the formation and the germination of zoospores have been investigated in Laminaria digitata. Excised phylloid discs were exposed to controlled ultraviolet radiation of different qualities and intensities in the laboratory. Both sides of the discs were irradiated alternately. Rate of sorus formation, sorus area, zoospore release, amount of cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers in DNA and germination rate of the released zoospores were determined. In order to determi...

  20. Evaluation of the contamination of marine algae (seaweed) from the St. Lawrence River and likely to be consumed by humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, D.; Cote, I.; Dumas, P.; Ferron, L.A.; LeBlanc, A. [CHUQ, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the contamination of marine algae (seaweeds) growing in the St. Lawrence River estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and to evaluate the risks to human health from the consumption of these algae. Algae were collected by hand at low tide. A total of 10 sites on the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence as well as in Baie des Chaleurs were sampled. The most frequently collected species of algae were Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria Longicruris, Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, and Fucus distichus. Alga samples were analyzed for metals iodine, and organochlorines. A risk assessment was performed using risk factors. In general, concentrations in St. Lawrence algae were not very high. Consequently, health risks associated with these compounds in St. Lawrence algae were very low. Iodine concentration, on the other hand, could be of concern with regard to human health. Regular consumption of algae, especially of Laminaria sp., could result in levels of iodine sufficient to cause thyroid problems. For regular consumers, it would be preferable to choose species with low iodine concentrations, such as U. lactuca and P. palmata, in order to prevent potential problems. Furthermore, it would also be important to assess whether preparation for consumption or cooking affects the iodine content of algae. Algae consumption may also have beneficial health effects. Scientific literature has shown that it is a good source of fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin B{sub 12}.

  1. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  2. Phthalates pollution in algae of Turkish coast

    OpenAIRE

    Erakın, Sinem; Binark, Neşe; Güven, Kasım Cemal; Coban, Burak; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this work phthalates pollution in red, brown and green algae in the Black Sea, Istanbul Starait and Çanakkale Strait were investigated. The detected phthalate derivatives were DEP, DIBP, DBP and DEHP. Very toxic phthalate DEHP was found only in the Istanbul Strait. Phthalates pollution of algae depends on the pollution of sea water.

  3. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang Miao; Lu Peng; Tan Jin [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-08-30

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO{sub 3}{sup -}) and carboxylic groups (-COO{sup -}) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca{sup 2+} ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  4. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO3-) and carboxylic groups (-COO-) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca2+ ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  5. Chukchia pedicellata gen. et sp. nov. and C. endophytica nov. comb., arctic endemic brown algae (Phaeophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilce, Robert; Pedersen, Poul Møller; Sekida, S.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the north Alaskan brown algal epiphyte Chukchia pedicellata sp. nov. suggests an apparently close relationship to Phaeostroma. Phaeostroma endophyticum S. Lund from east Greenland, Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, shows generic identity with Chukchia and specific differences from C....... C. endophytica is distinguished by its dimorphic vegetative habit, its large plurilocular sporangia, and the putative ability of the sporangia to digest host tissue to accommodate development within the host. Absence of pyrenoids and novel plurilocular sporangia in both species suggests that they...

  6. Effect and mechanisms of brown alga oligosaccharides on exhaustive exercise of mouse in low temperature%褐藻寡糖对小鼠低温力竭游泳运动的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭霞; 卜宁; 梁传成; 王丽文

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨褐藻寡糖对小鼠低温力竭游泳运动的影响及机制.方法:将小鼠随机分成5组,空白组,对照组,3个实验组,空白组和对照组用生理盐水灌胃,3个实验组分别用0.75%、1.5%、3%不同浓度的褐藻寡糖进行灌胃,每只每天灌胃量0.3~0.5 mL,连续灌胃4周.之后对照组和试验组每组取小鼠7只,分别在(5±1)℃环境条件下进行无负重力竭游泳运动试验,观察并记录游泳力竭时间及行为改变.待小鼠死亡后(空白组断头处死),分别取出甲状腺、肾上腺、胰腺、胸腺和脾脏,用电子天平称重,并计算其系数.系数=腺体(mg)/体重(g)×100%.结果:褐藻寡糖能提高小鼠低温力竭游泳运动时间,1.5%褐藻寡糖组较对照组差异显著(P<0.05);甲状腺、肾上腺、胰腺、胸腺和脾脏系数增大.结论:褐藻寡糖能够提高小鼠的力竭游泳运动能力,1.5%浓度为最佳;一些内分泌腺和脏器不同程度参与了小鼠低温力竭游泳运动应激反应.%To study effects and mechanisms of brown alga oligosaccharides on exhaustive swim exercise of mouse. METHODS: Mice were divided into 5 groups in random (n= 10). The blank and control groups were affused into stomach with NaCl of 0. 9% and test groups were affused into stomach respectively with brown alginate oligosaccharide of 0. 75% , 1.5% and 3%. Affusing capacity was 0. 3 ~0. 5 mL per mouse per day and lasted for 4 weeks. Then, control and test groups were swum exhaustive on the conditions of (5±1)℃ respectively, and observed the survival time and behavioral alteration. After death, thyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, thymus and spleen were took out and weighted by electric scale and calculated their coefficients, coefficient = gland( mg)/weight(g) ×l00%. RESULTS: Under the condition of low temperature, the time of exhaustive swim exercise of mice was prolong, and there was difference between 1.5% brown alga oligosaccharides group and control

  7. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqun; LI Pengcheng; FAN Shoujin

    2008-01-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis.The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically.The results show that:(1) among the six organic solvents,acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85mg/g (calculated with dry L.japonica).

  8. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  9. Catalog of marine benthic algae from New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)

  10. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  11. Anti-pancreatic cancer deliverables from sea: first-hand evidence on the efficacy, molecular targets and mode of action for multifarious polyphenols from five different brown-algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Aravindan

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death with an unacceptable survival that has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis together with the lack of effective chemotherapies pose a dire need for designing new and targeted therapeutic deliverables that favors the clinical outcome. Herein, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of polyphenols from five different brown-algae in human PC cells (MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, BXPC-3 and Panc-3.27. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC analysis on stepwise polyphenol separations with increasing polarity (Hexane-DCM-EA-methanol identified high levels of TAC in DCM and EA extractions across all seaweeds assessed. All DCM and EA separated polyphenols induced a dose-dependent and sustained (time-independent inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. Further, these polyphenols profoundly enhanced DNA damage (acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation in all the cell lines investigated. More importantly, luciferase reporter assay revealed a significant inhibition of NFκB transcription in cells treated with polyphenols. Interestingly, QPCR analysis identified a differential yet definite regulation of pro-tumorigenic EGFR, VEGFA, AKT, hTERT, kRas, Bcl2, FGFα and PDGFα transcription in cells treated with DCM and EA polyphenols. Immunoblotting validates the inhibitory potential of seaweed polyphenols in EGFR phosphorylation, kRas, AurKβ and Stat3. Together, these data suggest that intermediate polarity based fractions of seaweed polyphenols may significantly potentiate tumor cell killing and may serve as potential drug deliverable for PC cure. More Studies dissecting out the active constituents in potent fractions, mechanisms of action and synergism, if any, are warranted and are currently in process.

  12. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  13. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  14. Defensive nature of Sargassum polycystum (Brown alga)against acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis in rats: Role of drug metabolizing microsomal enzyme system, tumor necrosis factor-α and fate of liver cell structural integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Balaji raghavendran; A Sathivel; T Devaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the defensive nature of Sargassum polycystum (S. Polycystum) (Brown alga) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced changes in drug metabolizing microsomal enzyme system, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)and fine structural features of the liver during toxic hepatitis in rats.METHODS: Male albino Wistar strain rats used for the study were randomly categorized into 4 groups. Group Ⅰ consisted of normal control rats fed with standard diet.Group Ⅱ rats were administered with acetaminophen (800 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Group Ⅲ rats were pre-treated with S. Polycystum extract alone.Group Ⅳ rats were orally pre-treated with S. Polycystum extract (200 mg/kg body weight for 21 d) prior to acetaminophen induction (800 mg/kg body weight,intraperitoneally). Serum separated and liver was excised and microsomal fraction was isolated for assaying cytochrome P450, NADPH Cyt P450 reductase and b5.Serum TNF-α was detected using ELISA. Fine structural features of liver were examined by transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: Rats intoxicated with acetaminophen showed considerable impairment in the activities of drug metabolizing microsomal enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, NADPH Cyt P450 reductase and b5 when compared with the control rats. The rats intoxicated with acetaminophen also significantly triggered serum TNF-α when compared with the control rats. These severe alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were appreciably prevented in the rats pretreated with S. Polycystum. The rats pretreated with S. Polycystum showed considerable inhibition in the elevation of TNF-α compared to the rats intoxicated with acetaminophen. The electron microscopic observation showed considerable loss of structural integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid infiltration and ballooning of mitochondria in the acetaminophen-intoxicated rats,whereas the rats treated with S. Polycystum showed considerable protection against acetaminophen-induced alterations in

  15. Phylogeny of genera Laminaria and Saccharina (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) based on three molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Shan; QIAN Hao; LI Tianyong; WANG Xumin; LIU Cui; REN Lei; TANG Xuexi; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, many studies have focused on the classification within genus Laminaria, ultimately trying to divide it into two subgroups or genera:Laminaria and Saccharina. A significant debate still sur-rounds the question of its division, as the conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses that have resulted from the classification studies are based on different taxon sampling, molecular markers, or analysis methods. It is aimed at elucidate the molecular phylogeny within Laminaria and Saccharina. The nine species of Lami-nariales are sampled from northern Asia and Europe, and 23 new sequences in the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes are determined to identify their taxonomic status. The phylogenetic analyses of 71 species are performed, including representatives from six of the seven families of the order Laminariales, based on three separate data sets. An evidence is provided to strongly support a clear split that maintains the two recognized genera, Laminaria and Saccharina, with Laminaria appearing to be the ancestor group. Further, analyses indicate that all taxa in Saccharina and Laminaria did not form a monophyletic lineage, instead Laminariaceae and Lessoniaceae grouped together interlacedly, and Costariaceae appeared as the sister taxon of the Lessoniaceae-Laminariaceae clade. In the phylogenetic analysis, mitochondrial c oxi-dase I (COI) sequences appeared to be the most credible molecular marker which was more befitting than nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid encoded rbcL for establishment of Laminari-ales systematics. It is the most comprehensive phylogeny of the order Laminariales, and contributes to an enhanced understanding and estimation of the phylogenetic relationships for the economically important seaweeds, Laminaria and Saccharina.

  16. The research on the adsorption effect on metal ions by immobilized marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian; QIU Haiyuan; CAI Zhenzhen; CHEN Lidan; ZHENG Shenghua; HUANG Zhiwei

    2006-01-01

    The process of adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ by immobilized marine algae was investigated. It can be noted from the results that, the process for biosorption of heavy metals (copper, cadmium) by immobilized Laminaria japonica can be described by the Banerm model.According to the model, the adsorption rate constant calculated was 0.107 8 and 0.030 28 min-1 for Cu2+ and Cd2+ respectively. The experimental biosorption equilibrium data for Cu2+ and Cd2+ were in good agreement with those calculated by the Langmuir model. The maximum uptake capacity calculated was 83.3 and 112.4 mg/g for Cu2+ and Cd2+ according to the Langmuir model, respectively. The appetency of Laminaria japonica to Cu2+was better than Cd2+.

  17. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  18. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  19. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Fang Zhao; Ji-Fa Wu; De-Rong Shang; Jin-Song Ning; Hai-Yan Ding; Yu-Xiu Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Arsenite [As (III)], arsenate [As (V)], methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera) were analyzed using in vitro digestion method determined by high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that DMA was found in the water extracts of all ...

  20. Phylogeny of Saccharina and Laminaria (Laminariaceae, Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in sequence-tagged-site markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xumin; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Liu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Laminaria and Saccharina have recently been recognized as two independent clades from the former genus Laminaria. Traditional morphological taxonomy is being challenged by molecular evidence from both nucleus and plastid. Intensive work is in great demand from the perspective of genome colinearity. In this study, 118 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were screened for phylogenetic analyses, 29 based on genome sequences, while 89 were based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. EST-based STS marker development (29.37%) had an effi ciency twice as high as genome-sequence-based development (9.48%) as a result of high conservation of gene transcripts among the relative species. S. ochotensis, S. religiosa, S. japonica, and L. hyperborea showed great homogeneity in all 118 STS markers. Our result supports the view that the diversifi cation between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria was a more recent event and that Saccharina and Laminaria shared high phylogenetic affi nity. However, when it came to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level among the 41 SNPs, L. hyperborea owned 29 unique SNPs against 12 within the left three Saccharina species and 12 of the 13 indels were supposedly unique for L. hyperborea, indicated by its high variability. Originating from homologous ancestors, species between the recently diverged genera Laminaria and Saccharina may have taken in enough mutations at the SNP level only, in spite of different evolutionary strategies for better adaptation to the environment. Our study lays a solid foundation from a new perspective, although more accurate phylogenetic analysis is still needed to clarify the evolutionary traces between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria.

  1. Análisis del sector de producción de algas con fines alimentarios. Percepción del consumidor frente al consumo de algas

    OpenAIRE

    Balcazar Bañeras, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Algae are an important part of exploited marine resources of our planet. 21 million tons of fresh seaweed are collected each year in the world with a value of $ 5.5 trillion. 75% of this production takes place in Asian countries like China, Korea and Japan and is primarily based in food industry, the most common genera are Laminaria (Kombu), Undaria (Wakame) and Porphyra (Nori). However, in Spain is a nascent and immature industry, marked by a lack of technical and social knowledge of the pro...

  2. Planctomycetes dominate biofilms on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øvreås Lise

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria belonging to Planctomycetes display several unique morphological and genetic features and are found in a wide variety of habitats on earth. Their ecological roles in these habitats are still poorly understood. Planctomycetes have previously been detected throughout the year on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea from southwestern Norway. We aimed to make a detailed investigation of the abundance and phylogenetic diversity of planctomycetes inhabiting these kelp surfaces. Results Planctomycetes accounted for 51-53% of the bacterial biofilm cells in July and September and 24% in February according to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH results. Several separate planctomycetes lineages within Pirellulae, Planctomyces and OM190 were represented in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and the most abundant clones belonged to yet uncultured lineages. In contrast to the abundance, the diversity of the planctomycete populations increased from July to February and was probably influenced by the aging of the kelp tissue. One planctomycete strain that was closely related to Rhodopirellula baltica was isolated using selective cultivation techniques. Conclusions Biofilms on surfaces of L. hyperborea display an even higher proportion of planctomycetes compared to other investigated planctomycete-rich habitats such as open water, sandy sediments and peat bogs. The findings agree well with the hypothesis of the role of planctomycetes as degraders of sulfated polymeric carbon in the marine environment as kelps produce such substances. In addition, the abundant planctomycete populations on kelp surfaces and in association with other eukaryotes suggest that coexistence with eukaryotes may be a key feature of many planctomycete lifestyles.

  3. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of polonium 210Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  4. Effects of blue light on gametophyte development of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cuijuan; Kataoka, Hironao; Duan, Delin

    2005-09-01

    Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May, July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol photons/m·s), the unicellular female gametophytes and multi-cellular male gametophytes produced eggs and sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May, July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.

  5. Identification and Assessing the Cultivars of Laminaria Lamx.(Phaeophyceae) with Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Juan SHI; Zi-Min HU; Ying-Jun HE; Yu-Ping ZOU; Da-Ming ZHANG; De-Lin DUAN

    2005-01-01

    Molecular markers were used to identify and assess cultivars ofLaminaria Lamx. and to delineate their phylogenetic relationships. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used for detection. After screening, 11 primers were selected and they yielded 133 bands in all, of which approximately 99.2% were polymorphic. The genetic distances between gametophytes ranged from 0.412 to 0.956.Two clusters were formed with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram based on the simple matching coefficient. All cultivars of Laminaria japonica Aresch. used for breed ing in China fell into one cluster. L. japonica from Japan, L. saccharina (L.) Lam., and L. angustata Kjellm.formed the other cluster and showed higher genetic variation than L. japonica from China. Nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, including internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were studied and aligned. The nucleotides of the sequences ranged from 634 to 668, with a total of 692 positions including ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding region. The phylogenetic tree obtained by the neighbor-joining method favored, to some extent, the results revealed by RAPD analysis. The present study indicates that RAPD and ITS analyses could be used to identify and assess Laminaria germplasm and to distinguish some species and, even intraspecies, in Laminaria.

  6. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  7. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, 137Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 210Po, 210Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  8. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  9. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Yann Nicolas Barbot; Claudia Thomsen; Laurenz Thomsen; Roland Benz

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Therm...

  10. Comparison of various microbial inocula for the efficient anaerobic digestion of Laminaria hyperborea

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Alastair D; Varela, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hydrolysis of seaweed polysaccharides is the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion (AD) of seaweeds. Seven different microbial inocula and a mixture of these (inoculum 8) were therefore compared in triplicate, each grown over four weeks in static culture for the ability to degrade Laminaria hyperborea seaweed and produce methane through AD. Results: All the inocula could degrade L. hyperborea and produce methane to some extent. However, an inoculum of slurry from a human s...

  11. Effects of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced swimming mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Feiwei; Hao, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients responsible for the bioactivities of Laminaria japonica. However, the effects of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress have never been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of LJP on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in a forced swimming mouse model. The animals were divided into four groups, namely the control (C), LJP-75, LJP-150, and LJP-300 groups...

  12. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  13. Comparison of Dilapan-S and laminaria for cervical priming before surgical pregnancy termination at 17–22 weeks' gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers DG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dennis G Chambers, Robin J Willcourt, Anthony R Laver, Jane K Baird, Wye Y HerbertThe Queen Elizabeth Hospital Pregnancy Advisory Centre, Woodville Park, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaMethods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of three consecutive cohorts of women. All cohorts received a digoxin feticide injection on Day 1. Two cohorts were treated with laminaria, cohort A of 151 women over 1–2 days and cohort B of 52 women over 1–3 days, and cohort C of 151 women was treated with Dilapan-S over 1–3 days.Results: Adequate cervical priming for dilatation and evacuation (D&E on Day 2 was achieved in 98% of the Dilapan-S cohort and 56% of cohort A and 40% of the cohort B laminaria cohorts. Return to theater for D&E 3–4 hours after dilator insertion on Day 2 occurred in 62.3% of Dilapan-S cohort C and 9.3% of cohort A and 4% of cohort B laminaria cohorts (P = 0.001. A mean D&E theater time of 19 minutes for laminaria cohort A was reduced by 10.1% in the Dilapan-S cohort C (P = 0.02. The incidence of unscheduled overnight delivery outside the clinic was 0% for Dilapan-S and 1.3% for cohort A and 3.8% for cohort B laminaria cohorts (P = 0.14.Conclusion: Dilapan-S osmotic dilators are superior to laminaria in producing more cervical priming and dilatation in a shorter time. This enables 17–22 week D&E procedures to be carried out in fewer days and in shorter theater times. They also eliminate the risk of an unscheduled overnight delivery outside the clinic.Keywords: late second-trimester surgical abortion, dilatation and evacuation, cervical priming, osmotic dilators, Dilapan-S, laminaria tents

  14. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg-1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210Po and 210Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg-1 dry weight) for 210Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  15. Methodology for quantitative determination of the carbohydrate composition of brown seaweeds (Laminariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk; Deutschle, A. L.; Saake, B.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima were compared by different high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) methods after different acid hydrolysis treatments or a cellulase treatment. A two-step treatment....../w) of the dry matter) and 10% (w/w) protein. In contrast, the dominant compound of L. digitata harvested in August (North Sea, 2012) was glucose constituting 51% w/w of the dry matter, and with 16% w/w alginic acid. Washing prior to analysis mainly removed salts. © the Partner Organisations 2014....

  16. Characteristics of bioflocculant BF-12 and its application to the treatment of wastewater from brown algae glue production%复合生物絮凝剂BF-12对褐藻胶生产废水絮凝性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 于烽; 谢云; 陈五岭

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant bacterium,B-12,has been isolated from activated sludge and it is determined that it should be placed in pseudomonas sp. The composite bioflocculant BF -12 produced from this bacterium is polysaccharide macromolecular compound,whose main component is hexosamine. This composite bioflocculant has been used for treating wastewater from brown algae glue production. The effects of flocculant dosage,temperature, coagulant aid dosage,pH etc. on the treatment effectiveness are discussed. The optimal conditions are as follows; mass concentration of flocculant BF-12 is 150 mg/L, temperature 45 ℃ and Ca2+0.04 mol/L,and pH 8. Under these conditions,the removing rate of CODCr,BOD5,SS,NH3-N of the wastewater from brown algae glue production are 94.96%, 96.10%, 82.28%, 81.53%, respectively.%从活性污泥中分离出一株产絮凝剂菌B-12,并鉴定其归属于假单胞菌属.此菌产生的复合生物絮凝剂BF-12为多糖类高分子化合物,其主要成分为氨基己糖.采用此复合生物絮凝剂对褐藻胶生产废水进行处理,探讨了絮凝剂投加量、温度、助凝剂投加量、pH等对处理效果的影响,确定了BF-12絮凝的最适条件为:絮凝剂投加质量浓度为150mg/L,温度为45℃,Ca2+浓度为0.04 mol/L,pH为8.在此条件下其对褐藻胶生产废水具有较好的处理效果,CODcr、BOD5、SS、NH3-N去除率分别达到94.96%、96.10%、82.28%、81.53%.

  17. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  18. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The algae associated with mangroves is described. Substrate plays very important role in algal establishment in intertidal and subtidal areas. Algae colonising the mud surface are seasonal because of the unstable conditions causEd. by the erosion...

  19. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  20. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  2. An offshore LNG first for Undan/Bayu? Laminaria goes deep; Timor Sea heats up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, A.

    1997-04-01

    Three offshore developments in the Timor Sea are described as part of a series of linked articles looking at the development of the petroleum and natural gas industries in the region. Progress towards the Australian/Indonesian joint exploitation of the Undan/Bayu fields is described in the first article. Deep water schemes are being developed using floating production units in the Laminaria and Corallina fields between Australia and Timor. It seems likely that the first field in operation in the zone of cooperation will be the highly productive Elang/Kakatua field. The final article looks at new drilling records being set by BHP Petroleum in this region. (UK)

  3. A Metagenomics Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Dietary Supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum or Laminaria digitata on Rumen Function in Rusitec Fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Jones, Eleanor; Parveen, Ifat; Newbold, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need to identify alternative feeds for livestock that do not compete with foods for humans. Seaweed might provide such a resource, but there is limited information available on its value as an animal feed. Here we use a multi-omics approach to investigate the value of two brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC) and Laminaria digitata (LAM), as alternative feeds for ruminants. These seaweeds were supplemented at 5% inclusion rate into a control diet (CON) in a rumen simulation fermenter. The seaweeds had no substantial effect on rumen fermentation, feed degradability or methane emissions. Concentrations of total bacteria, anaerobic fungi, biodiversity indices and abundances of the main bacterial and methanogen genera were also unaffected. However, species-specific effects of brown seaweed on the rumen function were noted: ASC promoted a substantial decrease in N degradability (-24%) due to its high phlorotannins content. Canonical correspondence analysis of the bacterial community revealed that low N availability led to a change in the structure of the bacterial community. ASC also decreased the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 post-inoculation. In contrast, LAM which has a much lower phlorotannin content did not cause detrimental effects on N degradability nor modified the structure of the bacterial community in comparison to CON. This adaptation of the microbial community to LAM diets led to a greater microbial ability to digest xylan (+70%) and carboxy-methyl-cellulose (+41%). These differences among brown seaweeds resulted in greater microbial protein synthesis (+15%) and non-ammonia N flow (+11%) in LAM than in ASC diets and thus should led to a greater amino acid supply to the intestine of the animal. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that incorporation of brown seaweed into the diet can be considered as a suitable nutritional strategy for ruminants; however, special care must be taken with those seaweeds with high

  4. A Metagenomics Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Dietary Supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum or Laminaria digitata on Rumen Function in Rusitec Fermenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Jones, Eleanor; Parveen, Ifat; Newbold, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need to identify alternative feeds for livestock that do not compete with foods for humans. Seaweed might provide such a resource, but there is limited information available on its value as an animal feed. Here we use a multi-omics approach to investigate the value of two brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC) and Laminaria digitata (LAM), as alternative feeds for ruminants. These seaweeds were supplemented at 5% inclusion rate into a control diet (CON) in a rumen simulation fermenter. The seaweeds had no substantial effect on rumen fermentation, feed degradability or methane emissions. Concentrations of total bacteria, anaerobic fungi, biodiversity indices and abundances of the main bacterial and methanogen genera were also unaffected. However, species-specific effects of brown seaweed on the rumen function were noted: ASC promoted a substantial decrease in N degradability (−24%) due to its high phlorotannins content. Canonical correspondence analysis of the bacterial community revealed that low N availability led to a change in the structure of the bacterial community. ASC also decreased the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 post-inoculation. In contrast, LAM which has a much lower phlorotannin content did not cause detrimental effects on N degradability nor modified the structure of the bacterial community in comparison to CON. This adaptation of the microbial community to LAM diets led to a greater microbial ability to digest xylan (+70%) and carboxy-methyl-cellulose (+41%). These differences among brown seaweeds resulted in greater microbial protein synthesis (+15%) and non-ammonia N flow (+11%) in LAM than in ASC diets and thus should led to a greater amino acid supply to the intestine of the animal. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that incorporation of brown seaweed into the diet can be considered as a suitable nutritional strategy for ruminants; however, special care must be taken with those seaweeds with high

  5. A metagenomics approach to evaluate the impact of dietary supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum or Laminaria digitata on rumen function in rusitec fermenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBelanche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to identify alternative feeds for livestock that do not compete with foods for humans. Seaweed might provide such a resource, but there is limited information available on its value as an animal feed. Here we use a multi-omics approach to investigate the value of two brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC and Laminaria digitata (LAM, as alternative feeds for ruminants. These seaweeds were supplemented at 5% inclusion rate into a control diet (CON in a rumen simulation fermenter. The seaweeds had no substantial effect on rumen fermentation, feed degradability or methane emissions. Concentrations of total bacteria, anaerobic fungi, biodiversity indices and abundances of the main bacterial and methanogen genera were also unaffected. However, species-specific effects of brown seaweed on the rumen function were noted: ASC promoted a substantial decrease in N degradability (-24% due to its high phlorotannins content. Canonical correspondence analysis of the bacterial community revealed that low N availability led to a change in the structure of the bacterial community. ASC also decreased the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 post-inoculation. In contrast, LAM which has a much lower phlorotannin content did not cause detrimental effects on N degradability nor modified the structure of the bacterial community in comparison to CON. This adaptation of the microbial community to LAM diets led to a greater microbial ability to digest xylan (+70% and carboxy-methyl-cellulose (+41%. These differences among brown seaweeds resulted in greater microbial protein synthesis (+15% and non-ammonia N flow (+11% in LAM than in ASC diets and thus should led to a greater amino acid supply to the intestine of the animal. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that incorporation of brown seaweed into the diet can be considered as a suitable nutritional strategy for ruminants; however special care must be taken with those seaweeds with high

  6. Accumulation of 95mTc by marine algae and sea urchin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to investigate the accumulation of technetium by marine algae popular in Japan and it is also important to examine the contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide by sea urchin which grazes algae. In the laboratory tracer experiment, some species of algae and sea urchin were kept separately for 7 days in sea water containing 95mTc (uptake experiment) and then transferred into non-radioactive sea water to be held for 28 days with the frequent renewal of the sea water (excretion experiment). No food was given during the uptake experiment to prevent the urchins from accumulating 95mTc through food. Another experiment was done by feeding urchins with 95mTc labeled algae in the non-radioactive sea water. Five species of brown algae showed CFs in the range of 900 and 35000 but CFs of green and red algae were 1-4. Sea urchin accumulated more 95mTc through food (brown algae) than directly from sea water, so that the main pathway of technetium accumulation by sea urchin was estimated to be brown algae which were the most favorite food of the organism. (author)

  7. Sulfated fucan from marine alga inhibits HeLa cells infection by HTLV-1 free particles: semi-quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. V. Romanos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated fucan from Laminaria abyssalis marine alga prevented the interaction of HTLV-1 particles, purified from the MT-2 cell line, with HeLa cells. The infection obtained using a concentrated virus suspension was detected only by amplification of the newly synthesized HTLV-1 proviral cDNA by the nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The sulfated polysaccharide was not toxic to the cells at a concentration of 100 µg/mL and prevented infection by the viral particles when added to the cell monolayers. The proviral cDNA was only detected when the sulfated polysaccharide was added to the cells three hours post-infection, indicating that the inhibitory activity occurred in the initial stages of virus-cell interaction. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of a sulfated fucan from marine algae to inhibit virus transmission through free virus particles.

  8. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  9. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unresponsive to other treatments, taking 500 mg of spirulina blue-green algae by mouth 3 times daily for 6 months ... was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut ...

  10. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  11. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  12. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  13. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.

  14. Extraction and separation of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica by size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    A large number of studies have suggested that polysaccharides, such as fucoidan and laminarin, in various seaweeds have significant biological properties. A different distribution of molecular weights is a prominent sign of many polysaccharides. Therefore, a simple, fast and reliable high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method was proposed to separate fucoidan and laminarin from Laminaria japonica. After evaluating the different separation conditions for HPSEC, such as the type of mobile phase and flow rate, an acid extraction method was established and optimized by a systematic investigation of the influencing factors. Under the optimal conditions, 169.2 and 383.8 mg g(-1) of fucoidan and laminarin, respectively, were extracted. This method is suitable for the extraction and separation of polysaccharides with good reproducibility of the retention time, acceptable linearity, small relative standard deviation and low detection limits. PMID:25013027

  15. Effect of oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica-incorporated pullulan coatings on preservation of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-15

    Laminaria japonica-derived oligosaccharides (LJOs) exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and pullulan is a food thickener that can form impermeable films. The ability of pullulan coatings with various LJO concentrations (1% pullulan+0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% LJOs) to preserve cherry tomatoes during storage at room temperature was investigated. The LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings were found to effectively reduce respiratory intensity, vitamin C loss, weight loss and softening, as well as to increase the amount of titratable acid and the overall likeness of fruit compared with the control. These effects were observed to be dose-dependent. Therefore, using LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings can extend the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. PMID:26775974

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Fucoidan-Degrading Bacterium from Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue; PIAO Meizi

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing abundant fucose and sulfate ester group, was prepared from Laminaria japonica. In order to obtain fucoidan-degrading enzyme, bacteria capable of degrading fucoidan were screened from kelp. A bacterial strain named RC2-3 was obtained, which degraded fucoidan by the maximum extent of 54%± 1.3%, the highest among all bacterial isolates. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the molecular weight of fucoidan was gradually reduced by RC2-3 with culturing time, suggesting the production of fucoidan-degrading enzyme by RC2-3. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence showed that RC2-3 belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, it showed dif-ferent physiological and biochemical characteristics from the known Flavobacteriaceae members producing fucoidan-degrading enzyme, thus RC2-3 was proposed to be a new member of this family.

  17. Fast time resolution measurements of high concentrations of iodine above a Laminaria Digitata seaweed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Adams, Thomas; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We report observations of extremely large concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) measured in situ above a seaweed bed composed of laminaria digitata (90%) and laminaria hyperborea (10%) growing in its natural habitat. Measurements were made off the coast of Roscoff in Brittany, France, during day-time low tides on several days in September and November 2012 with the greatest tidal amplitudes. Iodine was quantified using a portable, battery-powered broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) deployed from the in-shore research vessel "Aurelia" operated by the Station Biologique de Roscoff. For the 5 second integration times used here, the BBCEAS instrument has a detection limit for iodine of 12 pptv (parts per trillion by volume). The boat was anchored above the seaweed bed before it was exposed to air by the ebbing tide; the boat was grounded on the seaweed bed around the tidal minimum, and then refloated as the incoming tide covered the seaweed. I2 concentrations were strongly anti-correlated with water depth. Initially little I2 was seen above background levels whilst the blades of the seaweed plants were floating on the water surface. However several hundred pptv of I2 was observed within a few minutes of the plants' stipes breaking the surface and first blades coming to rest on rocks out of the water. Iodine concentrations increased further as the tide ebbed, typically peaking around 1500 pptv around the tidal minimum (by which time the seaweed had been exposed for 45 minutes). I2 concentrations decreased rapidly back to background levels as the returning tide submerged the seaweeds. The concentration profiles showed a lot of high frequency structure, with I2 concentrations commonly varying by a factor 2 (or more) within 60 seconds. Additionally the profiles of I2 emitted from the seaweeds immediately below the instrument's inlet typically sat on a smoothly-varying background of approximately 100 pptv, which we attribute to I2 from other more

  18. Isolation and characterization of a fucoidan-degrading bacterium from Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Piao, Meizi

    2013-11-01

    Fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing abundant fucose and sulfate ester group, was prepared from Laminaria japonica. In order to obtain fucoidan-degrading enzyme, bacteria capable of degrading fucoidan were screened from kelp. A bacterial strain named RC2-3 was obtained, which degraded fucoidan by the maximum extent of 54% ± 1.3%, the highest among all bacterial isolates. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the molecular weight of fucoidan was gradually reduced by RC2-3 with culturing time, suggesting the production of fucoidan-degrading enzyme by RC2-3. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence showed that RC2-3 belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, it showed different physiological and biochemical characteristics from the known Flavobacteriaceae members producing fucoidan-degrading enzyme, thus RC2-3 was proposed to be a new member of this family.

  19. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  20. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 μg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 μg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC50=39 μg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC50=20 μg/ml. The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 μg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 μg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

  1. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

    2009-02-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 microg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 microg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC(50)=39 microg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC(50)=20 microg/ml. The IC(50) of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 microg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 microg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

  2. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  3. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  4. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  5. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Mori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9~6.5 metal-rich stream water that leaked out in a former uranium-mining district (Ronneburg, Germany. These algae differ in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate the potential interaction with Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB, we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, scanning electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the yellow-green freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9~100%. CLSM imaging indicates a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in Tribonema. Fe(III-precipitates on algal cells identified as ferrihydrite and schwertmannite were associated with microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS-like glycoconjugates. While the green algae were fully encrusted with Fe-precipitates, the brown algae often exhibited discontinuous series of precipitates. This pattern was likely due to the intercalary growth of algal filaments which allowed them to avoid fatal encrustation. 16S rRNA gene targeted studies based on DNA and RNA revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70–97 and 63–96%, respectively suggesting their contribution to Fe(II oxidation. Quantitative PCR revealed higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including some putative predators of algae. Lower photosynthetic activities of the brown algae lead to reduced EPS production which may have enabled predator colonization

  6. An improved method for karyotype analyses of marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Dai, Jixun

    2008-05-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, including Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60°C for 7-8 min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnatifida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  7. An Improved Method for Karyotype Analyses of Marine Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; DAI Jixun

    2008-01-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, in-cluding Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60℃ for 7-8min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, sperrnatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnati-fida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  8. Characteristic Study of the Marine Algae Sargassum sp. on Metal Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saravanan; V. Brindha; Soundarajan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Biomass of brown marine macro algae is a biological resource that is available in large quantities and can form a good base for the development of biosorbent material. Approach: Algae have been found to be potentially suitable biosorbents because of its cheap availability, both in fresh or salt water, relatively high surface area and high binding affinity. Results: The study considered the molecular status of the biomass such as DNA, Protein and Pigment ...

  9. Constituents of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck)-II

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S; Bose, A.K.; Nair, M.S

    Three terpenoids, (2R,4 S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone (1), 3'R,4'-[(2R,4 S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexylidene] but-3'-en-2'-one or apo-9'-fucoxanthinone (2) and loliolide (3) have been isolated from the CHCl sub...

  10. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria salicornia and Sargassum sp. For the Biosorption of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gh Shams Khorramabadi; R. Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption properties of two different marine algae (Gracilaria salicornia (red algae) and Sargassum sp. (brown algae) were investigated. Equilibrium isotherms were studied to evaluate the relative ability of the two algae to sequester Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 45.959 mg g-1 for G. salicornia and 33.258 mg g-1 for Sargassum sp. at a solution pH of 4 and 50 mg L-1 initial chromium concentration. A significant fraction of th...

  11. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  12. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. F.; Neu, T. R.; Lu, S.; Händel, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Küsel, K.

    2015-09-01

    Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9-6.5), metal-rich stream water that leaked out from a former uranium mining district (Ronneburg, Germany). These algae differed in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate their potential interaction with Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9-100 %). CLSM imaging indicated a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in algae were fully encrusted with Fe-precipitates, the brown algae often exhibited discontinuous series of precipitates. This pattern was likely due to the intercalary growth of algal filaments which allowed them to avoid detrimental encrustation. 16S rRNA gene-targeted studies revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70-97 and 63-96 %, respectively), suggesting their capacity to compete with the abiotic Fe-oxidation under the putative oxygen-saturated conditions that occur in association with photosynthetic algae. Quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed even higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including

  13. Transcriptome sequencing of essential marine brown and red algal species in China and its significance in algal biology and phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shuangxiu; YU Jun; SUN Jing; CHI Shan; WANG Liang; WANG Xumin; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Most phaeophytes (brown algae) and rhodophytes (red algae) dwell exclusively in marine habitats and play important roles in marine ecology and biodiversity. Many of these brown and red algae are also important resources for industries such as food, medicine and materials due to their unique metabolisms and me-tabolites. However, many fundamental questions surrounding their origins, early diversification, taxonomy, and special metabolisms remain unsolved because of poor molecular bases in brown and red algal study. As part of the 1 000 Plant Project, the marine macroalgal transcriptomes of 19 Phaeophyceae species and 21 Rhodophyta species from China's coast were sequenced, covering a total of 2 phyla, 3 classes, 11 orders, and 19 families. An average of 2 Gb per sample and a total 87.3 Gb of RNA-seq raw data were generated. Approxi-mately 15 000 to 25 000 unigenes for each brown algal sample and 5 000 to 10 000 unigenes for each red algal sample were annotated and analyzed. The annotation results showed obvious differences in gene expres-sion and genome characteristics between red algae and brown algae;these differences could even be seen between multicellular and unicellular red algae. The results elucidate some fundamental questions about the phylogenetic taxonomy within phaeophytes and rhodophytes, and also reveal many novel metabolic pathways. These pathways include algal CO2 fixation and particular carbohydrate metabolisms, and related gene/gene family characteristics and evolution in brown and red algae. These findings build on known algal genetic information and significantly improve our understanding of algal biology, biodiversity, evolution, and potential utilization of these marine algae.

  14. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded. PMID:26393620

  15. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  16. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin

    2004-01-01

    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  17. Polysaccharide Extracted from Laminaria japonica Delays Intrinsic Skin Aging in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longyuan; Tan, Jia; Yang, Xiaomei; Tan, Haitao; Xu, Xiaozhen; You, Manhang; Qin, Wu; Huang, Liangzhao; Li, Siqi; Mo, Manqiu; Wei, Huifen; Li, Jing; Tan, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of topically applied Laminaria polysaccharide (LP) on skin aging. We applied ointment containing LP (10, 25, and 50 μg/g) or vitamin E (10 μg/g) to the dorsal skin of aging mice for 12 months and young control mice for 4 weeks. Electron microscopy analysis of skin samples revealed that LP increased dermal thickness and skin collagen content. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease- (TIMP-) 1 expression was upregulated while that of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1 was downregulated in skin tissue of LP-treated as compared to untreated aging mice. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 was higher in aging skin than in young skin, while LP treatment suppressed phospho-JNK expression. LP application also enhanced the expression of antioxidative enzymes in skin tissue, causing a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels relative to those in untreated aging mice. These results indicate that LP inhibits MMP-1 expression by preventing oxidative stress and JNK phosphorylation, thereby delaying skin collagen breakdown during aging. PMID:27143987

  18. Effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on local radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal group, the model group, positive control group and LJP treatment group (50 mg·kg-1·d-1). LJP was applied to the treatment group for 10 d before local irradiation with γ-ray (6.0 Gy). The morphological change of the testis, organ index of testis and epididymides, sperm count, motility rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic aldehyde (MDA) contents were measured. Results: LJP could make the damaged testis recover to near normal, elevate the organ index of testis and epididymides, promote the sperm count and motility rate, increase the activity of SOD and decrease the contents of MDA in testis tissue. Conclusions: LJP could inhibit testis tissue damage induced by local radiation, hence enhance the significant radioprotective effect to testis tissue. LJP has the conspicuous protective effect on radiation damage of testis tissue. (authors)

  19. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  20. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  1. Microbubbles for algae cultivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Santa Fe: ELSEVIER Global Conferences, 2014, 0120. [International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts /4./. Santa Fe (US), 15.06.2014-18.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : microbubbles * algae * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  3. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  4. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND DIVERSITY OF MARINE BACTERIA INPHYCOSPHERE OF LAMINARIA JAPONICA%海带藻际微生物抗菌活性及其多样性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚椒江; 朱鹏; 严小军

    2011-01-01

    Kelp (Laminaria japonica) is important economic farming seaweed in our country, rich in vitamins, protein, minerals, fiber, inorganic salts and other substances. But with the continuous expansion of seaweed farming, rotten diseases that occurred during the breeding often cause significant economic losses. Rotten diseases are complex problems, relative researches have been carried out for many years, but yet there has not been a unified conclusion. Previously mainly method was to search for a single pathogen and develop corresponding inhibitors. With the theory of phycosphere and phycosphere microbes, the balance of phycosphere micro-environment was found important to the normal growth of algae, making it possible to study rotten diseases from the way of microbial diversity. In this study, marine bacteria were isolated from health kelps (Laminaria japonica), rotten diseased kelps and seawater in coastal area of Taizhou, China. Antibacterial activities were screened using agar diffusion method, and the relationship of active bacteria and their origin was studied. The results showed that 42 strains among total 143 isolated marine bacteria had antimicrobial activity, which indicated that marine bacteria in phycosphere were extremely rich in anti-bacterial resources. The proportion of active bacteria associated with health kelps and seawater (35% and 29%, respectively) was higher than that isolated from rotten diseased kelps (23%). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of marine bacteria with broad-spectrum antibacterial activities based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that they belonged to the genera of Pseudoalteromonas, Rahnella, Donghaeana, Bacillus and Exiguobacterium, respectively. These results proved that marine bacteria in phycosphere had great diversity in class and quantity, while different inhibitory effect to seven sensitive indicator bacteria meant there was also diversity in function. Diversity condition changed as the growth state of kelp changed. This study

  6. Effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the vertical distribution of Laminaria saccharina (L.) lamouroux in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, M. V.

    2011-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to reveal the influence of the hydrostatic pressure on the early developmental stages of Laminaria saccharina, including the motile zoospores, the embryospores, and sprouting spores. The pressure did not affect the moving patterns and sinking rate of the zoospores. The sprouting spores were the most vulnerable among the other types; i.e., a pressure of 3 standard atmospheres (the hydrostatic pressure at the depth of 30 m) delayed or disturbed their development. The light conditions did not limit the vertical distribution of L. saccharina to greater depths. We assume that the hydrostatic pressure may significantly impact the vertical distribution of benthic macrophytes in the sublittoral zone.

  7. Effect of alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the growth of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You; TANG Xue-xi; YANG Zhen; YU Zhi-ming

    2006-01-01

    We collected the diseased blades of Laminaria japonica from Yantai Sea Farm from October to December 2002, and the alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the diseased blade was isolated and purified, and was identified as Alteromonas espejiana. This bacterium was applied as the causative pathogen to infect the blades of L. japonica under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the bacterium on the growth of L. japonica, and to find the possibly effective mechanism. Results showed that: (1)The blades of L.japonica exhibited symptoms of lesion,bleaching and deterioration when infected by the bacterium,and their growth and photosynthesis were dramatically suppressed. At the same time, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation enhanced obviously, and the relative membrane permeability increased significantly. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and free fatty acid in the microsomol membrane greatly elevated, but the phospholipid content decreased. Result suggested an obvious peroxidation and deesterrification in the blades of L. japonica when infected by the bacterium. (2) The simultaneous assay on the antioxidant enzyme activities demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly when infected by the bacterium, but glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) did not exhibit active responses to the bacterium throughout the experiment. (3) The histomorphological observations gave a distinctive evidence of the severity of the lesions as well as the relative abundance in the bacterial population on the blades after infection. The bacterium firstly invaded into the endodermis of L. japonica and gathered around there, and then resulted in the membrane damage, cells corruption and ultimately, the death of L.japonica.

  8. The response of the early developmental stages of Laminaria japonica to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the early development of Laminaria japonica collected from Kiaochow Bay in China to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280—320 nm) were studied in the laboratory. The low UV-B ra-diations (11.7—23.4 J·m-2·d-1) had no significant effects on zoospores attachment, but when the UV-B dose > 35.1 J·m-2·d-1 the attachment decreased significantly compared with the control. Germination of embryospores was >93% under the low (11.7—35.1 J·m-2·d-1) doses, and in the range of 78.5%—88.5% under the high (46.8—70.2 J·m-2·d-1) UV-B doses, indicating a significant radiation effect. Under the higher UV-B exposure (35.1—70.2 J·m-2·d-1), all of the few gametophytes formed from embryospores died 120 h post-release. After exposure to the low UV-B radiation (11.7—23.4 J·m-2·d-1), the formation of sporophytes decreased and the female gametophyte clones increased compared with the control. However, the sex ratio and the relative growth of female gametophytes/sporophytes had not signifi-cantly changed. According to the results, enhanced UV-B radiation has a significant effect on the early development of L. japonica under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the UV-B radiation could not be overlooked as one of the important environmental factors influencing the ontogeny of macroalgae living in marine ecosystems.

  9. The response of the early developmental stages of Laminaria japonica to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Su; ZHANG QuanSheng; WANG You; JU Qing; TANG XueXi

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the early development of Laminaria japonica collected from Kiaochow Bay in China to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) were studied in the laboratory. The low UV-B radiations (11.7-23.4 J·m-2·d-) had no significant effects on zoospores attachment, but when the UV-B dose > 35.1 J·m-2·d-1 the attachment decreased significantly compared with the control. Germination of embryosperes was >93% under the low (11.7-35.1 J·m-2·d-1) doses, and in the range of 78.5%-88.5% under the high (46.8-70.2 J·m-2·d-1) UV-B doses, indicating a significant radiation effect. Under the higher UV-B exposure (35.1-70.2 J·m-2·d-1), all of the few gametophytes formed from embryospores died 120 h post-release. After exposure to the low UV-B radiation (11.7-23.4 J·m-2·d-1), the formation of sporophytes decreased and the female gametophyte clones increased compared with the control. However, the sex ratio and the relative growth of female gametophytes/sporophytes had not significantly changed. According to the results, enhanced UV-B radiation has a significant effect on the early development of L. japonica under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the UV-B radiation could not be overlooked as one of the important environmental factors influencing the ontogeny of macroalgae living in marine ecosystems.

  10. Production of hydrogen, ethanol and volatile fatty acids through co-fermentation of macro- and micro-algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Herrmann, Christiane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Algae may be fermented to produce hydrogen. However micro-algae (such as Arthrospira platensis) are rich in proteins and have a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which is not ideal for hydrogen fermentation. Co-fermentation with macro-algae (such as Laminaria digitata), which are rich in carbohydrates with a high (C/N) ratio, improves the performance of hydrogen production. Algal biomass, pre-treated with 2.5% dilute H2SO4 at 135°C for 15min, effected a total yield of carbohydrate monomers (CMs) of 0.268g/g volatile solids (VS). The CMs were dominating by glucose and mannitol and most (ca. 95%) were consumed by anaerobic fermentative micro-organisms during subsequent fermentation. An optimal specific hydrogen yield (SHY) of 85.0mL/g VS was obtained at an algal C/N ratio of 26.2 and an algal concentration of 20g VS/L. The overall energy conversion efficiency increased from 31.3% to 54.5% with decreasing algal concentration from 40 to 5 VS g/L. PMID:26820925

  11. Combining of some trace elements with constituent materials of marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two radionuclides (137Cs and 106Ru-106Rh) were extracted from a brown alg a (Eisenta bicyclis) into 5 solvents (Ethyl ethel, 80% Ethyl alcohol, boiled water, 0.2% NaOH and 24% KOH) in different proportions, suggesting that both radionuclides do not combine with fats and pigments, and that 137Cs associates maybe with dextrans and monosaccharides, while, 106Ru-106Rh mainly combines with the cell wall polysaccharides such as alginic acid and fucoidan. In order to obtain information from extracts of algae, gel filtration was carried out on 2 species of algae (Ulva pertusa and Eisenia bicyclis) using Sephadex G-100 and G-25. Gel filtration profile gave only one peak for 137Cs, 2 for 106Ru-106Rh and 125I, and 3 for 60Co corresponding to positions where saccharides of the algae appeared. As the result, it was found that different radionuclides combined with different constituent materials of an alga, to some extent. Gel filtration profiles of 125I were compared with each other among several species of marine algae. They were different from one another among classes of green, brown and red algae, though they were similar in a class. Gel filtration profiles of 125I were also varied between 2 chemical forms of 125I (Na125I and Na125IO3). (J.P.N.)

  12. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  13. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  14. 关于海带中碘含量的检测实验改进%An Improved Experiment Method of Iodine Content Determination of Laminaria Japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞锦英; 陈云来; 王家烯; 刘钰馨; 李建鸣; 莫羡忠

    2015-01-01

    对“海带中碘含量的检测”的实验从海带炭化前的处理,炭化处理,碘的析出,碘的含量的测定等环节进行了改进,较完全地将碘从海带中提取出来,在减少海带用量的基础上,使得实验现象更加明显,大大提高了实验的成功率。%This paper reports the improved method of the determination of iodine content from Laminaria Japonica .Iodine can be obtained fairly completely by optimizing the method of the pretreat‐ment of Laminaria Japonica ,carbonization of Laminaria Japonica ,precipitation of iodine and determi‐nation of iodine content in Laminaria Japonica .The improved experiment makes the experimental phe‐nomenon more obvious ,which is much easier to finish the process successfully with less dose of Lami‐naria Japonica .

  15. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  16. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against α-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of

  17. Metales en algas comestibles: Evaluación y estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruíz-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los contenidos de 4 macroelementos (Na, K, Ca, Mg, 13 elementos traza (B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Li, Zn, Ni, Sr, V y 3 metales tóxicos (Al, Cd, Pb se determinaron por espectrometría de emisión atómica por plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-OES en 27 muestras de 7 especies de algas comestibles deshidratadas (Porphyra spp., Chondrus crispus, Palmaria palmata, Laminaria spp., Undari pinnatífica, Hilmanthia elongata, Ulva lactuca, procedentes de dos orígenes diferentes (la costa asiática y la Unión Europea y comercializadas en la isla de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España. Las concentraciones medias (mg/kg fueron: 4281 (Na, 7179 (K, 3222 (Ca, 2458 (Mg, 38,14 (B, 2,72 (Ba, 0,11 (Co, 0,26 (Cr, 1,98 (Cu, 106 (Fe, 8,21 (Mn, 0,11 (Mo, 2,33 (Li, 10,63 (Zn, 1,02 (Ni, 1,47 (Sr, 1,54 (V, 48,71 (Al, 0,30 (Cd y 0,17 (Pb. El consumo de algas (4 g/día podría contribuir a las ingestas dietéticas de metales esenciales y elementos traza principalmente Mg (4,13% de la IDR en mujeres adultas y 3,54% de la IDR en hombres adultos y Fe (2,36% de la IDR en mujeres adultas y 4,71% de la IDR en hombres adultos. Las ingestas de metales tóxicos (195 μg Al/día 1,18 μg Cd/día y 0,68 μg Pb/día derivada del consumo de 4 g/día de las algas analizadas no representan riesgo toxicológico para los consumidores.

  18. Radioactive accumulation in alga samples from Romanian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural and artificial radioactivity of the brown alga Cystoseira barbata samples collected on the Romanian Black Sea coast in 1996 in reported. The results on 137Cs were obtained through gamma-spectrometry, on 90Sr by beta-counting of the 90Y oxalate precipitated after strontium separation, on 226Ra by the emanation method, while the concentrations of U, Th, Pu and Am isotopes were obtained through radiochemical separations using tracers followed by alpha-spectrometry counting of the stainless steel discs after electrodeposition. These results add further evidence that Cystoseira barbata may be used as a bioindicator for radioactive contamination of the coastal waters. (author)

  19. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  20. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  1. Production of mexican brown macroalgae fucoidan and fucosidases under an integral green technology bioproceses by the biorefinery concept

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Ruiz, Hector A.; Victorino-Jasso, Gabriela; Cervantes-Cisneros, Daniela E.; Cabello-Galindo, Alejandra; Cristóbal N Aguilar; J.A. Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystem can be considered a rather exploited source of natural substances with enormous bioactive potential. In Mexico macro-algae study remain forgotten for research and economic purposes besides the high amount of this resource along the west and east coast. For that reason the Bioferinery Group of the Autonomous University of Coahuila, have been studying the biorefinery concept in order to recover high value byproducts of Mexican brown macro-algae including polysacc...

  2. Decrease in dynamic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginate from Laminaria digitata during alkaline extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Vauchel, Peggy; Arhaliass, Abdellah; Legrand, Jack; Kaas, Raymond; Baron, Regis

    2008-01-01

    Alginates are natural polysaccharides that are extracted from brown seaweeds and widely used for their rheological properties. The central step in the extraction protocol used in the alginate industry is the alkaline extraction, which requires several hours. In this study, a significant decrease in alginate dynamic viscosity was observed after 2 h of alkaline treatment. Intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginates from alkaline extractions 1-4 h in duration were determined, i...

  3. Recombinant expression of rt-PA gene (encoding Reteplase) in gametophytes of the seaweed Laminaria japonica (Laminariales,Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been inte-grated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the ex-pected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.

  4. Recombinant expression of rt-PA gene (encoding Reteplase) in gametophytes of the seaweed Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YiChen; JIANG Peng; GAO JiangTao; LIAO JianMin; SUN ShiJing; SHEN ZiLong; QIN Song

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been integrated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the expected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.

  5. Laminaria digitata as a potential carbon source for succinic acid and bioenergy production in a biorefinery perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Fotidis, Ioannis;

    2015-01-01

    corresponded to 298 and 285 NmL CH4 g− 1 VSadded, respectively. PHSR could potentially be used for: dietary food additive, fish feed, bioenergy production and added value products. This study opens possibility to conceive different biorefinery scenarios in which the efficient use of the macroalgal biomass......A novel biorefinery concept utilizing macroalgae Laminaria digitata to produce succinic acid, and direct the process residues for feed and energy production, is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at high solid loading (25% w v− 1) resulting in solubilization of...... the carbohydrates to soluble sugars, which accumulated in the liquid hydrolysate. The overall sugar recovery in the macroalgae hydrolysate was 78.23%. Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was able to ferment macroalgae hydrolysate to succinic acid with a yield of 86.49% (g g− 1 of total sugars) and an...

  6. Dietary algae and HIV/AIDS: proof of concept clinical data

    OpenAIRE

    Teas, J.; Irhimeh, M R

    2011-01-01

    Dietary algae have been reported to decrease HIV viral fusion/entry and replication and increase immune response, suggesting that regular consumption of algae by people in Japan, Korea, and Chad could be an important factor in their relatively low HIV/AIDS rates. Five antiretroviral-naïve people with HIV (three females, two males; five African Americans) living in Columbia SC participated in the phase I study of acute toxicity. Subjects were randomly assigned to 5 g day-1 brown seaweed (Undar...

  7. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  8. Iodine 129 measurements by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. Results in seaweeds (Fucus serratus et laminaria digitata); Dosage par spectrometrie gamma de l`iode 129 dans les echantillons biologiques marins et terrestres. Application a des prelevees le long des cotes de la Manche: fucus serratus et laminaria digitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Gandon, R.; Solier, L. [IPSN, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 50 - Octeville (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement

    1999-01-01

    A iodine selective radiochemistry method was developed to measure {sup 129}I(period 1,57 x 10 10{sup 7} years) by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. This method avoids using neutron activation analysis or accelerator mass spectrometry. The method is based on iodine extraction from samples in order to obtain an aqueous matrix with no attenuation agent except {sup 127}I(stable isotope). The parallel determination of {sup 127}I allows to correct {sup 129}I measurements for self attenuation and also monitor seasonal changes in iodine metabolism in biological species. Measurements were performed in two seaweed species (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) samples in the area of La Hague reprocessing plant discharge between January and February 1997). Samples from stations close to the point of release (Goury and Herquemoulin), showed {sup 129}I activities around 60 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Fucus serratus and around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 300 km away from the realize point, {sup 129}I activities were 10 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Fucus serratus and 171 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight in Laminaria digitata. {sup 127}I concentrations were between 547 and 1,232 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight in Fucus serratus and between 6,624 and 14,296 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight in Laminaria digitata. (authors)

  9. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  10. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  11. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  12. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  13. Herbivory on macro-algae affects colonization of beach-cast algal wrack by detritivores but not its decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Eereveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial subsidies have increasingly been considered significant sources of matter and energy to unproductive ecosystems. However, subsidy quality may both differ between subsidizing sources and vary over time. In our studies, sub-littoral herbivory by snails or isopods on red or brown macro-algae induced changes in algal tissues that affected colonization of beach-cast algal wrack by supra-littoral detritivores (amphipods. However, microbial decay and decomposition through the joint action of detritivores and microbes of algal wrack in the supra-littoral remained unaffected by whether or not red or brown algae had been fed upon by snails or isopods. Thus, herbivory on marine macro-algae affects the cross-system connection of sub-littoral and supra-littoral food webs transiently, but these effects diminish upon ageing of macro-algal wrack in the supra-littoral zone.

  14. Seasonal differences in the effects of oscillatory and uni-directional flow on the growth and nitrate-uptake rates of juvenile Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kregting, Louise T.; Hepburn, Christopher D.; Savidge, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The influence of oscillatory versus unidirectional flow on the growth and nitrate-uptake rates of juvenile kelp, Laminaria digitata, was determined seasonally in experimental treatments that simulated as closely as possible natural environmental conditions. In winter, regardless of flow condition (oscillatory and unidirectional) or water velocity, no influence of water motion was observed on the growth rate of L. digitata. In summer, when ambient nitrate concentrations were low, increased wat...

  15. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  16. Cryopreservation of eukaryotic soil algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Worland, M. R.; Hrouzek, Pavel

    Coimbra: Society for Cryobiology, 2003. s. 32. [Cryobiomol 2003 - Low Temperature Biology. 14.09.2003-18.09.2003, Coimbra] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : cryopreservation * eukaryotic soil algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. MONOTERPENE BIOSYNTHESIS IN MARINE ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine algae produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense. Among these the monoterpenes present several highly unusual characteristics relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The monoterpenes produced by these marine organisms are nearly always halogenated and posses...

  18. Determination of essential elements in edible seaweed by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em algas marinhas comestiveis por analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Cassio Bessa Lima; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: cassio_man@hotmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Comestible marine algae are gaining wider global trade, not only because of the taste but also the nutritional quality they present. They are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and are excellent sources of essential elements due to their ability to absorb substances storing them in their bodies. its chemical composition varies according to the species, habitat, maturity and environmental conditions which are submitted. The method of Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the essential elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na present in marine algae from different countries, which are sold in the city of Sao Paulo. A total of 6 samples of marine algae were analyzed, 4 species of Nori (Porphyra umbilicates) from China, Korea, Japan and USA; 1 of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) species from Japan; and 1 species of Kombu (Laminaria sp.) of South Korea. To validate the methodology used was the reference material NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The concentrations range from 5265-1175 μg/g to CL; from 14413-90261 μg/g to K; from 3007-7091 μg/g to Mg; from 2,3-33,8 μg/g to Mn and from 5161-24973 μg/g to Na.

  19. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  20. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  2. Genetic Mapping of Laminaria japonica and L. longissima Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers in a "Two-Way Pseudo-Testcross" Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhui Li; Yingxia Yang; Jidong Liu; Xiuliang Wang; Tianxiang Gao; Delin Duan

    2007-01-01

    With a "two-way pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy, we applied the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for Laminaria. The linkage maps were generated from the 60 progenies of the F1 cross family (Laminaria longissima Aresch. x L. japonica Miyabe) with twenty pairs of primer combinations. Of the 333 polymorphic loci scored in 60 progenies, 173 segregated in a 1:1ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphisms heterozygous in a single parent, and the other 58 loci existing in both parents followed a 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio. Among the loci with 1:1 segregating ratios, 79 loci were ordered in 14 linkage groups (648.6 cM) of the paternal map, and 72 loci were ordered in 14 linkage groups (601.9 cM) of the maternal map. The average density of loci was approximately 1 per 8 cM. To investigate the homologies between two parental maps, we used 58 loci segregated 3:1 for further analysis, and deduced one homologous linkage group. The linkage data developed in these maps will be useful for detecting loci-controlling commercially important traits for Laminaria.

  3. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  4. Excitation Energy-Transfer Dynamics of Brown Algal Photosynthetic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, D; Kita, M; Fujii, R; Sugisaki, M; Oka, N; Takaesu, Y; Taira, T; Iha, M; Hashimoto, H

    2012-09-20

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-a/c protein (FCP) complexes from brown algae Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese) contain the only species of carbonyl carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which exhibits spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) property that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. Here, we investigated the role of the ICT property of fucoxanthin in ultrafast energy transfer to chlorophyll-a/c in brown algal photosynthesis using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The observed excited-state dynamics show that the ICT character of fucoxanthin in FCP extends its absorption band to longer wavelengths and enhances its electronic interaction with chlorophyll-a molecules, leading to efficient energy transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll-a. PMID:26295888

  5. Analytical method for heavy metal determination in algae and turtle eggs from Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A standard digestion method coupled to electrochemical detection for the monitoring of heavy metals in biological samples has been used for the simultaneous analysis of the target analytes. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was employed as a fast and sensitive electroanalytical method for the detection of heavy metals. The aim of our study was to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by SWASV in brown algae (Sargasum natan and green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas using screen-printed electrodes. The method proved useful for the simultaneous analysis of these metals by comparison between two different procedures for preparing the samples. Two different approaches in digestion protocols were assessed. The study was focused on Guanahacabibes brown algae and green turtle eggs because the metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for intraspecific comparison within the Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park area, a body of water for which information is still very scarce. The best results were obtained by digesting biological samples with the EPA 3050B method. This treatment allowed the fast and quantitative extraction from brown algae and green turtle eggs of the target analytes, with high sensitivity and avoiding organic residues, eventually affecting electrochemical measurements.

  6. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  7. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  8. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  9. Impact of UV-radiation on viability, photosynthetic characteristics and DNA of brown algal zoospores : implications for depth zonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiencke, C; Gomez, [No Value; Pakker, H; Flores-Moya, A; Altamirano, M; Hanelt, D; Bischof, K; Figueroa, FL

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthesis, germination capacity and assessment of DNA damage were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effect of different conditions of ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on zoospores of various large brown algae collected on Spitsbergen (S

  10. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria salicornia and Sargassum sp. For the Biosorption of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Khorramabadi, Gh.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.

    In this study, the adsorption properties of two different marine algae (Gracilaria salicornia (red algae) and Sargassum sp. (brown algae) were investigated. Equilibrium isotherms were studied to evaluate the relative ability of the two algae to sequester Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 45.959 mg g-1 for G. salicornia and 33.258 mg g-1 for Sargassum sp. at a solution pH of 4 and 50 mg L-1 initial chromium concentration. A significant fraction of the total Cr (VI) uptake was achieved within 60 min. Biosorbed chromium ions concentrations increased with increasing concentrations of biosorbents and increasing pH. The biosorption of Cr (VI) on G. salicornia and Sargassum sp. could best be described by the Langmuir model (R2>0.997 for Sargassum sp. and R2>0.999 for G. salicornia).

  11. Development and Demonstration of Viable Hatchery and Ongoing Methodologies for Seaweed Species with Identified Commercial Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dring, Matthew; Edwards, Maeve; Watson, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to develop and conduct trials of industry-scale hatchery and ongrowing methodologies for three seaweed species with commercial potential. These included two edible red algae, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp., and the large brown kelp Laminaria digitata. During the project the large brown kelp Saccharina latissima was added to the work programme. In addition to developing ongrowing methodologies for each of the seaweed species, the proje...

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  13. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Screening of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Freshwater and Marine Algae as a Prominent Natural Antibiotic Available in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, algae have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. So, present work provides the eligibility of algae commonly found in Bangladesh as a prominent natural antibiotic against various pathogens. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol and chloroform of ten fresh water and marine algae showed antimicrobial activity carried out by disc diffusion method against two gram positive, four gram negative bacteria and one fungus. Marine algal species performed better than fresh water algal species. Green algae are more potent than red and brown algae. Ethanolic extracts are more effective than methanolic and chloroform extracts. Ulva lactuca and Chlorella sp. revealed the best activity among other algal species in all solvent forms. Spirogyra crassa showed very poor antibacterial activity where its antifungal activity was moderate. Escherichia coli was more resistant bacteria in a comparison to others because it showed totally resistant against some algae. Highest zone of inhibition (26 mm was recorded for chloroform extract of Ulva lactuca against E. coli where chloroform extract of Dictyopteris membranacea didn’t show any microbial activity. At the end, it was clear that almost all extracts of all algal species revealed antimicrobial activity against all pathogens. These results give an indication of the presence of promising antimicrobial compounds in the algal species under studied. Further phytochemical studies are needed to elucidate these compounds structures and activity for use algae as an alternative natural antibiotic against synthetic conventional antibiotics.

  15. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  16. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  17. STUDIES ON THE ISOLATION PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUCOIDAN—GALACTOSAN SULFATE(FGS)FROM LAMINARIA JAPONICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGZhihong; ZHANGGuozhi; 等

    2000-01-01

    FGS,isolated from the water solution of enzymolyzed laminaria japonica,is a mixture of acid theroglycans.Four fractions F1,F2,F3,and F4 were obtained from FGS by ion exchange chromatography.After further purified by gel filtration chromatography on a sepharose 2B and 6B column,we obtained F9,F10,F11,and F12.They showed single band when identified by electrophoresis.The molecular weight of F9,F10,F11,and F12 was estimated to be 216,120.138and 140kD respectively.They contained a -glucosidic bond by IR and 1H-NMR analysis.The typical absorption peaks of these polysaccharides were showed in UV and IR spectra.These polysaccharides contained rha,fuc,man,gal,and uronate when identified by paper chromatography (p.c) and gas chromatorgraphy(GC).The molar ratio of these sugars was also assayed.

  18. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  19. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  1. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  2. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  3. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  4. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  5. Effects of suspended culture of the seaweed Laminaria japonica aresch on the flow structure and sedimentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehua; Huang, Haijun; Liu, Yanxia; Yan, Liwen; Bi, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    The culture of suspended kelp, such as Laminaria japonica Aresch, has arisen in nearshore areas for approximately 30 years since the 1980s. This long-term activity has significant impact on the regional hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments. In this study the impact was investigated, based on synchronized multi-station data from continuous observations made within and around the culture area. In total, three current velocity profiles were identified inside and on the landward side of the culture area. Based on the current velocity profiles we calculated the boundary layer parameters, the fluxes of erosion/deposition, and the rate of sediment transport in different times at each observation site. Comparison between culture and non-culture periods showed that the presence of suspended kelp caused the reduction in the average flow velocity by approximately 49.5%, the bottom friction velocity by 24.8%, the seabed roughness length by 62.7%, and the shear stress and the flux of resuspended sediment by approximately 50%. From analyses in combination with the corresponding vertical variation of the suspended sediment distribution, it is revealed that the lifted sediments by resuspension is mixed with the upper suspended material, which will modify the regional distribution of suspended sediment. These changes in flow structure and sediment movement will accelerate seabed siltation, which corresponds to the changes in seabed erosion/deposition. However, under the influences of the seasonal changes in kelp growth the magnitude of change with the seabed siltation was not obvious inside the culture area, but a fundamental change was apparent around the culture area.

  6. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%, hexadecanoic acid (16.57%, (9Z,12Z-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%, and (9Z-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone, but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (80.45%, superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%, and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  9. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  10. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  11. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Pilar Rauter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  12. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  13. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  14. Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds Inhibit Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Induce Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-3 in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu;

    2011-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs...

  15. An Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of the Intertidal Brown Seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in Response to Abiotic Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, Gareth A.; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrao, Ester T. A.; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat shock/rec

  16. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae ...

  17. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  18. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  19. Zeolite‐Based Algae Biofilm Rotating Photobioreactor for Algae and Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ashton M.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline conditions induced by algae growth in wastewater stabilization ponds create deprotonated ammonium ions that result in ammonia gas (NH3) volatilization. If algae are utilized to remediate wastewater through uptake of phosphorus, the resulting nitrogen loss will hinder this process because algae generally require a stoichiometric molar ratio of N16P1. Lower ratios of N/P due to loss of ammonia gas will limit the growth and yield of algae, and therefore will reduce phosphorus removal fr...

  20. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  1. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  2. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  3. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  4. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  5. Sulfated fucans extracted from algae Padina gymnospora have anti-inflammatory effect

    OpenAIRE

    Cybelle Teixeira Marques; Tarciana C. G. de Azevedo; Marília S. Nascimento; Valquíria P. Medeiros; Luciana G. Alves; Norma M. B. Benevides; Hugo A. O. Rocha; Edda Lisboa Leite

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted with acetone from brown algae Padina gymnospora. The fraction precipitated with 1.5 volumes of acetone (F1.5) purified in Sephadex G-75 was characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C and ¹H, through which the presence of sulfate groups on the C4 of α-L-fucose could be observed. This polysaccharide showed that an MW of 25,000 Da was effective in reducing leukocyte influx into the peritoneal cavity in mice at 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/k...

  6. Algae Mediated Green Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles and Examination of Its Antifungal Activity against Clinical Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam Rajeshkumar; Chelladurai Malarkodi; Kanniah Paulkumar; Mahendran Vanaja; Gnanadas Gnanajobitha; Gurusamy Annadurai

    2014-01-01

    Algae extract has the great efficiency to synthesize the silver nanoparticles as a green route. Brown seaweed mediates the synthesis of silver nanomaterials using extract of Sargassum longifolium. For the improved production of silver nanomaterials, some kinetic studies such as time incubation and pH were studied in this work. 10 mL of algal extract was added into the 1 mM AgNO3 aqueous solution. The pH and reaction time range were changed and the absorbance was taken for the characterization...

  7. The Algae flora in Tekirdag - Istanbul coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Hüseyin; AYDIN, Ayten

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this work 36 algae species were collected on the coastline between Tekirdag and Istanbul. There were 12 Chlorophyceae, 10 Phaeophyceae and 14 Rhodophyceae amongst them. The algae were f irst determined in Sea of Marmara are: Gigartina teedii, Cystoseira opuntioides, Lithothamnion lichenoides, Hildenbrandia prototypus, Rhodymenia corallicola.

  8. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined. PMID:23625082

  9. Cars will be fed on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  10. Thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mifune, Masaaki (Misasa Branch Hospital, Okayama Univ. Medical School, Misasa Spa, Tottori, Japan)

    1989-03-20

    Oman is situated in the southern east part of the Arabian Peninsula. Specimens of thermal algae in Oman were obtained, and the outlines of thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman are introduced. In Oman, spring waters including thermal springs are precious water resources, and widely used as farming irrigation waters as well as for drinking and bathing purposes. The ranges of temperatures and pH values of the thermal waters are 42.0 - 67.2{sup 0}C and 6.3 - 8.0 respectively. The thermal algae identified were divided into 9 species. The feature of the thermal algae in Oman is that Oscillatorious algae is the dominant species among the alage such as Synechococcus, Cyanidium, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Mostigocladus, etc. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Anthropogenic radionuclides in fish, shellfish, algae and sediments from the Sudanese Red Sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of fallout radionuclides viz. 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs and 90Sr has been measured in some species of multicellular marine algae, coral fishes and shellfish, and surface sediments collected from the fringing reef at different locations along the Sudanese coast of the Red Sea. The measurements were carried out using alpha-particle spectrometry, high-resolution gamma spectrometry and gas-flow proportional counter. In the sediments analyzed, the activity concentration averaged 2.65 ± 1.3 (238Pu), 47.96 ± 26.3 (239+240Pu), 19.1 ± 6.5 (241Am), 273 ± 157 (137Cs) and 140.8 ± 73.9 (90Sr) mBq/kg dry weight. Activity concentration ratios were 0.066 ± 0.041 (238Pu: 239+240Pu), 0.22 ± 0.04 (239+240Pu:137Cs), and 0.43 ± 0.1 (241Am:239+240Pu). These values are typical of those reported in the literature from the regions unaffected directly by nuclear accidents or nuclear reprocessing plant discharges and can thus be attributed to global fallout. Average activity concentrations (mBq/gk Dry weight) in marine algae from different locations were found to be 20.1 ± 14.1, 21.6 ± 13.3 and 8.5 ± 3.8 (239+240Pu), 6.2 ± 4.0, 11.7 ± 6.1 and 5.1 ± 3.5 (241Am) and 688 ± 242, 868 ± 713 and 116 ± 14.8 (137Cs) for brown, red and green algae, respectively. These results were found to be consistently decrease towards the south from Portsudan harbour and comparable to global fallout values. High levels of 137Cs were observed in brown algae (Cystoseria species) and red algae (Lauranthia species). This possibly suggests their suitability to be used as bioindicators since algae are known to be effective bioindicators for monitoring the anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment. Plutonium isotopes were measured in some species of coral fishes and shellfish samples from the fringing reefs area at Port Sudan. Activity concentrations of both 238Pu, 239+240Pu in fish are close to detection limits, while shellfish show values an order of

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in fish, shellfish, algae and sediments from the Sudanese Red Sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of fallout radionuclides v.z.,238Pu ,239+240Pu, 241Am,137Cs and 90Sr has been measured in some species of multicellular marine algae, coral fishes and shellfish, and surface sediments collected from the fringing reef at different locations along the Sudanese coast of the Red Sea. The measurements were carried out using alpha-particle spectrometry, high-resolution gamma spectrometry and gas-flow proportional counter. In the sediments analyzed, the activity concentration averaged 2.65±1.3 (238Pu), 47.96 ± 26.3 (239+240Pu), 19.1± 6.5 (241Am), 273 ± 157 (137Cs) and 140.8±73.9 (90Sr) mBq/kg dry weight. Activity concentration ratios were 0.066±0.041 (238Pu: 239+240Pu), 0.22±0.04 (239+240Pu:137Cs), and 0.43±0.1 (241Am:239+240Pu). These values are typical of those reported in the literature from the regions unaffected directly by nuclear accidents or nuclear reprocessing plant discharges and can thus be attributed to global fallout. Average activity concentrations (mBq/gk Dry weight) in marine algae from different locations were found to be 20.1±14.1, 21.6±13.3 and 8.5±3.8 (239+240Pu), 6.2±4.0, 11.7±6.1 and 5.1±3.5 (241Am) and 688±242, 868±713 and 116±14.8 (137Cs) for brown, red and green algae, respectively. These results were found to be consistently decrease towards the south from Portsudan harbour and comparable to global fallout values. High levels of 137Cs were observed in brown algae (Cystoseria species) and red algae (Lauranthia species). This possibly suggests their suitability to be used as bioindicators since algae are known to be effective bioindicators for monitoring the anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment. Plutonium isotopes were measured in some species of coral fishes and shellfish samples from the fringing reefs area at Port Sudan. Activity concentrations of both 238Pu ,239+240Pu in fish are close to detection limits, while shellfish show values an order of magnitude higher relative to coral

  13. Effect of outplanting time on commercial cultivation of kelp Laminaria saccharina at the southern limit in the Atlantic coast, N.W. Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    César PETEIRO; (ó)scar FREIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the influence of the outplanting time on the cultivation of the kelp Laminaria saccharina in the northwestern Spain, close to its southern limit of distribution in the North Atlantic coast. We compared two L. saccharina cultures outplanted in February and December. We found that the starting time of outplanting affects to the yield and the substantiality value, as well as the growth rate. The yield, the substantiality value and the growth rates of L. saccharina sporophytes obtained for the trial outplanted in December were significantly higher than those in February. These results can be mainly explained by the effect of temperature on the growth of L. saccharina sporophytes during cultivation. On the other hand, our results show that even in the southern limit of distribution of L. saccharina, the cultivation of this species was very profitable in high yield and quality.

  14. The use of the brown macroalgae, Sargassum flavicans, as a potential bioindicator of industrial nutrient enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The brown algae, Sargassum flavicans, was used as a successful nutrient bioindicator. • Creek sites adjacent to an industry refinery showed increased nutrient enrichment. • Higher nutrient loads in creek sites compared to adjacent oceanic sites. • Higher nutrient discharge was observed during the wet season. • δ15N values were the best endpoints to detect nutrient enrichment in the brown algae. -- Abstract: Nutrient bioindicators are increasingly being recognised as a diagnostic tool for nutrient enrichment of estuarine and marine ecosystems. Few studies, however, have focused on field translocation of bioindicator organisms to detect nutrient discharge from industrial waste. The brown macroalgae, Sargassum flavicans, was investigated as a potential bioindicator of nutrient-enriched industrial effluent originating from a nickel refinery in tropical north-eastern Australia. S. flavicans was translocated to a number of nutrient enriched creek and oceanic sites over two seasons and assessed for changes in stable isotope ratios of 15N and 13C within the plant tissue in comparison to reference sites. Nutrient uptake in macroalgae, translocated to the nutrient enriched sites adjacent to the refinery, increased 3–4-fold in δ15N, compared to reference sites. Using δ15N of translocated S. flavicans proved to be a successful method for monitoring time-integrated uptake of nitrogen, given the current lack of passive sampler technology for nutrient monitoring

  15. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Machu; Ladislava Misurcova; Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova; Jana Orsavova; Jiri Mlcek; Jiri Sochor; Tunde Jurikova

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyreno...

  16. Macroalgae - Production and Biorefining in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hou, Xiaoru; Bastianoni, Simone;

    Macroalgae is a key biomass for the development of circular economy. This study analyzes the environmental sustainability of a macroalgae production and conversion system in Denmark. A brown algae model based on Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima is utilized as feedstock for a biorefinery...... system which produces bioethanol, fish feed and liquid fertilizers. A Life Cycle Assessment was conducted from cradle to grave; i.e. from cultivation and harvest of biomass, to the use phase of the products....

  17. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  18. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  1. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  2. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  3. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  4. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  5. Nonlinear Analysis in a Nutrient-Algae-Zooplankton System with Sinking of Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Dai; Min Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed for the Zeya Reservoir to study interactions between algae and zooplankton, including the diffusive spread of algae and zooplankton and the sinking of algae. The model is investigated both with and without sinking. Conditions of Hopf and Turing bifurcation in the spatial domain are obtained, and conditions for differential-flow instability that gives rise to the formation of spatial patterns are derived. Using numerical simulation, the authors ...

  6. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    As the efforts to unearth new sources for organic farming accelerate, one needs to evaluate the options available. Marine algae popularly known as seaweeds, have served mankind from times immemorial. form. Seaweed-based fertilizer is rich in growth...

  7. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  9. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  10. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  11. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  12. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Le; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-F was determined using Illumina sequencing data (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-F and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity. PMID:26358639

  13. Multidimensional liquid chromatography with parallel ICP MS and electrospray MS/MS detection as a tool for the characterization of arsenic species in algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSheehy, S.; Pohl, P.; Velez, D.; Szpunar, J. [CNRS UMR, Pau-Pyrenees (France)

    2002-02-01

    An analytical strategy was developed for the characterization of arsenic species in a Laminaria algae. The approach was based on multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) including sample extract cleanup by size-exclusion LC, separation of arsenic species by anion-exchange LC, verification of the chromatographic purity of arsenic-containing fractions, and their further purification, if necessary, by reversed-phase (RP) HPLC. The complementarity of ICP MS, used as the chromatographic detector, and ES MS/MS, employed for the identification of the peaks observed, was demonstrated. The species found were: arsenosugar A 11.7{+-}0.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}, As{sup V} 10.9{+-}2.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, arsenosugar B 2.22{+-}0.07 {mu}g g{sup -1}, arsenosugar D 1.5{+-}1.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}, a newly detected arsenosugar 1.13{+-}0.07 {mu}g g{sup -1}, arsenosugar C 0.61{+-}0.04 {mu}g g{sup -1}, DMA 0.42{+-}0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} and these accounted for >99% of the arsenic present. The identities of all the species, except the newly detected compound, were doubly checked by matching the retention times of chromatographically pure (after the 3{sup rd} LC dimension) species with standards and by ES MS/MS. (orig.)

  14. Marine algae as biomonitors for heavy metals accumulation at the Red Sea Sudanese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of heavy trace elements chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead was measured in three main groups of alage, green, brown and red from the Sudanese coastal water of the Red Sea at seven main locations. The analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and x-ray fluorescence. Based on the overall average concentration (ppm), manganese was the most abundant element, (range 22.64-144.77) followed by chromium (rang 8.40-14.51), zinc (range 5.82-14.23), nickel (range 4.27-6.48) copper (range 2.83-7.75) lead range (1.29-1.80) and cadmium (rang 0.05-0.15). On comparing samples results at all locations, the results showed that Sawakin locations (1) and (2) algae have a highest content of trace elements. The concentration of trace elements in marine algae at, Sawakin (1), Klanieb and Sawakin (2) shows the higher uptake of lead giving the average of 1.69, 1.70, and 1.80, respectively compared with other locations, where the lowest concentration of manganese is observed at Sawakin (1) (38.19 ppm) and Sawakin (2) (41.04 ppm) with relative excess of lead concentration (1.69 and 1.80 ppm). Data obtained in this study were treated using classical descriptive statistics to explain the measuring central tendency. Correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship of different elements. Upon comparing the elemental concentration of the Red Sea alage with published literature, marine algae collected from the study area showed relative agreement with data reported but Sawakin harbor can be considered as slightly contaminated area by heavy metals. The study showed that the red algae has higher uptake of trace elements studied than brown and green algae with some variations of metal concentrations in some species which were apparently related to the specific accumulation capacity of each particular species. These species suggest their suitability for utilization as biomonitor for heavy metals in the Red Sea coastal

  15. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Xi Zou; Nan Li; Li-Hua Wang; Ping Yu; Xiu-Feng Yan

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmui...

  16. Population dynamics of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata under harvesting pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnol, Doriane; Michel, Renaud; Davoult, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Through experimental harvesting, followed by a 12-month monitoring of demographic attributes, we tested the influence of harvesting on the population dynamics of Himanthalia elongata. We further explore the data to test the hypothesis that the canopy would exert a negative effect on the other developmental stages (intraspecific competition) throughout the recovery cycle of the population. This showed that the H. elongata canopy plays a marked seasonal role not by precluding the presence of other developmental stages but by delaying or preventing their growth and development. The removal of the canopy facilitates the transition from one developmental stage to another, eventually permitting a fast recovery of size structure in the population. This study allows us to integrate population dynamics and intraspecific relationships in our understanding of macroalgal recovery patterns.

  17. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    effectiveness of the antioxidants in systems which are more likely to oxidize compared with conventional products. The products tested were all oil-in-water emulsions except for granola bars, which were instead added 70% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Tests were made on a selections of extracts made from water...... clearly improved incorporation of the fish oil emulsions into the granola bars, which in turn had a major impact on the oxidative stability of these products. It was concluded that the surface active phlorotannins were important radical scavengers in granola bars. These phlorotannins are chain......-breaking antioxidants that deactivate lipid radicals formed in the first part of lipid oxidation. In addition, it was discussed whether some of these phlorotannins also regenerated antioxidative tocopherols from the oil phase. A structural characterization and on-line detection of phlorotannins in the purified fraction...

  18. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE AND LATITUDINAL RANGE OF BROWN-ALGAE FROM TEMPERATE PACIFIC SOUTH-AMERICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, AF; BREEMAN, AM

    1993-01-01

    Lower and upper survival temperatures of microthalli of 25 species of South American Phaeophyceae isolated from central Peru (14-degrees-S) to the Canal Beagle (55-degrees-S) were determined using 2-wk exposure for the upper and 4-wk exposure for the lower limit. All species survive 4 wks at - 2-deg

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum vachellianum (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanhui; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    Sargassum vachellianum C. Agardh is endemic to China. It inhabits in rocky intertidal zones and plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of littoral ecosystems. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. vachellianum. The circular S. vachellianum mitogenome is 34,877 bp in size and contains the same set of 65 genes as the reported Sargassum mtDNAs. The overall AT content of the genome is 63.79%, and the inter-genic spacers constitute only 4.67%. The genome organization including the gene order, overlapping regions between genes, and the total length of inter-genic spacers is conserved among the known Sargassum mitogenomes. High divergence is in inter-genic spacer regions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that S. vachellianum combined tightly with Sargassum species with strong support values (NJ/ML, 100%). PMID:26099977

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  1. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  2. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4 m depth in a water column of 8 m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D′M. For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al > Ti > Fe ≫ Mn > Ni, Cu > Ba, Cr, Zn ≫ Rb > K, Sr > Pb ≫ Ca ≫ Na > Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring. - Highlights: ► Elemental concentrations in P. littoralis and C. glomerata from the Archipelago Sea in Finland were measured during decomposition. ► PIXE and PIGE were successfully used for chemical analysis of 24 elements. ► The chemical affinity of different elements to the algae was established by calculation of conditional

  3. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  4. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  5. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  6. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  7. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  8. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  9. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  10. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  11. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  12. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs

  13. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  14. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  15. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  16. Seasonal differences in the effects of oscillatory and uni-directional flow on the growth and nitrate-uptake rates of juvenile Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregting, Louise T; Hepburn, Christopher D; Savidge, Graham

    2015-12-01

    The influence of oscillatory versus unidirectional flow on the growth and nitrate-uptake rates of juvenile kelp, Laminaria digitata, was determined seasonally in experimental treatments that simulated as closely as possible natural environmental conditions. In winter, regardless of flow condition (oscillatory and unidirectional) or water velocity, no influence of water motion was observed on the growth rate of L. digitata. In summer, when ambient nitrate concentrations were low, increased water motion enhanced macroalgal growth, which is assumed to be related to an increase in the rate of supply of nutrients to the blade surface. Nitrate-uptake rates were significantly influenced by water motion and season. Lowest nitrate-uptake rates were observed for velocities oscillatory motion compared to unidirectional flow at the same average speed. These data further suggested that the diffusion boundary layer played a significant role in influencing nitrate-uptake rates. However, while increased nitrate-uptake in oscillatory flow was clear, this was not reflected in growth rates and further work is required to understand the disconnection of nitrate-uptake and growth by L. digitata in oscillatory flow. The data obtained support those from related field-based studies, which suggest that in summer, when insufficient nitrogen is available in the water to saturate metabolic demand, the growth rate of kelps will be influenced by water motion restricting mass transfer of nitrogen. PMID:26987006

  17. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. PMID:27132836

  18. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  19. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  20. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  1. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  2. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  3. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  4. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrids, yeasts and mycelial fungi in six marine algae was studied. Thraustochytrids and mycelial fungi were recovered from non-surface-sterilized as well as surface-sterilized pieces of algae, whereas yeasts were isolated...

  5. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  6. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  7. Growth acceleration and photosynthesis of the scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae in deuterium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find new way to treat the radioactive tritium waste water, scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae are cultured in medium which contains 30% (w) deuterium water. During different time, activities of photosymthesis, absorption spectrum, growth rate and low-temperature fluorescence spectrum are measured. Accelerated growth is found in the deuterium water compared to the normal water. Activities of photosynthesis show the similar result (Fv/Fm) to the growth data. It is also concluded from low-temperature fluorescence spectra that algae activities in the deuterium water, which are expressed by PS I/PS II, are more sensitive than those in the normal water

  8. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  9. ALGAE OF RIVER GANGAWATER BETWEEN BITHOOR TO JAJMAU, KANPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Sachendra Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with the study of algae in Ganga water from Bithoor to Jajmau, Kanpur (U.P.). During present study a total number of 316 algal species spread over 83 chlorophyceae, 108 cyano phyceae, 121 bacillariophyceae, and 4 euglenophyceae were recorded from Ganga water between Bithoor to Jajmau A very large number of planktonic algae including diatoms formed broad chunk of algae. Algae showing luxuriant growth and qualitative abundance are of major significance and their implications...

  10. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  11. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  12. Technetium uptake by the green alga Chlorella fusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astonishingly very small transfer factor of 0.16 ± 0.07 (Bq g-1 fresh algae: Bq ml-1 solution) was found for the uptake of TcO4- by the green alga Chlorella fusca. No dependency of the technetium concentration was observed. These results are in accordance with most other reported values for green algae. (author) 8 refs

  13. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  14. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  15. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  16. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  17. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva T.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown algae Padina gymnospora contain different fucans. Powdered algae were submitted to proteolysis with the proteolytic enzyme maxataze. The first extract of the algae was constituted of polysaccharides contaminated with lipids, phenols, etc. Fractionation of the fucans with increasing concentrations of acetone produced fractions with different proportions of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate. One of the fractions, precipitated with 50% acetone (v/v, contained an 18-kDa heterofucan (PF1, which was further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 using 0.2 M acetic acid as eluent and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis in 0.05 M 1,3 diaminopropane/acetate buffer at pH 9.0, methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Structural analysis indicates that this fucan has a central core consisting mainly of 3-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1-> or 4-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1 ->, substituted at C-2 with alpha-L-fucose or ß-D-xylose. Sulfate groups were only detected at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units. The anticoagulant activity of the PF1 (only 2.5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-sulfation at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units is responsible for the anticoagulant activity of the polymer.

  18. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  19. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  20. Starch Overproduction by Means of Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachleder, Vilém; Brányiková, I.

    Dordrecht, Heidelberg, london, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2014 - (Bajpai, R.; Prokop, A.; Zappi, M.), s. 217-240. (Cultivation of cells and products. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-7493-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 221; GA MŠk OE09025 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : starch * alga * overproduction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Hájek, J.; Worland, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 137-148. ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601630808; GA AV ČR KJB600050708 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Ice nucleation * snow algae * lichen photobionts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2013

  2. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Liu; Poul Erik Hansen; Xiukun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals.

  3. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to...

  4. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  5. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  6. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  7. Sulfated fucans extracted from algae Padina gymnospora have anti-inflammatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybelle Teixeira Marques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted with acetone from brown algae Padina gymnospora. The fraction precipitated with 1.5 volumes of acetone (F1.5 purified in Sephadex G-75 was characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C and ¹H, through which the presence of sulfate groups on the C4 of α-L-fucose could be observed. This polysaccharide showed that an MW of 25,000 Da was effective in reducing leukocyte influx into the peritoneal cavity in mice at 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg body weight, causing a decrease of 60 and 39%, respectively. In the present study, it was observed that this fucan has anti-inflammatory properties but no cytotoxic action, indicating its potential use in the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  9. Biosorption of Fe, Al and Mn of acid drainage from coal mine using brown seaweed sargassum sp. in continuous process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) are leaches as result of a coal mining running, it have low ph and high concentrations of heavy metals that convert them in strong polluter; with the purpose of reduce its concentration, a continuous biosorption system was designed by removing heavy metals from drainages using a cheap biosorbent material. The brown seaweed was pre-treatment with solutions 0,1 N of NaOH, Ca(OH)2 NaCl, CaCl2, NaSO4 y H2SO4 for to study the effect on biosorption process; the removal percentage were determined, which are better than 80% with the exception of pre-treatment with H2SO4 who cancel the algae sorption capacity. The seaweed was packed in plastic mesh and polyester tulle in the shape of a rectangular prism; there isn't effect on the biosorption process by using this packet. The continuous biosorption process was studied in two units of operation: a packed-bed flow-through sorption column and an horizontal vessel like a canal with baffles, which treated adequately 3,5 and 4,71 of AMD respectively, using in each one of them 100 g of algae. The burning of algae was studied like an alternative for the problem of handling of residual algae. The ashes kept the metals removed from AMD, furthermore keep stable too by the attack of solutions of different pH

  10. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  11. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  12. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P japonicus individuals fed with B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonica feedstuff exhibited greater resistance to disease following Vibrio splendidus challenge, as shown by the much lower cumulative symptom (10 %) compared to the rest, which showed as much as 73 % in the case of individuals fed with the untreated L. japonica feedstuff. Analysis of their intestinal tract revealed a much lower number of total Vibrio sp. These results demonstrated that L. japonica in which the algin content had been degraded by B. amyloliquefaciens WB1 could improve the growth performance of A. japonicus as well its resistance to bacterial infection. It could therefore act as an alternative to S. thunbergii and is economical at the same time. PMID:25895094

  13. 海带废渣中提取岩藻聚糖硫酸酯的工艺研究%Extraction of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 曲桂燕; 周裔彬; 袁毅; 韩丽君

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction of fucoidan by calcium chloride solution from Laminaria japonica residue. On the basis of single factor experiment, mathematical modeling was established to analyze the significance and interactions between extraction temperature, extraction time and material/liquid ratio. The optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 68℃, extraction time of 6 h and material/liquid ratio of 1 : 80 (g :mL). Under this optimum condition the extraction rate was up to 3.95%. The contents of fucose and sulfate group were 17.47% and 37.14%, respectively.%采用响应曲面分析法研究了氯化钙水提法从海带废渣中提取岩藻聚糖硫酸酯的制备技术.在单因素试验的基础上,根据Box-Behnken试验设计原理,通过建立数学模型对提取温度、提取时间、料液比等因素进行显著性和交互性分析研究,获得了最佳提取制备参数.结果表明,提取温度68℃,提取时间6h,料液比1:80时,可以获得3.95%的岩藻聚糖硫酸酯.其中岩藻糖含量为17.47%,硫酸根含量为37.14%.

  14. 海带多糖纯化及清除自由基活性研究%Purification and radical scavenging effect of Laminaria japonica polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭臻菲; 方哲翔; 刘敏; 张其清

    2013-01-01

    海带多糖经S-300凝胶层析分离后得到纯化组分WPS-1-1.采用高效液相色谱、红外光谱对WPS-1-1结构进行解析,结果表明,WPS-1-1分子量为112ku,主要由岩藻糖、木糖、半乳糖和甘露糖构成,其摩尔比为6.9∶3.3∶1.5∶1.WPS-1-1含有β-吡喃糖苷键和硫酸基.体外自由基清除实验结果表明,WPS-1-1具有超氧阴离子自由基和羟自由基清除活性,其IC50分别为0.35、1.0mg/mL,可作为天然的功能性自由基高效清除剂.%A purified polysaccharide of WPS-1-1 was obtained from crude extracts of Laminaria japonica by S-300 gel chromatography.The average molecular weight of WPS-1-1 was 112ku.Monosaccharides analysis revealed that WPS-1-1 was composed of fucose,xylose,galactose and mannose with a molar ratio of 6.9∶3.3 ∶ 1.5 ∶ 1.The results of infrared spectrum indicated that WPS-1-1 contained β-pyranose and sulfate group.In vitro,radical scavenging tests revealed that WPS-1-1 showed significant function of scavenging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals with IC50value of 0.35 and 1.0mg/mL.It could be a potential functional free-radical scavenger.

  15. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively

  16. A study on the marine algae at the coast of Kori nuclear power plant: pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of thermal effluents on the marine algal communities were investigated with the quadrat method during June, 1977 - December, 1978, at the intertidal zone of Kori nuclear power plant, southeast coast of Korea. As a result, both the number of algal species occurred in quadrat (50x50 cm) and the total coverage were observed to be decreased in June, 1978, at three sites near the discharge point compared with those of previous year but being recovered afterwards. The representative dominant species at the cost of Kori nuclear power plant were, on the whole, Corallina pilulifera, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Chondrus ocellatus. Among the species, the coverage of Corallina pilulifera appeared to be rather increased, while the vegetation of Chondria crassicaulis was found to be decreased particularly in 1978. Total 102 species (3 blue-green, 16 green, 30 brown, and 53 red algae) of marine algae were identified in this study. Among them 71 species were common to 133 species reported by previous investigators during 1969-1970. (author)

  17. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

  18. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  19. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal using coal liquefaction catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, N.; Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Ohtsuki, M.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

    2001-04-01

    Co-liquefaction of micro algae (Chlorella, Spirulina and Littorale) with coal (Australian Yallourn brown coal and Illinois No. 6 coal) was carried out under pressurized H{sub 2} in 1-methylnaphthalene at 350-400{degree}C for 60 min with various catalysts. Co-liquefaction of Chlorella with Yallourn coal was successfully achieved with excess sulfur to iron (S/Fe = 4), where sufficient amount of Fe{sub 1-x}S, which is believed to be the active species in the coal liquefaction, was produced. The conversion and the yield of the hexane-soluble fraction were close to the values calculated from the additivity of the product yields of the respective homo-reactions. In the reaction with a one-to-one mixture of Chlorella and Yallourn coal, 99.8% of conversion and 65.5% of hexane-soluble fraction were obtained at 400{degree}C with Fe (CO){sub 5} at S/Fe = 4. When Littorale and Spirulina were used as micro algae, a similar tendency was observed with the iron catalyst. On the other hand, in the co-liquefaction with Illinois No. 6 coal, which is known to contain a large amount of sulfur in the form of catalytically active pyrite, the oil yield in the co-liquefaction was close to the additivity of the respective reaction with Fe(CO){sub 5}-S, even at SFe = 2. Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} was also effective for the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 26 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  1. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  2. Use of algae as biofuel sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the algae production technologies such as open, closed and hybrid systems, production costs, and algal energy conversions. Liquid biofuels are alternative fuels promoted with potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Biofuels production costs can vary widely by feedstock, conversion process, scale of production and region. Algae will become the most important biofuel source in the near future. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to bio-oil, bioethanol, bio-hydrogen and bimethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Microalgae are theoretically very promising source of biodiesel.

  3. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 51Cr, 60Co and 131I were performed in 1000cm3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)

  4. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  5. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  6. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  7. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  8. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  9. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  10. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  11. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  12. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  13. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm2, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 109-1.55 x 109 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m3. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  14. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shanshan, E-mail: luck81919@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China); Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10{sup 9}-1.55 x 10{sup 9} cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m{sup 3}. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  15. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  16. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  17. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  18. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  19. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  12. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  13. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...