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Sample records for brown alga ectocarpus

  1. Ectocarpus: a model organism for the brown algae.

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    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-02-01

    The brown algae are an interesting group of organisms from several points of view. They are the dominant organisms in many coastal ecosystems, where they often form large, underwater forests. They also have an unusual evolutionary history, being members of the stramenopiles, which are very distantly related to well-studied animal and green plant models. As a consequence of this history, brown algae have evolved many novel features, for example in terms of their cell biology and metabolic pathways. They are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic groups to have independently evolved complex multicellularity. Despite these interesting features, the brown algae have remained a relatively poorly studied group. This situation has started to change over the last few years, however, with the emergence of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus as a model system that is amenable to the genomic and genetic approaches that have proved to be so powerful in more classical model organisms such as Drosophila and Arabidopsis.

  2. Microbiota influences morphology and reproduction of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp.

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    Javier Esteban Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Associated microbiota play crucial roles in health and disease of higher organisms. For macroalgae, some associated bacteria exert beneficial effects on nutrition, morphogenesis and growth. However, current knowledge on macroalgae-microbiota interactions is mostly based on studies on green and red seaweeds. In this study, we report that when cultured under axenic conditions, the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus sp. loses its branched morphology and grows with a small ball-like appearance. Nine strains of periphytic bacteria isolated from Ectocarpus sp. unialgal cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and assessed for their effect on morphology, reproduction and the metabolites secreted by axenic Ectocarpus sp. Six of these isolates restored morphology and reproduction features of axenic Ectocarpus sp. Bacteria-algae co-culture supernatants, but not the supernatant of the corresponding bacterium growing alone, also recovered morphology and reproduction of the alga. Furthermore, colonization of axenic Ectocarpus sp. with a single bacterial isolate impacted significantly the metabolites released by the alga. These results show that the branched typical morphology and the individuals produced by Ectocarpus sp. are strongly dependent on the presence of bacteria, while the bacterial effect on the algal exometabolome profile reflects the impact of bacteria on the whole physiology of this alga.

  3. Culture methods and mutant generation in the filamentous brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus.

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    Le Bail, Aude; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2013-01-01

    Ectocarpus siliculosus is a small filamentous alga that has recently emerged as the new model for fundamental research on brown algae. Here, we describe the basic culture protocols for propagating and collecting E. siliculosus material that can then be used in all types of molecular biology, biochemistry and cell biology techniques. In addition, procedures for carrying out genetic experiments (generation of mutants and genetic segregation analyses) on E. siliculosus are described.

  4. The Ectocarpus genome and the independent evolution of multicellularity in brown algae.

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    Cock, J Mark; Sterck, Lieven; Rouzé, Pierre; Scornet, Delphine; Allen, Andrew E; Amoutzias, Grigoris; Anthouard, Veronique; Artiguenave, François; Aury, Jean-Marc; Badger, Jonathan H; Beszteri, Bank; Billiau, Kenny; Bonnet, Eric; Bothwell, John H; Bowler, Chris; Boyen, Catherine; Brownlee, Colin; Carrano, Carl J; Charrier, Bénédicte; Cho, Ga Youn; Coelho, Susana M; Collén, Jonas; Corre, Erwan; Da Silva, Corinne; Delage, Ludovic; Delaroque, Nicolas; Dittami, Simon M; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Elias, Marek; Farnham, Garry; Gachon, Claire M M; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Heesch, Svenja; Jabbari, Kamel; Jubin, Claire; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kei; Kloareg, Bernard; Küpper, Frithjof C; Lang, Daniel; Le Bail, Aude; Leblanc, Catherine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lohr, Martin; Lopez, Pascal J; Martens, Cindy; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Morales, Julia; Moreau, Hervé; Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Napoli, Carolyn A; Nelson, David R; Nyvall-Collén, Pi; Peters, Akira F; Pommier, Cyril; Potin, Philippe; Poulain, Julie; Quesneville, Hadi; Read, Betsy; Rensing, Stefan A; Ritter, Andrés; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Samanta, Manoj; Samson, Gaelle; Schroeder, Declan C; Ségurens, Béatrice; Strittmatter, Martina; Tonon, Thierry; Tregear, James W; Valentin, Klaus; von Dassow, Peter; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Van de Peer, Yves; Wincker, Patrick

    2010-06-03

    Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are complex photosynthetic organisms with a very different evolutionary history to green plants, to which they are only distantly related. These seaweeds are the dominant species in rocky coastal ecosystems and they exhibit many interesting adaptations to these, often harsh, environments. Brown algae are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic lineages that have evolved complex multicellularity (Fig. 1). We report the 214 million base pair (Mbp) genome sequence of the filamentous seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye, a model organism for brown algae, closely related to the kelps (Fig. 1). Genome features such as the presence of an extended set of light-harvesting and pigment biosynthesis genes and new metabolic processes such as halide metabolism help explain the ability of this organism to cope with the highly variable tidal environment. The evolution of multicellularity in this lineage is correlated with the presence of a rich array of signal transduction genes. Of particular interest is the presence of a family of receptor kinases, as the independent evolution of related molecules has been linked with the emergence of multicellularity in both the animal and green plant lineages. The Ectocarpus genome sequence represents an important step towards developing this organism as a model species, providing the possibility to combine genomic and genetic approaches to explore these and other aspects of brown algal biology further.

  5. ETOILE regulates developmental patterning in the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus.

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    Le Bail, Aude; Billoud, Bernard; Le Panse, Sophie; Chenivesse, Sabine; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2011-04-01

    Brown algae are multicellular marine organisms evolutionarily distant from both metazoans and land plants. The molecular or cellular mechanisms that govern the developmental patterning in brown algae are poorly characterized. Here, we report the first morphogenetic mutant, étoile (etl), produced in the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus. Genetic, cellular, and morphometric analyses showed that a single recessive locus, ETL, regulates cell differentiation: etl cells display thickening of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and the elongated, apical, and actively dividing E cells are underrepresented. As a result of this defect, the overrepresentation of round, branch-initiating R cells in the etl mutant leads to the rapid induction of the branching process at the expense of the uniaxial growth in the primary filament. Computational modeling allowed the simulation of the etl mutant phenotype by including a modified response to the neighborhood information in the division rules used to specify wild-type development. Microarray experiments supported the hypothesis of a defect in cell-cell communication, as primarily Lin-Notch-domain transmembrane proteins, which share similarities with metazoan Notch proteins involved in binary cell differentiation were repressed in etl. Thus, our study highlights the role of the ECM and of novel transmembrane proteins in cell-cell communication during the establishment of the developmental pattern in this brown alga.

  6. Surface-bound iron: a metal ion buffer in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus?

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    Miller, Eric P; Böttger, Lars H; Weerasinghe, Aruna J; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Matzanke, Berthold F; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Küpper, Frithjof C; Carrano, Carl J

    2014-02-01

    Although the iron uptake and storage mechanisms of terrestrial/higher plants have been well studied, the corresponding systems in marine algae have received far less attention. Studies have shown that while some species of unicellular algae utilize unique mechanisms of iron uptake, many acquire iron through the same general mechanisms as higher plants. In contrast, the iron acquisition strategies of the multicellular macroalgae remain largely unknown. This is especially surprising since many of these organisms represent important ecological and evolutionary niches in the coastal marine environment. It has been well established in both laboratory and environmentally derived samples, that a large amount of iron can be 'non-specifically' adsorbed to the surface of marine algae. While this phenomenon is widely recognized and has prompted the development of experimental protocols to eliminate its contribution to iron uptake studies, its potential biological significance as a concentrated iron source for marine algae is only now being recognized. This study used an interdisciplinary array of techniques to explore the nature of the extensive and powerful iron binding on the surface of both laboratory and environmental samples of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus and shows that some of this surface-bound iron is eventually internalized. It is proposed that the surface-binding properties of E. siliculosus allow it to function as a quasibiological metal ion 'buffer', allowing iron uptake under the widely varying external iron concentrations found in coastal marine environments.

  7. Auxin metabolism and function in the multicellular brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus.

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    Le Bail, Aude; Billoud, Bernard; Kowalczyk, Nathalie; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Gicquel, Morgane; Le Panse, Sophie; Stewart, Sarah; Scornet, Delphine; Cock, Jeremy Mark; Ljung, Karin; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2010-05-01

    Ectocarpus siliculosus is a small brown alga that has recently been developed as a genetic model. Its thallus is filamentous, initially organized as a main primary filament composed of elongated cells and round cells, from which branches differentiate. Modeling of its early development suggests the involvement of very local positional information mediated by cell-cell recognition. However, this model also indicates that an additional mechanism is required to ensure proper organization of the branching pattern. In this paper, we show that auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is detectable in mature E. siliculosus organisms and that it is present mainly at the apices of the filaments in the early stages of development. An in silico survey of auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, response, and transport genes showed that mainly IAA biosynthesis genes from land plants have homologs in the E. siliculosus genome. In addition, application of exogenous auxins and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid had different effects depending on the developmental stage of the organism, and we propose a model in which auxin is involved in the negative control of progression in the developmental program. Furthermore, we identified an auxin-inducible gene called EsGRP1 from a small-scale microarray experiment and showed that its expression in a series of morphogenetic mutants was positively correlated with both their elongated-to-round cell ratio and their progression in the developmental program. Altogether, these data suggest that IAA is used by the brown alga Ectocarpus to relay cell-cell positional information and induces a signaling pathway different from that known in land plants.

  8. [A Picasso among brown algae: the arduous conquest of symmetry by Ectocarpus].

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    Le Bail, Aude; Billoud, Bernard; Maisonneuve, Carole; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2007-01-01

    In response to environmental constraints, living organisms organise their body according to axes, rotation and translation plans, or asymmetries. Cellular and molecular processes are involved in the establishment of this architecture. Hence, this review aims at presenting the molecular mechanisms controlling the main symmetries and axes in plants. Several genes, coding for transcription factors, have been identified in land plants (mainly Arabidopsis thaliana), as controlling the establishment of apico-basal and adaxial-abaxial axes mainly. The establishment of these axes allows the development in other spatial directions of radial or bilateral symmetries. These processes seem in most cases to be under the control of the phytohormone auxin. In brown algae, which are all multicellular marine plants, polarity plans are less obvious than in land plants. The development of the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is currently being studied. E. siliculosus develops a filamentous architecture, and primary observations show that branching along the main axis occurs in a non-stereotyped and regular way, even though it is mainly centred. However, more detailed morphometrical studies, accompanied by probabilistic analyses, have shown that, among the overall population of individuals, organisms obey yet unidentified biological constraints, that aim at refining the radial symmetry as the organism grows. The role of this symmetry in the adaptation of E. siliculosus to its environment, as well as the molecular actors involved in this process, are currently under study in our laboratory.

  9. Copper stress proteomics highlights local adaptation of two strains of the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus.

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    Ritter, Andrés; Ubertini, Martin; Romac, Sarah; Gaillard, Fanny; Delage, Ludovic; Mann, Aaron; Cock, J Mark; Tonon, Thierry; Correa, Juan A; Potin, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Ectocarpus siliculosus is a cosmopolitan brown alga with capacity to thrive in copper enriched environments. Analysis of copper toxicity was conducted in two strains of E. siliculosus isolated from (i) an uncontaminated coast in southern Peru (Es32) and (ii) a copper polluted rocky beach in northern Chile (Es524). Es32 was more sensitive than Es524, with toxicity detected at 50 microg/L Cu, whereas Es524 displayed negative effects only when exposed to 250 microg/L Cu. Differential soluble proteome profiling for each strain exposed to sub-lethal copper levels allowed to identify the induction of proteins related to processes such as energy production, glutathione metabolism as well as accumulation of HSPs. In addition, the inter-strain comparison of stress-related proteomes led to identify features related to copper tolerance in Es524, such as striking expression of a PSII Mn-stabilizing protein and a Fucoxanthine chlorophyll a-c binding protein. Es524 also expressed specific stress-related enzymes such as RNA helicases from the DEAD box families and a vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase. These observations were supported by RT-qPCR for some of the identified genes and an enzyme activity assay for vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase. Therefore, the occurrence of two different phenotypes within two distinct E. siliculosus strains studied at the physiological and proteomic levels strongly suggest that persistent copper stress may represent a selective force leading to the development of strains genetically adapted to copper contaminated sites.

  10. Re-annotation, improved large-scale assembly and establishment of a catalogue of noncoding loci for the genome of the model brown alga Ectocarpus.

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    Cormier, Alexandre; Avia, Komlan; Sterck, Lieven; Derrien, Thomas; Wucher, Valentin; Andres, Gwendoline; Monsoor, Misharl; Godfroy, Olivier; Lipinska, Agnieszka; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Van De Peer, Yves; Hitte, Christophe; Corre, Erwan; Coelho, Susana M; Cock, J Mark

    2017-04-01

    The genome of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus was the first to be completely sequenced from within the brown algal group and has served as a key reference genome both for this lineage and for the stramenopiles. We present a complete structural and functional reannotation of the Ectocarpus genome. The large-scale assembly of the Ectocarpus genome was significantly improved and genome-wide gene re-annotation using extensive RNA-seq data improved the structure of 11 108 existing protein-coding genes and added 2030 new loci. A genome-wide analysis of splicing isoforms identified an average of 1.6 transcripts per locus. A large number of previously undescribed noncoding genes were identified and annotated, including 717 loci that produce long noncoding RNAs. Conservation of lncRNAs between Ectocarpus and another brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica, suggests that at least a proportion of these loci serve a function. Finally, a large collection of single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers was developed for genetic analyses. These resources are available through an updated and improved genome database. This study significantly improves the utility of the Ectocarpus genome as a high-quality reference for the study of many important aspects of brown algal biology and as a reference for genomic analyses across the stramenopiles. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Maullinia ectocarpii gen. et sp. nov. (Plasmodiophorea), an intracellular parasite in Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) and other filamentous brown algae.

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    Maier, I; Parodi, E; Westermeier, R; Müller, D G

    2000-10-01

    An obligate intracellular parasite infecting Ectocarpus spp. and other filamentous marine brown algae is described. The pathogen forms an unwalled multinucleate syncytium (plasmodium) within the host cell cytoplasm and causes hypertrophy. Cruciform nuclear divisions occur during early development. Mature plasmodia become transformed into single sporangia, filling the host cell completely, and then cleave into several hundred spores. The spores are motile with two unequal, whiplash-type flagella inserted subapically and also show amoeboid movement. Upon settlement, cysts with chitinous walls are formed. Infection of host cells is accomplished by means of an adhesorium and a stachel apparatus penetrating the host cell wall, and injection of the cyst content into the host cell cytoplasm. The parasite is characterized by features specific for the plasmodiophorids and is described as a new genus and species, Maullinia ectocarpii.

  12. High-density genetic map and identification of QTLs for responses to temperature and salinity stresses in the model brown alga Ectocarpus

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    Avia, Komlan; Coelho, Susana M.; Montecinos, Gabriel J.; Cormier, Alexandre; Lerck, Fiona; Mauger, Stéphane; Faugeron, Sylvain; Valero, Myriam; Cock, J. Mark; Boudry, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the genetic architecture of adaptation of brown algae to environmental stresses such as temperature and salinity is of evolutionary as well as of practical interest. The filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. is a model for the brown algae and its genome has been sequenced. As sessile organisms, brown algae need to be capable of resisting the various abiotic stressors that act in the intertidal zone (e.g. osmotic pressure, temperature, salinity, UV radiation) and previous studies have shown that an important proportion of the expressed genes is regulated in response to hyposaline, hypersaline or oxidative stress conditions. Using the double digest RAD sequencing method, we constructed a dense genetic map with 3,588 SNP markers and identified 39 QTLs for growth-related traits and their plasticity under different temperature and salinity conditions (tolerance to high temperature and low salinity). GO enrichment tests within QTL intervals highlighted membrane transport processes such as ion transporters. Our study represents a significant step towards deciphering the genetic basis of adaptation of Ectocarpus sp. to stress conditions and provides a substantial resource to the increasing list of tools generated for the species. PMID:28256542

  13. Central and storage carbon metabolism of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus: insights into the origin and evolution of storage carbohydrates in Eukaryotes.

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    Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Scornet, Delphine; Cock, J Mark; Kloareg, Bernard

    2010-10-01

    Brown algae exhibit a unique carbon (C) storage metabolism. The photoassimilate D-fructose 6-phosphate is not used to produce sucrose but is converted into D-mannitol. These seaweeds also store C as β-1,3-glucan (laminarin), thus markedly departing from most living organisms, which use α-1,4-glucans (glycogen or starch). • Using a combination of bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches, we identified the candidate genes for the enzymes involved in C storage in the genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus and traced their evolutionary origins. • Ectocarpus possesses a complete set of enzymes for synthesis of mannitol, laminarin and trehalose. By contrast, the pathways for sucrose, starch and glycogen are completely absent. • The synthesis of β-1,3-glucans appears to be a very ancient eukaryotic pathway. Brown algae inherited the trehalose pathway from the red algal progenitor of phaeoplasts, while the mannitol pathway was acquired by lateral gene transfer from Actinobacteria. The starch metabolism of the red algal endosymbiont was entirely lost in the ancestor of Stramenopiles. In light of these novel findings we question the validity of the 'Chromalveolate hypothesis'.

  14. The genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus contains a series of viral DNA pieces, suggesting an ancient association with large dsDNA viruses

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    Boland Wilhelm

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectocarpus siliculosus virus-1 (EsV-1 is a lysogenic dsDNA virus belonging to the super family of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV that infect Ectocarpus siliculosus, a marine filamentous brown alga. Previous studies indicated that the viral genome is integrated into the host DNA. In order to find the integration sites of the viral genome, a genomic library from EsV-1-infected algae was screened using labelled EsV-1 DNA. Several fragments were isolated and some of them were sequenced and analyzed in detail. Results Analysis revealed that the algal genome is split by a copy of viral sequences that have a high identity to EsV-1 DNA sequences. These fragments are interspersed with DNA repeats, pseudogenes and genes coding for products involved in DNA replication, integration and transposition. Some of these gene products are not encoded by EsV-1 but are present in the genome of other members of the NCLDV family. Further analysis suggests that the Ectocarpus algal genome contains traces of the integration of a large dsDNA viral genome; this genome could be the ancestor of the extant NCLDV genomes. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that the EsV-1 genome might have originated in these viral DNA pieces, implying the existence of a complex integration and recombination system. A protein similar to a new class of tyrosine recombinases might be a key enzyme of this system. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that some dsDNA viruses are monophyletic and evolved principally through genome reduction. Moreover, we hypothesize that phaeoviruses have probably developed an original replication system.

  15. Space-time decoupling in the branching process in the mutant étoile of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus.

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    Nehr, Zofia; Billoud, Bernard; Le Bail, Aude; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2011-12-01

    Ectocarpus siliculosus is being developed as a model organism for brown algal genetics and genomics. Brown algae are phylogenetically distant from the other multicellular phyla (green lineage, red algae, fungi and metazoan) and therefore might offer the opportunity to study novel and alternative developmental processes that lead to the establishment of multicellularity. E. siliculosus develops as uniseriate filaments, thereby displaying one of the simplest architectures among multicellular organisms. The young sporophyte grows as a primary filament and then branching occurs, preferentially at the center of the filament. We recently described the first morphogenetic mutant étoile (etl) in a brown alga, produced by UVB mutagenesis in E. siliculosus. We showed that a single recessive mutation was responsible for a defect in both cell differentiation and the very early branching pattern (first and second branch emergences). Here, we supplement this study by reporting the branching defects observed subsequently, i.e. for the later stages corresponding to the emergence of up to the first six secondary filaments, and we show that the branching process is composed of at least two distinct components: time and position. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  16. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

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    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  17. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids.

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    Le Corguillé, Gildas; Pearson, Gareth; Valente, Marta; Viegas, Carla; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Corre, Erwan; Bailly, Xavier; Peters, Akira F; Jubin, Claire; Vacherie, Benoit; Cock, J Mark; Leblanc, Catherine

    2009-10-16

    Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists) plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including most of the available red algal and chromist

  18. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

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    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  19. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

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    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  20. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

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    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

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    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  2. Worldwide occurrence of virus-infections in filamentous marine brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D. G.; Stache, B.

    1992-03-01

    Virus infections were detected in Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ectocarpus fasciculatus on the coasts of Ireland, California, Peru, southern South America, Australia and New Zealand; in three Feldmannia species on the coasts of Ireland, continental Chile and Archipelago Juan Fernandez (Chile); and in Leptonematella from Antarctica. Natural populations on the Irish coast contained 3% infected plants in E. fasciculatus, and less than 1% in Feldmannia simplex. On the Californian coast, 15 to 25% of Ectocarpus isolates were infected. Virus symptoms were absent in E. siliculosus from Peru, but appeared after meiosis in laboratory cultures. The virus particles in E. fasciculatus are identical in size and capsid structure to those reported for E. siliculosus, while the virus in F. simplex is smaller and has a different envelope. Our findings suggest that virus infections are a common and worldwide phenomenon in filamentous brown algae.

  3. Rapid Evolution of microRNA Loci in the Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, J Mark; Liu, Fuli; Duan, Delin; Bourdareau, Simon; Lipinska, Agnieszka P; Coelho, Susana M; Tarver, James E

    2017-03-01

    Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families. Surprisingly, none of the S. japonica miRNAs share significant sequence similarity with the Ectocarpus sp. miRNAs. However, the miRNA repertoires of the two species share a number of structural and genomic features indicating that they were generated by similar evolutionary processes and therefore probably evolved within the context of a common, ancestral miRNA system. This lack of sequence similarity suggests that miRNAs evolve rapidly in the brown algae (the two species are separated by ∼95 Myr of evolution). The sets of predicted targets of miRNAs in the two species were also very different suggesting that the divergence of the miRNAs may have had significant consequences for miRNA function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Biosynthetic pathway and health benefits of fucoxanthin, an algae-specific xanthophyll in brown seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Koji; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2013-07-02

    Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown seaweeds to date. Here, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for fucoxanthin in the brown seaweed, Ectocarpus siliculosus, derived from comparison of carotenogenic genes in its sequenced genome with those in the genomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Currently, fucoxanthin is receiving attention, due to its potential benefits for human health. Therefore, new knowledge regarding the medical and nutraceutical properties of fucoxanthin from brown seaweeds is also summarized here.

  5. Biosynthetic Pathway and Health Benefits of Fucoxanthin, an Algae-Specific Xanthophyll in Brown Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hosokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown seaweeds to date. Here, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for fucoxanthin in the brown seaweed, Ectocarpus siliculosus, derived from comparison of carotenogenic genes in its sequenced genome with those in the genomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Currently, fucoxanthin is receiving attention, due to its potential benefits for human health. Therefore, new knowledge regarding the medical and nutraceutical properties of fucoxanthin from brown seaweeds is also summarized here.

  6. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is...

  8. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  9. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  10. Evolution and Expansion of the Prokaryote-Like Lipoxygenase Family in the Brown Alga Saccharina japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Teng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (LOX plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a β barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which

  11. Microarray estimation of genomic inter-strain variability in the genus Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Akira F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Brown algae of the genus Ectocarpus exhibit high levels of genetic diversity and variability in morphological and physiological characteristics. With the establishment of E. siliculosus as a model and the availability of a complete genome sequence, it is now of interest to analyze variability among different species, ecotypes, and strains of the genus Ectocarpus both at the genome and the transcriptome level. Results We used an E. siliculosus gene expression microarray based on EST sequences from the genome-sequenced strain (reference strain to carry out comparative genome hybridizations for five Ectocarpus strains: four E. siliculosus isolates (the male genome strain, a female strain used for outcrosses with the genome strain, a strain isolated from freshwater, and a highly copper-tolerant strain, as well as one strain of the sister species E. fasciculatus. Our results revealed significant genomic differences between ecotypes of the same species, and enable the selection of conserved probes for future microarray experiments with these strains. In the two closely related strains (a male and a female strain used for crosses, genomic differences were also detected, but concentrated in two smaller genomic regions, one of which corresponds to a viral insertion site. Conclusion The high variability between strains supports the concept of E. siliculosus as a complex of cryptic species. Moreover, our data suggest that several parts of the Ectocarpus genome may have evolved at different rates: high variability was detected particularly in transposable elements and fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins.

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes: identification of genes and epitopes in brown algae and their role in Fucus serratus embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle; Cassin, Andrew; Johnson, Kim L; Salmeán, Armando A; Willats, William G T; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony; Kloareg, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we investigated the presence of chimeric AGP-like core proteins in this lineage. We report that the genome sequence of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus encodes AGP protein backbone motifs, in a gene context that differs considerably from what is known in land plants. We showed the occurrence of AGP glycan epitopes in a range of brown algal cell wall extracts. We demonstrated that these chimeric AGP-like core proteins are developmentally regulated in embryos of the order Fucales and showed that AGP loss of function seriously impairs the course of early embryogenesis. Our findings shine a new light on the role of AGPs in cell wall sensing and raise questions about the origin and evolution of AGPs in eukaryotes. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  14. Studies on sexual compatibility between Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) from Chile and the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dieter G.

    1988-09-01

    Clonal isolates of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales) originating from Naples (Mediterranean Sea) and southern Chile were compared in laboratory culture studies. The two isolates showed distinctly different morphological characters, but very similar details of life history and sexual reproduction. Gametes are sexually compatible; hybrid zygotes are formed and sporophytes develop, which are fertile on the basis of mitotic spores. However, unilocular sporangia were abortive, indicating segregational sterility caused by chromosomal mismatch during meiosis. Although the biological species concept in a strict sense does not apply, and appreciable morphological variability exists in this cosmopolitan taxon, local populations are considered as representatives of the same species.

  15. Genome and metabolic network of Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32, a new candidate genus of Alphaproteobacteria frequently associated with brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Dittami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobiales and related orders of Alphaproteobacteria comprise several genera of nodule-inducing symbiotic bacteria associated with plant roots. Here we describe the genome and the metabolic network of Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32, a member of a new candidate genus closely related to Rhizobiales and found in association with cultures of the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus. The Ca. P. ectocarpi genome encodes numerous metabolic pathways that may be relevant for this bacterium to interact with algae. Notably, it possesses a large set of glycoside hydrolases and transporters, which may serve to process and assimilate algal metabolites. It also harbors several proteins likely to be involved in the synthesis of algal hormones such as auxins and cytokinins, as well as the vitamins pyridoxine, biotin, and thiamine. As of today, Ca. P. ectocarpi has not been successfully cultured, and identical 16S rDNA sequences have been found exclusively associated with Ectocarpus. However, related sequences (≥ 97% identity have also been detected free-living and in a Fucus vesiculosus microbiome barcoding project, indicating that the candidate genus Phaeomarinobacter may comprise several species, which may colonize different niches.

  16. Genome and metabolic network of "Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi" Ec32, a new candidate genus of Alphaproteobacteria frequently associated with brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittami, Simon M; Barbeyron, Tristan; Boyen, Catherine; Cambefort, Jeanne; Collet, Guillaume; Delage, Ludovic; Gobet, Angélique; Groisillier, Agnès; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Scornet, Delphine; Siegel, Anne; Tapia, Javier E; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales and related orders of Alphaproteobacteria comprise several genera of nodule-inducing symbiotic bacteria associated with plant roots. Here we describe the genome and the metabolic network of "Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi" Ec32, a member of a new candidate genus closely related to Rhizobiales and found in association with cultures of the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus. The "Ca. P. ectocarpi" genome encodes numerous metabolic pathways that may be relevant for this bacterium to interact with algae. Notably, it possesses a large set of glycoside hydrolases and transporters, which may serve to process and assimilate algal metabolites. It also harbors several proteins likely to be involved in the synthesis of algal hormones such as auxins and cytokinins, as well as the vitamins pyridoxine, biotin, and thiamine. As of today, "Ca. P. ectocarpi" has not been successfully cultured, and identical 16S rDNA sequences have been found exclusively associated with Ectocarpus. However, related sequences (≥97% identity) have also been detected free-living and in a Fucus vesiculosus microbiome barcoding project, indicating that the candidate genus "Phaeomarinobacter" may comprise several species, which may colonize different niches.

  17. Halogenated terpenoids from the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (HAUCK)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Bhat, K.L.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Harnos, S.

    ranging from 14:0 to 22:0 with palmitic acid (16:0, 67.4%) and oleic acid (18:1, 17.1%) being the major constituents, have been isolated from the pet, ether soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica...

  18. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs. The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

  19. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  20. Biosynthetic Pathway and Health Benefits of Fucoxanthin, an Algae-Specific Xanthophyll in Brown Seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Koji; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown...

  1. Variation in natural selection for growth and phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jormalainen, V; Honkanen, T

    2004-01-01

    .... We explore both the amount of genetic variation and variability of natural selection for growth and concentration of phenolic secondary compounds, phlorotannins, in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus...

  2. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Mori

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  3. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  4. Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001. Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL, which is one of the most important targets of lipolytic regulation. Here, we examined the biological response of fucoidan on the protein level of lipolysis pathway. The expressed protein levels of total hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and its activated form, phosphorylated-HSL were significantly increased at concentration of 200 µg/mL fucoidan. Furthermore, insulin-induced 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake was decreased up to 51% in fucoidan-treated cells as compared to control. Since increase of HSL and p-HSL expression and decrease of glucose uptake into adipocytes are known to lead to stimulation of lipolysis, our results suggest that fucoidan reduces lipid accumulation by stimulating lipolysis. Therefore, these results suggest that fucoidan can be useful for the prevention or treatment of obesity due to its stimulatory lipolysis.

  5. Production of the blood pressure lowing peptides from brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoru, Sato; Takashi, Oba; Takao, Hosokawa; Toshiyasu, Yamaguchi; Toshiki, Nakano; Tadao, Saito; Koji, Muramoto; Takashi, Kahara; Katsura, Funayama; Akio, Kobayashi; Takahisa, Nakano

    2005-07-01

    Brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida) was treated with alginate lyase and hydrolyzed using 17 kinds of proteases and the inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates for the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) was measured. Four hydrolysates with potent ACE-inhibitory activity were administered singly and orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreases significantly after single oral administration of the brown alga hydrolysates by protease S ‘Amano’ (from Bacillus stearothermophilus) at the concentration of 10 (mg protein) (kg body weight)-1. In the 17 weeks of feeding experiment, 7-week-old SHRs were fed standard diet supplemented with the brown alga hydrolysates for 10 weeks. In SHRs fed 1.0 and 0.1% brown alga hydrolysates, elevating of systolic bloodpressure was significantly suppressed for 7 weeks. To elucidate the active components, the brown alga hydrolysates were fractionated by 1-butanol extraction and HPLC on a reverse-phase column. Seven kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified by amino acid composition analysis, sequence analysis, and LC-MS with the results Val-Tyr, Ile-Tyr, Ala-Trp, Phe-Tyr, Val-Trp, Ile-Trp, and Leu-Trp. Each peptide was determined to have an antihypertensive effect after a single oral administration in SHRs. The brown alga hydrolysates were also confirmed to decrease the blood pressure in humans.

  6. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can simultaneously utilize mannitol, glucose, and alginate to produce ethanol, and high ethanol yields of 0.47 g/g-mannitol, 0.44 g/g-glucose, and 0.3 g/g-alginate were obtained. A rational redox balance system under obligate anaerobic condition in fermenting brown algae was revealed in D. phaphyphila Alg1 through genome and redox analysis. The excess reducing equivalents produced from mannitol metabolism were equilibrated by oxidizing forces from alginate assimilation. Furthermore, D. phaphyphila Alg1 can directly utilize unpretreated kelp powder, and 10 g/L of ethanol was accumulated within 72 h with an ethanol yield of 0.25 g/g-kelp. Microscopic observation further demonstrated the deconstruction process of brown algae cell by D. phaphyphila Alg1. The integrated biomass deconstruction system of D. phaphyphila Alg1, as well as its high ethanol yield, provided us an excellent alternative for brown algae bioconversion at elevated temperature.

  7. The development, ultrastructural cytology, and molecular phylogeny of the basal oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii, infecting the filamentous phaeophyte algae Ectocarpus siliculosus and Pylaiella littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Satoshi; Beakes, Gordon W; Gachon, Claire M M; Müller, Dieter G; Küpper, Frithjof C; Honda, Daiske

    2008-04-01

    The morphological development, ultrastructural cytology, and molecular phylogeny of Eurychasma dicksonii, a holocarpic oomycete endoparasite of phaeophyte algae, were investigated in laboratory cultures. Infection of the host algae by E. dicksonii is initiated by an adhesorium-like infection apparatus. First non-walled, the parasite cell developed a cell wall and numerous large vacuoles once it had almost completely filled the infected host cell (foamy stage). Large-scale cytoplasmic changes led to the differentiation of a sporangium with peripheral primary cysts. Secondary zoospores appeared to be liberated from the primary cysts in the internal space left after the peripheral spores differentiated. These zoospores contained two phases of peripheral vesicles, most likely homologous to the dorsal encystment vesicles and K-bodies observed in other oomycetes. Following zoospore liberation the walls of the empty cyst were left behind, forming the so-called net sporangium, a distinctive morphological feature of this genus. The morphological and ultrastructural features of Eurychasma were discussed in relation to similarities with other oomycetes. Both SSU rRNA and COII trees pointed to a basal position of Eurychasma among the Oomycetes. The cox2 sequences also revealed that the UGA codon encoded tryptophan, constituting the first report of stop codon reassignment in an oomycete mitochondrion.

  8. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  9. Biological Activity and Chemical Constituents of Red and Brown Algae from the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to ha...

  10. Chemical examination of the brown alga Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    The crude methalonic extract of marine algae Stoechospermum marginatum from west coast of India was found to have spasmolytic activity. Search for the pharmacologically active compounds led to the isolation of steroids, fatty acids and an ester...

  11. [Bacterial communities of brown and red algae from Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleneva, I A; Zhukova, N V

    2006-01-01

    The structure of microbial communities of brown algae, red algae, and of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa, healthy and affected with rotten thallus, were comparatively investigated; 61 strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Most of them were identified to the genus level, some Vibrio spp., to the species level according to their phenotypic properties and the fatty acid composition of cellular lipids. The composition of the microflora of two species of brown algae was different. In Chordaria flagelliformis, Pseudomonas spp. prevailed, and in Desmarestia viridis, Bacillus spp. The composition of the microflora of two red algae, G. verrucosa and Camphylaephora hyphaeoides, differed mainly in the ratio of prevailing groups of bacteria. The most abundant were bacteria of the CFB cluster and pseudoalteromonads. In addition, the following bacteria were found on the surface of the algae: Sulfitobacter spp., Halomonas spp., Acinetobacter sp., Planococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Agromyces sp. From tissues of the affected G. verrucosa, only vibrios were isolated, both agarolytic and nonagarolytic. The existence of specific bacterial communities characteristic of different species of algae is suggested and the relation of Vibrio sp. to the pathological process in the tissues of G. verrucosa is supposed.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Laminaria digitata : a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudot-le Secq, MP; Kloareg, B; Loiseaux-de Goer, S

    We report here the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux. L. digitata mtDNA is a circular molecule of 38,007 bp (64.9 % A+ T), encoding 63 genes and 3 ORFs and with only 6-7 % of non-coding sequences. Based on gene content and

  13. Development and characterization of 35 single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canovas, Fernando; Mota, Catarina; Ferreira-Costa, Joana; Serrao, Ester; Coyer, Jim; Olsen, Jeanine; Pearson, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We characterized 35 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. Based on existing Fucus Expressed Sequence Tag libraries for heat and desiccation-stressed tissue, SNPs were developed and confirmed by re-sequencing cDNA from a diverse panel of individuals. SNP

  14. Arsenic content in certain marine brown algae and mangroves from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Chinnaraj, S.; Inamdar, S.N.; Untawale, A.G.

    (CF less than 1). In brown algae organic As is accounted for about 75-90% of total, but in S. Cinereum and Sphacelaria furcigera about 50-60% inorganic As is noted. Basal thallus and reproductive organs of S. cinereum have higher concentration of total...

  15. Growth and grazing on the 'Texas brown tide' alga Aureoumbra lagunensis by the tintinnid Amphorides quadrilineata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hyatt, C.; Buskey, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and ingestion by the loricate ciliate Amphorides quadrilineata exposed to increasing dietary doses of the Texas brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis were investigated. The ciliate grew at a maximum rate of 0.38 d(-1), ingesting 0.032 ppm (similar to6.4 x 10(2) cells) prey d(-1) on a diet...

  16. Evaluation of in vitro antiviral activity of a brown alga ( Cystoseira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hot water extract of a brown marine alga, Cystoseira myrica, from the Persian Gulf was evaluated as an antiviral compound against KOS strain of HSV-1 in cell culture. The extract exhibited antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) not only during absorption of virus to the cells, but also on post ...

  17. Distribution and biomass evaluation of drifting brown algae from Moorea lagoon (French Polynesia) for eco-friendly agricultural use

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zubia; Andréfouët, Serge; Payri, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of two native brown algae, Turbinaria ornata and Sargassum pacificum, was observed on high islands of French Polynesia since the early 1980s. High swells frequently remove algae from their substratum, floating algae concentrate due to local currents in specific lagoon locations, and large compact rafts eventually form. A study of the prospective industrial use of drifting algae was conducted, including estimates of biomass, biomass renewal and agronomical trials. Harvesting ...

  18. Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gachon, Claire M M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Species of filamentous brown algae in the family Ectocarpaceae are significant members of fouling communities. However, there are few systematic studies on the influence of surface physico-chemical properties on their adhesion. In the present paper the development of a novel, laboratory-based adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae, at an appropriate scale for the screening of sets of experimental samples in well-replicated and controlled experiments is described. The assays are based on the colonization of surfaces from a starting inoculum consisting of multicellular filaments obtained by blending the cultured alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum. The adhesion strength of the biomass after 14 days growth was assessed by applying a hydrodynamic shear stress. Results from adhesion tests on a set of standard surfaces showed that E. crouaniorum adhered more weakly to the amphiphilic Intersleek® 900 than to the more hydrophobic Intersleek® 700 and Silastic® T2 coatings. Adhesion to hydrophilic glass was also weak. Similar results were obtained for other cultivated species of Ectocarpus but differed from those obtained with the related ectocarpoid species Hincksia secunda. The response of the ectocarpoid algae to the surfaces was also compared to that for the green alga, Ulva.

  19. Effectiveness of Brown Algae Extract to Reduce Serum Malondialdehyde and Protein Carbonyl Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiana Batubara

    2017-03-01

    Results: There were no significant differences in serum MDA levels among groups (p=0,405. However, serum PCO level in group administered with 450mg/kgBW of brown algae extract decreased significantly compared to control group (p=0.001, group administered with 150mg/kgBW (p=0.001 and 300mg/kgBW (p=0,037. Conclusion: Administration of brown algae extract did not decrease serum MDA levels significantly. Administration of 450mg/kgBW brown algae extract is effective to decrease serum PCO level significantly.

  20. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  1. New data about optic properties of biominerals from some brown algae Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamirsky, I. E.; Chung, G.; Gutnikov, S. A.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    For the first time we made an attempt to study morphological types of phytoliths in the same species of multicellular brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica) growing in different locations. However, in all samples only shapeless silicon dioxide particles were found. Some of them had rough edges, the other had smooth edges. We assume that the rough-edged shapeless phytolithes were formed within cells and smooth-edged - in the intercellular space. Verification of this assumption needs confirmation by detection of similar structures in the tissues of live algae.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  3. Seasonal variations in halides in marine brown algae from Porbandar and Okha coasts (NW coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Singbal, S.Y

    Seasonal variation of halides and their ratios were estimated in three brown algae, namely Cystoseira indica, Sargassum tenerrimum) and S. johnstonii from Porbandar and Okha Coasts. Halides were found to be higher in early stages of growth. The Br...

  4. Occurrence and production of carbon monoxide in some brown algae. [Pelagophycus porra; Pelagophycus giganteus; Nereocystis luetkeana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.J.; Tocher, R.D.

    1966-01-01

    The first report of carbon monoxide in plants was based on studies with the Pacific Coast kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana. This work was extended and later confirmed. In (1916) it was reported that the brown algae Egregia menziesii, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Fucus evanescens did not contain carbon monoxide. Using a more sensitive method, researchers recently showed that the pneumatocysts of Egregia menziesii do indeed contain carbon monoxide, and they also studied its production by tissues of several brown and red algae. Another researcher found that Sargassum linifolium and Fucus virsoides were devoid of this gas, at least in concentrations detectable with a haemoglobin analytical method. By the method to be described, the gas was taken from pneumatocysts of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales) collected at Halifax, Nova Scotia. No carbon monoxide could be detected when 10 cm/sup 3/ of pooled samples of gas was analyzed. 10 references, 2 tables.

  5. Pigments Characterization and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Symbionts of Brown Algae Padinasp. Collected from Karimunjawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Bayu Murti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for carotenoids in nature has been extensively studied because of their applications in foods. One treasure of the biopigment source is symbiotic-microorganisms with marine biota. The advantages of symbiont bacteria are easy to culture and sensitize pigments. The use of symbiont bacteria helps to conserve fish, coral reefs, seagrass, and seaweed. Therefore, the bacteria keeps their existence in their ecosystems. In this study, bacterial symbionts were successfully isolated from brown algae Padina sp. The bacterial symbionts had yellow pigment associated with carotenoids. The pigments were characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with a Photo Diode Array (PDA detector. The carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as dinoxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin. Molecular identification by using a 16S rRNA gene sequence method, reveals that the bacterial symbionts were closely related to Bacillus marisflavi with a homology of 99%. Keywords :carotenoid pigments, brown algae, Padina, bacterial symbionts, 16S rRNA

  6. Chemotactic movement in sperm of the oogamous brown algae, Saccharina japonica and Fucus distichus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nana; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2017-01-01

    In oogamous species of brown algae such as Saccharina japonica and Fucus distichus, the sperm possess an unusual long posterior flagellum, which oscillates actively and produces a propulsive force during swimming. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the effect of chemotactic responses on sperm swimming and flagellar waveforms by high-speed video recordings. We found that the thigmotactic response to the chemo-attractant was not enhanced during chemotactic swimming and that the swimming velocity of sperm did not decrease. As concentration of the chemo-attractant decreased, the sperm performed drastic U-turn movements, which was caused by a rapid and large bend of the posterior flagellum. Unilateral bending of the posterior flagellum when sensing a decrease in the concentration of the chemo-attractant may be a common response in male gametes during fertilization of brown algae both oogamous and isogamous species.

  7. Evaluation of Effective MMP Inhibitors from Eight Different Brown Algae in Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min Joo; Karadeniz, Fatih; Ahn, Byul-Nim; Kong, Chang-Suk

    2015-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial extracellular matrices degrading enzymes that have important roles in metastasis of cancer progression as well as other significant conditions such as oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Marine plants are on the rise for their potential to provide natural products that exhibit remarkable health benefits. In this context, brown algae species have been of much interest in the pharmaceutical field with reported instances of isolation of bioactive compounds against tumor growth and MMP activity. In this study, eight different brown algae species were harvested, and their extracts were compared in regard to their anti-MMP effects. According to gelatin zymography results, Ecklonia cava, Ecklonia bicyclis, and Ishige okamurae showed higher inhibitory effects than the other samples on MMP-2 and -9 activity at the concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL. However, only I. okamurae was able to regulate the MMP activity through the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of MMP observed by mRNA levels. Overall, brown algae species showed to be good sources for anti-MMP agents, while I. okamurae needs to be further studied for its potential to yield pharmaceutical molecules that can regulate MMP-activity through cellular pathways as well as enzymatic inhibition.

  8. Insoluble (1 → 3), (1 → 4)-β-Dglucan is a component of cell walls in brown algae (Phaeophyceae) and is masked by alginates in tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmeán, Armando A.; Duffieux, Delphine; Harholt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms. They belong to the phylum of Stramenopiles, which are not closely related to land plants and green algae. Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other photosynthetic and multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-r...

  9. Screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from the surface of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zhaojie; Wang, Xuejiang; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2017-12-01

    Alginate lyase is a biocatalyst that degrades alginate to produce oligosaccharides, which have many bioactive functions and could be used as renewable biofuels. Here we report a simple and sensitive plate assay for screening alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from brown algae. Brown algae Laminaria japonica, Sargassum horneri and Sargassum siliquatrum were cultured in sterile water. Bacteria growing on the surface of seaweeds were identified and their capacity of excreting alginate lyase was analyzed. A total of 196 strains were recovered from the three different algae samples and 12 different bacterial strains were identified capable of excreting alginate lyases. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that these alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to eight genera: Paenibacillus (4/12), Bacillus (2/12), Leclercia (1/12), Isoptericola (1/12), Planomicrobium (1/12), Pseudomonas (1/12), Lysinibacillus (1/12) and Sphingomonas (1/12). Further analysis showed that the LJ-3 strain (Bacillus halosaccharovorans) had the highest enzyme activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report regarding alginate lyase-excreting strains in Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium and Leclercia. We believe that our method used in this study is relatively easy and reliable for large-scale screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms.

  10. Organic aggregates formed by benthopleustophyte brown alga Acinetospora crinita (Acinetosporaceae, Ectocarpales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Michele; Sartoni, Gianfranco; Nuccio, Caterina; Berto, Daniela; Ferrari, Carla Rita; Najdek, Mirjana; Sist, Paola; Urbani, Ranieri

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the elemental, polysaccharide, and fatty acid compositions of benthic aggregates formed by the filamentous brown alga Acinetospora crinita, which are widely spread on the rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea. The aggregates can be characterized as mineralized centers in which regeneration of nutrients and recycling of dissolved organic matter actively occur and favor the development of an abundant phytoplankton community. Analyses of the stable isotopes of C and N display their marine origin and could provide evidence of the processes that occur inside/outside of the aggregates. The monosaccharide compositions of Adriatic and Tyrrhenian mucilages produced by brown alga A. crinita were quite similar. In particular, the Adriatic sample compositions resembled the average composition of the Tyrrhenian high molecular weight exopolymers, and the observed differences could be ascribed to different degradation stages. The fatty acid patterns found for the aggregates were similar to those observed in the isolated A. crinita algae with variable contributions from embedded diatom species. The bacterial contribution to the fatty acid pool was quite low, most likely due to the known poor conditions for their heterotrophic growth. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Filamentous brown algae infected by the marine, holocarpic oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigoti, Amerssa; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Gachon, Claire MM; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The important role of the cytoskeletal scaffold is increasingly recognized in host-pathogen interactions. The cytoskeleton potentially functions as a weapon for both the plants defending themselves against fungal or oomycete parasites, and for the pathogens trying to overcome the resisting barrier of the plants. This concept, however, had not been investigated in marine algae so far. We are opening this scientific chapter with our study on the functional implications of the cytoskeleton in 3 filamentous brown algal species infected by the marine oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii. Our observations suggest that the cytoskeleton is involved in host defense responses and in fundamental developmental stages of E. dicksonii in its algal host. PMID:24025487

  12. Brown algae ( Phaeophyta) for monitoring heavy metals at the Sudanese Red Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abuagla Y. A.; Idris, Abubakr M.; Ebrahim, Ammar M.; Eltayeb, Mohmaed A. H.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at monitoring some heavy metals at the Sudanese Red Sea coast using Brown algae ( Phaeophyta) as biomonitor. The total contents of heavy metals in four species ( Turbinaria sp., Sargassum sp., Cystoseira sp. and Padina sp.) as well as seawater were examined. Twenty-six algae samples were collected from seven locations. The ranges of concentrations (µg/g, dry wt.) of heavy metals in algae were 4.95-16.95 for Cr, 2.93-257.32 for Mn, 1.35-7.43 for Ni, 0.83-14.10 for Cu, 4.13-19.13 for Zn, 0.03-0.15 for Cd and 0.45-2.18 for Pb. The ranges of the pH and the salinity of seawater from the same locations were 8.11-8.82 and 38.00-41.00 PSU, respectively. The ranges of concentrations (µg/L) of heavy metals in seawater were 7.00-11.00 for Cr, 2.90-10.20 for Mn, 6.70-10.10 for Ni, 1.70-5.00 for Cu, 0.94-5.70 for Zn, 0.09-0.14 for Cd and 0.93-1.80 for Pb. No significant correlations between metal concentrations in algae and seawater were observed. Some locations in the study area recorded relatively high levels of heavy metals in algae indicating possible contribution from manmade activities. Cr recorded higher levels in the study area than those in other coastal areas in the word. Padina sp. and Cystoseira sp. were better bioindicator than Turbinaria sp., Sargassum sp. for their high metal uptake.

  13. Chemical and enzymatic fractionation of cell walls from Fucales: insights into the structure of the extracellular matrix of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud-Bouët, Estelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Kloareg, Bernard; Hervé, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms evolutionarily distant from land plants, with a distinctive cell wall. They feature carbohydrates shared with plants (cellulose), animals (fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, FCSPs) or bacteria (alginates). How these components are organized into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) still remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis of the corresponding biosynthetic routes points toward a complex evolutionary history that shaped the ECM structure in brown algae. Exhaustive sequential extractions and composition analyses of cell wall material from various brown algae of the order Fucales were performed. Dedicated enzymatic degradations were used to release and identify cell wall partners. This approach was complemented by systematic chromatographic analysis to study polymer interlinks further. An additional structural assessment of the sulfated fucan extracted from Himanthalia elongata was made. The data indicate that FCSPs are tightly associated with proteins and cellulose within the walls. Alginates are associated with most phenolic compounds. The sulfated fucans from H. elongata were shown to have a regular α-(1→3) backbone structure, while an alternating α-(1→3), (1→4) structure has been described in some brown algae from the order Fucales. The data provide a global snapshot of the cell wall architecture in brown algae, and contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationships of the main cell wall components. Enzymatic cross-linking of alginates by phenols may regulate the strengthening of the wall, and sulfated polysaccharides may play a key role in the adaptation to osmotic stress. The emergence and evolution of ECM components is further discussed in relation to the evolution of multicellularity in brown algae. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  14. Characterization and properties of sodium alginate from brown algae used as an ecofriendly superabsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmiyati; Aprilliza, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sodium alginate obtained from the extraction of brown algae is used as the backbone for the synthesis of superabsorbent nanocomposite copolymerization. The first stage of extraction is the demineralization process using 0.1 M HCl solution and then 2% Na2CO3 solution for 2 hours at 60°C. The rendement of sodium alginate obtained was 44.32% with molecular weight of 40680 g/mol with measurement of the intrinsic viscosity. FTIR spectra of sodium alginate showed mannuronic acid functional group at wavenumber 884 cm-1 and the uronic acid at wavenumber 939 cm-1, OH functional group at wavenumber 3200-3400 cm-1, and CH2 stretching at wavenumber 2928 cm-1. The diffraction pattern of isolated sodium alginate has specific 2θ at 13.068 and 21.096, amorphous intensity found specific 2θ at 18.058, and the obtained crystallinity degree of the sodium alginate is equal to 29.292% from the XRD analysis. The morphological analysis by SEM shows fibrils of isolated sodium alginate. The success isolation of sodium alginate from brown algae is supported by DSC which shows the decomposition temperature of pure sodium alginate and isolated alginate have close values, namely 251.12°C for pure sodium alginate and 229.90°C for isolated sodium alginate.

  15. Bifurcatriol, a New Antiprotozoal Acyclic Diterpene from the Brown Alga Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Linear diterpenes that are commonly found in brown algae are of high chemotaxonomic and ecological importance. This study reports bifurcatriol (1, a new linear diterpene featuring two stereogenic centers isolated from the Irish brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata. The gross structure of this new natural product was elucidated based on its spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D-NMR, HRMS. Its absolute configuration was identified by experimental and computational vibrational circular dichroism (VCD spectroscopy, combined with the calculation of 13C-NMR chemical shielding constants. Bifurcatriol (1 was tested for in vitro antiprotozoal activity towards a small panel of parasites (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, and Leishmania donovani and cytotoxicity against mammalian primary cells. The highest activity was exerted against the malaria parasite P. falciparum (IC50 value 0.65 μg/mL with low cytotoxicity (IC50 value 56.6 μg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of VCD and DP4 probability analysis of the calculated 13C-NMR chemical shifts for the simultaneous assignment of the absolute configuration of multiple stereogenic centers in a long-chain acyclic natural product.

  16. Brown Algae and Basalt Meal in Maintaining the Activity of Arylsulfatase of Soil Polluted with Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the effectiveness of innovative (basalt meal, brown algae extract) and conventional (barley straw) substances which hypothetically alleviate the inhibiting effect of Cd(2+) on biochemical properties of soil, with particular regard to the activity of arylsulfatase. An analysis of their potential was carried out based on the activity of arylsulfatase and the number of Pseudomonas sp. determined on the 25th and 50th days of the study. Cd(2+) was applied in the following doses: 0, 4, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 mg Cd(2+) kg(-1) of DM soil, in the form of CdCl2·2.5H2O. A complex formulation of the issue was obtained from the presentation of biochemical properties using the RS (resistance of soil) index. Cadmium caused permanent adverse effects in the soil environment, inhibiting the activity of arylsulfatase and the yield of spring barley. The consequences of stress connected with increasing Cd(2+) pollution were intensified by an elongation of the accumulation time of the tested metal in the soil. Chances for regeneration of the soil may be sought, most of all, with the application of straw and, to a lesser degree, with basalt meal. Brown algae did not meet the expectations for its potential. An increase in the studied parameters also resulted from sowing the soil with spring barley.

  17. Cultivable Alginate Lyase-Excreting Bacteria Associated with the Arctic Brown Alga Laminaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhong Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some alginate lyases have been isolated from marine bacteria, alginate lyases-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga have not yet been investigated. Here, the diversity of the bacteria associated with the brown alga Laminaria from the Arctic Ocean was investigated for the first time. Sixty five strains belonging to nine genera were recovered from six Laminaria samples, in which Psychrobacter (33/65, Psychromonas (10/65 and Polaribacter (8/65 were the predominant groups. Moreover, 21 alginate lyase-excreting strains were further screened from these Laminaria-associated bacteria. These alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to five genera. Psychromonas (8/21, Psedoalteromonas (6/21 and Polaribacter (4/21 are the predominant genera, and Psychrobacter, Winogradskyella, Psychromonas and Polaribacter were first found to produce alginate lyases. The optimal temperatures for the growth and algiante lyase production of many strains were as low as 10–20 °C, indicating that they are psychrophilic bacteria. The alginate lyases produced by 11 strains showed the highest activity at 20–30 °C, indicating that these enzymes are cold-adapted enzymes. Some strians showed high levels of extracellular alginate lyase activity around 200 U/mL. These results suggest that these algiante lyase-excreting bacteria from the Arctic alga are good materials for studying bacterial cold-adapted alginate lyases.

  18. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  19. Brown algal morphogenesis: Atomic Force Microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eTesson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves and tide, in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization, deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  20. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd {approx} Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  1. Direct quantification of brown algae-derived fucoidans in human plasma by a fluorescent probe assay

    CERN Document Server

    Warttinger, Ulrich; Harenberg, Job; Krämer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Fucoidan is a generic term for a class of fucose rich, structurally diverse sulfated polysaccharides that are found in brown algae and other marine organisms. Depending on the species from which the fucoidan is extracted, a wide variety of biological activities including antitumor, antiinflammatory, immune-modulating, antiviral, antibacterial and pro- and anticoagulant activities has been described. Fucoidans have the advantage of low toxicity and oral bioavailibiity and are viable drug candidates, preclinical and pilot clinical trials show promising results. The availability of robust assays, in particular for analysing the blood levels of fucoidan, is a fundamental requirement for pharmacokinetic analysis in drug development projects. This contribution describes the application of a commercially availbale, protein-free fluorescent probe assay (Heparin Red) for the direct quantification of several fucoidans (from Fucus vesiculosus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Undaria pinnatifida) in human plasma. By only minor...

  2. A Major Constituent of Brown Algae for Use in High-Capacity Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Igor; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Hertzberg, Benjamin; Milicev, Zoran; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Luzinov, Igor; Yushin, Gleb

    2011-10-01

    The identification of similarities in the material requirements for applications of interest and those of living organisms provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop better materials and design better devices. In our work, we harness this strategy to build high-capacity silicon (Si) nanopowder-based lithium (Li)-ion batteries with improved performance characteristics. Si offers more than one order of magnitude higher capacity than graphite, but it exhibits dramatic volume changes during electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, which typically leads to rapid anode degradation. We show that mixing Si nanopowder with alginate, a natural polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, yields a stable battery anode possessing reversible capacity eight times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes.

  3. Sex-biased gene expression in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria João F; Mota, Catarina F; Pearson, Gareth A

    2013-05-01

    The fucoid brown algae (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) are increasingly the focus of ecological genetics, biodiversity, biogeography and speciation research. The molecular genetics underlying mating system variation, where repeated dioecious - hermaphrodite switches during evolution are recognized, and the molecular evolution of sex-related genes are key questions currently hampered by a lack of genomic information. We therefore undertook a comparative analysis of male and female reproductive tissue transcriptomes against a vegetative background during natural reproductive cycles in Fucus vesiculosus. Over 300 k reads were assembled and annotated against public protein databases including a brown alga. Compared with the vegetative tissue, photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism pathways were under-expressed, particularly in male tissue, while several pathways involved in genetic information processing and replication were over-expressed. Estimates of sex-biased gene (SBG) expression were higher for male (14% of annotated orthologues) than female tissue (9%) relative to the vegetative background. Mean expression levels and variance were also greater in male- than female-biased genes. Major female-biased genes were carbohydrate-modifying enzymes with likely roles in zygote cell wall biogenesis and/or modification. Male-biased genes reflected distinct sperm development and function, and orthologues for signal perception (a phototropin), transduction (several kinases), and putatively flagella-localized proteins (including candidate gamete-recognition proteins) were uniquely expressed in males. Overall, the results suggest constraint on female-biased genes (possible pleiotropy), and less constrained male-biased genes, mostly associated with sperm-specific functions. Our results support the growing contention that males possess a large array of genes regulating male fitness, broadly supporting findings in evolutionarily distant heterogametic animal models. This work

  4. Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ehrig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%. Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81, fucose content (86.1% and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8 and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 μg/mL. Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP.

  5. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  6. Biological activity and chemical constituents of red and brown algae from the persian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses.

  7. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Semipurified Fractions from the Mediterranean Brown Algae, Dictyopteris membranacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akremi, Najoua; Cappoen, Davie; Anthonissen, Roel; Bouraoui, Abderrahman; Verschaeve, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Dictyopteris membranacea, a species of Mediterranean brown algae, is believed to have potential pharmacological and nutritional applications. However, such potentials only make sense when devoid of any adverse health consequences. The present study should be seen in this context. It aimed at evaluating the genotoxicity and cytoxicity of its organic extract (F0) and semi purified fractions (F4, F5, and F6). Extracts were tested using the bacterial Vitotox(®) test and micronucleus assay in different concentrations (from 1.25 μg/mL up to 100 μg/mL, depending on the test and the extract). Applied concentrations were based on a preliminary dose-finding test with the neutral red uptake assay. The results show that all extracts were not genotoxic in the presence or absence of a rat metabolic enzyme fraction (S9). This is encouraging and justifies further investigations on the therapeutic and other values of this algae. Dictyopteris membranacea extracts and some of their semi purified fractions have important antibacterial properties.The organic extract (F0) and semi purified fractions (F4, F5, and F6) were not genotoxic according to the bacterial Vitotox test.They were also not genotoxic according to the micronucleus test in human C3A cells.Applied concentrations were based on the in-vitro neutral red uptake (NRU) test.

  8. Insoluble (1 → 3), (1 → 4)-β-Dglucan is a component of cell walls in brown algae (Phaeophyceae) and is masked by alginates in tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmeán, Armando A.; Duffieux, Delphine; Harholt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms. They belong to the phylum of Stramenopiles, which are not closely related to land plants and green algae. Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other photosynthetic and multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate......-rich cell-wall. Brown algal cell walls are composed predominantly of the polyanionic polysaccharides alginates and fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides. These polymers are prevalent over neutral and crystalline components, which are believed to be mostly, if not exclusively, cellulose. In an attempt...... to better understand brown algal cell walls, we performed an extensive glycan array analysis of a wide range of brown algal species. Here we provide the first demonstration that mixed-linkage (1 → 3), (1 → 4)-β-d-glucan (MLG) is common in brown algal cell walls. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...

  9. Dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP) and proline from the surface of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus inhibit bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Rempt, M; Gebser, B; Grueneberg, J; Pohnert, G; Weinberger, F

    2012-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that polar and non-polar surface extracts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus collected during winter from the Kiel Bight (Germany) inhibited bacterial attachment at natural concentrations. The present study describes the bioassay-guided identification of the active metabolites from the polar fraction. Chromatographic separation on a size-exclusion liquid chromatography column and bioassays identified an active fraction that was further investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This fraction contained the metabolites dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), proline and alanine. DMSP and proline caused the anti-attachment activity. The metabolites were further quantified on the algal surface together with its associated boundary layer. DMSP and proline were detected in the range 0.12-1.08 ng cm(-2) and 0.09-0.59 ng cm(-2), respectively. These metabolites were tested in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1000 ng cm(-2) against the attachment of five bacterial strains isolated from algae and sediment co-occurring with F. vesiculosus. The surface concentrations for 50% inhibition of attachment of these strains were always <0.38 ng cm(-2) for DMSP and in four cases <0.1 ng cm(-2) for proline, while one strain required 1.66 ng cm(-2) of proline for 50% inhibition. Two further bacterial strains that had been directly isolated from F. vesiculosus were also tested, but proved to be the least sensitive. This study shows that DMSP and proline have an ecologically relevant role as surface inhibitors against bacterial attachment on F. vesiculosus.

  10. Intercellular translocation of molecules via plasmodesmata in the multiseriate filamentous brown alga, Halopteris congesta (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasato, Chikako; Tanaka, Atsuko; Ito, Toshiaki; Katsaros, Christos; Motomura, Taizo

    2017-04-01

    Despite the high number of studies on the fine structure of brown algal cells, only limited information is available on the intercelluar transportation of molecules via plasmodesmata in brown algae. In this study, plasmodesmatal permeability of Halopteris congesta was examined by observing the translocation of microinjected fluorescent tracers of different molecular sizes. The tip region of H. congesta consists of a cylindrical apical cell, while the basal region is multiseriate. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD; 3, 10, and 20 kDa) and recombinant green fluorescent protein (27 kDa) were injected into the apical cell and were observed to diffuse into the neighboring cells. FD of 40 kDa was detected only in the injected apical cell. The plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit was considered to be more than 20 kDa and less than 40 kDa. The extent of translocation of 3 and 10 kDa FD from the apical to neighboring cells 2 h postinjection was estimated based on the fluorescence intensity. It was suggested that the diffusing capacity of plasmodesmata varied according to molecular size. In order to examine acropetal and/or basipetal direction of molecular movement, 3 and 10 kDa FD were injected into the third cell from the apical cell. Successive observations indicated that the diffusion of fluorescence in the acropetal direction took longer than that in the basipetal direction. No ultrastructural difference in plasmodesmata was noted among the cross walls. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses: e0128003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emeline Creis; Ludovic Delage; Sophie Charton; Sophie Goulitquer; Catherine Leblanc; Philippe Potin; Erwan Ar Gall

    2015-01-01

      A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure...

  12. The fucoidans from brown algae of Far-Eastern seas: anti-tumor activity and structure-function relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2013-11-15

    The sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae - the fucoidans - are known to be a topic of numerous studies, due to their beneficial biological activities including anti-tumour activity. In this study the effect of fucoidans isolated from brown algae Saccharina cichorioides, Fucus evanescens, and Undaria pinnatifida on the proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and colony formation of mouse epidermal cells JB6 Cl41, human colon cancer DLD-1, breast cancer T-47D, and melanoma RPMI-7951 cell lines was investigated. The algal fucoidans specifically and markedly suppressed the proliferation of human cancer cells with less cytotoxic effects against normal mouse epidermal cells. The highly sulfated (1→3)-α-l-fucan from S. cichorioides was found to be vitally important in the inhibition of EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells. In colony formation assay the fucoidans from different species of brown algae showed selective anti-tumour activity against different types of cancer, which depended on unique structures of the investigated polysaccharides. These results provide evidence for further exploring the use of the fucoidans from S. cichorioides, F. evanescens, and U. pinnatifida as novel chemotherapeutics against different types of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dolabelladienols A–C, New Diterpenes Isolated from Brazilian Brown Alga Dictyota pfaffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Pardo-Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17-dolabelladiene (1, (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17-dolabelladiene (2, (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3, termed dolabelladienols A–C (1–3 respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4–6. The elucidation of the compounds 1–3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM, which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents.

  14. Gold(III) biosorption and bioreduction with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N.; Torres, E. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Blazquez, M.L., E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-07-30

    In this paper, the bioreduction of Au(III) to Au(0) using biomass of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was investigated. The recovery and reduction process took place in two stages with an optimum pH range of 4-9 with a maximum uptake obtained at pH 7. In the first stage, an induction period previous to gold reduction, the variation of pH, redox potential and gold concentration in solution was practically negligible and no color change was observed. In the second stage, the gold reduction was followed by a sharp decrease of gold concentration, pH and redox potential of solution and a color change from yellow to reddish purple. Hydroxyl groups present in the algal polysaccharides were involved in the gold bioreduction. Metallic gold was detected as microprecipitates on the biomass surface and in colloidal form as nanoparticles in the solution. Bioreduction with F. vesiculosus could be an alternative and environmentally friendly process that can be used for recovering gold from dilute hydrometallurgical solutions and leachates of electronic scraps, and for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different size and shape.

  15. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-09-08

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs.

  16. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae: A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivid Costa Soares

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL, and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs.

  17. Extraction and Identification of Phlorotannins from the Brown Alga, Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey Setchell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, which are unique compounds from marine brown algae. In our present study, a procedure for extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from S. fusiforme with highly antioxidant potentials was established. After comparison of different extraction methods, the optimal extraction conditions were established as follows. The freeze-dried seaweed powder was extracted with 30% ethanol-water solvent with a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 at temperature of 25 °C for 30 min. After extraction, the phlorotannins were fractioned by different solvents, among which the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited both the highest total phlorotannin content (88.48 ± 0.30 mg PGE/100 mg extract and the highest antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained from these locations were further purified and characterized using a modified UHPLC-QQQ-MS method. Compounds with 42 different molecular weights were detected and tentatively identified, among which the fuhalol-type phlorotannins were the dominant compounds, followed by phlorethols and fucophlorethols with diverse degree of polymerization. Eckol-type phlorotannins including some newly discovered carmalol derivatives were detected in Sargassum species for the first time. Our study not only described the complex phlorotannins composition in S. fusiforme, but also highlighted the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds.

  18. Dolabelladienols A–C, New Diterpenes Isolated from Brazilian Brown Alga Dictyota pfaffii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Oliveira, Ingrid de Barcelos; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A–C (1–3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4–6). The elucidation of the compounds 1–3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  19. Brevibacterium celere sp. nov., isolated from degraded thallus of a brown alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Christen, Richard; Alexeeva, Yulia V; Zhukova, Natalia V; Gorshkova, Natalia M; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Mikhailov, Valery V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2004-11-01

    Two whitish yellow, Gram-positive, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from enrichment culture during degradation of the thallus of the brown alga Fucus evanescens. The bacteria studied were chemo-organotrophic, mesophilic and grew well on nutrient media containing up to 15 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 61 mol%. The two isolates exhibited a conspecific DNA-DNA relatedness value of 98 %, indicating that they belong to the same species. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KMM 3637(T) formed a distinct phyletic lineage in the genus Brevibacterium (family Brevibacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria) and showed the highest sequence similarity (about 97 %) to Brevibacterium casei. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated 45 % binding with the DNA of B. casei DSM 20657(T). Physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics (meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, major cellular fatty acids 15 : 0ai and 17 : 0ai) of the bacteria studied were consistent with the genomic and phylogenetic data. On the basis of the results of this study, a novel species, Brevibacterium celere sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3637(T) (=DSM 15453(T)=ATCC BAA-809(T)).

  20. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo-Ciau, Zulema; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Quijano, Leovigildo; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 μg/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (1), together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (2) and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 1–3 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 1–3 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections. PMID:20479979

  1. Evaluation of Marine Brown Algae and Sponges from Brazil as Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Meneses Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ischemic disorders, in which platelet aggregation and blood coagulation are involved, represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. The antithrombotic therapy has unsatisfactory performance and may produce side effects. So, there is a need to seek molecules with antithrombotic properties. Marine organisms produce substances with different well defined ecological functions. Moreover, some of these molecules also exhibit pharmacological properties such as antiviral, anticancer, antiophidic and anticoagulant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through in vitro tests, the effect of two extracts of brown algae and ten marine sponges from Brazil on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. Our results revealed that most of the extracts were capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and clotting measured by plasma recalcification tests, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogenolytic activity. On the other hand, five of ten species of sponges induced platelet aggregation. Thus, the marine organisms studied here may have molecules with antithrombotic properties, presenting biotechnological potential to antithrombotic therapy. Further chemical investigation should be conducted on the active species to discover useful molecules for the development of new drugs to treat clotting disorders.

  2. Evaluation of marine brown algae and sponges from Brazil as anticoagulant and antiplatelet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Moura, Laura; Ortiz-Ramirez, Fredy; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrao; Ribeiro, Suzi Meneses; Muricy, Guilherme; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Fuly, Andre Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The ischemic disorders, in which platelet aggregation and blood coagulation are involved, represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. The antithrombotic therapy has unsatisfactory performance and may produce side effects. So, there is a need to seek molecules with antithrombotic properties. Marine organisms produce substances with different well defined ecological functions. Moreover, some of these molecules also exhibit pharmacological properties such as antiviral, anticancer, antiophidic and anticoagulant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through in vitro tests, the effect of two extracts of brown algae and ten marine sponges from Brazil on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. Our results revealed that most of the extracts were capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and clotting measured by plasma recalcification tests, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogenolytic activity. On the other hand, five of ten species of sponges induced platelet aggregation. Thus, the marine organisms studied here may have molecules with antithrombotic properties, presenting biotechnological potential to antithrombotic therapy. Further chemical investigation should be conducted on the active species to discover useful molecules for the development of new drugs to treat clotting disorders.

  3. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium meal in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae. The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%. The diets were given with or without enzyme supplementation. This resulted in 3 (preparation methods × 2 (concentrations of supplemented BMA, i.e. 3 and 6 % × 2 (with and without enzyme supplementation diet programs plus two control groups (with and without enzyme supplementation for a total of 14 treatments. Each treatment was represented by six replicates of five hens each. Sun dried or autocalved brown marine algae at 3% without enzyme supplementation in the laying hen diet could be fed to laying hens without any adverse effect on laying performance. However, enzyme supplementation to a diet containing 6% autocalved brown marine algae improved productive performance and eggshell quality.

  4. The influence of brown algae alginates on phenolic compounds capability of ultraviolet radiation absorption in vitro

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    Leonardo Tavares Salgado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae phenolic compounds (PC are secondary metabolites that participate in many biological processes, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV protection, polyspermy blocking and trace metals bounding. Recently, PC has also been studied due to possible interactions with cell wall polysaccharides. However, there are few evidences of these interactions and their influence in physiological processes. The interactions between PC from the brown alga Padina gymnospora and alginates and the influence of these interactions on the UV absorption properties of PC were investigated in this work. Chromatography and spectrophotometry techniques were used to isolate, characterize and determine UV absorption capacity of studied compounds. Even after the P. gymnospora polysaccharide extraction and isolating methods, the PC was maintained linked to the alginate. The interaction of alginates with PC did not cause modifications on absorbance pattern of electromagnetic spectrum (UV-VIS-IR. The UV absorbance capability of PC linked to alginate was maintained for a longer period of time if compared with the purified PC. The obtained results reveal the strong linkage between PC and alginates and that these linkages preserve the UV absorption capability of PC along time.Os compostos fenólicos (PC de algas pardas são metab��litos secundários que participam de diversos processos biológicos, como proteção contra radiação ultravioleta (UV, bloqueio de poliespermia e ligação de metais. Recentemente, os PC têm sido estudados devido a possíveis interações com polissacarídeos da parede celular. Entretanto, existem poucas evidências sobre estas interações e sua influência em processos fisiológicos. Neste trabalho, foram investigadas as interações entre os PC de Padina gymnospora e os alginatos e a influência destas interações na capacidade de absorção de UV pelos PC. Foram utilizadas técnicas cromatográficas e espectrofotométricas para o

  5. A Molecular Insight into Algal-Oomycete Warfare: cDNA Analysis of Ectocarpus siliculosus Infected with the Basal Oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Martina; Sterck, Lieven; Küpper, Frithjof C.; van West, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Brown algae are the predominant primary producers in coastal habitats, and like land plants are subject to disease and parasitism. Eurychasma dicksonii is an abundant, and probably cosmopolitan, obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen of marine brown algae. Oomycetes (or water moulds) are pathogenic or saprophytic non-photosynthetic Stramenopiles, mostly known for causing devastating agricultural and aquacultural diseases. Whilst molecular knowledge is restricted to crop pathogens, pathogenic oomycetes actually infect hosts from most eukaryotic lineages. Molecular evidence indicates that Eu. dicksonii belongs to the most early-branching oomycete clade known so far. Therefore Eu. dicksonii is of considerable interest due to its presumed environmental impact and phylogenetic position. Here we report the first large scale functional molecular data acquired on the most basal oomycete to date. 9873 unigenes, totalling over 3.5Mb of sequence data, were produced from Sanger-sequenced and pyrosequenced EST libraries of infected Ectocarpus siliculosus. 6787 unigenes (70%) were of algal origin, and 3086 (30%) oomycete origin. 57% of Eu. dicksonii sequences had no similarity to published sequence data, indicating that this dataset is largely unique. We were unable to positively identify sequences belonging to the RXLR and CRN groups of oomycete effectors identified in higher oomycetes, however we uncovered other unique pathogenicity factors. These included putative algal cell wall degrading enzymes, cell surface proteins, and cyclophilin-like proteins. A first look at the host response to infection has also revealed movement of the host nucleus to the site of infection as well as expression of genes responsible for strengthening the cell wall, and secretion of proteins such as protease inhibitors. We also found evidence of transcriptional reprogramming of E. siliculosus transposable elements and of a viral gene inserted in the host genome. PMID:21935414

  6. DNA variation in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakirev Evgeniy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is an economically important and highly morphologically variable brown alga inhabiting the northwest Pacific marine waters. On the basis of nuclear (ITS, plastid (rbcLS and mitochondrial (COI DNA sequence data, we have analyzed the genetic composition of typical Saccharina japonica (TYP and its two common morphological varieties, known as the “longipes” (LON and “shallow-water” (SHA forms seeking to clarify their taxonomical status and to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within S. japonica. Results The data show that the TYP and LON forms are very similar genetically in spite of drastic differences in morphology, life history traits, and ecological preferences. Both, however, are genetically quite different from the SHA form. The two Saccharina lineages are distinguished by 109 fixed single nucleotide differences as well as by seven fixed length polymorphisms (based on a 4,286 bp concatenated dataset that includes three gene regions. The GenBank database reveals a close affinity of the TYP and LON forms to S. japonica and the SHA form to S. cichorioides. The three gene markers used in the present work have different sensitivity for the algal species identification. COI gene was the most discriminant gene marker. However, we have detected instances of interspecific COI recombination reflecting putative historical hybridization events between distantly related algal lineages. The recombinant sequences show highly contrasted level of divergence in the 5’- and 3’- regions of the gene, leading to significantly different tree topologies depending on the gene segment (5’- or 3’- used for tree reconstruction. Consequently, the 5’-COI “barcoding” region (~ 650 bp can be misleading for identification purposes, at least in the case of algal species that might have experienced historical hybridization events. Conclusion Taking into account

  7. Rapid Mass Spectrometric Analysis of a Novel Fucoidan, Extracted from the Brown Alga Coccophora langsdorfii

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    Stanislav D. Anastyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel highly sulfated (35% fucoidan fraction Cf2 , which contained, along with fucose, galactose and traces of xylose and uronic acids was purified from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii. Its structural features were predominantly determined (in comparison with fragments of known structure by a rapid mass spectrometric investigation of the low-molecular-weight fragments, obtained by “mild” (5 mg/mL and “exhaustive” (maximal concentration autohydrolysis. Tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS of fucooligosaccharides with even degree of polymerization (DP, obtained by “mild” autohydrolysis, were the same as that observed for fucoidan from Fucus evanescens, which have a backbone of alternating (1 → 3- and (1 → 4 linked sulfated at C-2 and sometimes at C-4 of 3-linked α-L-Fucp residues. Fragmentation patterns of oligosaccharides with odd DP indicated sulfation at C-2 and at C-4 of (1 → 3 linked α-L-Fucp residues on the reducing terminus. Minor sulfation at C-3 was also suggested. The “exhaustive” autohydrolysis allowed us to observe the “mixed” oligosaccharides, built up of fucose/xylose and fucose/galactose. Xylose residues were found to occupy both the reducing and nonreducing termini of FucXyl disaccharides. Nonreducing galactose residues as part of GalFuc disaccharides were found to be linked, possibly, by 2-type of linkage to fucose residues and were found to be sulfated, most likely, at position C-2.

  8. The toxicity of brown algae (Sargassum sp extract to mice (Mus muscullus

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    Rahmat Wariz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian is a country with very large and overflow marine biological resources. Utilization of seaweed has been developed and become a source of revenue for Indonesian who live in coastal areas with high potential for seaweed.The demand of seaweed in the world increases as increasing in the use of seaweed for various purposeamong others in the fields of industry, food, textile, paper, paints, cosmetics, medical and pharmaceutical field. Alginate is one of materials that commonly used in the field of dentistry as printed materials to create study models. Materials in the field of dentistry must be biocompatible to the oral cavity tissues. The materials should be stable, safe, comfortable, and certainly doesn’t have a toxicity character to the oral cavity tissues and other tissues in human body. The purpose of this study is to know the toxicity of extract brown algaeSargassum sp given orally to mice.The research perform experimental laboratory research type withexperimental post-tes-only control group design. The reseach samples applyfemales white mice (Mus muscullus. Research samples divided into 5 groups of 5 female mices for each treatment group. Treatment group 1 was given 500mg/kgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 2 was given 1000mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 3 was given 1500mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 4 were 2000mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, and a control group was given only dose of Na CMC. The result of this study isdose in humans are converted into 2000mg/KgBW in mice, is a doses that doesn’t cause the death of whole animals. Based of acute toxicity category, the extracts of Sargassum sp that obtained from Punaga Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi includes in the mild toxic.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China); Zou, Huixi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pang, Qiuying, E-mail: qiuying@nefu.edu.cn [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival.

  10. Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Sargassum mcclurei

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    Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35% galactofucan, and the main chain of the polysaccharide contains a →3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→ motif with 1,4-linked 3-sulfated α-l-Fucp inserts and 6-linked galactose on reducing end. Possible branching points include the 1,2,6- or 1,3,6-linked galactose and/or 1,3,4-linked fucose residues that could be glycosylated with terminal β-d-Galp residues or chains of alternating sulfated 1,3-linked α-l-Fucp and 1,4-linked β-d-Galp residues, which have been identified in galactofucans for the first time. Both α-l-Fucp and β-d-Galp residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 (and some C-6 of β-d-Galp and potentially the C-3 of terminal β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp and 1,4-linked α-l-Fucp residues. All fucoidans fractions were less cytotoxic and displayed colony formation inhibition in colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions are potential antitumor agents.

  11. Kinetics and isotherm of nickel ions elimination from aqueous solution, by brown alga (Cystoseira indica from Oman Sea

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    Salman Ahmady-Asbchin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the effective methods for the separation and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solutions is the use of biosorbents. This study investigated the use of brown algae Cystoseira indica for removal of nickel ions from aqueous solution. In this study, adsorption isotherms and Kinetic nickel ions by algae in a batch reactor was studied. Brown algae were collected from the Coast of Oman Sea in Chabahar. This study showed that for nickel (II uptakes, equilibrium time was about 120 minutes and the adsorption equilibrium date were well described by Langmuir equation. The maximum capacity was extrapolated to 0.29 and 0.34 mmol /g onto Cystoseira indica at pH 4 and 5 respectively. The high values of the correlation coefficient (Sargassum R2 = 0.953 at pH 4, and R2= 0.995 at pH 5 and bL the Langmuir constant equalled to 54.05, 150.15 which demonstrated equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which fitted the Langmuir isotherms model equations well.

  12. Antibacterial and Anti-oxidant activity of three species of green, brown and red algae from Northern coast of Persian Gulf

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    Mohseen Heidari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine algae are shown to contain a wide range of bioactive compounds, which have commercial application in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. The biological activity of the natural bio-active compounds in algae has wide effects on bacteria, tumors and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to determine antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the marine algae. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of three species of green, brown and red algae were done by soaking method from northern coast of the Persian Gulf in Busheher province. Antibacterial activity of L. monocytogenes and E. Coli were performed using disk diffusion and well method, and also antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of added three species accomplished using DPPH, FRAP and PMB tests. Results: The highest antioxidant activity was belonged to brown algae C. trinodis. Meanwhile Algae extraction was not revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli, but showed antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes. Conclusion: In this study algae species was exhibited excellent antioxidant activity when compared with their antibacterial effects. The highest anti-oxidant activitie was found in brown algae C. trinodis.

  13. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  14. Mychonastes desiccatus Brown sp. nova (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta)--an intertidal alga forming achlorophyllous desiccation-resistant cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.; McKhann, H.; Moynihan, B.

    1988-01-01

    An intertidal Chlorella-like alga Mychonastes desiccatus Brown sp. nova, capable of forming achlorophyllous desiccation-resistant cysts, has been grown in unialgal culture. This small alga was first isolated from a dried sample of a well-studied microbial mat. The mat, located at North Pond, Laguna Figueroa, San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, is a vertically-stratified microbial community which forms laminated sediments. Morphology, pigment composition and G+C content are within the range typical for the genus Chlorella s. 1. Unlike other chlorellae, however, upon desiccation M. desiccatus forms an achlorophyllous, lipid-filled cyst (thick-walled resting stage) in which no plastid is evident. Rewetting leads to chloroplast differentiation, excystment and recovery of the fully green alga. During desiccation, sporopollenin is deposited within a thickening cell wall. Encystment cannot be induced by growth in the dark. The formation of desiccation-induced cysts allows the alga to survive frequent and intermittent periods of dryness. These chlorellae tolerate wide ranges of acidity and temperature; they both grow and form cysts in media in which sodium ions are replaced with potassium. Although the cysts tolerate crystalline salts, the cell grow optimally in concentrations corresponding from three-quarters to full-strength seawater.

  15. A multi-locus time-calibrated phylogeny of the brown algae (Heterokonta, Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae): Investigating the evolutionary nature of the "brown algal crown radiation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberfeld, Thomas; Leigh, Jessica W; Verbruggen, Heroen; Cruaud, Corinne; de Reviers, Bruno; Rousseau, Florence

    2010-08-01

    The most conspicuous feature in previous phaeophycean phylogenies is a large polytomy known as the brown algal crown radiation (BACR). The BACR encompasses 10 out of the 17 currently recognized brown algal orders. A recent study has been able to resolve a few nodes of the BACR, suggesting that it may be a soft polytomy caused by a lack of signal in molecular markers. The present work aims to refine relationships within the BACR and investigate the nature and timeframe of the diversification in question using a dual approach. A multi-marker phylogeny of the brown algae was built from 10 mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear loci (>10,000 nt) of 72 phaeophycean taxa, resulting in trees with well-resolved inter-ordinal relationships within the BACR. Using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analysis, it is shown that the BACR is likely to represent a gradual diversification spanning most of the Lower Cretaceous rather than a sudden radiation. Non-molecular characters classically used in ordinal delimitation were mapped on the molecular topology to study their evolutionary history. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing...

  17. Drifting blooms of the endemic filamentous brown alga Hincksia sordida at Noosa on the subtropical east Australian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A

    2006-08-01

    Since 2002, the usually uncommon endemic filamentous brown alga Hincksia sordida (Harvey) Silva (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyta) has formed nuisance blooms annually during spring/early summer at Main Beach, Noosa on the subtropical east Australian coast. The Hincksia bloom coincides with the normally intensive recreational use of the popular bathing beach by the local population and tourists. The alga forms dense accumulations in the surf zone at Main Beach, giving the seawater a distinct brown coloration and deterring swimmers from entering the water. Decomposing algae stranded by receding tides emit a nauseating sulphurous stench which hangs over the beach. The stranded algal biomass is removed from the beach by bulldozers. During blooms, the usually crowded Main Beach is deserted, bathers preferring to use the many unaffected beaches on the Sunshine Coast to the south of Main Beach. The bloom worsens with north-easterly winds and is cleared from Noosa by south easterly winds, observations which have prompted the untenable proposal by local authorities that the bloom is forming offshore of Fraser Island in the South Pacific Ocean. The Noosa River estuarine system/Laguna Bay is the more probable source of the bloom and the nutrient inputs into this system must be substantial to generate the high bloom biomass. Current mitigation procedures of removing the blooming alga off the beach with bulldozers treat the symptom, not the cause and are proving ineffective. Environmental management must be based on science and the Noosa bloom would benefit greatly from the accurate ecological data on which to base management options.

  18. Effects of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn on brown tide alga Aureococcus anophagefferens growth and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Axe, Lisa; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Wei, Liping

    2012-01-03

    Trace metals play important roles in regulating phytoplankton growth and could influence algal bloom development. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn on Aureococcus anophagefferens bloom (brown tide) development. Results show that the elevated Ni(2+) concentrations, e.g. those of brown tide waters in the northeastern US, greatly stimulated A. anophagefferens growth (as compared to the control without Ni addition), yet, only low amounts of dissolved Ni were sequestered, thus leaving excessive Ni directly promoting A. anophagefferens blooms. The medium effective concentration EC(50) (Me(2+)) suggests A. anophagefferens has similar Cd sensitivity but much greater Cu tolerance as compared to cyanobacteria, as such, excessive Cu could indirectly promote A. anophagefferens blooms by inhibiting competitors such as Synechococcus sp. The effects of Ni and Cu promoting growth are consistent with the recent genomic study of this alga. In addition, Zn(2+) concentrations lower than those in brown tide waters enhance A. anophagefferens growth, but Zn sequestration in A. anophagefferens would not substantially reduce total dissolved Zn in these waters. Overall, this study, showing that excessive Cu and Ni likely promote brown tides, provides evidence for trace metal linkages in algal bloom development.

  19. The difference of anti-inflammatory effect of brown algae extract Padina sp. and Sargassum sp. that is derived from Punaga beach, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmawati Asmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the difference of anti-inflammatory effect of brown algae extract Padina sp. and Sargassum sp. that is derived from Punaga beach, South Sulawesi toward mice. Seaweed is one of resourceful plants in Indonesian ocean. Some researchers suggested that brown seaweed has a potential to be an anti-inflammatory agent because of it contains polysaccharide sulfate, PUFA, and fuchosantin. Punaga village that is located in South Sulawesi is an area with most of their people work as seaweed farmer and cultivation of seaweed. This is the reason why researcher found it interest to use natural sources as an alternative of herbal medicine especially as an anti-inflamatory.As many as 20 male mice were used as sample in this study weighing 14-35 g and divided into four treatment groups (n=5. Group 1 as positive control with 5 mice for sample, use diclofenac sodium solution 0.35 mg/35 g body weight. Group 2 as negative control with 5 mice for sample use NaCMC solution. Group 3 with also 5 mice for sample use methanol extract of Padina sp. with dose 7 mg/35 g body weight. And group 4 with 5 mice use methanol extract of Sargassum sp. with dose 6.125 mg/35 g body weight. Thirty minutes after injection of test material, 0.5 ml pepton 1% is injected into mice leg. The assessment of mice leg use plethysmometer that is taken on the first hour until fourth hour after injection of pepton 1%. Data analysis use T-test to find out the difference of anti-inflamatory effect of brown algae extract Padina sp. and Sargassum sp. Based on the result of this study, it showed that brown algae extract Padina sp has P (0.025 < 0.05 and brown algae extract Sargassum sp. has P (0.02 < 0.05 which means that there are anti-inflammatory effect found in both test materials. And it is also found that brown algae extract Padina sp. has longer anti inflammatory effect half time than in brown algae extract Sargassum sp. Brown algae extract

  20. Evaluation of in vitro anti-Leishmanial activity of some brown, green and red algae from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladvand, M; Barazesh, A; Farokhzad, F; Malekizadeh, H; Sartavi, K

    2011-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease which is transmitted by the female Phlebotomus sand fly and is prevalent in four continents.The first-choice treatment for the leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimonials, which are potentially toxic and often ineffective and use of them exhibit therapeutic failure. These pharmaceutical problems point towards the need to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. Seaweeds are considered as source of bioactive metabolites characterized by a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this experimental study, cold and hot water crude extracts of four species of green, brown and red marine algae "Caulerpa sertularioides, Gracilaria corticata, Gracillaria salicornia and Sargassum oligocystum" collected along the Bushehr coast of the Persian Gulf (southwest of Iran), prepared and their in vitro activities against Leishmania major promastigote were evaluated by using the MTT assay test. The cold and hot water crude extracts of four algae species exhibited different anti-Leishmanial activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration of hot water extracts calculated as IC50 was as follows: Caulerpa sertularioides (IC50 125 microg/ml) for Caulerpa Sertularioides (IC50 >65 microg/ml) for Gracilaria corticata (IC50 >74 microg/ml) for Gracilaria salicornia and (IC50 >105 microg/ml) for Sargassum oligocystum, IC50 values for reference drug (Amphotericin B) was (0.16-0.2 microg/ml). According to the results, inhibitory effects of the crude extracts from these four species algae specially hot water crude extracts from "Gracilaria corticata, Gracillaria salicornia and Sargassum oligocystum" are significant and in accordance with other studies that has been done on different algae species. So these results are sufficiently promising to be followed with further studies on isolation and characterization of pure compounds from these algae species as well as in vivo experiments, a work that is already under way in our laboratory.

  1. Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what...

  2. Infection of the brown alga E ctocarpus siliculosus by the oomycete E urychasma dicksonii induces oxidative stress and halogen metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Martina; Grenville‐Briggs, Laura J.; Breithut, Lisa; Van West, Pieter; Gachon, Claire M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pathogens are increasingly being recognized as key evolutionary and ecological drivers in marine ecosystems. Defence mechanisms of seaweeds, however, have mostly been investigated by mimicking infection using elicitors. We have established an experimental pathosystem between the genome brown model seaweed E ctocarpus siliculosus and the oomycete E urychasma dicksonii as a powerful new tool to investigate algal responses to infection. Using proteomics, we identified 21 algal proteins differentially accumulated in response to E u. dicksonii infection. These include classical algal stress response proteins such as a manganese superoxide dismutase, heat shock proteins 70 and a vanadium bromoperoxidase. Transcriptional profiling by qPCR confirmed the induction of the latter during infection. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed at different infection stages via histochemical staining. Inhibitor studies confirmed that the main source of hydrogen peroxide is superoxide converted by superoxide dismutase. Our data give an unprecedented global overview of brown algal responses to pathogen infection, and highlight the importance of oxidative stress and halogen metabolism in these interactions. This suggests overlapping defence pathways with herbivores and abiotic stresses. We also identify previously unreported actors, in particular a Rad23 and a plastid–lipid‐associated protein, providing novel insights into the infection and defence processes in brown algae. PMID:25764246

  3. The role of chemical antifouling defence in the invasion success of Sargassum muticum: A comparison of native and invasive brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schwartz

    Full Text Available Competition and fouling defence are important traits that may facilitate invasions by non-indigenous species. The 'novel weapons hypothesis' (NWH predicts that the invasive success of exotic species is closely linked to the possession of chemical defence compounds that the recipient community in the new range is not adapted to. In order to assess whether chemical defence traits contribute to invasion success, anti-bacterial, anti-quorum sensing, anti-diatom, anti-larval and anti-algal properties were investigated for the following algae: a the invasive brown alga Sargassum muticum from both, its native (Japan and invasive (Germany range, b the two non- or weak invasive species Sargassum fusiforme and Sargassum horneri from Japan, and c Fucus vesiculosus, a native brown alga from Germany. Crude and surface extracts and lipid fractions of active extracts were tested against common fouling organisms and zygotes of a dominant competing brown alga. Extracts of the native brown alga F. vesiculosus inhibited more bacterial strains (75% than any of the Sargassum spp. (17 to 29%. However, Sargassum spp. from Japan exhibited the strongest settlement inhibition against the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and zygotes of the brown alga F. vesiculosus. Overall, extracts of S. muticum from the invasive range were less active compared to those of the native range suggesting an adaptation to lower fouling pressure and competition in the new range resulting in a shift of resource allocation from costly chemical defence to reproduction and growth. Non-invasive Sargassum spp. from Japan was equally defended against fouling and competitors like S. muticum from Japan indicating a necessity to include these species in European monitoring programs. The variable antifouling activity of surface and crude extracts highlights the importance to use both for an initial screening for antifouling activity.

  4. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) produced using brown alga extract ( Bifurcaria bifurcata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Y.; Saffaj, T.; Chagraoui, A.; El Bouari, A.; Brouzi, K.; Tanane, O.; Ihssane, B.

    2014-06-01

    Recently, biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted scientists' attention because of the necessity to develop new clean, cost-effective and efficient synthesis techniques. In particular, metal oxide nanoparticles are receiving increasing attention in a large variety of applications. However, up to now, the reports on the biopreparation and characterization of nanocrystalline copper oxide are relatively few compared to some other metal oxides. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of brown alga ( Bifurcaria bifurcata) in the biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles of dimensions 5-45 nm. The synthesized nanomaterial is characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation and the crystalline nature of copper oxide nanomaterial. Further, these nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against two different strains of bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive).

  5. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of a sulfate transfer during autohydrolysis of a fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescens by tandem ESIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Shevchenko, Natalia M; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2011-12-27

    A fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescens was effectively depolymerized by autohydrolysis. Negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) revealed that the mixture contained sulfated mono- and oligosaccharides with polymerization degree (DP) up to 6, having from 1 to 4 sulfate groups per molecule. The prevalence of oligosaccharides with even DP was observed. It could be explained by the tendency of the 3-linked α-L-fucopyranose residues to hydrolyze faster than 4-linked ones. The intermolecular sulfate transfer during autohydrolysis was detected by ESIMS, when equimolar quantities of D-Rib and D-Glc were added as acceptors. The products were singly-sulfated and hexose was about four times more effective as an acceptor, than pentose. It was impossible to record MS/MS spectra of the sulfate transfer products, since intensities of their ions were too low. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Data set for extraction and transesterification of bio-oil from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariram Venkatesan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0.50 g and 8:1 M ratio. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the physio-chemical properties of the derived algal biodiesel were also presented.

  8. Diversity and abundance of isopod fauna associated with holdfasts of the brown alga Himantothallus grandifolius in Admiralty Bay, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemko Karol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of isopods, representing 10 families, were recorded on holdfasts of the brown alga Himantothallus grandifolius. Material was collected in the 15–75 m depth range during the austral summer of 1979/80. The isopod community was dominated by Caecognathia antarctica (mean density 12.4 ± 13.1 ind./100 ml followed by Cymodocella tubicauda (mean density 0.7 ± 2.1 ind./100 ml. Mean total density of isopods reached the value of 16.1 ± 14.0 ind./100 ml. The comparison with the other studies showed that holdfasts are inhabited by a distinctive isopod community that differs from the isopod fauna associated with soft bottom of Admiralty Bay.

  9. Enemy release an unlikely explanation for the invasive potential of the brown alga Sargassum muticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Johnsen, Kathrine L.; Halle, Louise L.

    2016-01-01

    included in the comparison. We conducted therefore a series of feeding experiments to test if Danish S. muticum is grazed less upon than a range of native algae by the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris and complemented the experiments with a meta-analysis based on published data. In no-choice trials, P...

  10. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  11. Chukchia pedicellata gen. et sp. nov. and C. endophytica nov. comb., arctic endemic brown algae (Phaeophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilce, Robert; Pedersen, Poul Møller; Sekida, S.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the north Alaskan brown algal epiphyte Chukchia pedicellata sp. nov. suggests an apparently close relationship to Phaeostroma. Phaeostroma endophyticum S. Lund from east Greenland, Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, shows generic identity with Chukchia and specific differences from C. pedice...

  12. Iodine transfers in the coastal marine environment: the key role of brown algae and of their vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Catherine; Colin, Carole; Cosse, Audrey; Delage, Ludovic; La Barre, Stéphane; Morin, Pascal; Fiévet, Bruno; Voiseux, Claire; Ambroise, Yves; Verhaeghe, Elodie; Amouroux, David; Donard, Olivier; Tessier, Emmanuel; Potin, Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Brown algal kelp species are the most efficient iodine accumulators among all living systems, with an average content of 1.0% of dry weight in Laminaria digitata, representing a ca. 30,000-fold accumulation of this element from seawater. Like other marine macroalgae, kelps are known to emit volatile short-lived organo-iodines, and molecular iodine which are believed to be a main vector of the iodine biogeochemical cycle as well as having a significant impact on atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, radioactive iodine can potentially accumulate in seaweeds and can participate in the biogeochemical cycling of iodine, thereby impacting human health. From a radioecological viewpoint, iodine-129 (129I, half-life of 1.6 x 10(7) years) is one of the most persistent radionuclide released from nuclear facilities into the environment. In this context, the speciation of iodine by seaweeds is of special importance and there is a need to further understand the mechanisms of iodine uptake and emission by kelps. Recent results on the physiological role and biochemistry of the vanadium haloperoxidases of brown algae emphasize the importance of these enzymes in the control of these processes.

  13. Detection of differential host susceptibility to the marine oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii by real-time PCR: not all algae are equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachon, Claire M M; Strittmatter, Martina; Müller, Dieter G; Kleinteich, Julia; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2009-01-01

    In the marine environment, a growing body of evidence points to parasites as key players in the control of population dynamics and overall ecosystem structure. However, their prevalence and impact on marine macroalgal communities remain virtually unknown. Indeed, infectious diseases of seaweeds are largely underdocumented, partly because of the expertise required to diagnose them with a microscope. Over the last few years, however, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has emerged as a rapid and reliable alternative to visual symptom scoring for monitoring pathogens. Thus, we present here a qPCR assay suitable for the detection and quantification of the intracellular oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii in its ectocarpalean and laminarialean brown algal hosts. qPCR and microscopic observations made of laboratory-controlled cultures revealed that clonal brown algal strains exhibit different levels of resistance against Eurychasma, ranging from high susceptibility to complete absence of symptoms. This observation strongly argues for the existence of a genetic determinism for disease resistance in brown algae, which would have broad implications for the dynamics and genetic structure of natural populations. We also used qPCR for the rapid detection of Eurychasma in filamentous brown algae collected in Northern Europe and South America and found that the assay is specific, robust, and widely applicable to field samples. Hence, this study opens the perspective of combining large-scale disease monitoring in the field with laboratory-controlled experiments on the genome model seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus to improve our understanding of brown algal diseases.

  14. Detection of Differential Host Susceptibility to the Marine Oomycete Pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii by Real-Time PCR: Not All Algae Are Equal▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachon, Claire M. M.; Strittmatter, Martina; Müller, Dieter G.; Kleinteich, Julia; Küpper, Frithjof C.

    2009-01-01

    In the marine environment, a growing body of evidence points to parasites as key players in the control of population dynamics and overall ecosystem structure. However, their prevalence and impact on marine macroalgal communities remain virtually unknown. Indeed, infectious diseases of seaweeds are largely underdocumented, partly because of the expertise required to diagnose them with a microscope. Over the last few years, however, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has emerged as a rapid and reliable alternative to visual symptom scoring for monitoring pathogens. Thus, we present here a qPCR assay suitable for the detection and quantification of the intracellular oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii in its ectocarpalean and laminarialean brown algal hosts. qPCR and microscopic observations made of laboratory-controlled cultures revealed that clonal brown algal strains exhibit different levels of resistance against Eurychasma, ranging from high susceptibility to complete absence of symptoms. This observation strongly argues for the existence of a genetic determinism for disease resistance in brown algae, which would have broad implications for the dynamics and genetic structure of natural populations. We also used qPCR for the rapid detection of Eurychasma in filamentous brown algae collected in Northern Europe and South America and found that the assay is specific, robust, and widely applicable to field samples. Hence, this study opens the perspective of combining large-scale disease monitoring in the field with laboratory-controlled experiments on the genome model seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus to improve our understanding of brown algal diseases. PMID:19011072

  15. Molecular phylogeny of two unusual brown algae, Phaeostrophion irregulare and Platysiphon glacialis, proposal of the Stschapoviales ord. nov. and Platysiphonaceae fam. nov., and a re-examination of divergence times for brown algal orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Draisma, Stefano G A; Wilce, Robert T; Andersen, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    The molecular phylogeny of brown algae was examined using concatenated DNA sequences of seven chloroplast and mitochondrial genes (atpB, psaA, psaB, psbA, psbC, rbcL, and cox1). The study was carried out mostly from unialgal cultures; we included Phaeostrophion irregulare and Platysiphon glacialis because their ordinal taxonomic positions were unclear. Overall, the molecular phylogeny agreed with previously published studies, however, Platysiphon clustered with Halosiphon and Stschapovia and was paraphyletic with the Tilopteridales. Platysiphon resembled Stschapovia in showing remarkable morphological changes between young and mature thalli. Platysiphon, Halosiphon and Stschapovia also shared parenchymatous, terete, erect thalli with assimilatory filaments in whorls or on the distal end. Based on these results, we proposed a new order Stschapoviales and a new family Platysiphonaceae. We proposed to include Phaeostrophion in the Sphacelariales, and we emended the order to include this foliose member. Finally, using basal taxa not included in earlier studies, the origin and divergence times for brown algae were re-investigated. Results showed that the Phaeophyceae branched from Schizocladiophyceae ~260 Ma during the Permian Period. The early diverging brown algae had isomorphic life histories, whereas the derived taxa with heteromorphic life histories evolved 155-110 Ma when they branched from the basal taxa. Based on these results, we propose that the development of heteromorphic life histories and their success in the temperate and cold-water regions was induced by the development of the remarkable seasonality caused by the breakup of Pangaea. Most brown algal orders had diverged by roughly 60 Ma, around the last mass extinction event during the Cretaceous Period, and therefore a drastic climate change might have triggered the divergence of brown algae. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Phycology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Phycological

  16. Inhibition of Formation of Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats by Edible Green AlgaeCapsosiphon fulvescensand Brown AlgaeHizikia fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Sook; Ullah, H M Arif; Elfadl, Ahmed K; Ghim, Soong-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jin; Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2018-01-01

    Capsosiphon fulvescens (green seaweed) and Hizikia fusiforme (brown seaweed) are marine algae consumed as food supplements, especially in Japan, China and Korea, and are considered traditional medicinal tonics for certain ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. F344 male rats (5 weeks, 150 g) were divided into six groups as follows. Group 1: Injected with normal saline solution and fed control diet (untreated control). Group 2: Injected with AOM and fed control diet (treated control). Group 3: Injected with AOM and fed 1% C. fulvescens diet. Group 4: Injected with AOM and fed 2% C. fulvescens diet. Group 5: Injected with AOM and fed 2% H. fusiforme diet. Group 6: Injected with AOM and fed 6% H. fusiforme diet. Test animals received subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/1 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in treated control and experimental groups. We evaluated the effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme at two different dose levels: 1 and 2% C. fulvescens, and 2 and 6% H. fusiforme, on colonic carcinogenesis by AOM in rats. Our results suggest that body weights were not significantly different amongst groups. We found that feeding C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme with a control diet significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the development of ACF in experimental groups. C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme in food also significantly (p<0.05) reduced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in the colonic tissues of experimental groups. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive potential of C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme against CRC in an AOM-induced rats. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of cell wall assembly during early embryogenesis in the brown alga Fucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torode, Thomas A; Siméon, Amandine; Marcus, Susan E; Jam, Murielle; Le Moigne, Marie-Anne; Duffieux, Delphine; Knox, J Paul; Hervé, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    Zygotes from Fucus species have been used extensively to study cell polarization and rhizoid outgrowth, and in this model system cell wall deposition aligns with the establishment of polarity. Monoclonal antibodies are essential tools for the in situ analysis of cell wall glycans, and here we report the characteristics of six monoclonal antibodies to alginates (BAM6-BAM11). The use of these, in conjunction with monoclonal antibodies to brown algal sulfated fucans, has enabled the study of the developmental dynamics of the Fucus zygote cell walls. Young zygotes are spherical and all alginate epitopes are deposited uniformly following cellulose deposition. At germination, sulfated fucans are secreted in the growing rhizoid wall. The redistribution of cell wall epitopes was investigated during treatments that cause reorientation of the growth axis (change in light direction) or disrupt rhizoid development (arabinogalactan-protein-reactive Yariv reagent). Alginate modeling was drastically impaired in the latter, and both treatments cause a redistribution of highly sulfated fucan epitopes. The dynamics of cell wall glycans in this system have been visualized in situ for the first time, leading to an enhanced understanding of the early developmental mechanisms of Fucus species. These sets of monoclonal antibodies significantly extend the available molecular tools for brown algal cell wall studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Potential Use of Polysaccharides from the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida as Anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Faggio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida is a highly invasive species and has caused concern all over the world because it has invaded coastal environments, has the potential to displace native species, significantly alters habitat for associated fauna, and disturbs navigation. Any attempt to eradicate it would be futile, owing to the elusive, microscopic gametophyte, and because the alga thrives in sites rich in anthropic activities. Venice Lagoon is the largest Mediterranean transitional environment and the spot of the highest introduction of non-indigenous species, including U. pinnatifida, which is removed as a waste. We demonstrated that polysaccharide extracts from U. pinnatifida have an anticoagulant effect on human blood in vitro and are not cytotoxic. The results obtained by PT (normal values 70-120% and APTT (normal values 28-40s assays were significantly prolonged by the polysaccharide extracts of U. pinnatifida, therefore algal extracts are ideal candidates as antithrombotic agents.

  19. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 1. Interactive effects on photosynthesis, growth, and copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Solène; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-07-01

    The effect of copper enrichment and salinity on growth, photosynthesis and copper accumulation of two temperate brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, was investigated in laboratory experiments. A significant negative impact of reduced salinity on photosynthetic activity and growth was observed for both species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, photosynthesis of A. nodosum was entirely inhibited and growth ceased at a salinity of 15. Increased copper concentration negatively affected photosynthetic activity of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus resulting in chlorosis and reduced seaweed growth; 5 mg L⁻¹ copper caused an inhibition of the photosynthesis and the degradation of seaweed tips. Under reduced salinity, copper toxicity was enhanced and caused an earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. After exposure to copper and different salinities for 15 days, copper contents of seaweeds were closely related to copper concentration in the water; seaweed copper contents reached their maximum after 1 day of exposure; contents only increased again when additional, free copper was added to the water. At high water copper concentrations or low salinity, or a combination of both, copper content of A. nodosum decreased. By contrast, copper content of F. vesiculosus increased, suggesting that different binding sites or uptake mechanisms exist in the two species. The results suggest that when using brown seaweeds in biomonitoring in situ, any change in the environment will directly and significantly affect algal physiology and thus their metal binding capacity; the assessment of the physiological status of the algae in combination with the analysis of thallus metal content will enhance the reliability of the biomonitoring process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic graphene oxide modified by imidazole-based ionic liquids for the magnetic-based solid-phase extraction of polysaccharides from brown alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Li, Guizhen; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic graphene oxide was modified by four imidazole-based ionic liquids to synthesize materials for the extraction of polysaccharides by magnetic solid-phase extraction. Fucoidan and laminarin were chosen as the representative polysaccharides owing to their excellent pharmaceutical value and availability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the synthesized materials. Single-factor experiments showed that the extraction efficiency of polysaccharides was affected by the amount of ionic liquids for modification, solid-liquid ratio of brown alga and ethanol, the stirring time of brown alga and ionic liquid-modified magnetic graphene oxide materials, and amount of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide materials added to the brown alga sample solution. The results indicated that 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide possessed better extraction ability than graphene oxide, magnetic graphene oxide, and other three ionic-liquid-modified magnetic graphene oxide materials. The highest extraction recoveries of fucoidan and laminarin extracted by 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide were 93.3 and 87.2%, respectively. In addition, solid materials could be separated and reused easily owing to their magnetic properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cloning, expression and purification of cytochrome c{sub 6} from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis and complete X-ray diffraction analysis of the structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazaki, Hideharu [Bio-organic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kameino 1866, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan); Kawai, Fumihiro [Protein Design Laboratory, Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Chida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Yuichirou; Hirayama, Mao; Hoshikawa, Ken [Bio-organic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kameino 1866, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan); Unzai, Satoru [Protein Design Laboratory, Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Hakamata, Wataru; Nishio, Toshiyuki; Park, Sam-Yong; Oku, Tadatake, E-mail: oku@brs.nihon-u.ac.jp [Bio-organic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kameino 1866, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan)

    2008-08-01

    The crystal structure of cytochrome c{sub 6} from the brown alga H. fusiformis has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution. The amino-acid sequence and tertiary structure of H. fusiformis cytochrome c{sub 6} were very similar to those of red algal cytochrome c{sub 6} rather than those of green algal cytochrome c{sub 6}. The primary sequence of cytochrome c{sub 6} from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis has been determined by cDNA cloning and the crystal structure has been solved at 1.6 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 84.58, c = 232.91 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The genome code, amino-acid sequence and crystal structure of H. fusiformis cytochrome c{sub 6} were most similar to those of red algal cytochrome c{sub 6}. These results support the hypothesis that brown algae acquired their chloroplasts via secondary endosymbiosis involving a red algal endosymbiont and a eukaryote host.

  2. Phlorotannins from brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation endproducts by scavenging reactive carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Liwei

    2012-02-08

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vivo is associated with aging, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, renal failure, etc. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae Fucus vesiculosus phlorotannins on the formation of AGEs. F. vesiculosus phlorotannins were extracted using 70% acetone. The resultant extract was fractionated into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated into four subfractions (Ethyl-F1 to -F4) using a Sephadex LH-20 column. F. vesiculosus acetone extract or fractions significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs mediated by glucose and methylglyoxal in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentrations of F. vesiculosus extracts required to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (EC(50)) in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-methylglyoxal assay were lower than those of aminoguanidine (a drug candidate for diabetic complication), except for F. vesiculosus acetone extract and dichloromethane fraction. In the BSA-glucose assay, F. vesiculosus extracts inhibited BSA glycation more than or as effectively as aminoguanidine, except for Ethyl-F3 and -F4. The ethyl acetate fraction and its four subfractions scavenged more than 50% of methylglyoxal in two hours. The hypothesis whether F. vesiculosus phlorotannins scavenged reactive carbonyls by forming adducts was tested. Phloroglucinol, the constituent unit of phlorotannins, reacted with glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Five phloroglucinol-carbonyl adducts were detected and tentatively identified using HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

  3. Competitive adsorption of nickel and copper ions from aqueous solution using nonliving biomass of the marine Brown alga laminaria japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue Song; Li, Zhi Zhong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2009-08-15

    The adsorption of nickel and copper in a bicomponent system using the nonliving biomass of the marine brown alga Laminaria japonica was investigated in batch systems as a function of initial solution pH, contact time and temperature. The adsorption of nickel and copper was strongly pH dependent. Kinetic studies pointed to a rapid uptake with an equilibrium time of about 30 min. The kinetic curves were successfully fitted by linear regression to pseudo first and pseudo-second-order equations. The equilibrium data was analyzed using several models, including the extended Langmuir equation, modified extended Langmuir model and combined extended Langmuir-Freundlich model. The results suggested that the competitive adsorption of nickel and copper at all temperatures was best represented by the combined extended Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. The isotherms indicated competitive uptake, with copper being preferentially adsorbed followed by nickel with an increase in the amount of solute in solution. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the simultaneous adsorption of nickel and copper ions could be considered to be a spontaneous, endothermic process, with increased randomness. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Dieckol, a SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibitor, isolated from the edible brown algae Ecklonia cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Jang Hoon; Kwon, Jung Min; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Doman; Lee, Woo Song; Ryu, Young Bae

    2013-07-01

    SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) plays an important role in viral replication. In this study, we performed a biological evaluation on nine phlorotannins isolated from the edible brown algae Ecklonia cava. The nine isolated phlorotannins (1-9), except phloroglucinol (1), possessed SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibitory activities in a dose-dependently and competitive manner. Of these phlorotannins (1-9), two eckol groups with a diphenyl ether linked dieckol (8) showed the most potent SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) trans/cis-cleavage inhibitory effects (IC(50)s = 2.7 and 68.1 μM, respectively). This is the first report of a (8) phlorotannin chemotype significantly blocking the cleavage of SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) in a cell-based assay with no toxicity. Furthermore, dieckol (8) exhibited a high association rate in the SPR sensorgram and formed extremely strong hydrogen bonds to the catalytic dyad (Cys145 and His41) of the SARS-CoV 3CL(pro).

  5. Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown algaFucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Kühl, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O 2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O 2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O 2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O 2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Influence of the uronic acid composition on the gastroprotective activity of alginates from three different genus of Tunisian brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Hiba Hadj; Lajili, Sirine; Sakly, Nawfel; Cherif, Dora; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Bouraoui, Abderrahman; Majdoub, Hatem

    2018-01-15

    Alginates from three genus of Tunisian brown algae were isolated and characterized by size exclusion chromatography and Solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Alginate from Padina pavonica (APP) had the highest molecular weight (Mw) with 147,000g/mol while it was 85,000g/mol for alginate from Cystoseira compressa (ACC) and 58,000g/mol for alginate from Dictyopteris membranaceae (ADM). The mannuronate (M) to guluronate (G) ratios were estimated from spectral deconvolution of the 13C CP/MAS spectra and the results has shown that all the extracts are mannuronic acid-rich alginates with M/G ratio increased in the order ADM - ACC - APP. An interesting gastroprotective effect was observed for the extracts; ADM and ACC exhibited the highest inhibition of gastric lesions, at 50mg/kg, with 83.41% and 75.39% respectively. Otherwise, it has been shown that the gastroprotective effect of alginates depends mainly on their uronic acid composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A sulfated polysaccharide, fucans, isolated from brown algae Sargassum vulgare with anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Celina Maria P Guerra; das C Faustino Alves, Monique Gabriela; Will, Luiza Sheyla E Pofírio; Costa, Thiago G; Sabry, Diego A; de Souza Rêgo, Leonardo Augusto R; Accardo, Camila M; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre O; Filgueira, Luciana Guimarães A; Leite, Edda Lisboa

    2013-01-02

    Fucan (SV1) sulfated polysaccharides from the brown algae Sargassum vulgare were extracted, fractionated in acetone and examined with respect to chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic effects and cellular proliferation. These polysaccharides contain low levels of protein, high level of carbohydrate and sulfate. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that SV1 was composed of fucose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. SV1 polysaccharide prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and exhibited high antithrombotic action in vivo, with a concentration ten times higher than heparin activity. PSV1, a purified form in gel filtration showed very low biological activities. SV1 stimulated the enzymatic activity of FXa. Its action on DPPH radical scavenging activity was 22%. This polymer has no cytotoxic action (hemolytic) on ABO and Rh blood types in different erythrocyte groups. It displays strong anti-inflammatory action at all concentrations tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, demonstrated by reduced edema and cellular infiltration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ADSORPTION OF BASIC MAGENTA USING FRESH WATER ALGAE AND BROWN MARINE SEAWEED: CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES AND ERROR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DEVI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The batch studies were performed for sorption of Basic Violet 14 onto brown seaweed (Gracilaria edulis and fresh water algae (Lyngbya wollei to explore potential of sorbents. The effects of pH, sorbent dosage, temperature, shaking speed, contact time and particle size on the decolorization were investigated to establish optimal conditions. The uptake rate was rapid and attains equilibrium within 90 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin equations and well explained by Temkin model. The error functions, Sum of the Squares of the Errors, Hybrid Fractional Error Function, Marquardt’s Percent Standard Deviation, Average Relative Error and Sum of Absolute Errors functions were used to determine the suitability of isotherm model with the sorption of Basic Violet 14. Both sorbents pursue Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model that is chemisorption, which has been confirmed with pseudo-second order and Elovich model. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra and Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the sorptivity of adsorbents. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, initial sorption and intraparticle diffusion rate constants for different initial concentrations were deliberated for dye concentration of 20 to 100 mg/L. The diffusion rate of the dye molecules increases with increased dye concentration.

  9. Seasonal variation in the antifouling defence of the temperate brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahasweta; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The important role of marine epibiotic biofilms in the interactions of the host with its environment has been acknowledged recently. Previous studies with the temperate brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus have identified polar and non-polar compounds recovered from the algal surface that have the potential to control such biofilms. Furthermore, both the fouling pressure and the composition of the epibiotic bacterial communities on this macroalga varied seasonally. The extent to which this reflects a seasonal fluctuation of the fouling control mechanisms of the host is, however, unexplored in an ecological context. The present study investigated seasonal variation in the anti-settlement activity of surface extracts of F. vesiculosus against eight biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from rockweed-dominated habitats, including replication of two populations from two geographically distant sites. The anti-settlement activity at both sites was found to vary temporally, reaching a peak in summer/autumn. Anti-settlement activity also showed a consistent and strong difference between sites throughout the year. This study is the first to report temporal variation of antifouling defence originating from ecologically relevant surface-associated compounds.

  10. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using brown algae Cystoseira baccata: Its activity in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ballesteros, N; Prado-López, S; Rodríguez-González, J B; Lastra, M; Rodríguez-Argüelles, M C

    2017-05-01

    This study is the first dealt with the use of brown macroalgae Cystoseira baccata (CB) extracts in obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au@CB) through an eco-friendly, fast, one-pot synthetic route. The formation of spherical, stable, polycrystalline nanoparticles with mean diameter of 8.4±2.2nm was demonstrated by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, HRTEM, STEM and zeta potential measurements. The extract appears to act as a protective agent where the particles are embedded, keeping them separated, avoiding aggregation and coalescence. The EELS and EDS analyses confirmed the elemental composition of the extract and nanoparticles. Moreover, the functional group of biomolecules present in CB and Au@CB were characterized by FTIR. The effects of CB extract and Au@CB were tested in vitro on the colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2, as well as on normal primary neonatal dermal fibroblast cell line PCS-201-010. Results show a stronger cytotoxic effect against HT-29 than that on Caco-2; interestingly, a lack of toxicity on PCS-201-010 was obtained. Finally, the apoptotic activity was determined; Au@CB is able to induce apoptosis activation by the extrinsic and mitochondrial pathway in our CRC in vitro model. These encouraging results suggest that Au@CB has a significant potential for the treatment of colon rectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creis, Emeline; Delage, Ludovic; Charton, Sophie; Goulitquer, Sophie; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe; Ar Gall, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70), which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast), which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo), which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of phenolic compounds

  12. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Creis

    Full Text Available A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70, which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast, which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo, which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of

  13. Excess copper induced proteomic changes in the marine brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui-Xi; Pang, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Lin, Li-Dong; Li, Nan; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for algal growth and development; however, it is also generally considered to be one of the most toxic metals when present at higher levels. Seaweeds are often exposed to low concentrations of metals, including Cu, for long time periods. In cases of ocean outfall, they may even be abruptly exposed to high levels of metals. The physiological processes that are active under Cu stress are largely unknown. In this study, the brown macroalga Sargassum fusiforme was cultured in fresh seawater at final Cu concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 24 and 47 μM. The Cu(2+) concentration and chlorophyll autofluorescence were measured to establish the toxic effects of Cu on this economically important seaweed. The accumulation of Cu by S. fusiforme was also dependent upon the external Cu concentration. Algal growth displayed a general decline with increasing media Cu concentrations, indicating that S. fusiforme was able to tolerate Cu stress at low concentrations, while it was negatively impacted at high concentrations. The term "acute stress" was employed to indicate exposure to high Cu concentrations for 1 day in this study. On the other hand, "chronic stress" was defined as exposure to lower sub-lethal Cu concentrations for 7 days. Proteins were extracted from control and Cu-treated S. fusiforme samples and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct patterns of protein expression in the acute and chronic stress conditions were observed. Proteins related to energy metabolism and photosynthesis were reduced significantly, whereas those related to carbohydrate metabolism, protein destination, RNA degradation and signaling regulation were induced in S. fusiforme in response to acute copper stress. Energy metabolism-related proteins were significantly induced by chronic Cu stress. Proteins from other functional groups, such as those related to membranes and transport, were present in minor quantities. These results suggest that S

  14. Biosorption of chromium(III) by two Brown algae macrocystis pyrifera and undaria pinnatifida: equilibrium and kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazon, Josefina Plaza H.; Benitez, Leonardo; Donati, Edgardo; Viera, Marisa [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 y 115 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    Two brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida, were employed to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Both seaweeds were characterized in terms of alginate yields. The alginate contents were 20 and 30% of the dry weight for M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, respectively. Kinetics experiments were carried out at different initial pH values. Cr(III) biosorption was affected by the solution pH. The highest metal uptake was found at pH 4 for both biosorbents. Different models were applied to elucidate the rate-controlling mechanism: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. The application of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models to the equilibrium data showed a better fitting to the first model. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity (q{sub m}) and the affinity coefficient (b) were very similar for both biosorbents: 0.77 mmol/g and 1.20 L/mmol for M. pyrifera and 0.74 mmol/g and 1.06 L/mmol for U. pinnatifida. The free energy of the sorption process was estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The values indicate that the processes are chemical sorptions. To evaluate the significance of the ion-exchange mechanism, the light metals (Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +}) and pH were measured during the experiments. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

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    Mohamed Ali Deyab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  16. Lack of Physiological Depth Patterns in Conspecifics of Endemic Antarctic Brown Algae: A Trade-Off between UV Stress Tolerance and Shade Adaptation?

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    Iván Gómez

    Full Text Available A striking characteristic of endemic Antarctic brown algae is their broad vertical distribution. This feature is largely determined by the shade adaptation in order to cope with the seasonal variation in light availability. However, during spring-summer months, when light penetrates deep in the water column these organisms have to withstand high levels of solar radiation, including UV. In the present study we examine the light use characteristics in parallel to a potential for UV tolerance (measured as content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and maximum quantum yield of fluorescence in conspecific populations of four Antarctic brown algae (Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziesii, D. anceps and Himantothallus grandifolius distributed over a depth gradient between 5 and 30 m. The main results indicated that a photosynthetic efficiency was uniform along the depth gradient in all the studied species, and b short-term (6 h exposure to UV radiation revealed a high tolerance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, phlorotannin content and antioxidant capacity. Multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that light requirements for photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins and antioxidant capacity are the variables determining the responses along the depth gradient in all the studied species. The suite of physiological responses of algae with a shallower distribution (A. mirabilis and D. menziesii differed from those with deeper vertical range (D. anceps and H. grandifolius. These patterns are consistent with the underwater light penetration that defines two zones: 0-15 m, with influence of UV radiation (1% of UV-B and UV-A at 9 m and 15 m respectively and a zone below 15 m marked by PAR incidence (1% up to 30 m. These results support the prediction that algae show a UV stress tolerance capacity along a broad depth range according to their marked shade adaptation. The high contents of phlorotannins and antioxidant potential appear to be

  17. Filamentous brown algae infected by the marine, holocarpic oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii: first results on the organization and the role of cytoskeleton in both host and parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigoti, Amerssa; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Gachon, Claire Mm; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-11-01

    The important role of the cytoskeletal scaffold is increasingly recognized in host-pathogen interactions. The cytoskeleton potentially functions as a weapon for both the plants defending themselves against fungal or oomycete parasites, and for the pathogens trying to overcome the resisting barrier of the plants. This concept, however, had not been investigated in marine algae so far. We are opening this scientific chapter with our study on the functional implications of the cytoskeleton in 3 filamentous brown algal species infected by the marine oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii. Our observations suggest that the cytoskeleton is involved in host defense responses and in fundamental developmental stages of E. dicksonii in its algal host.

  18. α-Glucosidase and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activity of Plastoquinones from Marine Brown Alga Sargassum serratifolium

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    Md. Yousof Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sargassum serratifolium C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae, Fucales is a marine brown alga that belongs to the family Sargassaceae. It is widely distributed throughout coastal areas of Korea and Japan. S. serratifolium has been found to contain high concentrations of plastoquinones, which have strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activity. This study aims to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of S. serratifolium and its major constituents through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, α-glucosidase, and ONOO−-mediated albumin nitration. S. serratifolium ethanolic extract and fractions exhibited broad PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50, 1.83~7.04 and 3.16~24.16 µg/mL for PTP1B and α-glucosidase, respectively. In an attempt to identify bioactive compounds, three plastoquinones (sargahydroquinoic acid, sargachromenol and sargaquinoic acid were isolated from the active n-hexane fraction of S. serratifolium. All three plastoquinones exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity against PTP1B in the IC50 range of 5.14–14.15 µM, while sargachromenol and sargaquinoic acid showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 42.41 ± 3.09 and 96.17 ± 3.48 µM, respectively. In the kinetic study of PTP1B enzyme inhibition, sargahydroquinoic acid and sargaquinoic acid led to mixed-type inhibition, whereas sargachromenol displayed noncompetitive-type inhibition. Moreover, plastoquinones dose-dependently inhibited ONOO−-mediated albumin nitration. Docking simulations of these plastoquinones demonstrated negative binding energies and close proximity to residues in the binding pocket of PTP1B and α-glucosidase, indicating that these plastoquinones have high affinity and tight binding capacity towards the active site of the enzymes. These results demonstrate that S. serratifolium and its major plastoquinones may have the potential as functional food ingredients for the

  19. Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

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    Hernández, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations. Cylindrical specimens (100 mm x 200 mm were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO2 for 120 days. The compressive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control.Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración. Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm x 200 mm fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO2 por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Determination of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Two Brown Algae with Respect to Sampling Season and Morphological Structures Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratto, Angelo; Agurto, Cristian; Freer, Juanita; Peña-Farfal, Carlos; Troncoso, Nicolás; Agurto, Andrés; Castillo, Rosario Del P

    2017-10-01

    Brown algae biomass has been shown to be a highly important industrial source for the production of alginates and different nutraceutical products. The characterization of this biomass is necessary in order to allocate its use to specific applications according to the chemical and biological characteristics of this highly variable resource. The methods commonly used for algae characterization require a long time for the analysis and rigorous pretreatments of samples. In this work, nondestructive and fast analyses of different morphological structures from Lessonia spicata and Macrocystis pyrifera, which were collected during different seasons, were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques in combination with chemometric methods. Mid-infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges were tested to evaluate the spectral differences between the species, seasons, and morphological structures of algae using a principal component analysis (PCA). Quantitative analyses of the polyphenol and alginate contents and the anti-oxidant capacity of the samples were performed using partial least squares (PLS) with both spectral ranges in order to build a predictive model for the rapid quantification of these parameters with industrial purposes. The PCA mainly showed differences in the samples based on seasonal sampling, where changes were observed in the bands corresponding to polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. The obtained PLS models had high correlation coefficients (r) for the polyphenol content and anti-oxidant capacity (r > 0.9) and lower values for the alginate determination (0.7 infrared-based techniques were suitable tools for the rapid characterization of algae biomass, in which high variability in the samples was incorporated for the qualitative and quantitative analyses, and have the potential to be used on an industrial scale.

  1. Cadmium tolerance and adsorption by the marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus from the Irish Sea and the Bothnian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinza, Loredana; Nygård, Charlotta A; Dring, Matthew J; Gavrilescu, Maria; Benning, Liane G

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake capacities and Cd tolerance of the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus from the Irish Sea (salinity 35 psu) and from the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic, 5 psu) were quantified. These data were complemented by measurements of changes in maximal photosynthetic rate (P(max)), dark respiration rate and variable fluorescence vs. maximal fluorescence (F(v):F(m)). At concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mmol Cd l(-1), F. vesiculosus from the Bothnian Sea adsorbed significantly more (about 98%) Cd compared with F. vesiculosus from the Irish Sea. The photosynthetic measurements showed that the Bothnian Sea F. vesiculosus were more sensitive to Cd exposure than the Irish Sea algae. The algae from the Irish Sea showed negative photosynthetic effects only at 1 mmol Cd l(-1), which was expressed as a decreased P(max) (-12.3%) and F(v):F(m) (-4.6%). On the contrary, the algae from the Bothnian Sea were negatively affected already at Cd concentrations as low at 0.1 mmol Cd l(-1). They exhibited increased dark respiration (+11.1%) and decreased F(v):F(m) (-13.9%). The results show that F. vesiculosus from the Bothnian Sea may be an efficient sorption substrate for Cd removal from Cd contaminated seawater and this algae type may also have applications for wastewater treatment.

  2. Isolation of fucoxanthin and highly unsaturated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol from brown alga Fucus evanescens C Agardh and in vitro investigation of their antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbs, Tatiana I; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Fedoreyev, Sergey A; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N

    2013-10-01

    Fucoxanthin (FX) and highly unsaturated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) were isolated from the ethanol extract of brown alga Fucus evanescens. Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, complemented by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS). MGDG was identified as 1-O-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentanoyl)-2-O-(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatetraenoyl)-3-O-β-D-galactopiranosyl-sn-glycerol. Antitumor activity of these compounds was tested on human melanoma (SK-MEL-28) cells. MGDG and FX inhibited the growth of human melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values for growth inhibition were 104 and 114 μM, correspondently.

  3. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    by ensiling (with lactic acid bacteria) or simple drying. Pretreatment was carried out using wet-milling and enzymatic hydrolysis in accordance with 1G bioethanol technology from corn. Different commercial enzyme mixtures for fully or partly hydrolysis of algae sugar polymers into monomers were tested...

  4. An extract from the Atlantic brown algaeSaccorhiza polyschidescounteracts diet-induced obesity in mice via a gut related multi-factorial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebbe, Patricia; Nikolai, Sibylle; Schloesser, Anke; Herebian, Diran; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Zeyner, Annette; Demetrowitsch, Tobias; Schwarz, Karin; Metges, Cornelia C; Roeder, Thomas; Schultheiss, Gerhard; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Rimbach, Gerald

    2017-09-26

    In this study we addressed the questions whether an Atlantic brown algae extract (BAE) affects diet induced obesity in mice and which would be the primary targets and underlying key mechanisms. Male C57 BL/6 mice were fed a hypercaloric diet, referred to as high fat diet (HFD), supplemented with a freeze-dried aqueous BAE from Saccorhiza polyschides (5 %) for 8 months. Compared to the control group, dietary BAE supplementation significantly attenuated increase in body weight and fat mass. We observed apparent metabolic improvement including normalization of blood glucose, reduced plasma leptin, reduced fecal bile salt hydrolase activity with lower microbial production of toxic bile acid metabolites in the gut and increased systemic bile acid circulation in BAE-fed mice counteracting adverse effects of long term HFD feeding. Survival of mice receiving dietary BAE supplementation appeared slightly enhanced; however, median and maximal life spans as well as hepatic mTOR activation were not significantly different between BAE and control mice. We suggest that the beneficial metabolic effects of our BAE are at least partly mediated by alterations in gut microbiota associated with fermentation of indigestible polysaccharides that are major components of brown algae such as alginates and fucoidans. We moreover propose a multi-factorial mechanism that involves profound alterations in bile acid homeostasis, changes in intestinal and systemic glucose metabolism likely including increased intestinal gluconeogenesis, increased activity of the intestinally derived hormone GLP-1 contributing to promote systemic insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of α-amylase activity, which expectably limits dietary carbohydrate digestion and glucose release.

  5. Waterborne signaling primes the expression of elicitor-induced genes and buffers the oxidative responses in the brown alga Laminaria digitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Thomas

    Full Text Available As marine sessile organisms, seaweeds must respond efficiently to biotic and abiotic challenges in their natural environment to reduce the fitness consequences of wounds and oxidative stress. This study explores the early steps of the defense responses of a large marine brown alga (the tangle kelp Laminaria digitata and investigates its ability to transmit a warning message to neighboring conspecifics. We compared the early responses to elicitation with oligoguluronates in laboratory-grown and harvested wild individuals of L. digitata. We followed the release of H₂O₂ and the concomitant production of volatile organic compounds. We also monitored the kinetics of expression of defense-related genes following the oxidative burst. Laboratory-grown algae were transplanted in kelp habitats to further evaluate their responses to elicitation after a transient immersion in natural seawater. In addition, a novel conditioning procedure was established to mimic field conditions in the laboratory. Our experiments showed that L. digitata integrates waterborne cues present in the kelp bed and/or released from elicited neighboring plants. Indeed, the exposure to elicited conspecifics changes the patterns of oxidative burst and volatile emissions and potentiates this kelp for faster induction of genes specifically regulated in response to oligoguluronates. Thus, waterborne signals shape the elicitor-induced responses of kelps through a yet unknown mechanism reminiscent of priming in land plants.

  6. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan

    2014-08-21

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  7. Aqueous extracts of the marine brown alga Lobophora variegata inhibit HIV-1 infection at the level of virus entry into cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Kremb

    Full Text Available In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs. Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  8. Expression of a xanthine permease and phosphate transporter in cultures and field populations of the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens: tracking nutritional deficiency during brown tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurch, Louie L; Gobler, Christopher J; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2014-08-01

    Targeted gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to track patterns in the expression of genes indicative of nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency in the brown tide-forming alga Aureococcus anophagefferens. During culture experiments, a xanthine/uracil/vitamin C permease (XUV) was upregulated ∼20-fold under nitrogen-deficient conditions relative to a nitrogen-replete control and rapidly returned to nitrogen-replete levels after nitrogen-deficient cells were resupplied with nitrate or ammonium. It was not responsive to phosphorus deficiency. Expression of an inorganic phosphate transporter (PTA3) was enriched ∼10-fold under phosphorus-deficient conditions relative to a phosphorus-replete control, and this signal was rapidly lost upon phosphate resupply. PTA3 was not upregulated by nitrogen deficiency. Natural A. anophagefferens populations from a dense brown tide that occurred in Long Island, NY, in 2009 were assayed for XUV and PTA3 expression and compared with nutrient concentrations over the peak of a bloom. Patterns in XUV expression were consistent with nitrogen-replete growth, never reaching the values observed in N-deficient cultures. PTA3 expression was highest prior to peak bloom stages, reaching expression levels within the range of P-deficient cultures. These data highlight the value of molecular-level assessments of nutrient deficiency and suggest that phosphorus deficiency could play a role in the dynamics of destructive A. anophagefferens blooms. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  10. Molecular characterization and antibacterial effect of endophytic actinomycetes Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 from brown algae against MDR strains of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindan Rajivgandhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study is to evaluate the potential bioactive compound of Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 and its antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant strains (MDRS on urinary tract infections (UTIs. Two brown algae samples were collected and were subjected to isolation of endophytic actinomycetes. 100 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from algal samples based on observation of morphology and physiological characters. 40 strains were active in antagonistic activity against various clinical pathogens. Among the strains, 10 showed better antimicrobial activity against MDRS on UTIs. The secondary metabolite of Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 has showed tremendous antibacterial activity against UTI pathogens compared to other strains. Influence of various growth parameters were used for synthesis of secondary metabolites, such as optimum pH 7, incubation time 5–7 days, temperature (30 °C, salinity (5%, fructose and mannitol as the suitable carbon and nitrogen sources. At 100 μg/ml concentration MIC of Nocardiopsis sp. GRG1 (KT235640 showed highest percentage of inhibition against Proteus mirabilis (85%, and E.coli, Staphylococcus auerues, Psuedomonas aeroginasa, Enterobactor sp and Coagulinase negative staphylococci 78–85% respectively.

  11. The Effect of Sulfated (1→3-α-l-Fucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia S. Vishchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1→3-α-l-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the α-l-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer.

  12. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalic, Yann; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Perrin, Cécile; Pearson, Gareth A; Serrao, Ester A

    2011-01-31

    Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence) and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity) distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization.

  13. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  14. In vitro chemopreventive potential of fucophlorethols from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. by anti-oxidant activity and inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Sabine; Kehraus, Stefan; Krick, Anja; Glombitza, Karl-Werner; Carmeli, Shmuel; Klimo, Karin; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; König, Gabriele M

    2010-02-01

    Within a project focusing on the chemopreventive potential of algal phenols, two phloroglucinol derivatives, belonging to the class of fucophlorethols, and the known fucotriphlorethol A were obtained from the ethanolic extract of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. The compounds trifucodiphlorethol A and trifucotriphlorethol A are composed of six and seven units of phloroglucinol, respectively. The compounds were examined for their cancer chemopreventive potential, in comparison with the monomer phloroglucinol. Trifucodiphlorethol A, trifucotriphlorethol A as well as fucotriphlorethol A were identified as strong radical scavengers, with IC(50) values for scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) in the range of 10.0-14.4 microg/ml. All three compounds potently scavenged peroxyl radicals in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, the compounds were shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 1A activity with IC(50) values in the range of 17.9-33 microg/ml, and aromatase (Cyp19) activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-5.6 microg/ml. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory effect of a Brazilian marine brown alga Spatoglossum schröederi on biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Francielle Souza Domingos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of crude extracts of the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi to counteract some of the biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom was evaluated. In vitro assays showed that only the extract of S. schröederi prepared in ethyl acetate was able to inhibit the clotting of fibrinogen induced by L. muta venom. On the other hand, all extracts were able to inhibit partially the hemolysis caused by venom and those prepared in dichloromethane or ethyl acetate fully neutralized the proteolysis and hemorrhage produced by the venom. Moreover, the dichloromethane or ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the hemolysis induced by an isolated phospholipase A2 from L. muta venom, called LM-PLA2-I. In contrast, the hexane extract failed to protect mice from hemorrhage or to inhibit proteolysis and clotting. These results show that the polarity of the solvent used to prepare the extracts of S. schröederi algae influenced the potency of the inhibitory effect of the biological activities induced by L. muta venom. Thus, the seaweed S. schröederi may be a promising source of natural inhibitors of the enzymes involved in biological activities of L. muta venom.

  16. The production of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafiroh, Siti; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Sari, Ilma Indana

    2016-03-01

    The majority of energy was used in this period is from fossil fuel, which getting decreased in the future. The objective of this research is production and characterization of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) for alternative energy. PEMFC was produced with 4 variations (w/w) ratio between chitosan and sodium alginate, 8 : 0, 8 : 1, 8 : 2, 8 : 4 (w/w). The production of membrane was mixed sodium alginate solution into chitosan solution and sulfonated with H2SO4 0.72 N. The characterization of the PEM was uses Modulus Young analysis, water swelling, ion exchange capacity, FTIR, SEM, DTA, methanol permeability and proton conductivity. The result of the research, showed that the optimum membrane was with ratio 8 : 2 (w/w) that the Modulus Young 8564 kN/m2, water swelling 31.86%, ion exchange capacity 1.020 meq/g, proton conductivity 8,8 × 10-6 S/cm, methanol permeability 1.90 × 10-8 g/cm2s and glass transition temperature (Tg) 100.9 °C, crystalline temperature (Tc) 227.6 °C, and the melting temperature (Tm) 267.9 °C.

  17. Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brkljača

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15 and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6–8, and 11–14 bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9, and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 5–7, and 10–12 other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2 in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration.

  18. Homogeneous population of the brown alga Sargassum polycystum in Southeast Asia: possible role of recent expansion and asexual propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Wai Chan

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has been known as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Repeated glacial cycles during Pleistocene were believed to cause isolation of marine taxa in refugia, resulting in diversification among lineages. Recently, ocean current was also found to be another factor affecting gene flow by restricting larval dispersal in animals. Macroalgae are unique in having mode of reproduction that differs from that of animals. Our study on the phylogeographical pattern of the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum using nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, plastidal RuBisCO spacer (Rub spacer and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-III (Cox3 as molecular markers revealed genetic homogeneity across 27 sites in Southeast Asia and western Pacific, in sharp contrast to that revealed from most animal studies. Our data suggested that S. polycystum persisted in single refugium during Pleistocene in a panmixia pattern. Expansion occurred more recently after the Last Glacial Maximum and recolonization of the newly flooded Sunda Shelf could have involved asexual propagation of the species. High dispersal ability through floating fronds carrying developing germlings may also contribute to the low genetic diversity of the species.

  19. Attachment, penetration and early host defense mechanisms during the infection of filamentous brown algae by Eurychasma dicksonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigoti, Amerssa; Beakes, Gordon W; Hervé, Cécile; Gachon, Claire M M; Katsaros, Christos

    2015-05-01

    Eurychasma dicksonii is one of the most common and widespread marine pathogens and attacks a broad spectrum of more than 45 brown algal species. The present study focuses on the mechanism used by the pathogen to attach on the host cell wall and force its way into algal cells. Ultrastructural examination revealed a needle-like structure which develops within the attached spore and extends along its main axis. Particular cell wall modifications are present at the basal part of the spore (adhesorium pad) and guide the needle-like tool to penetrate perpendicularly the host cell wall. The unique injection mechanism is shared with Haptoglossa species which suggests that this is an important characteristic of early diverging oomycetes. Furthermore, the encystment and adhesion mechanism of E. dicksonii shows significant similarities with other oomycetes, some of which are plant pathogens. Staining and immunolabelling techniques showed the deposition of β-1,3-glucans on the host cell wall at the pathogen penetration site, a strategy similar to physical responses previously described only in infected plant cells. It is assumed that the host defense in terms of callose-like deposition is an ancient response to infection.

  20. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  1. Variability in δ{sup 15}N of intertidal brown algae along a salinity gradient: Differential impact of nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Inés G., E-mail: inesgviana@gmail.com; Bode, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    While it is generally agreed that δ{sup 15}N of brown macroalgae can discriminate between anthropogenic and natural sources of nitrogen, this study provides new insights on net fractionation processes occurring in some of these species. The contribution of continental and marine sources of nitrogen to benthic macroalgae in the estuary-ria system of A Coruña (NW Spain) was investigated by analyzing the temporal (at a monthly and annual basis) and spatial (up to 10 km) variability of δ{sup 15}N in the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and three species of the genus Fucus (F. serratus, F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus). Total nitrate and ammonium concentrations and δ{sup 15}N-DIN, along with salinity and temperature in seawater were also studied to address the sources of such variability. Macroalgal δ{sup 15}N and nutrient concentrations decreased from estuarine to marine waters, suggesting larger dominance of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the estuary. However, δ{sup 15}N values of macroalgae were generally higher than those of ambient nitrogen at all temporal and spatial scales considered. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these macroalgae is strongly affected by fractionation during uptake, assimilation or release of nitrogen. The absence of correlation between macroalgal and water samples suggests that the δ{sup 15}N of the species considered cannot be used for monitoring short-term changes. But their long lifespan and slow turnover rates make them suitable to determine the impact of the different nitrogen sources integrated over long-time periods. - Highlights: • Variability of Fucacean δ{sup 15}N indicates N sources along a salinity gradient. • δ{sup 15}N of Fucaceae and seawater are not correlated at short time scales. • Isotopic fractionation in macroalgal tissue varies at seasonal and at local scale. • Fucacean species are suitable for monitoring chronic N loadings.

  2. Future warming and acidification effects on anti-fouling and anti-herbivory traits of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Stefanie; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Rilov, Gil; Wahl, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Human-induced ocean warming and acidification have received increasing attention over the past decade and are considered to have substantial consequences for a broad range of marine species and their interactions. Understanding how these interactions shift in response to climate change is particularly important with regard to foundation species, such as the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This macroalga represents the dominant habitat former on coastal rocky substrata of the Baltic Sea, fulfilling functions essential for the entire benthic community. Its ability to withstand extensive fouling and herbivory regulates the associated community and ecosystem dynamics. This study tested the interactive effects of future warming, acidification, and seasonality on the interactions of a marine macroalga with potential foulers and consumers. F. vesiculosus rockweeds were exposed to different combinations of conditions predicted regionally for the year 2100 (+∆5°C, +∆700 μatm CO2 ) using multifactorial long-term experiments in novel outdoor benthic mesocosms ("Benthocosms") over 9-12-week periods in four seasons. Possible shifts in the macroalgal susceptibility to fouling and consumption were tested using consecutive bioassays. Algal susceptibility to fouling and grazing varied substantially among seasons and between treatments. In all seasons, warming predominantly affected anti-fouling and anti-herbivory interactions while acidification had a subtle nonsignificant influence. Interestingly, anti-microfouling activity was highest during winter under warming, while anti-macrofouling and anti-herbivory activities were highest in the summer under warming. These contrasting findings indicate that seasonal changes in anti-fouling and anti-herbivory traits may interact with ocean warming in altering F. vesiculosus community composition in the future. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-05-02

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

  4. Contrasting geographical distributions as a result of thermal tolerance and long-distance dispersal in two allegedly widespread tropical brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronholm, Ana; Leliaert, Frederik; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Tyberghein, Lennert; Verbruggen, Heroen; De Clerck, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Many tropical marine macroalgae are reported from all three ocean basins, though these very wide distributions may simply be an artifact resulting from inadequate taxonomy that fails to take into account cryptic diversity. Alternatively, pantropical distributions challenge the belief of limited intrinsic dispersal capacity of marine seaweeds and the effectiveness of the north-south oriented continents as dispersal barriers. We aimed to re-assess the distribution of two allegedly circumtropical brown algae, Dictyota ciliolata and D. crenulata, and interpret the realized geographical range of the respective species in relation to their thermal tolerance and major tectonic and climatic events during the Cenozoic. Species delimitation was based on 184 chloroplast encoded psbA sequences, using a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent method. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyzing a six-gene dataset. Divergence times were estimated using relaxed molecular clock methods and published calibration data. Distribution ranges of the species were inferred from DNA-confirmed records, complemented with credible literature data and herbarium vouchers. Temperature tolerances of the species were determined by correlating distribution records with local SST values. We found considerable conflict between traditional and DNA-based species definitions. Dictyota crenulata consists of several pseudocryptic species, which have restricted distributions in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Central America. In contrast, the pantropical distribution of D. ciliolata is confirmed and linked to its significantly wider temperature tolerance. Tectonically driven rearrangements of physical barriers left an unequivocal imprint on the current diversity patterns of marine macroalgae, as witnessed by the D. crenulata-complex. The nearly circumglobal tropical distribution of D. ciliolata, however, demonstrates that the north-south oriented continents do not present absolute dispersal barriers for

  5. Contrasting geographical distributions as a result of thermal tolerance and long-distance dispersal in two allegedly widespread tropical brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tronholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many tropical marine macroalgae are reported from all three ocean basins, though these very wide distributions may simply be an artifact resulting from inadequate taxonomy that fails to take into account cryptic diversity. Alternatively, pantropical distributions challenge the belief of limited intrinsic dispersal capacity of marine seaweeds and the effectiveness of the north-south oriented continents as dispersal barriers. We aimed to re-assess the distribution of two allegedly circumtropical brown algae, Dictyota ciliolata and D. crenulata, and interpret the realized geographical range of the respective species in relation to their thermal tolerance and major tectonic and climatic events during the Cenozoic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species delimitation was based on 184 chloroplast encoded psbA sequences, using a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent method. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyzing a six-gene dataset. Divergence times were estimated using relaxed molecular clock methods and published calibration data. Distribution ranges of the species were inferred from DNA-confirmed records, complemented with credible literature data and herbarium vouchers. Temperature tolerances of the species were determined by correlating distribution records with local SST values. We found considerable conflict between traditional and DNA-based species definitions. Dictyota crenulata consists of several pseudocryptic species, which have restricted distributions in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Central America. In contrast, the pantropical distribution of D. ciliolata is confirmed and linked to its significantly wider temperature tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tectonically driven rearrangements of physical barriers left an unequivocal imprint on the current diversity patterns of marine macroalgae, as witnessed by the D. crenulata-complex. The nearly circumglobal tropical distribution of D. ciliolata, however

  6. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  8. Patterns of Gene Expression induced by Oligoguluronates Reveal Conserved and Environment-Specific Molecular Defense Responses in the Brown Alga Laminaria digitata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Audrey Cosse; Philippe Potin; Catherine Leblanc

    2009-01-01

    • Until now, no information has been available on the transcriptional response to the transduction of defense signals in brown seaweeds that leads to active resistance against pathogens or grazers...

  9. Hybridization between two cryptic filamentous brown seaweeds along the shore: analysing pre- and postzygotic barriers in populations of individuals with varying ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alejandro E; Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Couceiro, Lucia; Peters, Akira F; Stoeckel, Solenn; Valero, Myriam

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and meiotic recombinant genotypes in haploid gametophytes allowing the effects of reproductive barriers preventing fertilization or preventing meiosis to be untangle. The level of hybridization between E. siliculosus and E. crouaniorum was quantified along the European coast. Clonal cultures (568 diploid, 336 haploid) isolated from field samples were genotyped using cytoplasmic and nuclear markers to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploids and recombinant haploids. We identified admixed individuals using microsatellite loci, classical assignment methods and a newly developed Bayesian method (XPloidAssignment), which allows the analysis of populations that exhibit variations in ploidy level. Over all populations, the level of hybridization was estimated at 8.7%. Hybrids were exclusively observed in sympatric populations. More than 98% of hybrids were diploids (40% of which showed signs of aneuploidy) with a high frequency of rare alleles. The near absence of haploid recombinant hybrids demonstrates that the reproductive barriers are mostly postzygotic and suggests that abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis following hybridization of species with different genome sizes could be a major cause of interspecific incompatibility in this system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Biological importance of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  11. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: Kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Olga M.M. [LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ramiro J.E. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Delerue-Matos, Cristina M. [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L{sup -1}. The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents.

  12. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Olga M M; Martins, Ramiro J E; Delerue-Matos, Cristina M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L(-1). The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents.

  13. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  14. Vanadium in marine mussels and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, K R; Bahr, B; Ott, J

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented which is sensitive enough for the determination of vanadium (V) in marine organisms such as mussels and algae. It was sufficiently checked by a reference material and it was applied to V determination in blue mussels and brown algae from the German Bight.

  15. Octaphlorethol A, a novel phenolic compound isolated from a brown alga, Ishige foliacea, increases glucose transporter 4-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Kang, Sung-Myung; Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Ho; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Skeletal muscle is the major site of glucose disposal. Promoting glucose uptake into this tissue may attenuate the insulin resistance that precedes type 2 diabetes. However, the anti-diabetic effect of marine algae on glucose uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. Here, we report the glucose uptake effects of octaphlorethol A (OPA), a novel phenolic compound isolated from Ishige foliacea, on skeletal muscle cells. OPA increased glucose uptake in differentiated L6 rat myoblast cells in a dose-dependent manner relative to the control. In addition, we found that OPA increased glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) translocation to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we also demonstrated these OPA effects essentially depended on the protein kinase B (Akt) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In summary, PI3-K/Akt and AMPK activation were involved in mediating the effects of OPA on glucose transport activation and insulin sensitivity. OPA can be further developed as a potential anti-diabetic therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-pancreatic cancer deliverables from sea: first-hand evidence on the efficacy, molecular targets and mode of action for multifarious polyphenols from five different brown-algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Aravindan

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death with an unacceptable survival that has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis together with the lack of effective chemotherapies pose a dire need for designing new and targeted therapeutic deliverables that favors the clinical outcome. Herein, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of polyphenols from five different brown-algae in human PC cells (MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, BXPC-3 and Panc-3.27. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC analysis on stepwise polyphenol separations with increasing polarity (Hexane-DCM-EA-methanol identified high levels of TAC in DCM and EA extractions across all seaweeds assessed. All DCM and EA separated polyphenols induced a dose-dependent and sustained (time-independent inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. Further, these polyphenols profoundly enhanced DNA damage (acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation in all the cell lines investigated. More importantly, luciferase reporter assay revealed a significant inhibition of NFκB transcription in cells treated with polyphenols. Interestingly, QPCR analysis identified a differential yet definite regulation of pro-tumorigenic EGFR, VEGFA, AKT, hTERT, kRas, Bcl2, FGFα and PDGFα transcription in cells treated with DCM and EA polyphenols. Immunoblotting validates the inhibitory potential of seaweed polyphenols in EGFR phosphorylation, kRas, AurKβ and Stat3. Together, these data suggest that intermediate polarity based fractions of seaweed polyphenols may significantly potentiate tumor cell killing and may serve as potential drug deliverable for PC cure. More Studies dissecting out the active constituents in potent fractions, mechanisms of action and synergism, if any, are warranted and are currently in process.

  17. Anti-pancreatic cancer deliverables from sea: first-hand evidence on the efficacy, molecular targets and mode of action for multifarious polyphenols from five different brown-algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Sheeja; Delma, Caroline R; Thirugnanasambandan, Somasundaram S; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death with an unacceptable survival that has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis together with the lack of effective chemotherapies pose a dire need for designing new and targeted therapeutic deliverables that favors the clinical outcome. Herein, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of polyphenols from five different brown-algae in human PC cells (MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, BXPC-3 and Panc-3.27). Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) analysis on stepwise polyphenol separations with increasing polarity (Hexane-DCM-EA-methanol) identified high levels of TAC in DCM and EA extractions across all seaweeds assessed. All DCM and EA separated polyphenols induced a dose-dependent and sustained (time-independent) inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. Further, these polyphenols profoundly enhanced DNA damage (acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation) in all the cell lines investigated. More importantly, luciferase reporter assay revealed a significant inhibition of NFκB transcription in cells treated with polyphenols. Interestingly, QPCR analysis identified a differential yet definite regulation of pro-tumorigenic EGFR, VEGFA, AKT, hTERT, kRas, Bcl2, FGFα and PDGFα transcription in cells treated with DCM and EA polyphenols. Immunoblotting validates the inhibitory potential of seaweed polyphenols in EGFR phosphorylation, kRas, AurKβ and Stat3. Together, these data suggest that intermediate polarity based fractions of seaweed polyphenols may significantly potentiate tumor cell killing and may serve as potential drug deliverable for PC cure. More Studies dissecting out the active constituents in potent fractions, mechanisms of action and synergism, if any, are warranted and are currently in process.

  18. Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Deliverables from Sea: First-Hand Evidence on the Efficacy, Molecular Targets and Mode of Action for Multifarious Polyphenols from Five Different Brown-Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Sheeja; Delma, Caroline R.; Thirugnanasambandan, Somasundaram S.; Herman, Terence S.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death with an unacceptable survival that has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis together with the lack of effective chemotherapies pose a dire need for designing new and targeted therapeutic deliverables that favors the clinical outcome. Herein, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of polyphenols from five different brown-algae in human PC cells (MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, BXPC-3 and Panc-3.27). Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) analysis on stepwise polyphenol separations with increasing polarity (Hexane-DCM-EA-methanol) identified high levels of TAC in DCM and EA extractions across all seaweeds assessed. All DCM and EA separated polyphenols induced a dose-dependent and sustained (time-independent) inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. Further, these polyphenols profoundly enhanced DNA damage (acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation) in all the cell lines investigated. More importantly, luciferase reporter assay revealed a significant inhibition of NFκB transcription in cells treated with polyphenols. Interestingly, QPCR analysis identified a differential yet definite regulation of pro-tumorigenic EGFR, VEGFA, AKT, hTERT, kRas, Bcl2, FGFα and PDGFα transcription in cells treated with DCM and EA polyphenols. Immunoblotting validates the inhibitory potential of seaweed polyphenols in EGFR phosphorylation, kRas, AurKβ and Stat3. Together, these data suggest that intermediate polarity based fractions of seaweed polyphenols may significantly potentiate tumor cell killing and may serve as potential drug deliverable for PC cure. More Studies dissecting out the active constituents in potent fractions, mechanisms of action and synergism, if any, are warranted and are currently in process. PMID:23613993

  19. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  20. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  1. Brown Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extraction) have also been linked to acquired Brown syndrome. Inflammation of the tendon-trochlea complex (from adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sinusitis) can be ... syndrome hereditary? Hereditary cases of Brown syndrome are rare. ...

  2. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  3. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Batch and column removal of nickel from aqueous solutions using the Sargassum filipendula brown marine macroalgae = Remoção de níquel de soluções aquosas em batelada e em coluna utilizando a alga marinha marrom Sargassum filipendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The nickel(II biosorption capacity of the Sargassum filipendula brown marine algae was studied in the batch mode. The biosorption study involved the determination of equilibrium data of the nickel-biomass system, considering the influence of the pretreatment,particle size and agitation speed on the biosorption process. The equilibrium data obtained for the batch and column systems were adjusted by means of the Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the column system presents a larger capacity of nickel removal from the aqueous solutions, compared to the batch system. The biosorptionequilibrium was obtained in approximately four hours of experiment. The biomass size, agitation speed and the pre-treatment of algae did not affect nickel biosorption rate and biosorption capacity.Neste trabalho foi estudada a capacidade de biossorção de níquel(II pela alga marinha marrom Sargassum filipendula em sistema batelada. O estudo da biossorção envolveu a determinação dos dados de equilíbriodo sistema níquel-biomassa, considerando a influência do pré-tratamento, tamanho de partícula e velocidade de agitação no processo de biossorção. Os dados de equilíbrio obtidos para os sistemas em batelada e em coluna foram ajustados por meio da isoterma de Langmuir. Os resultados mostraram que o sistema em coluna apresentou maior capacidade de remoção de níquel comparado ao sistema em batelada. O equilíbrio de biossorção foi obtido em aproximadamente quatro horas de ensaio. O tamanho da partícula, a velocidadede agitação e o pré-tratamento da biomassa não afetaram significativamente a taxa de biossorção de níquel nem sua capacidade de remoção.

  5. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  6. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica) as Food Supplements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luciana Vallorani; Nada Milanović; Vilberto Stocchi; Nada Kolb

    2004-01-01

    Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Kombu...

  7. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S. E-mail: msmasri@aec.org.sy; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y

    2003-07-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) for {sup 210}Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate {sup 210}Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br.

  8. Biosorption of heavy metals by marine algae Ulva rigida, Cystoseira barbata and C. crinita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simeonova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption properties of three different marine algae (Ulva rigida (green algae; Cystoseira barbata (brown algae and Cystoseira crinita (brown algae were investigated. They were collected from the Black Sea coastal area in Varna region, Bulgaria. Kinetics were studied to evaluate the ability of the three algae to sequester Cu (II, Zn (II, Pb (II, Ni (II, Cd (II from aqueous solution. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 2.84 mgeq Ni2+/g for Cystoseira crinita and 2.28 mgeq Cu2+/g for Cystoseira barbata at a solution pH of 5 ± 0.5. The influence of pH of the solution and algae mass on the heavy metal sorption was investigated either. Desorption using 0.05 M HNO3 was carried out and was determined that regeneration of biomass for use in multiple cycles of Cd (II biosorption –desorption should be feasible.

  9. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  10. Brown recluse spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. It ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin-shaped ...

  11. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    and accretion. Mud surface harbours unicellular algae. Multicellular algae was dominatEd. by blue-green form on the mud surface. The benthic algae of the mud surface are representEd. by the green filamentous Enteromorpha clathrate, Rhizoclonium sp. and thalloid...

  12. Sex pheromone of marine algae; Kaiso no sei pheromone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-10-20

    The marine ecosystem skillfully uses various `odor materials` as chemical signals. In particular, this `odor materials` are indispensable for various organisms with no motor function or poor underdeveloped visual sensation in order to maintain or expand their species. German algae scholars found a male gamete induction active material secreted from a female gamete of primitive brown algae in 1971. Eleven kinds of sex pheromones have been found from brown algae up to the present since 1971. All of these found sex pheromones are hydrophobic `odor materials` composed of hydrocarbons containing 8 or 11 carbon atoms or epoxide (oxirane), and are compounds with singular chemical structures as physiological active material in the hydrosphere. Some sex pheromones govern not only inducement of spermatozoons but also discharge of spermatozoons from an antheridium. The sex pheromone with both functions of discharge and inducement was found from the culture solution of a certain tangle weed. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  14. Nutritional interaction in an alga-barnacle association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J E; Rees, T A V

    1994-09-01

    Nitrogen is the major growth-limiting nutrient for marine algae. One potential source of nitrogen for marine algae is ammonium released by invertebrates. Many mid-intertidal reefs in northeastern New Zealand are dominated by a close association between the honeycomb barnacle Chamaesipho columna and an encusting brown alga Pseudolithoderma sp. Growth of Pseudolithoderma was enhanced in the presence of live C. columna, which released ammonium at a greater rate than the maximum rate of ammonium uptake by Pseudolithoderma. Algal tissue on barnacle tests had a lower C:N ratio than tissue located more than 2 cm from the nearest barnacle, suggesting the barnacle is an important source of nitrogen for the alga. The role of nutrient exchange in determining ecological patterns of species in marine communities is discussed.

  15. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  16. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  17. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

  18. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6.4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located ... Habitat The Brown Recluse Spider builds small retreat webs behind objects of any type. Symptoms • The severity ...

  19. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  20. Constituents of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck)-II

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Bose, A.K.; Nair, M.S.R.

    Three terpenoids, (2R,4S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone (1), 3'R,4'-[(2R,4S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexylidene] but-3'-en-2'-one or apo-9'-fucoxanthinone (2) and loliolide (3) have been isolated from the CHCl sub...

  1. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  2. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been used for food for several centuries in Mexico and some African countries. They have been sold ... appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes. Obesity. Research on the effects of blue-green algae ...

  3. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  4. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN ALGA COKLAT (Sargassum sp. TERHADAP ENZIM KATALASE KELENJAR SUBMANDIBULARIS TIKUS RATTUS NOVERGICUS STRAIN WISTAR AKIBAT IRADIASI LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER (LET RENDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sariano ferni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Intraoral radiography use some lower LET (Linear Energy Transfer and could penetrate submandibular salivary gland. Radiography have negative impact which is decrease catalase enzyme of human body. Brown algae (Sargassum sp. has a flavonoid antioxidant, polysaccharides as Fucoidan and alginat (Na-alginat can be used for immunomodulator, antioxidative and activation modulation of immune. Purpose: To knowing effectiveness of brown algae (Sargassum sp. on activity catalase enzyme submandibular salivary gland Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar with irradiation low LET. Material and Methods: 28 samples of Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar, weight 200gr, age 2-3months, gender male, sample divide into 4 groups, K1 (control with brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw K2 (use brown algae and irradiation 4 times, K3 (use brown algae and irradiation 8 times, K4 (use brown algae and irradiation 14 times. Brown algae been given 7days before apply irradiotion on day 8, then did euthanasia and took submandibular salivary gland. After that did measurement activity of catalase enzyme and counted by spectrophotometer with 240 λ. Result: Data were analyze by Shapiro-wilk, One Way ANOVA and Bonferroni. The activity of catalase enzyme have increased; 0,2586 ± 0,1050 (K1, 0,2595 ± 0,0630 (K2, 0,3252 ± 0,1663 (K3, 0,3668 ± 0,0852 (K4 but theres no significant differences  activity of catalase enzyme between one group to other group. Conclusion: Brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw can’t increase activity of catalase enzyme on Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar.

  5. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  6. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of the brown algal orders Ectocarpales, Chordariales, Dictyosiphonales, and Tilopteridales (Phaeophyceae) based on RUBISCO large subunit and spacer sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemer, BL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Pedersen, Poul M.

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 23 species of morphologically simple brown algae belonging to the Ectocarpales sensu stricto, Chordariales, Dictyosiphonales, and Tilopteridales sensu stricto, Phaeophyceae (Fucophyceae), were analyzed using chloroplast-encoded RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences

  8. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  9. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. F.; Neu, T. R.; Lu, S.; Händel, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Küsel, K.

    2015-09-01

    Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9-6.5), metal-rich stream water that leaked out from a former uranium mining district (Ronneburg, Germany). These algae differed in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate their potential interaction with Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9-100 %). CLSM imaging indicated a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in algae were fully encrusted with Fe-precipitates, the brown algae often exhibited discontinuous series of precipitates. This pattern was likely due to the intercalary growth of algal filaments which allowed them to avoid detrimental encrustation. 16S rRNA gene-targeted studies revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70-97 and 63-96 %, respectively), suggesting their capacity to compete with the abiotic Fe-oxidation under the putative oxygen-saturated conditions that occur in association with photosynthetic algae. Quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed even higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including some putative predators of algae. A loss of chloroplasts in the brown algae could have led to lower photosynthetic activities and reduced EPS production, which is known to affect predator colonization. Collectively, our results suggest the

  10. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their

  11. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...

  12. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Bromine and iodine content in sponges and algae of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.; Mittal, P.K.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Br and I contents were determined spectrophotometrically in 12 species of sponges and 16 species of algae(red, brown and green). These elements on dry weight basis varied from 0.025 to 1.29% for Br and from 0.001 to 0.085% for I in sponges. I...

  14. Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Christine; Schäfer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-12

    The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).

  15. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. Algae cultivation for wastewater reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Gerbrand

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using algae to clean wastewater has recently gotten attention because wastewater is becoming a bigger problem all over the world. Many scientist and engi-neers are researching better ways to utilize the high potential of algae to clean these waters. By experimenting with algae we try to explore the potential of growing algae on a mechanical system called “algae turf scrubber” or “ATS” to absorb the excess nutrients for the production of biomass. By knowing the amount of...

  17. Effects of Different Heat Processing on Fucoxanthin, Antioxidant Activity and Colour of Indonesian Brown Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Eko; Suhaeli Fahmi, A.; Winarni Agustini, Tri; Rosyadi, Septian; Dita Wardani, Ayunda

    2017-02-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fx) is major carotenoids in brown algae. It showed many health beneficial effects for oxidative stress. Fucoxanthin is lower stability which may cause problem in the application for functional food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various heat processing on Fx, antioxidant activity (IC50), total phenolic content, and colour stability of Sargassum ilicifolium. The various heat processing methods showed were not significantly affected to fucoxanthin and antioxidant activities however all treatments lower affected to brown seaweeds colour. Moreover, this study showed a useful proved in the design of brown seaweeds processing which minimize Fx, antioxidant activity and colour changes.

  18. Transitions between marine and freshwater environments provide new clues about the origins of multicellular plants and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Dittami, Simon M; Heesch, Svenja; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Collén, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized fresh water on a maximum of ...

  19. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  20. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Jernigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green and eukaryotic (green and brown algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis, five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata, and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp. were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram “fingerprints” were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred.

  2. Archives of ALGA, volume 5

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Volume 5 contains 3 articles by N.Ibragimov, an article by R. Khamitova and the English translation of V.P.Ermakov's article "Second order differential equations:conditions of complete integrability". www.bth.se/alga Choose ALGA publications

  3. "Logistic analysis of algae cultivation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Leduc, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model ‘BeWhere’ for the regions Benelux

  4. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  5. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    incorporated into pre-selected candidate ration components for evaluation via storage, sensory and chemical analysis. The concentration of inhibitor was...inhibiting Maillard browning, also known as non-enzymatic browning, a complex reaction which can lead to darkening of color, off- odors , off-flavors...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  6. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  7. Induction of expression of a 14-3-3 gene in response to copper exposure in the marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer R; Morris, Ceri A; Nicolaus, Beate; Harwood, John L; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The macro-alga Fucus vesiculosus has a broad global and estuarine distribution and exhibits exceptional resistance to toxic metals, the molecular basis of which is poorly understood. To address this issue a cDNA library was constructed from an environmental isolate of F. vesiculosus growing in an area with chronic copper pollution. Characterisation of this library led to the identification of a cDNA encoding a protein known to be synthesised in response to toxicity, a full length 14-3-3 exhibiting a 71% identity to human/mouse epsilon isoform, 70-71% identity to yeast BMH1/2 and 95 and 71% identity to the Ectocarpus siliculosus 14-3-3 isoforms 1 and 2 respectively. Preliminary characterisation of the expression profile of the 14-3-3 indicated concentration- and time-dependent inductions on acute exposure of F. vesiculosus of copper (3-30 μg/l). Higher concentrations of copper (≥150 μg/l) did not elicit significant induction of the 14-3-3 gene compared with the control even though levels of both intracellular copper and the expression of a cytosolic metal chaperone, metallothionein, continued to rise. Analysis of gene expression within environmental isolates demonstrated up-regulation of the 14-3-3 gene associated with the known copper pollution gradient. Here we report for the first time, identification of a gene encoding a putative 14-3-3 protein in a multicellular alga and provide preliminary evidence to link the induction of this 14-3-3 gene to copper exposure in this alga. Interestingly, the threshold exposure profile may be associated with a decrease in the organism's ability to control copper influx so that it perceives copper as a toxic response.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  9. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  10. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development.

  11. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  12. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    structural details of fucoidans. Mild extraction techniques coupled with the use of new tools such as enzymes can provide the much needed knowledge about structural characteristics of different fucoidan molecules and thus pave the way for a better understanding of the structural chemistry and bioactivities......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  13. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  14. Algae: America’s Pathway to Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    The DOE program used mostly high oil- content algae grown on waste CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. Algae were chosen because of their... algae farm.79 In a single pass through an eight foot tall column of water, the algae consume up to 85% of the nitrous oxide and 40% of the CO2 . The...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ALGAE : AMERICA’S PATHWAY TO INDEPENDENCE by Commander James Custer United

  15. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Suyun Zhang; Bert van Duijn

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) ar...

  16. Impact of UV-radiation on viability, photosynthetic characteristics and DNA of brown algal zoospores : implications for depth zonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiencke, C; Gomez, [No Value; Pakker, H; Flores-Moya, A; Altamirano, M; Hanelt, D; Bischof, K; Figueroa, FL

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthesis, germination capacity and assessment of DNA damage were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effect of different conditions of ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on zoospores of various large brown algae collected on Spitsbergen

  17. Algae and UV irradiation: effects on ultrastructure and related metabolic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius

    2006-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation in the biological relevant wavebands of UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B (280-315 nm) on algae have become an important issue as a man-made depletion of the protecting ozone layer has been reported. However, experimental designs to investigate this issue are manifold and the target organisms are extremely diverse. Data are included from the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, haptophytes, diatoms, brown algae to green algae (fresh water, snow algae and marine species) including different habitats from marine littoral and open ocean to freshwater ponds, lakes and snow fields. A broad overview on UV effects on algae is given, with a focus on structurally visible changes. Here we report on destruction in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the occurrence of structures that are likely to be related to the UV stress. In addition several new data are presented from organisms that have to face naturally high UV irradiation due to their habitats. As no disturbances are reported in these organisms, they obviously have a set of protective mechanisms allowing survival in extreme habitats such as snow fields. Physiological changes as a consequence of UV irradiation are included, effects on the DNA level are summarized, and avoidance strategies are discussed. Every effort has been made to summarize the diverse observations and critically evaluate and compare the different experimental strategies to study UV effects in algae.

  18. Marine algae as a prospective source for antidiabetic compounds - A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, S P; Jayasri, A M

    2016-12-29

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM. In the continuing search for effective antidiabetic drugs, marine algae (seaweeds) remains as a promising source with potent bioactivity. It is anticipated that the isolation, characterization, and pharmacological study of unexplored marine algae can be useful in the discovery of novel antidiabetic compounds with high biomedical value. Among marine algae, brown and red algae are reported to exhibit antidiabetic activity. Majority of the investigations on algal derived compounds controls the blood glucose levels through the inhbition of carbohydrate hydroloyzing enzymes and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B enzymes, insulin sensitization, glucose uptake effect and other protective effects against diabetic complications. Based on the above perspective this review provides; profiles for various marine algae posessing antidiabetic activity. This study also highlights the therapeutic potential of compounds isolated from marine algae for the effective management of diabetes and its associated complications.

  19. Marine Natural Products from Seaweeds [Produtos Naturais de Algas Marinhas Bentônicas

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria L. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Natural products from seaweeds have been studied with the aim of finding new drugs of industrial value, understanding their ecological role, and well as establishing the limits of taxonomic species, genera and families of marine algae. The present review shows the main features of natural products from seaweeds of the Divisions Chlorophyta – Class Ulvophyceae (green seaweeds), Ochrophyta – Class Phaeophyceae (Brown seaweeds) and Rhodophyta (red seaweeds). The most important examples of natura...

  20. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S, the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  1. Analytical method for heavy metal determination in algae and turtle eggs from Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A standard digestion method coupled to electrochemical detection for the monitoring of heavy metals in biological samples has been used for the simultaneous analysis of the target analytes. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was employed as a fast and sensitive electroanalytical method for the detection of heavy metals. The aim of our study was to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by SWASV in brown algae (Sargasum natan and green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas using screen-printed electrodes. The method proved useful for the simultaneous analysis of these metals by comparison between two different procedures for preparing the samples. Two different approaches in digestion protocols were assessed. The study was focused on Guanahacabibes brown algae and green turtle eggs because the metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for intraspecific comparison within the Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park area, a body of water for which information is still very scarce. The best results were obtained by digesting biological samples with the EPA 3050B method. This treatment allowed the fast and quantitative extraction from brown algae and green turtle eggs of the target analytes, with high sensitivity and avoiding organic residues, eventually affecting electrochemical measurements.

  2. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica as Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Vallorani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica. The amino acid scores for five key essential amino acids, frequently deficient in mixed human diet, and essential amino acid index were calculated. The results have shown the presence of all essential amino acids. The values of essential amino acid ratios of analysed algae exceed the ratios of reference proteins suggested by FAO/WHO/UNU, except for tryptophan, the first limiting amino acid in both analysed algae. Iodine, the most important component of sea vegetables is present in high amounts as well as the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and β-carotene. The content of minerals was found high, while the presence of heavy metals was negligible.

  3. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  4. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-Llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A; Aref, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances.

  5. The study of LED light source illumination conditions for ideal algae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chen, Cin-Fu; Yue, Cheng-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Utilizing LED light source modules with 3 different RGB colors, the illumination effect of different wavelengths had been investigated on the growth curve of the same kind of micro algae. It was found that the best micro algae culturing status came out with long wavelength light such as red light (650 670 nm). Based on the same condition for a period of 3 weeks , the grown micro algae population density ratio represented by Optical Density (O.D.) ratio is 1?0.4?0.7 corresponding to growth with Red, Green, Blue light sources, respectively. Mixing 3 types and 2 types of LEDs with different parameters, the grown micro algae population densities were compared in terms of O.D. Interestingly enough, different light sources resulted in significant discoloration on micro algae growth, appearing yellow, brown, green, etc. Our experiments results showed such discoloration effect is reversible. Based on the same lighting condition, micro algae growth can be also affected by incubator size, nutrition supply, and temperature variation. In recent years, micro algae related technologies have been international wise a hot topic of energy and environmental protection for research and development institutes, and big energy companies among those developed countries. There will be an economically prosperous future. From this study of LED lighting to ideal algae cultivation, it was found that such built system would be capable of optimizing artificial cultivation system, leading to economic benefits for its continuous development. Since global warming causing weather change, accompanying with reducing energy sources and agriculture growth shortage are all threatening human being survival.

  6. [Brown recluse bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehemya, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Spider bites are not uncommon in our warm climate. The most prevalent species of venomous spiders in Israel are the brown recluse and the black widow. Although the black widow is more notorious than the recluse, for every bite by a black widow there are hundreds of recluse bites reported. Despite the numerous bites, there is little awareness amongst physicians with regard to the clinical signs of recluse bites, and very often the wrong diagnosis is made, resulting in complex and unnecessary treatments. The basis of this error stems from the numerous clinical diagnoses which closely imitate a recluse bite, the relative scarceness of documented recluse bites and the fact that in most cases the spider is not witnessed by the victim. The following article describes three cases of children admitted to our department, presenting with high fever, a necrotic lesion and an extensive maculopapular rash. The children were eventually diagnosed with brown recluse bites. Furthermore, the article summarizes the literature regarding the clinical signs of recluse bites, possible complications and treatment options. The objective of this review is to increase awareness towards recluse bites, thereby preventing misdiagnoses and unnecessary treatments.

  7. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cyanobacteria: algas productoras de toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Ricardo Omar; Giannuzzi, Leda; Andrinolo, Darío

    2007-01-01

    El de las Cyanobacteria es un grupo de algas con características particulares. Por su coloración, dada por los pigmentos que posee, comúnmente se las conoce como algas verde-azules. Según registros fósiles, son los primeros organismos fotosintéticos aparecidos en nuestro planeta (3000-3500 millones de años), por esto se los consideran los responsables de originar la atmósfera inicial que posibilitó la evolución del resto de los seres vivos habitantes de la Tierra. Estos organismos, desde micr...

  9. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  10. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  11. Resurrection kinetics of photosynthesis in desiccation-tolerant terrestrial green algae (Chlorophyta) on tree bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, U; Büdel, B

    2010-05-01

    The rough bark of orchard trees (Malus) around Darmstadt is predominantly covered in red to purple-brown layers (biofilms) of epiphytic terrestrial alga of Trentepohlia umbrina. The smooth bark of forest trees (Fagus sylvatica L. and Acer sp.) in the same area is covered by bright green biofilms composed of the green algae Desmococcus, Apatococcus and Trebouxia, with a few cells of Coccomyxa and 'Chlorella' trebouxioides between them. These algae are desiccation tolerant. After samples of bark with the biofilms were kept in dry air in darkness for various periods of time, potential quantum yield of PSII, F(v)/F(m), recovered during rehydration upon rewetting. The kinetics and degree of recovery depended on the length of time that the algae were kept in dry air in the desiccated state. Recovery was better for green biofilm samples, i.e. quite good even after 80 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 50% of initial value), than the red samples, where recovery was only adequate up to ca. 30-40 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 20-55% of initial value). It is concluded that the different bark types constitute different ecophysiological niches that can be occupied by the algae and that can be distinguished by their capacity to recover from desiccation after different times in the dry state.

  12. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass

  13. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  14. Applicability of hydrogen peroxide in brown tide control - culture and microcosm studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Varunpreet; Thakkar, Megha; Wei, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Brown tide algal blooms, caused by the excessive growth of Aureococcus anophagefferens, recur in several northeastern US coastal bays. Direct bloom control could alleviate the ecological and economic damage associated with bloom outbreak. This paper explored the effectiveness and safety of natural chemical biocide hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) for brown tide bloom control. Culture studies showed that H(2)O(2) at 1.6 mg L(-1) effectively eradicated high density A. anophagefferens within 24-hr, but caused no significant growth inhibition in the diatoms, prymnesiophytes, green algae and dinoflagellates of >2-3 μm cell sizes among 12 phytoplankton species tested over 1-week observation. When applied to brown tide bloom prone natural seawater in a microcosm study, this treatment effectively removed the developing brown tide bloom, while the rest of phytoplankton assemblage (quantified via HPLC based marker pigment analyses), particularly the diatoms and green algae, experienced only transient suppression then recovered with total chlorophyll a exceeding that in the controls within 72-hr; cyanobacteria was not eradicated but was still reduced about 50% at 72-hr, as compared to the controls. The action of H(2)O(2) against phytoplankton as a function of cell size and cell wall structure, and a realistic scenario of H(2)O(2) application were discussed.

  15. Applicability of hydrogen peroxide in brown tide control - culture and microcosm studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varunpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Brown tide algal blooms, caused by the excessive growth of Aureococcus anophagefferens, recur in several northeastern US coastal bays. Direct bloom control could alleviate the ecological and economic damage associated with bloom outbreak. This paper explored the effectiveness and safety of natural chemical biocide hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 for brown tide bloom control. Culture studies showed that H(2O(2 at 1.6 mg L(-1 effectively eradicated high density A. anophagefferens within 24-hr, but caused no significant growth inhibition in the diatoms, prymnesiophytes, green algae and dinoflagellates of >2-3 μm cell sizes among 12 phytoplankton species tested over 1-week observation. When applied to brown tide bloom prone natural seawater in a microcosm study, this treatment effectively removed the developing brown tide bloom, while the rest of phytoplankton assemblage (quantified via HPLC based marker pigment analyses, particularly the diatoms and green algae, experienced only transient suppression then recovered with total chlorophyll a exceeding that in the controls within 72-hr; cyanobacteria was not eradicated but was still reduced about 50% at 72-hr, as compared to the controls. The action of H(2O(2 against phytoplankton as a function of cell size and cell wall structure, and a realistic scenario of H(2O(2 application were discussed.

  16. Mutualism between the territorial intertidal limpet Patella longicosta and the crustose alga Ralfsia verrucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Christopher D; Froneman, Pierre W

    1993-10-01

    Mutualistic relations between plants and animals are well documented on land but have received less attention in marine systems. This study examined the relationship between the territorial intertidal limpet Patella longicosta and the crustose brown alga Ralfsia verrucosa. Adult Patella are found exclusively in association with Ralfsia, on which they feed, while Ralfsia occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in Patella territories. Ralfsia benefits directly from both the presence and the territorial behaviour of Patella. Algal productivity was assessed by measuring oxygen evolution and utilization in situ and deriving photosynthesis/irradiance curves. Productivity was increased by about 30% by the presence of Patella in both summer (P max of grazed algae 0.0098; ungrazed algae 0.0063 mg C · cm -2 · h -1 ) and winter (P max grazed algae 0.0081; ungrazed algae 0.0053 mg -2 · C · h -1 ). Algal growth rates were not significantly increased by the application of limpet mucus in the laboratory. We did not examine nutrient regeneration by the limpet, but the increase in photosynthetic rate may depend on the limpet's grazing pattern which creates secondary sites for growth. Ralfsia also benefited from the territorial behaviour of Patella. The effects of different grazing regimes were investigated in different seasons by removing territorial limpets and either excluding all limpets using copper-based antifouling paint, or allowing access to non-territorial limpets (mostly P. oculus) using partial paint barriers. Exclusion of all limpets resulted in rapid overgrowth of Ralfsia plants by the foliose green alga Ulva sp.. Where non-territorial limpets had access to the plants overgrowth was reduced but Ralfsia plants were entirely removed by destructive grazing. Non-territorial grazers removed 90% of Ralfsia plants within 4 weeks in summer and 60% in winter. In control treatments P. longicosta prevented overgrowth by Ulva and actively excluded vagrant grazers, preventing

  17. Rhodovulum algae sp. nov., isolated from an algal mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Tushar, L; Dave, Bharti; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-09-01

    A reddish-brown-pigmented, phototrophic bacterium, designated strain JA877T, was isolated from a brown algae mat sample collected from Jalandhar beach, Gujarat, India. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain JA877T belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and is closely related to the type strains Rhodovulum viride JA756T (99.0 %), Rhodovulum sulfidophilum Hansen W4T (98.9 %), Rhodovulumvisakhapatnamense JA181T (98.8 %),Rhodovulum kholense JA297T (97.5 %) and Rhodovulum salis JA746T (97.0). However, strain JA877T showed only 20-45 % relatedness with its phylogenetic neighbours and had a ∆Tm between 5.8 and 7.0 °C. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q10), and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified sulfolipids and five unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω5c, C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 64.5 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological data, and chemotaxonomic and molecular differences, strain JA877T is significantly different from other species of the genus Rhodovulum and represents a novel species, for which the name Rhodovulum algae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA877T (=LMG 29228T= KCTC 42963T).

  18. An Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of the Intertidal Brown Seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in Response to Abiotic Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, Gareth A.; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrao, Ester T. A.; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat

  19. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  20. [A review on algae ecology in wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Xie, Liqiang; Sheng, Xiumei; Wu, Zhenbin; Xia, Yicheng

    2003-06-01

    The research advance in algae ecology in wetland was introduced in this paper, which included the algae population structure and its function, and the algae productivity and its affecting factors. Almost all kinds of algae occurred in wetland, including four assemblages: epipelon, epiphyton, metaphyton and phytoplankton, among which, diatom, green and blue algae were the predominant species. Algae were the fundamental players in the physical, chemical and biological processes that characterized wetland ecosystems. Most obvious was their role as primary producers and their place in the wetland food web. Algae were an important food resource for herbivores, and contributed to wetland nutrient cycle as the sources of dissolved organic matter and N. They could also be used as biomarkers for monitoring environment pollution. The affecting factors on algae's productivity were hydraulic factor, nutrition, temperature, illumination, herbivores and some other animals, and so on. Because of their functions in wetland, future research on algae in wetland should expand our knowledge of the environmental controls on algal biomass, productivity, and species composition in wetlands with particular in areas for which knowledge was incomplete. Included among these, may be a detailed evaluation of the proportionate contributions by epipelon, epiphyton, metaphyton, and phytoplankton to food web dynamics in wetlands, and a further study of the genetic technique in controlling hazardous algae.

  1. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  2. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  4. RNA-mediated silencing in Algae: biological roles and tools for analysis of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

    2011-09-01

    Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level "omics" approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes.

  5. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is used in food only...

  7. LIPIDS OF BLACK SEA ALGAE: UNVEILING THEIR POTENTIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bulgarian Black Sea coast is rich in algae, regarding biomass and algal biodiversity. The red algae Gelidium crinale (Rhodophyta and brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Phaeophytes are among the most abundant species along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Yet information about their lipid composition is limited. Purpose: Present study was conducted to investigate biologically active substances in two underexplored seaweed lipids. Total lipids, total phospholipids, fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids were analysed. In addition, the specific distribution of fatty acids group among the total lipids and total phospholipids were elucidated. Material/Methods: The saponifiable lipid fraction was derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identify and quantify the fatty acids. The fat soluble non-saponifiable lipids were identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with UV/Vis and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-UV-FL. Results: Results showed that Rhodophyta and Phaeophytes have high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a good source of these compounds. They presented a “healthy” n-6/n-3 ratio. Both seaweed species showed considerably high amounts of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin. Conclusions: The study reveals that lipids from Black Sea algae have a high potential as natural sources of biologically active ingredients. They are balanced source of fatty acids and contained beneficial antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin.

  8. Consumption and feeding preference of Echinogammarus marinus on two different algae: Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Irene; Leite, Nuno; Constantino, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Echinogammarus marinus constitutes the most abundant amphipod species in Fucus spp. assemblages from many North Atlantic estuaries. However, there are some doubts about the real use of fucoids by the amphipod. Whilst some studies report the ingestion of Fucus vesiculosus by E. marinus, others suggest that the amphipod preference for fucoids is mostly related to sheltering rather than feeding, due to the high phlorotannin content of brown algae. The purpose of the present work was to disentangle this issue by checking the consumption rate and feeding preference of E. marinus on F. vesiculosus, its preferential habitat, and on Ulva intestinalis, a green algae abundant in the Mondego estuary (Western Coast of Portugal) and usually considered as highly palatable for herbivores. In a 2-stage laboratorial setup, fresh disks of the two types of algae were offered to E. marinus for three days. Consumption rates were estimated from differences between algal and animal initial and final fresh weights using a control correction factor, while preference was tested by differences in algal consumption rates when no choice was offered (stage 1) and when the two algae were offered simultaneously (stage 2). Results showed that E. marinus effectively consumed fresh F. vesiculosus in much higher amounts than U. intestinalis and significantly preferred to consume F. vesiculosus over U. intestinalis. Therefore, feeding habits must be one of the factors related to the close association of the amphipod with F. vesiculosus, although other factors may also be involved (e.g. sheltering).

  9. How brown is brown fat that we can see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2014-04-01

    There are many unanswered questions related to the heterogeneity of adipose tissue depots and the paucity of their function, development, and organization at the cellular level. Much effort has been directed at studying white adipose tissue (WAT), the driver of obesity and the associated metabolic disease. In recent years, the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been appreciated. While BAT depots are prominent in many small mammal species, their detection in adult humans has been technically challenging and the identity of brown human adipocytes found within depots of WAT has remained controversial. We recently reported a peptide probe that binds to BAT vasculature and, when coupled with a near-infrared fluorophore, can be used to detect BAT in whole body imaging. This probe reliably discriminates between endothelium associated with brown or brown-like (beige/brite) adipocytes and endothelium of visceral WAT. Improved probes based on this approach could aid in assessing human adipose tissue body distribution and remodeling, which is a process underlying various pathologies. This commentary aims at discussing open questions that need to be addressed before full clinical advantage can be taken from adipose tissue imaging, as well as its metabolic activation strategies.

  10. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yan-Fang; Wu, Ji-Fa; Shang, De-Rong; Ning, Jin-Song; Ding, Hai-Yan; Zhai, Yu-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    ...) in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera...

  11. Inhibitory action of marine algae extracts on the Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity and on the protozoan growth in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Takeshi; Kamei, Yuto; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Annoura, Takeshi; Hirota, Kenichiro; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Dohmoto, Yuki; Ono, Takeaki; Aoki, Takashi

    2005-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, replicates in mammalian cells and relies on the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway that supplies essential precursors for nucleic acid synthesis. The protozoan dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD), the fourth enzyme of the pathway catalyzing production of orotate from dihydroorotate, markedly differs from the human enzyme. This study was thus aimed to search for potent inhibitors against T. cruzi DHOD activity, and a number of methanol extracts prepared from green, brown, and red algae were assayed. The extracts from two brown algae, Fucus evanescens and Pelvetia babingtonii, yielded 59 and 58% decrease in the recombinant DHOD activity, respectively, at the concentration of 50 microg/ml. Inhibition by these extracts was noncompetitive with respect to dihydroorotate, with apparent Ki values of 35.3+/-5.9 and 10.3+/-4.4 microg/ml, respectively. Further, in an in vitro T. cruzi-HeLa cell infection system, ethanol-reconstituted F. evanescens and P. babingtonii extracts at the concentration of 1 microg/ml, respectively, decreased significantly the infection rate of host cells and the average parasite number per infected cell. These results imply that F. evanescens and P. babingtonii contain inhibitor(s) against the T. cruzi DHOD activity and against the protozoan infection and proliferation in mammalian cells. Identification of inhibitor(s) in these two brown algae and further screening of other marine algae may facilitate the discovery of new, anti-trypanosomal lead compounds.

  12. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  13. Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CANNON, BARBARA; NEDERGAARD, JAN

    2004-01-01

    .... Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance. Physiol Rev 84: 277–359, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00015.2003.—The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat...

  14. Hydrothermal-mechanical dewatering of brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    There are enormous reserves of brown coal in the world. In Australia, brown coal is used to generate most of electricity in the states of Victoria and South Australia. Brown coal is characterised by very high moisture content (around 60 wt% on a wet basis). Therefore, boilers used in the power station are very large and have low thermal efficiency, leading to high cost and large emissions of green house gas. High moisture content also makes brown coal uneconomical for transport...

  15. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  16. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  17. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  18. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; van der Sar, Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savcenco, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; van der Schans, Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runoff water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a

  19. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; van der Sar, Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savceno, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; van der Schans, Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits; Frank, J.; van der Mei, R.; den Boer, A.; Bosman, J.; Bouman, N.; van Dam, S.; Verhoef, C.

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runo water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a

  20. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  1. Removal of algae by sonication-coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Panyue; Wang, Li; Wang, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Algae bloom in source water has caused serious problems in drinking water supplies, and conventional methods for its treatment have achieved only limited success. This paper reports a new technology, ultrasound assisted coagulation, for effective removal of algae cells from the source water in water treatment works. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of algae cells. Ultrasonic irradiation for 5 s increased the algae removal efficiency by more than 20% when the coagulant dose was 0.4-0.8 mg/L. To achieve the same algae removal ratio of 90%, sonication for 5 s reduced the coagulant dose by 2/3. The optimal sonication parameters were determined as follows: sonication time of 1 s, ultrasonic power of 48 W, and solution pH of 8-9. The sound frequency had little impact on the algal removal efficiency. Ultrasonic pretreatment also significantly reduced the sample turbidity.

  2. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-11-01

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  4. Prospects of using algae in biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Maltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture and the transport sector is associated with the use of various energy sources. Renewable energy sources, including biofuels, are highly promising in this respect. As shown by a number of scientific studies, a promising source for biofuel production that would meet modern requirements may be algal biomass. After activation of the third generation biodiesel production it was assumed that the algae would become the most advantageous source, because it is not only able to accumulate significant amounts of lipids, but could reduce the of agricultural land involved in biofuel production and improve air quality by sequestering CO2. However, a major problem is presented by the cost of algae biomass cultivation and its processing compared to the production of biodiesel from agricultural crops. In this regard, there are several directions of increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production from algae biomass. The first direction is to increase lipid content in algae cells by means of genetic engineering. The second direction is connected with the stimulation of increased accumulation of lipids by stressing algae. The third direction involves the search for new, promising strains of algae that will be characterized by faster biomass accumulation rate, higher content of TAG and the optimal proportions of accumulated saturated and unsaturated fatty acids compared to the already known strains. Recently, a new approach in the search for biotechnologically valuable strains of algae has been formed on the basis of predictions of capacity for sufficient accumulation of lipids by clarifying the evolutionary relationships within the major taxonomic groups of algae. The outcome of these studies is the rapid cost reduction of biofuel production based on algae biomass. All this emphasizes the priority of any research aimed at both improving the process of production of biofuels from algae, and the search for new sources for

  5. Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Burkhard; Marin, Birger

    2009-05-01

    Land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte green algae, a small group of freshwater algae ranging from scaly, unicellular flagellates (Mesostigma) to complex, filamentous thalli with branching, cell differentiation and apical growth (Charales). Streptophyte algae and embryophytes form the division Streptophyta, whereas the remaining green algae are classified as Chlorophyta. The Charales (stoneworts) are often considered to be sister to land plants, suggesting progressive evolution towards cellular complexity within streptophyte green algae. Many cellular (e.g. phragmoplast, plasmodesmata, hexameric cellulose synthase, structure of flagellated cells, oogamous sexual reproduction with zygote retention) and physiological characters (e.g. type of photorespiration, phytochrome system) originated within streptophyte algae. Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Mesostigma (flagellate) and Chlorokybus (sarcinoid) form the earliest divergence within streptophytes, as sister to all other Streptophyta including embryophytes. The question whether Charales, Coleochaetales or Zygnematales are the sister to embryophytes is still (or, again) hotly debated. Projects to study genome evolution within streptophytes including protein families and polyadenylation signals have been initiated. In agreement with morphological and physiological features, many molecular traits believed to be specific for embryophytes have been shown to predate the Chlorophyta/Streptophyta split, or to have originated within streptophyte algae. Molecular phylogenies and the fossil record allow a detailed reconstruction of the early evolutionary events that led to the origin of true land plants, and shaped the current diversity and ecology of streptophyte green algae and their embryophyte descendants. The Streptophyta/Chlorophyta divergence correlates with a remarkably conservative preference for freshwater/marine habitats, and the early freshwater adaptation of streptophyte algae was a major

  6. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiurong; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Kwan Paul

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55 μ g/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml4.96 μg/ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μ/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kodoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4 12) types of fatty acids.

  7. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  8. Toxic And Anti-Cancerogenic Effect Of Brown Seaweed Cystoseira Tamariscifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Souhaili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystoseira tamariscifolia is a brown alga which represents an important natural biomass on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. Study of the acute toxicity of this species was carried out on Swiss albinos mice. The LD50 was determined through the Spearman-Karber method by injecting the aqueous algal extract to 36 mice organized in lots of 6 animals each for 6 concentrations and the experiments were conducted in triplicates. A dose of 0.5ml of each concentration of the aqueous extract were injected to the mice intraperitonally while the 0.5 ml of saline at 0.9 was injected to the control lot. The anticancerogenic effect study was carried out on murin myelom cells P3X63-Ag8.653 using different concentrations of the aqueous extract of the alga. The results obtained show a toxic effect of the alga on the mices with LD50 of 738.6134 g of alga g of body weight. A significant anticancerogenic effect of the extract was also detected on myelom cells it is propotionnel to the used concentrations.

  9. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  10. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yihe; Gregor, Chapin; Liang, Yuanjie; Tang, Dawei; Tweed, Caitlin

    2012-04-23

    Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model.

  11. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  12. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  13. Long-term changes in the sublittoral zonation of brown algae in the southern Bothnian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Klemens; Johansson, Gustav; Snoeijs, P.

    The algal vegetation of five diving profiles situated at exposed sites of the outer Oregrund archipelago, southern Bothnian Sea, Sweden, was investigated by SCUBA diving in 1996. The vegetation of the same profiles had been described earlier in 1943-4 and 1984. In the present study, special

  14. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters. PMID:24736449

  15. [Antithrombotic and hemorrhagic activities of fucoidan isolated from Fucus evanescens brown algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, N N; Miftakhova, N T; Savchik, E Iu; Kalinina, T B; Makarov, V A; Imbs, T I; Zviagintseva, T N; Kuznetsova, T A; Besednova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The antithrombotic and hemorrhagic activities of fucoidan with molecular weight within 20 - 40 kD isolation from Fucus evanescens seaweed have been investigated. The antithrombin activity of fucoidan is 41 +/- 9 aIIa IU/mg and the anti-factor Oà activity is 38 +/- 8 aOà IU/mg. The antithrombin and anti-factor Oà activities of plasma, antithrombotic activity (100% prevention of formation of a blood clot observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg), and hemorrhagic activity (to a lesser degree, than that of unfractionated heparin in comparable antithrombotic activity doses) increase as the doses of fucoidan increases from 2.5 to 10 mg/kg at intravenous injection in rats.

  16. Acute toxicity study and antipyretic effect of the brown alga t ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and ...

  17. Brown Algae Padina sanctae-crucis Børgesen: A Potential Nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Raquel B S S; Tomaz, Anna Cláudia A; Pessoa, Déborah R; Xavier, Aline L; Pita, João Carlos L R; Sobral, Marianna V; Pontes, Marcela L C; Pessôa, Hilzeth L F; Diniz, Margareth F F M; Miranda, George Emmanuel C; Vieira, Maria Aparecida R; Marques, Marcia O M; Souza, Maria de Fátima V; Cunha, Emídio V L

    2017-09-26

    Padina sanctae-crucis Børgesen is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas; belongs to the Dictyotaceae family, and has proven to be an exceptional source of biologically active compounds. Four compounds were isolated and identified, namely: dolastane diterpene new for the genus Padina; phaeophytin and hidroxy-phaeophytin new for the family Dictyotaceae, and; mannitol first described in this species. Saturated fatty acids as compared to the percentages of unsaturated fatty acids were shown to be present in greater abundance. Palmitic and linolenic acid were the main saturated and unsaturated acids, respectively. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were evaluated using human erythrocytes. In vivo evaluations of acute toxicity and genotoxicity were performed in mice. Methanolic extract of P.sanctae-crucis presented antioxidant activity and did not induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity or acute toxicity. Since Padina sanctae-crucis is already used as food, has essential fatty acids for the nutrition of mammals, does not present toxicity and has antioxidant activity, it can be considered as a potential nutraceutical.

  18. Comparative study of responses in the brown algae Sargassum thunbergii to zinc and cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fang; Dind, Gang; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Dongmei; Wu, Haiyi; Guo, Wen

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic system is becoming a serious problem worldwide. In this study, responses of Sargassum thunbergii to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L) of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) exposure separately were studied for 15 days in laboratory-controlled conditions. The results show that the specific growth rates increased slightly under the lower Zn concentration treatment (0.1 mg/L) at the first 5 d and then decreased gradually, which were significantly reduced with the exposure time in higher Zn concentrations and all Cd treatments compared to respective control, especially for 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L Cd. Chlorophyll a contents showed significant increase in 0.1 mg/L Zn treatment, whereas the gradually reduction were observed in the other three Zn treatments and all Cd treatments. The oxygen evolution rate and respiration rate presented distinct behavior in the Zn-treated samples, but both declined steadily with the exposure time in Cd treatments. The P/R value analyses showed similar variation patterns as chlorophyll a contents. Real-time PCR showed that lower Zn concentration (0.1 mg/L) increased mRNA expression of rbcL gene, whereas higher Zn concentrations and Cd reduced the rbcL expression. Taken together, these findings strongly indicate that Zn and Cd had different effects on S. thunbergii both at the physiological and gene transcription levels, the transcript level of photosynthesis-related gene rbcL can be used as an useful molecular marker of algal growth and environment impacts.

  19. Evaluation of Marine Brown Algae and Sponges from Brazil as Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Products

    OpenAIRE

    Suzi Meneses Ribeiro; Fredy Ortiz-Ramirez; Diana Negrao Cavalcanti; Laura de Andrade Moura; Guilherme Muricy; Valeria Laneuville Teixeira; Andre Lopes Fuly

    2011-01-01

    The ischemic disorders, in which platelet aggregation and blood coagulation are involved, represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. The antithrombotic therapy has unsatisfactory performance and may produce side effects. So, there is a need to seek molecules with antithrombotic properties. Marine organisms produce substances with different well defined ecological functions. Moreover, some of these molecules also exhibit pharmacological properties such as antiviral, anticancer,...

  20. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    investigated the possibilities of using extracts from Nordic F. vesiculosus as natural antioxidants in food and skin care products. All tested food products were fortified with fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil was added specifically in order to examine the effectiveness....... The high iron chelating ability of the water extract proved particularly effective in FO-enriched mayonnaise. Previous studies have also shown that iron chelating ability is an important property of antioxidants to work efficiently in this particular food. Acetone and ethanol were highly effective.......g. in the formulation of functional foods enriched with fish oil....

  1. Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Yasantha; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeon, You-Jin

    2006-07-01

    The potential antiproliferative and antiradical activities of an enzymatic extract of Ecklonia cava together with its crude polysaccharide (CpoF) and crude polyphenolic fractions (CphF) were evaluated in vitro. Tested extracts showed strong selective cell proliferation inhibition on all cancer cell lines tested, especially CphF extract, containing high polyphenol amount, showed 5.1 microg/ml of IC(50) value on murine colon cancer (CT-26) cell line. According to the nuclear staining experiment, antiproliferative effect of CphF was associated with apoptotic cell demise in CT-26. In addition, The CphF at 5 microg/ml scavenged 70% of DPPH radical, which is much higher than those of BHA and BHT at same concentration. Further more CphF exhibited interesting antiradical properties, expressed by its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH()). In reducing power assay, CphF extract at 5 microg/ml was found to be as high as that of BHT at same concentration. Also, in total antioxidant assay the effect of CphF at 50 microg/ml was equivalent or slightly higher than those of commercial counterparts at 5 microg/ml concentration. Taken together, the CphF may be a promising alternative to synthetic substances as natural compound with high antiproliferative and antiradical activity.

  2. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  3. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  4. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M H Sayadi; S D Ghatnekar; M F Kavian

    2011-01-01

    .... In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuel...

  5. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  6. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  7. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, t...

  8. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  9. Fluorescence Properties of Chlorella sp. Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Teplicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and its fast and reliable monitoring is the challenge of the future. Design of appropriate biosensors that would be capable of non-invasive identification of water pollution is an important prerequisite for such challenge. Chlorophylls are pigments, naturally presented in all plants that absorb light. The main forms of chlorophyll in algae are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, other pigments include xantophylls and beta-carotenes. Our aim was to characterize endogenous fluorescence of the Chlorella sp. algae, present naturally in drinking water. We recorded spatial, spectral and lifetime fluorescence distribution in the native algae. We noted that the fluorescence was evenly distributed in the algae cytosol, but lacked in the nucleus and reached maximum at 680-690 nm. Fluorescence decay of chlorella sp. was double-exponential, and clearly shorter than that of its isolated pigments. For the first time, fluorescence lifetime image of the algae is presented. Study of the fluorescence properties of algae is aimed at the improvement of water supply contamination detection and cleaning.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  11. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production.

  12. Photoprotective responses in a brown macroalgae Cystoseira tamariscifolia to increases in CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Plá, Paula S M; Martínez, Brezo; Korbee, Nathalie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Figueroa, Félix L

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification are increasingly affecting coastal ecosystems, with impacts that vary regionally depending upon local biogeography. Ocean acidification drives shifts in seaweed community dominance that depend on interactions with other factors such as light and nutrients. In this study, we investigated the photophysiological responses in the brown macroalgae species Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss with important structural role in the coastal Mediterranean communities. These algae were collected in the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in ultraoligotrophic waters (algae exposed under high irradiance and less nutrient conditions) vs. those collected in the La Araña beach in oligotrophic waters (algae exposed at middle nutrient and irradiance conditions) in the Mediterranean Sea. They were incubated in mesocosms, under two levels of CO2; ambient (400-500 ppm) and high CO2 (1200-1300 ppm), combined with two temperatures (ambient temperature; 20 °C and ambient temperature + 4 °C; 24 °C) and the same nutrient conditions of the waters of the origin of macroalgae. Thalli from two sites on the Spanish Mediterranean coast were significantly affected by increases in pCO2 and temperature. The carotenoids (fucoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene) contents were higher in algae from oligotrophic than that from ultraoligotrophic water, i.e., algae collected under higher nutrient conditions respect to less conditions, increase photoprotective pigments content. Thalli from both locations upregulated photosynthesis (as Fv/Fm) at increased pCO2 levels. Our study shows that ongoing ocean acidification and warming can increase photoprotection and photosynthesis in intertidal macroalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring ..cap alpha..-emitter /sup 210/Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author).

  15. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  16. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations

    OpenAIRE

    Rader, RK; Stoecker, WV; Malters, JM; Marr, MT; Dyer, JA

    2012-01-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April–October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April–October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse sp...

  17. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  18. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Severe impacts of brown tides caused by Sargassum spp. on near-shore Caribbean seagrass communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Hernández Arana, Héctor A; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Canizales-Flores, Hazel M; González-Godoy, Carlos E; Barba-Santos, M Guadalupe; Vega-Zepeda, Alejandro; Collado-Vides, Ligia

    2017-09-15

    From mid-2014 until the end of 2015, the Mexican Caribbean coast experienced a massive influx of drifting Sargassum spp. that accumulated on the shores, resulting in build-up of decaying beach-cast material and near-shore murky brown waters (Sargassum-brown-tides, Sbt). The effects of Sbt on four near-shore waters included reduction in light, oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia) and pH. The monthly influx of nitrogen, and phosphorus by drifting Sargassum spp. was estimated at 6150 and 61kgkm(-1) respectively, resulting in eutrophication. Near-shore seagrass meadows dominated by Thalassia testudinum were replaced by a community dominated by calcareous rhizophytic algae and drifting algae and/or epiphytes, resulting in 61.6-99.5% loss of below-ground biomass. Near-shore corals suffered total or partial mortality. Recovery of affected seagrass meadows may take years or even decades, or changes could be permanent if massive influxes of Sargassum spp. recur. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Fucoxanthin from brown seaweed Sargassum cristaefolium tea in acid pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, Hartati; Mufti, Eka Deviana; Nurhanief, Ardian Eko

    2017-05-01

    Dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium contains the pigment fucoxanthin, which is responsible for the red-orange color found in brown algae, and is a kind of photosynthetic pigment. Fucoxanthin can be used as an anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-cholesterol, and anti-diabetic agent and as a food colorant, but it is very unstable. The aim of this research was to determine the stability of fucoxanthin from dried tea brown algae at different pH (2, 6). This involved thin layer chromatography, peak absorption, wavelength analysis and reposition in FTIR. The research showed that fucoxanthin from fresh and dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium using chromatography columns had an orange color, Rf value of 0.26-0.28, and a spectral pattern in acetone solvent of 446.3-447.4 λmax. Fucoxanthin at pH 2 showed that there was no allenic group, as fucoxanthin solution had a pale yellow color. It is therefore shown that fucoxanthin is not stable in acid solution.

  2. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  3. What color should glacier algae be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Roman J; Ganey, Gerard Q; Skiles, S McKenzie

    2018-01-15

    Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water. We show that purple-colored particles transfer 87-89% of solar energy absorbed by black particles. However, red-colored particles transfer nearly as much (85-87%) by absorbing peak solar wavelengths and reflecting the visible wavelengths most absorbed by nearby ice and snow crystals; this latter process may reduce potential cellular overheating when snow insulates cells. Blue and green particles transfer only 80-82% of black particle absorption. In the experiment, red-colored particles melted 87% as much snow as black particles, while blue particles melted 77%. Green-colored snow-algae naturally occupy saturated snow where water is non-limiting; red-colored snow-algae occupy drier, water-limited snow. In addition to increasing melt, we suggest esterified astaxanthin in snow-algae increases hydrophobicity to keep cells surficial. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  5. The brain and brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cristina; Gonzalez, Francisco; Fernø, Johan; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn humans, but recent data have shown that BAT is also functional in adult humans. On the basis of this evidence, extensive research has been focused on BAT function, where new molecules, such as irisin and bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP7 and BMP8B, as well as novel central factors and new regulatory mechanisms, such as orexins and the canonical ventomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK)-SNS-BAT axis, have been discovered and emerged as potential drug targets to combat obesity. In this review we provide an overview of the complex central regulation of BAT and how different neuronal cell populations co-ordinately work to maintain energy homeostasis.

  6. [Algae removal of high algae raw water by coagulation enhanced by ozonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Long; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zheng-Jian; Cheng, Fang-Qin

    2009-07-15

    Apparent molecular weight distribution (AMWD) and resin fractionation were used to characterize organic matters of the raw water. Removal of algae, change and removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disinfection by products (DBPs) control during the preozonation enhanced coagulation treatments in the jar-scale and pilot-scale experiment were studied. Algae activity (AA) was measured and used to elucidate the mechanisms of algae removal by above treatments. Results show that algae removal can be improved distinctively by proper preozonation, as the ozone dose 1.0 mg x L(-1), for instance. Algae removal could be increased from 55%-85% by traditional coagulation to 95% by enhanced coagulation after preozonation; and the best removal achieved 99.3% with ozone 1.0 mg x L(-1) and PACl 3.0 mg x L(-1); the residual THMFP (Trihalomethanes formation potential) was lowered from 117 microg x L(-1) by traditional coagulation to 46 microg x L(-1). But higher dose of ozone (as > or = 2.0 mg x L(-1)) impairs organic matter removal, although it decreases algae activity further. Significant differences were found in algae removal by AA detection between ozonation and traditional coagulation. Traditional coagulation had little effect on AA no matter the different PAC1 doses; while AA decreased clearly after ozonation. AA was lowered below 12 under 0.5-2.0 mg x L(-1) ozonation; and it kept decreasing with increase of ozone dosage. During the following coagulation, coagulant or some of its hydrolysised components enhanced the AA decrease by ozonation. Compared to the method of normal microscopy counting, AA test expresses the influence of algae living state by water treatment processes more clearly; which would provide treatment process designer with more distinct information about algae removal mechanisms and how to arrange the treatment processes to improve algae removal.

  7. Crustose coralline algae and associated microbial biofilms deter seaweed settlement on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lemos, Luis A.; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA), a group of calcifying red algae found commonly in benthic marine ecosystems worldwide, perform essential ecological functions on coral reefs, including creating benthic substrate, stabilizing the reef structure and inducing coral settlement. An important feature of CCA is the ability to keep their surfaces free of epiphytic algae, thereby reducing algal overgrowth and allowing them access to light. However, the mechanisms by which CCA prevent settlement of opportunistic seaweeds (fleshy macroalgae) are not fully understood, nor is whether these mechanisms vary among CCA species. In our study based on the Great Barrier Reef, we demonstrate that three common CCA species ( Titanoderma pustulatum, Porolithon onkodes and Neogoniolithon sp.) have a remarkable ability to deter settlement of seaweed spores. We provide experimental evidence that the CCA use allelopathy and microbial inhibition against the settlement of spores of the brown seaweed Padina boergesenii. Methanol extracts of allelopathic compounds from T. pustulatum, Po. onkodes and Neogoniolithon sp. significantly reduced the settlement of Pa. boergesenii spores by 4.3 times, 3.0 and 3.8 times, respectively. Further, we found that microbial biofilms, while having a lower inhibitory effect than allelopathic compounds, also reduced seaweed settlement of Pa. boergesenii. Our study demonstrates that allelopathy and microbial inhibition, in addition to epithallial tissue sloughing, are mechanisms employed by CCA to prevent the settlement of epiphytic algae. Understanding the mechanisms by which CCA avoid seaweed overgrowth contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of seaweed proliferations on reefs and to the ecological knowledge of this important group of reef-building organisms.

  8. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  9. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Print A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula ...

  10. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  11. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  12. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  13. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  14. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  15. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  16. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  17. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  19. Traumatic Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, M O; Flynn, P A; Pang, K A; Hawkins, S A

    2001-09-01

    In the 1840s Brown-Séquard described the motor and sensory effects of sectioning half of the spinal cord. Penetrating injuries can cause Brown-Séquard or, more frequently, Brown-Séquard-plus syndromes. To report the case of a 25-year-old man who developed left-sided Brown-Séquard syndrome at the C8 level and left-sided Horner syndrome plus urinary retention and bilateral extensor responses following a stab wound in the right side of the neck. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a low cervical lesion and somatosensory evoked potentials confirmed the clinical finding of left-side dorsal column disturbance. At follow-up, the patient's mobility and bladder function had returned to normal. This patient recovered well after a penetrating neck injury that disturbed function in more than half the lower cervical spinal cord (Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome).

  20. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J. E-mail: iamzhu@hotmail.com; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd{sup 3+} by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 {mu}m size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 {mu}m) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  1. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  2. Magnetite and Magnetotaxis in Bacteria and Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-15

    4JUL Gemommxit~ ft o flin 4111-W410-4 --- ef I Io_ I IIII -173 -4 Magnetite and Magnetotaxis in Bacteria and Algae R.B. Frankel Francis Bitter National...motile, magnetot ctlc algae of the genus Anisonema. 1. Introduction "--; Magnetotactic bacteria that orient and swim along magnetic field lin, s are...has been isolated and cu turdd in v chemically defined medium. Iron accounts for 2 per cent of the dry eight of the organism with most of the iron

  3. Algas, helechos y musgos en dermofarmacia

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Delgado, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Algas, musgos y helechos contribuyen a la producción de cosméticos. Estos organismos pueden tener varias funciones: contribuir a las propiedades organolépticas de la formulación, a la vez que a la estabilización o conservación de ésta y, lo más importante, proporcionar a la formulación compuestos bioactivos con actividad cosmética. En este trabajo se explicará la clasificación y propiedades de algas, musgos y helechos, y ejemplos de productos presentes en el mercado, dado que ciertos co...

  4. Biosorption of trivalent chromium on the brown seaweed biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Y S; Park, D; Park, J M; Volesky, B

    2001-11-01

    Biosorption has attracted attention as a cost-effective means for the treatment of metal-bearing wastewater. However, the mechanism of metal binding is not clearly understood, and consequently, modeling of the biosorption performance is still raising debates. In this study, the biosorption of trivalent chromium was investigated with protonated brown alga Ecklonia biomass as a model system. Titration of the biomass revealed that it contains at least three types of functional groups. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the carboxyl group was the chromium-binding site within the pH range (pH 1-5) used in this study, where chromium does not precipitate. The pK value and the number of carboxyl groups were estimated to be 4.6 +/- 0.1 and 2.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium sorption isotherms determined at different solution pH indicated that the uptake of chromium increased significantly with increasing pH. A model for the description of chromium biosorption was developed incorporating the hydrolysis reactions that chromium undergoes in the aquatic phase. The model was able to predict the equilibrium sorption experimental data at different pH values and chromium concentrations. In addition, the speciation of the binding site as a function of the solution pH was predicted using the model in order to visualize the distribution of chromium ionic species on the binding site.

  5. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  6. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  7. Freshwater algae of North America: ecology and classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wehr, John D; Sheath, R.G; Kociolek, J.P

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification, Second Edition is an authoritative and practical treatise on the classification, biodiversity, and ecology of all known genera of freshwater algae from North America...

  8. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Machmud, M. Nizar; Fahmi, Reza; Abdullah, Rohana; Kokarkin, Coco

    2013-01-01

    .... Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics...

  9. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  10. The Ecology of Turf Algae on Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jill L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet. Globally, corals are declining and algae are increasing due to anthropogenic activities. While most research and conservation efforts focus on the proliferation of macroalgae, in fact most algae on coral reefs are turf algae: heterogeneous assemblages of many species of small algae. These ubiquitous and abundant algal “shag carpets” are typically overlooked or studied as a homogenous functional group. I examine c...

  11. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

  12. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.) on juvenile crayfish

    OpenAIRE

    Ulikowski Dariusz; Chybowski Łucjan; Traczuk Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch.), in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 ...

  13. THE NUTRITION OF A BROWN TROUT Salmo trutta m. fario IN THE RIVER UNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the contents of gastric–intestine system of a brown trout was made on the base of the capture 103 specimens in the aim of the description of its nutrition. The capture was made at the 15 places in the confluence of the river Una, commune Bihac, by generating sets and sacks. The dissection of a brown trout, extraction of gastric–intestine system and its fixation in 4 % formaldehid was made at the terrain. Further treatment and examination of the contents of gastric–intestine system was made in the laboratory of Ichtiological and Fishing Center of Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo. The obtained results of the analysis of the nutrition of a brown trout are particulary similar with the literature data (Mc Cormac, 1962; Elliot, 1967; Šenk and Aganović, 1968; Tuša, 1968; Kaćanski and Kosorić, 1970; Popovska — Stanković and Georgiev, 1973; Kaćanski et al., 1988. On investigated places, the specimens of a brown trout dominantly fed by macroinvertebrat of the benthos of the bottom. The large percentage of fish use larvae stages of the two–winged insects (45,45% and caddisflies (42,42 % in their nutrition. The small number of fish fed with bullhead (7,07 %. Great dependence was determined in the nutrition of a brown trout by qualitative–quantitative composition of the benthos (Trožić–Borovac, 2001. The very small number of fish fed with algae (1,01 %. According to these results, we can conditionally speak about zoofag. The specimens with empty stomach, but very good developed gastric–intestine system, was also registrated (4,04 %. This data is related to the time of the capture (the season of reproduction of brown trout when it takes less food. The condition factor was calculated for all the specimens of brown trout. The values of the condition factor are from 1,00 to 1,59. According to the average weight 21,77 g and average leingth 133,37 cm the condition factor for the analyzed fish from the confluence of

  14. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  15. The algae of Gaborone wastewater stabilization ponds: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of algae found in the wastewater stabilization ponds in Gaborone were studied. Being the base of the food chain in any aquatic habitat, algae contribute significantly to the functioning and value of the ponds. The (liversit)' and abundance of the algae in the two pond systems at Broadhurst and Phakalane were ...

  16. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  17. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal...

  18. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  19. Composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi Reservoir, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the distribution, abundance and taxonomic composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi reservoir were carried out for 12 months (from January to December 1995). Of the 26 algal taxa identified, 14 taxa belonged to the diatoms, 8 taxa were green algae while 4 taxa belonged to the blue-green algae. Higher cell ...

  20. Agricultural importance of algae | Abdel-Raouf | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algae are a large and diverse group of microorganisms that can carry out photosynthesis since they capture energy from sunlight. Algae play an important role in agriculture where they are used as biofertilizer and soil stabilizers. Algae, particularly the seaweeds, are used as fertilizers, resulting in less nitrogen and ...

  1. Brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, R M; Neufeld, M V; Westfall, C T

    2000-08-01

    To present a photographically documented case of a known brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid. Interventional case report. The wound was photographed daily during an 11-day hospitalization and at 1 month and 6 months after the injury. Treatment included canthotomy and cantholysis; administration of dapsone, antibiotics, and steroids; and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Clinical presentation and course of a known brown recluse spider bite. Complete recovery with cicatrization at the site of the bite. We present a case of a brown recluse spider bite to the left lower eyelid with a discussion of management and outcome of this rarely reported injury.

  2. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  3. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  4. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  5. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  6. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  7. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... This book, extensively illustrated and thoroughly referenced, will provide the source material for students, and experienced as well as new research workers should find it of great value. A series of short appendices summarize details of culture collections, media and some specialized aspects of growing blue-green algae.

  8. Taxonomic Challenges and Distribution of Gracilarioid Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the taxonomical literature of the gracilarioid algae from Tanzania, and provides information about their ecology and distribution based on an intensive regime of local collection. Its aim was to provide names, even if on a preliminary basis, for local gracilarioid taxa. Our revision shows that species ...

  9. Usos industriales de las algas diatomeas.

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Las diatomeas son algas microscópicas que habitan tanto en aguas dulces como marinas. Aparte de su destacado papel en la cadena trófica de los ecosistemas acuáticos, con el tiempo forman depósitos a los que el hombre ha encontrado abundantes aplicaciones prácticas.

  10. Algae, phytoplankton and eutrophication research and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief history of South African research on and management of algae-, phytoplankton- and eutrophication-related problems is presented, including their ecological, social and economic impacts, which provides a basis for formulation of future research needs. The contributions of southern African research on different ...

  11. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Habitat associations of an expanding native alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Sofie E; Glasby, Tim M; Gladstone, William; Gribben, Paul E

    2017-10-01

    There are many examples of native macrophytes becoming locally dominant and spreading outside their traditional distributions, but the causes and impacts are often not understood. In New South Wales, Australia, the green alga Caulerpa filiformis is undergoing a range expansion and has transitioned from a subdominant to a dominant alga on several rocky shores around the Sydney coastline. Here we investigated relationships between established patches of C. filiformis, the habitat it occupies and associated algal communities at multiple subtidal sites over the green alga's 700 km range. We tested the following predictions: 1) C. filiformis cover differs among substrata, being greatest on turf-forming algae; 2) C. filiformis cover is positively related to environmental variables linked to increased sedimentation (e.g. reduced reef width, surface slope, increased rugosity and distance from shore); 3) occurrence of C. filiformis is associated with a change in macrophyte community structure and a reduction of macrophyte richness; 4) intact native algal canopies inhibit C. filiformis spread, but turf-forming algae and bare sand are susceptible to invasion. Substratum associations were highly consistent among sites, but contrary to our prediction, C. filiformis was most commonly associated with rock or rock + sand substratum and less frequently associated with turf-forming algae substratum. C. filiformis cover was negatively correlated with reef width, which explained most of the variation observed, although local scale variables distance from shore, reef slope, and water depth were also correlated with C. filiformis cover. Algal diversity and community composition typically differed in the presence of C. filiformis, often with a reduction of algal abundances, in particular Sargassum spp., although results varied among substrata and sites. However, monitoring of borders suggested that C. filiformis does not invade and outcompete undisturbed adjacent canopy

  14. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación

    2003-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  15. Progress report: brown bear studies - 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty-four brown bears (22 adult female, 22 offspring) were captured in the Ayakulik River, Sturgeon River, and Frazer Lake drainages of Kodiak Island in July, 1983....

  16. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  17. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  18. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  19. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R K; Stoecker, W V; Malters, J M; Marr, M T; Dyer, J A

    2012-07-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April-October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April-October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse spiders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hodosán, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Lightning is an important electrical phenomenon, known to exist in several Solar System planets. Amongst others, it carries information on convection and cloud formation, and may be important for pre-biotic chemistry. Exoplanets and brown dwarfs have been shown to host environments appropriate for the initiation of lightning discharges. In this PhD project, I aim to determine if lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs can be more energetic than it is known from Solar System planets, what are...

  1. Brown recluse spider bites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Janice D

    2006-02-01

    The brown recluse spider is found more commonly in the Southeast and the Central Midwest. Its bite is not common because it is a shy spider that only bites if cornered. A severe bite may necrose a large area that requires skin grafting; systemic reactions rarely occur. This article discusses the brown recluse spider and presents a case study of a patient with two spider bites that did require extensive grafting.

  2. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko

    2007-01-01

    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  3. Karakteristik Makro Algae Berzat Kapur di Perairan Tanjung Sira Lombok-Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Kadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal waters of Tanjung Sira has calcareousalgae of the genus Halimeda limestone, Padina, Amphiroa, Galaxaura, Corallina, Hydrolithon, Mesophyllum, Peysonallia, Porolithon and Sporolithon. The substrate that used as habitat are  sand, coarse sand, rocks and dead coral rubble. Calcium carbonate contained on calcareous algae fungsioning as adhesive and encrusting dead coral, shells of mollusks that have decayed and massive objects in the waters of the sea. The research aims was to determine the growth characteristics of calcareousalgae in the reef flats, local distribution, calcium carbonate contain and its contribution as a frame work coastal reef waters. The research method using transect (Buckland et al., 1993. Identification of the type of aragonite and calcite according to Cordero (1977. Analysis of calcium carbonate according to Hillis (1980. The results showed that the green and brown calcareousalgae found in the reef flats, has thallus and tubers. Red calcareousalgae grew as encrusting on dead reefs and massif substrate. There are 16 species of calcareous algae that found in reseach area, 10 species containing aragonite mineral and 6 species containing calcite mineral. The content of calcium carbonate on each species obtained 100-450 g/m² consists of aragonite and calcite minerals. Calcareousalgae contribute in the new formation of  coral reef ecosystems. The other benefit of calcareaousalgae in the coastal waters is an additional food for herbivorous fish. The content of calcium carbonate on calcareousalgae species is used in pharmaceutical field as drug ingredients and supplements for humans.

  4. In vitro study of antibacterial activity of the alga Sargassum oligocystum from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, S; Pouyan, M; Zandi, K; Bahramian, P; Sartavi, K; Fouladvand, M; Asayesh, G; Barazesh, A

    2011-03-01

    With due attention to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, discovering of new antibacterial compounds is needed. Algae produce numerous bioactive substances which may have pharmacological properties such as antibacterial activity. The objective of this investigation was to in vitro study of antibacterial activity of brown alga Sargassum oligocystum collected along the Bushehr coast of Persian Gulf (south west of Iran). Hot water extract, cold water extract, and hot glycerin extract were prepared. The effect of the extracts were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Hot water extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cold water extract and hot glycerin extract did not show antibacterial activity on any of the four test bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of hot water extract for both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 3.175 mg/ml. However, the MIC of this extract for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 9.556 mg/ml. In this study gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to hot water extract than gram-negative bacteria. Extract of Sargassum oligocystum could be a candidate for purification and further in vivo studies.

  5. Discovering novel enzymes by functional screening of plurigenomic libraries from alga-associated Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marjolaine; Vandermies, Marie; Joyeux, Coline; Martin, Renée; Barbeyron, Tristan; Michel, Gurvan; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and the complexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with original biochemistry. We recently isolated several macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria from the surface of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. These active isolates belong to two classes: the Flavobacteriia and the Gammaproteobacteria. In the present study, we constructed two "plurigenomic" (with multiple bacterial genomes) libraries with the 5 most interesting isolates (regarding their phylogeny and their enzymatic activities) of each class (Fv and Gm libraries). Both libraries were screened for diverse hydrolytic activities. Five activities, out of the 48 previously identified in the natural polysaccharolytic isolates, were recovered by functional screening: a xylanase (GmXyl7), a beta-glucosidase (GmBg1), an esterase (GmEst7) and two iota-carrageenases (Fvi2.5 and Gmi1.3). We discuss here the potential role of the used host-cell, the average DNA insert-sizes and the used restriction enzymes on the divergent screening yields obtained for both libraries and get deeper inside the "great screen anomaly". Interestingly, the discovered esterase probably stands for a novel family of homoserine o-acetyltransferase-like-esterases, while the two iota-carrageenases represent new members of the poorly known GH82 family (containing only 19 proteins since its description in 2000). These original results demonstrate the efficiency of our uncommon "plurigenomic" library approach and the underexplored potential of alga-associated cultivable microbiota for the identification of novel and algal-specific enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal pretreatment of raw digested piggery wastewater enhancing the survival of algae as biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junying; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Yunpu

    2017-01-01

    Understanding about the impact of white rot fungi on indigenous bacterial communities, NH4+ and turbidity in digested piggery wastewater, will allow the optimization of wastewater treatment methods and its use as a feasible medium for algal growth. Here, the white rot fungi were inoculated into undiluted and unsterilized digested piggery wastewater under different temperatures and pH regimes in order to lower the pretreatment cost. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial communities in the pretreated wastewater were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis coupled with 16S rDNA sequencing. The research showed a significant reduction on the microbial diversity with the presence of white rot fungi which occur at pH 6. The distribution and presence of bacteria taxa were strongly correlated with NH4+ concentration, pH, and the presence of white rot fungi. Variance partition analysis also showed that the effect on the chlorophyll content of algae in fungi-filtered wastewater was as the following hierarchy: bacterial diversity > NH4+ > turbidity. Therefore, the algae in treated wastewater with less abundance of bacteria proliferated more successfully, indicating that bacterial community not only played an important role in algal growth but also imposed a strong top-down control on the algal population. The algae grown in wastewater treated with fungi reached the highest specific growth rate (0.033 day-1), whereas the controls displayed the negative specific growth rate. The fatty acid composition varied markedly in C16:0 and C18:0 between these treatments, with a higher content of C16:0. This study firstly showed that Chlorella can grow as cost-effective biofuel feedstocks in undiluted and unsterilized digested wastewater with high ammonium concentration and dark brown color because the bacterial abundance of digested piggery wastewater could be reduced greatly by the white rot fungi.

  7. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  8. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors......Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  9. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  10. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Laura L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2009-06-01

    There is currently substantial interest in utilizing eukaryotic algae for the renewable production of several bioenergy carriers, including starches for alcohols, lipids for diesel fuel surrogates, and H2 for fuel cells. Relative to terrestrial biofuel feedstocks, algae can convert solar energy into fuels at higher photosynthetic efficiencies, and can thrive in salt water systems. Recently, there has been considerable progress in identifying relevant bioenergy genes and pathways in microalgae, and powerful genetic techniques have been developed to engineer some strains via the targeted disruption of endogenous genes and/or transgene expression. Collectively, the progress that has been realized in these areas is rapidly advancing our ability to genetically optimize the production of targeted biofuels.

  11. Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene in marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Lin; Ma, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun

    1997-09-01

    Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; and toxicity of TeCB to the marine algae were tested. Values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k 1, elimination rate constant k 2 and bioconcentration factor BCF, were obtained not only from the time course of TeCB uptake by the marine algae by using a bioconcentration model, but also from the acute toxicity test data for percent inhibition PI(%)˜exposure concentration of TeCB-time by using a combined bioconcentration and probability model. The results showed good relationship between k 1(TOXIC) and k 1(UPTAKE) and k 2(TOXIC), k 2(UPTAKE), and BCF D(IOXIC) and BCF D(UPTAKE). Especially, the values of BCF D(TOXIC) were well consistent with those of BCF D(UPTAKE).

  12. Studies on Polyethers Produced by Red Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cen-Pacheco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel squalene-derived triterpenes, spirodehydrovenustatriol (3 and 14-keto-dehydrothyrsiferol (4 were isolated from the red alga Laurencia viridis, together with two new and unusual C17 terpenoids, adejen A (5 and B (6. These truncated structures possess structural similarities with other known squalene metabolites and their biogenetic origin has been proposed on the basis of an oxidative process of the squalene skeleton. All the structures were elucidated by extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopic methods.

  13. "Vision" in single-celled algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateriya, Suneel; Nagel, Georg; Bamberg, Ernst; Hegemann, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Photosynthetic unicellular algae have a unique visual system. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the pigmented eye comprises the optical system and at least five different rhodopsin photoreceptors. Two of them, the channelrhodopsins, are rhodopsin-ion channel hybrids switched between closed and open states by photoisomerization of the attached retinal chromophore. They promise to become a useful tool for noninvasive control of membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations.

  14. Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

    1972-01-01

    The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

  15. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCatalanotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume.

  16. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  17. Himalayan Ice Core Analyses With Snow Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kohshima, S.; Takeuchi, N.; Seko, K.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    Snow algae in a shallow ice core (7 m in length) from the Yala Glacier, Langtang region of Nepal, were examined for potential use in ice core analyses. Ice core samples taken at 5350 m a.s.l. in 1994, contained more than 7 species of snow algae. In a vertical profile of the algal biomass, 11 distinct algal layers were observed. Seasonal observation in 1996 at the coring site indicated most algal growth to occur from late spring to late summer. Pit observation in 1991, 1992 and 1994 indicated algal layer formation to take place annually. Delta 18O, chemical ions (Na+, Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-) and microparticles failed to show any clear seasonal variation, particularly so at depths exceeding 2 m, possibly due to heavy melt-water percolation. Snow algae in the ice core would thus be accurate boundary markers of annual layers in the ice cores of this region. Algal biomass in each annual layer was noted to be quite closely correlated with the following two environmental indices calculated from air temperature and precipitation at Kyangjing (3,920 m a.s.l.), the village nearest the Yala Glacier: estimated mean snow cover thickness (MST) and estimated summer mass balance (SMB) (n = 6, r = -0.975, P snow cover thickness on algal layers, which would be a major determinant of light available for algal growth on the glacier. The algal biomass was also found to be roughly correlated with air temperature (n = 7, r = 0.773, P snow algae. Snow algal biomass in an ice core should prove a good environmental marker for indicating summer mass balance which is important for understanding summer-accumulation-type glaciers in this region.

  18. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulating cellular trace metal economy in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2017-10-01

    As indispensable protein cofactors, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are at the center of multifaceted acclimation mechanisms that have evolved to ensure extracellular supply meets intracellular demand. Starting with selective transport at the plasma membrane and ending in protein metalation, metal homeostasis in algae involves regulated trafficking of metal ions across membranes, intracellular compartmentalization by proteins and organelles, and metal-sparing/recycling mechanisms to optimize metal-use efficiency. Overlaid on these processes are additional circuits that respond to the metabolic state as well as to the prior metal status of the cell. In this review, we focus on recent progress made toward understanding the pathways by which the single-celled, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii controls its cellular trace metal economy. We also compare these mechanisms to characterized and putative processes in other algal lineages. Photosynthetic microbes continue to provide insight into cellular regulation and handling of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn as a function of the nutritional supply and cellular demand for metal cofactors. New experimental tools such as RNA-Seq and subcellular metal imaging are bringing us closer to a molecular understanding of acclimation to supply dynamics in algae and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  1. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  2. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Brown Seaweeds as a Source of New Pharmaceutical Substances with Antibacterial Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besednova, N N; Kuznetsova, T A; Zaporozhets, T S; Zvyagintseva, T N

    2015-01-01

    At present the increase of antibiotic resistance in infection agents to antimicrobial drugs requires discovery of new antimicrobial substances with improved pharmacological properties and novel mechanisms of action, to which microorganisms do not develop resistance. Three areas are of interest for the search: recovery of new compounds from natural objects, including aquatic organisms, chemical modification of the known antibiotic molecules, discovery of compounds with antimicrobial activity among some new chemical structures which have no analogues in nature. The review is mainly concerned with discussion of antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activity of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidans) and extracts of brown, red and green algae, as well as of antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiendotoxin properties that contribute to their antiinfective action. Such an activity makes fucoidans promising as a basis for developing new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases.

  4. Additions to the marine algal flora of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Vroman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Nine species of benthic marine algae are reported from the Caribbean island of Curaçao for the first time: Chlorophyta: Derbesia marina and Trichosolen longipedicellata; Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides, Feldmannia elachistaeformis, Hecatonema floridanum, Herponema tortugense and Sphacelaria

  5. Temperatures rising: brown fat and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-03-01

    Caloric restriction is associated with a reduction in body weight and temperature, as well as a reduction in trabecular bone volume and paradoxically an increase in adipocytes within the bone marrow. The nature of these adipocytes is uncertain, although there is emerging evidence of a direct relationship between bone remodeling and brown adipocytes. For example, in heterotrophic ossification, brown adipocytes set up a hypoxic gradient that leads to vascular invasion, chondrocyte differentiation, and subsequent bone formation. Additionally, deletion of retinoblastoma protein in an osteosarcoma model leads to increased hibernoma (brown fat tumor). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) becomes senescent with age at a time when thermoregulation is altered, bone loss becomes apparent, and sympathetic activity increases. Interestingly, heart rate is an unexpected but good predictor of fracture risk in elderly individuals, pointing to a key role for the sympathetic nervous system in senile osteoporosis. Hence the possibility exists that BAT could play an indirect role in age-related bone loss. However, evidence of an indirect effect from thermogenic dysfunction on bone loss is currently limited. Here, we present current evidence for a relationship between brown adipose tissue and bone as well as provide novel insights into the effects of thermoregulation on bone mineral density.

  6. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  7. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ˜ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ˜2 km s-1, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  8. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  9. [The efficiency of algae removal from drinking water by ferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B; Qu, J; Zhang, J; Ge, X; Liang, M; Tian, B

    2001-03-01

    This paper studied the efficiency of algae removal by ferrate from two kinds of raw water which were collected from Donghu and Tiegang reservoir respectively. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of algae reached about 95% only through PAC coagulation when the raw water was extracted from Donghu reservoir in which most of algae was Chlorella. But dealing with Tiegang raw water in which the majority of algae were Oscillatoria, terrate was used as pre-oxidant coupling with PAC coagulation not only using PAC to flocculate and the efficiency of algae removal could be up to 97.85%. However this treatment method using ferrate as pre-oxidant overmatched the traditional method prechlorination for algae removal.

  10. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kun; Sun, Pei-Ting; Xiao, Jing-Kun; Song, Yong-Xin

    2006-12-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships’ ballast water, experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships’ ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.) is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  11. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  12. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  13. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  14. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  15. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  16. Possibility of enhancing algae drying by integrating infrasound.

    OpenAIRE

    SANG, YINGZI

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of designing an infrasound-integrated technology which can enhance the algae drying performance, this thesis provided the theoretical possibility of using infrasound as an algae dehydration technology. To test the relation between algae drying speed and other three parameters namely sound frequency, sound pressure and sample mass, four major experimental groups including initial experiments and core experiments with fifteen sub-experimental groups are designed. Results of the exp...

  17. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  18. Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ER D C/ EL C R- 12 -1 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments En vi ro...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program ERDC/EL CR-12-1 April 2012 Approaches to Golden...parvum cell toxicity and stable isotope ratios. Harmful Algae 8: 247-253. Lundholm, N., and O. Moestrup. 2006. The biogeography of harmful algae. In

  19. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    role of these elements in the interactions between fuels and algae , each of the three elements Cr, Ti, and Pb were quantified in the algal assay medium...AFAMRL-TR-82-70 USE OF UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS SECOND ANNUAL REPORT JAN SCHERFIG PETER DIXON MARC A. PETTY...70 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED USE OF UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION OF Second Annual Re-ort POTENTIAL AQUATIC

  20. Production and characterization of algae extract from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Kightlinger

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that algae extract derived from C. reinhardtii is similar, if not superior, to commercially available yeast extract in nutrient content and effects on the growth and metabolism of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. Bacto™ yeast extract is valued at USD $0.15–0.35 per gram, if algae extract was sold at similar prices, it would serve as a high-value co-product in algae-based fuel processes.

  1. Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssèdre, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. Knoll states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. Teyssèdre's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some "acritarchs" and of a primitive clade of green algae, the Pyramimonadales. A paraphyletic group of unicellular green algae, named "Prasinop...

  2. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  3. Hanbury Brown-Twiss interference of anyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnano, Gabriele; Zilberberg, Oded; Gornyi, Igor V; Feldman, Dmitri E; Potter, Andrew C; Gefen, Yuval

    2012-09-07

    We present a study of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer realized with anyons. Such a device can directly probe entanglement and fractional statistics of initially uncorrelated particles. We calculate Hanbury Brown-Twiss cross correlations of Abelian Laughlin anyons. The correlations we calculate exhibit partial bunching similar to bosons, indicating a substantial statistical transmutation from the underlying electronic degrees of freedom. We also find qualitative differences between the anyonic signal and the corresponding bosonic or fermionic signals, indicating that anyons cannot be simply thought of as intermediate between bosons and fermions.

  4. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  5. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  6. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  7. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  8. The genome of the alga-associated marine flavobacterium Formosa agariphila KMM 3901T reveals a broad potential for degradation of algal polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Alexander J; Hahnke, Richard L; Huang, Sixing; Werner, Johannes; Xing, Peng; Barbeyron, Tristan; Huettel, Bruno; Stüber, Kurt; Reinhardt, Richard; Harder, Jens; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Amann, Rudolf I; Teeling, Hanno

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, representatives of the Bacteroidetes have been increasingly recognized as specialists for the degradation of macromolecules. Formosa constitutes a Bacteroidetes genus within the class Flavobacteria, and the members of this genus have been found in marine habitats with high levels of organic matter, such as in association with algae, invertebrates, and fecal pellets. Here we report on the generation and analysis of the genome of the type strain of Formosa agariphila (KMM 3901(T)), an isolate from the green alga Acrosiphonia sonderi. F. agariphila is a facultative anaerobe with the capacity for mixed acid fermentation and denitrification. Its genome harbors 129 proteases and 88 glycoside hydrolases, indicating a pronounced specialization for the degradation of proteins, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins. Sixty-five of the glycoside hydrolases are organized in at least 13 distinct polysaccharide utilization loci, where they are clustered with TonB-dependent receptors, SusD-like proteins, sensors/transcription factors, transporters, and often sulfatases. These loci play a pivotal role in bacteroidetal polysaccharide biodegradation and in the case of F. agariphila revealed the capacity to degrade a wide range of algal polysaccharides from green, red, and brown algae and thus a strong specialization of toward an alga-associated lifestyle. This was corroborated by growth experiments, which confirmed usage particularly of those monosaccharides that constitute the building blocks of abundant algal polysaccharides, as well as distinct algal polysaccharides, such as laminarins, xylans, and κ-carrageenans.

  9. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  10. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  11. Ammonium removal using algae-bacteria consortia: the effect of ammonium concentration, algae biomass, and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huijun; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-12-13

    In this study, the effects of ammonium nitrogen concentration, algae biomass concentration, and light conditions (wavelength and intensity) on the ammonium removal efficiency of algae-bacteria consortia from wastewater were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium concentration and light intensity had a significant impact on nitrification. It was found that the highest ammonia concentration (430 mg N/L) in the influent resulted in the highest ammonia removal rate of 108 ± 3.6 mg N/L/days, which was two times higher than the influent with low ammonia concentration (40 mg N/L). At the lowest light intensity of 1000 Lux, algae biomass concentration, light wavelength, and light cycle did not show a significant effect on the performance of algal-bacterial consortium. Furthermore, the ammonia removal rate was approximately 83 ± 1.0 mg N/L/days, which was up to 40% faster than at the light intensity of 2500 Lux. It was concluded that the algae-bacteria consortia can effectively remove nitrogen from wastewater and the removal performance can be stabilized and enhanced using the low light intensity of 1000 Lux that is also a cost-effective strategy.

  12. Anti-HIV activity of fucoidans from three brown seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Thanh Thi Thu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Quang, Ngo Van; Tu, Ho Cam; Zheng, Yue; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Mi, Bilan; Ai, Usov

    2015-01-22

    Fucoidans are sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine brown algae. In the current work the anti-HIV activity of three fucoidans, extracted from three brown seaweeds Sargassum mcclurei, Sargassum polycystum and Turbinara ornata and collected from Nha Trang bay, Vietnam was investigated. Fucoidans extracted from the three species displayed similar antiviral activities with a mean IC50 ranging from 0.33 to 0.7 μg/ml while displaying no cell toxicity. Our results showed that the anti-HIV activity of fucoidans is not primarily linked to the sulfate content and the appropriate position of sulfate groups in the fucoidan backbones was also not associated with the antiviral activity. Fucoidans inhibited HIV-1 infection when they were pre-incubated with the virus but not with the cells, and not after infection, blocking the early steps of HIV entry into target cells. These data contribute to a better understanding of the influence of fucoidans structural characteristics on their biological activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    resource in various appl ic a tions such as, rehabilitation of waste lands, enhancement of crop fields as well as the crops. A number of studies have a l ready been carried out in Southern India to harness the potential of seaweeds as a natural... fertilizer. Extracts from some se a weed s pecies have shown beneficial e f fects on crop plants. This was reflected in the physiognomy as well as physio l ogy of the crops. Algae are relatively high in nitrogen and potash, but low in phosphorus...

  14. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

    1997-12-01

    Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCBNannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

  15. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Salovius-Lauren, S. [Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Artillerig. 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Rajander, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Saarela, K.-E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4 m depth in a water column of 8 m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D Prime {sub M}. For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al > Ti > Fe Much-Greater-Than Mn > Ni, Cu > Ba, Cr, Zn Much-Greater-Than Rb > K, Sr > Pb Much-Greater-Than Ca Much-Greater-Than Na > Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental concentrations in P. littoralis and C. glomerata from the Archipelago Sea in Finland were measured during decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIXE and PIGE were successfully used for chemical analysis of 24 elements

  16. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  17. Natural history of presumed congenital Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, T J; Smith, K; Orton, R B; Noel, L P; Clarke, W; Cadera, W

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the stability of the ocular alignment in patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. A retrospective review of patients with Brown syndrome with an emphasis on nonsurgical cases. Follow-up of at least 1 year was required for inclusion in the study. Patients were selected for this study from the pediatric ophthalmology services at the Ivey Institute of Ophthalmology, London, Ontario, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa. A cohort of 71 patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. Two cases were bilateral. Eleven cases were excluded because of insufficient length of follow-up, leaving 60 patients with an average follow-up of 46 months. All patients were assessed and followed up by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Of 38 patients who had no hypotropia in primary position at presentation, only two (5%) patients experienced a worsening with the development of a small vertical strabismus during the follow-up period. Six (10%) of the entire group of 60 patients experienced a complete spontaneous resolution of the deficiency in elevation at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 years of age. Among patients with congenital Brown syndrome, those who are orthotropic in the primary position tend to remain stable or improve over time without surgical intervention.

  18. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  19. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  20. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  1. The browning of Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Parent; David. Verbyla

    2010-01-01

    We used twelve Landsat scenes from the 1980s-2009 and regional 2000-2009 MODIS data to examine the long-term trend in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within unburned areas of the Alaskan boreal forest. Our analysis shows that there has been a declining trend in NDVI in this region, with the strongest "browning trend" occurring in eastern...

  2. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Andersen L. W., Fredsted T., Wincentz T. and Pertoldi C. 2009. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare. Acta Theriologica 54: 97-110. Denmark lies on the edge of the distributional range of the brown hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778, where population......-69.8 respectively). There was no correlation between the geographic and the genetic distance. Population structure was influenced by genetic drift, anthropogenic effects (eg translocation and escapes from hare-farms) and by post-glacial recolonization from southern refuges or refuges north east of the Black Sea...... glaciations or by stocking effects. Colonization from southern refuges was supported by the observation that haplotype 2 in the Danish brown hare was identical to the central European ancestral haplotype c07....

  3. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  4. Gas exchange and brown heart in conference pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otma, E.C.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Brown heart is a tissue disorder found in Conference pears during CA storage. Differences in susceptibility for brown heart have been found between countries, orchards, harvest dates and storage conditions. One hypothesis is that brown heart is caused by increased internal CO2. This research

  5. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  6. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    OpenAIRE

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of t...

  7. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  9. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  10. Dissolved Air Flotation Process for Algae Removal | Mulaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... algae such as blue-green, green, diatom and dinoflagellates was effective. At optimum coagulant dosage, algae removal from 70 percent to 90 percent, turbidity reduction of over 80 percent and color improvement of about 75 percent was achieved. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(2) 2004: 27-38.

  11. Persistence and proliferation of some unicellular algae in drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water systems have a complex structure and are characterised by the absence of light, the presence of disinfectants and by low levels of nutrients. Several kinds of bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi can be found in tap water. Little is known about the ecology of algae in drinking water systems, although their ...

  12. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  13. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-15

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  14. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  15. EnAlgae Decision Support Toolset: model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Philip; Visser, de Chris; Skarka, Johannes; Sternberg, Kirstin; Schipperus, Roelof; Silkina, Alla; Ginnever, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    One of the drivers behind the EnAlgae project is recognising and addressing the need for increased availability of information about developments in applications of algae biotechnology for energy, particularly in the NW Europe area, where activity has been less intense than in other areas of the

  16. Aspects of nitrogen assimilation by cultures of green algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, L.H.J.

    1956-01-01

    The N/C relation in green algae was about 0.2, but with N starvation this ratio may decline to 0.04. Such treatment also decreased the chlorophyll content of the cells as well as the rates of photosynthesis and growth.

    Supply of substrate N to N-starved algae resulted in formation of cells of

  17. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995) parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  18. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995 parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  19. Management of autotrophic mass cultures of micro-algae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toerien, DF

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the mass cultivation of micro-algae as feed and foodstuff has existed since the turn of the century (Robinson and Toerien, 1962). Experiments using algae in photosynthetic research (Warburg, 1919) also led to an appreciation...

  20. Search for Future Viands-Algae and Fungi as Food

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Search for Future Viands - Algae and Fungi as Food. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 33-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/05/0033-0040. Keywords. Alternative food; algae; fungi; mushrooms; seaweeds. Author Affiliations.

  1. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents estimates of the monetary value of the impact of eutrophication (algae) on commercial agriculture in two different catchments in South Africa. A production function approach is applied to estimate the monetary value of the impact of filamentous green algae on commercial agriculture in the Dwars River, ...

  2. PERANAN DEKOMPOSER NABATI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN POPULASI SEL ALGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Junus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has programmed units of biogas as an energy producer. By-products such as organic sludge. Liquid separation of organic sludge biogas unit will be the terrestrial and aquatic plant fertilizer. Water plant that uses a liquid organic sludge biogas unit (LOSBGU using vegetable decomposer were expected to be a very good influence on the increase of alga cells. The results showed that the addition of vegetable LOSBGU and decomposers in the media for 12 days alga could produce alga cells very significantly, however, its interaction was not significant. It was concluded that the addition of vegetable LOSBGU and decomposers in alga was very good media to enhance cell growth and its multiplication was also quite high. As suggestion, the use of  LOSBGU is needed to increase the production of alga.

  3. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of Biodiesel from Local Available Algae in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Aljabarin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at producing diesel out of algae. The production of biodiesel was performed at Tafila Technical University laboratories. The algae were brought from Almansora stream at Tafila governorate / Jordan, and afterwards dried in an oven at 80ºC for 12 hours. The dried Algae were ground using disc mill until powder was obtained. The powdered Algae underwent a distillation process with the addition of Iron Sulphate Hydrate to the Algae using a distillation column in order to extract the oil. Methanol was added to the oil, which was obtained from the distillation and using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst, the product was then separated in a funnel for about 10 hours until two layers of the solution were obtained, the organic layer represents the biodiesel. The biodiesel attributes are similar to the diesel oil, except that it reduces the emission of carbon dioxide CO2 and there is no emission of sulphur dioxide SO2

  5. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  6. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F. [Univ. de Metz (France). Centre des Sciences de l`Environnement

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  7. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamzeian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  8. Laboratory experiments examining inducible defense show variable responses of temperate brown and red macroalgae Experimentos de laboratorio para examinar las defensas inducibles muestran respuestas variables en macroalgas pardas y rojas de ambientes templados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVA ROTHÄUSLER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae can defend themselves against generalist and specialist herbivores via morphological and/or chemical traits. Herein we examined the defensive responses (via relative palatability of two brown (Lessonia nigrescens, Glossophora kunthii and two red algae (Grateloupia doryphora, Chondracanthus chamissoi from the northern-central coast of Chile against selected generalist meso-herbivores. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate whether (i algae can respond generally to grazing pressure of meso-herbivores (amphipods, isopods and juvenile sea urchins and whether (ii these algal responses were inducible. In order to examine palatability and thus effectiveness of responses, feeding assays were run after each experiment using fresh algal pieces and artificial agar-based food. Lessonia nigrescens responded to amphipods but not to sea urchins, and G. kunthii showed inducible response against one species of amphipods. Grateloupia doryphora did not respond against any of the tested grazers, whereas C. chamissoi responded against one species of amphipods and the tested isopod. Our results indicate variable responses of macroalgae against selected generalist meso-herbivores and evidence of an inducible defense in the brown alga G. kunthii.Muchas macroalgas poseen la capacidad de defenderse contra herbívoros generalistas y especialistas utilizando defensas químicas y/o morfológicas. En este trabajo se examinó la respuesta de la palatabilidad ante meso-herbívoros generalistas de dos algas pardas (Lessonia nigrescens, Glossophora kunthii y dos algas rojas (Grateloupia doryphora, Chondracanthus chamissoi de la costa Norte de Chile. Se realizaron dos experimentos de laboratorio para investigar si: (i las algas pueden responder al pastoreo realizado por meso-herbivoros generalistas (anfípodos, isópodos y erizos juveniles y (ii si la respuesta de estas algas es inducible. Para examinar la palatabilidad y de esta forma la efectividad

  9. Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds Inhibit Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Induce Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-3 in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs...... of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S. henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions...

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an enzymatic digest of brown seaweed Sargassum horneri in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeewa, Kalu Kapuge Asanka; Fernando, Ilekkuttige Priyan Shanura; Kim, Eun-A; Ahn, Ginnae; Jee, Youngheun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sargassum horneri is an edible brown alga that grows in the subtidal zone as an annual species along the coasts of South Korea, China, and Japan. Recently, an extreme amount of S. horneri moved into the coasts of Jeju Island from the east coast of China, which made huge economic and environmental loss to the Jeju Island. Thus, utilization of this biomass becomes a big issue with the local authorities. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflam...

  11. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  12. Identifying and misidentifying the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R

    1999-11-01

    The brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, is often implicated as a cause of necrotic skin lesions.[1-3] Diagnoses are most commonly made by clinical appearance and infrequently is a spider seen, captured or identified at the time of the bite.[1, 2, 4-6] The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the U.S. (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely-populated southwest U.S.[7] In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. However, outside the natural range of these recluse species, the conviction that they are the etiological agents behind necrotic lesions of unknown origin is widespread, and most often erroneous. In some states such as California, unsubstantiated reports concerning recluse spider bites have taken on the status of "urban legend" leading to overdiagnosis and, therefore, inappropriate treatment.

  13. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  14. Thermodynamic study of brown-coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, P.; Holub, R.; Schoengut, S.; Schoengut, J.

    1988-04-01

    Describes a method for calculating and assessing results of partial adiabatic oxidation of brown coal from the North Bohemian brown-coal field, which may in future act as a source of raw material for production of energy and synthesis gas. Calculations assume idealized fluid and burner generators and reaction parameters were selected to cover a range of operational values (these parameters include pressure, temperature, gasification ratio, water content, ash content and degree of coal conversion). After describing mathematics involved, concludes that thermodynamic analysis shows burner generator to have some advantages over fluid generator for production of synthesis gas, and vice versa for production of energy gas. However, final conclusions must await experimental evidence with regard to degree of conversion and composition of gas mixture; also, validity of this assessment is limited by the fact that no account was taken of the possibility of using reaction heat for production of steam or of any energy consumption involved. 10 refs.

  15. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sedláček

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  16. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  17. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research.

  18. Effective viscosity of actively swimming algae suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Randy; Caretta, Lucas; Chengala, Anwar; Sheng, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Suspensions of actively swimming microorganisms exhibit an effective viscosity which may depend on volume fraction, cell shape, and the nature of locomotion (e.g. "pushers" vs. "pullers"). Here we report experimental measurements of shear viscosity for suspensions of unicellular green algae (Dunaliella primolecta, a biflagellated "puller"). We use a cone-and-plate rheometer to measure the dynamic shear viscosity for both motile and non-motile suspensions of D. primolecta. Viscosity increases with concentration for both cases, but the active suspensions of "pullers" have a comparatively lower effective viscosity than passive suspensions. This observation contrasts recently proposed theories which predict that "pullers" should instead have a higher viscosity than non-motile suspensions. Additionally, we observe shear-induced migration of active suspensions and consider its impact on the resulting effective shear viscosity.

  19. Marine edible algae as disease preventers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gutierrez, Claudia Mariana; Guerra-Rivas, Graciela; Soria-Mercado, Ima Esthela; Ayala-Sánchez, Nahara Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    As modern lifestyles and new feeding habits settle in the world, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have evolved to be major causes of disability in developing as well as developed countries. As a concomitant effect, there is a growing interest in natural, healthy food and an increasing awareness of risk factors and determinants of disease. This chapter describes some nutritional facts about seaweeds, which have been used as food since ancient times in China, Japan, Egypt, and India and comments on the potential utilization of marine algae as functional foods. This concept and the description of metabolic syndrome are used as a basis to comprehension of seaweeds against two dreadful illnesses of our times: high blood pressure and cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stuart A; Davey, Matthew P; Dennis, John S; Horst, Irmtraud; Howe, Christopher J; Lea-Smith, David J; Smith, Alison G

    2010-06-01

    Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel, but the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding of algae to identify potential paradigm shifts. In doing this, integration of biology and engineering will be essential. In this review we present an overview of a potential algal biofuel pipeline, and focus on recent work that tackles optimization of algal biomass production and the content of fuel molecules within the algal cell. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.