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Sample records for broom baccharis sarothroides

  1. Carqueja (Baccharis trimera: utilização terapêutica e biossíntese Broom (Baccharis trimera: therapeutic use and biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Karam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais no tratamento e cura de enfermidades é um recurso terapêutico muito antigo e talvez o único adotado em muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. A família Asteraceae concentra grande número de espécies com potencial terapêutico, algumas das quais do gênero Baccharis, utilizadas na medicina popular e também na produção de fitoterápicos. Estudos relatam que a principal indicação terapêutica mencionada para estas espécies estão relacionadas com ações sobre o trato gastrintestinal. A partir de pesquisa bibliográfica, foram identificadas as características morfológicas da carqueja, bem como, as propriedades terapêuticas cientificamente comprovadas, biossíntese dos principais metabólitos secundários, e possíveis interações medicamentosas.The use of medicinal plants to treat and cure diseases is a very old therapeutic resource and perhaps the only one adopted in many communities and ethnic groups. The Asteraceae family concentrates a great number of species with therapeutic potential, some of which belong to the Baccharis genus and have been used in folk medicine and herbal medicine production. Studies have reported that the main therapeutic indication for these species is related to actions on the gastrointestinal tract. From literature searches, the morphological characteristics of broom, its scientifically proven therapeutic properties, as well as biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and possible drug interactions were identified.

  2. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  3. Baccharis Pteronioides Toxicity in Livestock and Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1900’s, Baccharis pteronioides DC has been intermittently associated with livestock poisoning in the southwestern United States. In 2004, nearly 100 free ranging cows were reported poisoned by B. pteronioides in southern New Mexico. Initial field studies and post mortem examination...

  4. Potencial ornamental de Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentatacomo folhagem de corte

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    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas amplia a oferta de produtos para o mercado da floricultura. Entretanto, antes de uma espécie ser indicada como ornamental, suas características estéticas devem ser avaliadas pelo público consumidor. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi prospectar novas plantas para uso como folhagem de corte e avaliar o seu potencial ornamental. O potencial ornamental das espécies prospectadas foi avaliado por 10 profissionais especialistas em arte floral, com base em metodologia que considera características qualitativas e quantitativas de importância ornamental para o mercado consumidor. Cada critério foi pontuado por meio de notas de dez (mínima a 100 (máxima. Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentata foram selecionadas na região de Mata Atlântica, em borda de mata, por apresentarem ocorrência frequente na paisagem, hastes longas, folhas exuberantes, com coloração destacada na paisagem e aspecto aparentemente rústico. Ambas as espécies apresentam alto potencial ornamental para uso como folhagem de corte com características adequadas para o uso como complementos para arranjos florais.

  5. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw) (similar to 1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw). The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a...

  6. Synthetic auxin herbicides control germinating scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2014-01-01

    Scotch broom is a large, nonnative shrub that has invaded forests and grasslands in 27 U.S. states. Without treatment, Scotch broom’s persistent seedbank ensures a continuing source of regeneration after soil disturbance. In growth chamber studies, five rates of three synthetic auxin herbicides, aminocyclopyrachlor (AC), aminopyralid (AP), and clopyralid (CP), were...

  7. Essential oil of Baccharis semiserrata, a source of spathuleno

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Sayonara; Sávio Nunes, Domingos; Marques, Mariza Boscacci; Tardivo, Rosângela Capuano; Cechinel Filho,Valdir; Simionatto, Edesio Luiz; Wisniewski Junior, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils of the leaves of female (0.13%) and male (0.45%) specimens of Baccharis semiserrata collected in the state of Paraná, Brazil, were analyzed in detail using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Both samples have low monoterpene content and present the sesquiterpene spathulenol as their main component, reaching 50.75% in the oil originating from the male specimen and 42.65% in that of the female specimen. Other major sesquiterpenes found were (female-male): aromadendrene (9.6...

  8. Plants traditionally used to make brooms in several European countries

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    Dogan Yunus

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The research was carried out within the course of two years (2005–2006 in four countries from southern, southeast and eastern parts of Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, Macedonia and Romania. The data are collected mainly from Bulgaria and Italy and are compared with those from Macedonia and Romania. Methods The information was gathered largely from literature as well as field collected data and interviewed informants. A brief questionnaire, referring to the vernacular name, plant description, providing specimens from the plants and brooms, details on their use has been prepared and applied. Results The total number of species as brooms in the study areas is about 108. The list includes two fungi taxa which caused the so-called "Witches' brooms". A high species diversity of 106 taxa of vascular plants, belonging to 37 families and 74 genera, is established in the research area. The investigation includes data about scientific name, family, vernacular name, life form, status (wild or cultivated, used parts and place of use. The relations between the plant characteristics and broom specific shape and working qualities, details of the traditionally broom planting and making, the broom as a part of folklore, traditions and religious rituals are discussed. Conclusion Collected data show how ecological, geographical features and different cultures are related with the variety of plants traditionally used as brooms as well as details for their uses. The data about the variety of plants traditionally used to make brooms and the ways in which they are used according to the specific characteristics of the areas are important for ethnobotanical knowledge.

  9. Plants traditionally used to make brooms in several European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcheva, Anely M; Dogan, Yunus; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The research was carried out within the course of two years (2005–2006) in four countries from southern, southeast and eastern parts of Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, Macedonia and Romania. The data are collected mainly from Bulgaria and Italy and are compared with those from Macedonia and Romania. Methods The information was gathered largely from literature as well as field collected data and interviewed informants. A brief questionnaire, referring to the vernacular name, plant description, providing specimens from the plants and brooms, details on their use has been prepared and applied. Results The total number of species as brooms in the study areas is about 108. The list includes two fungi taxa which caused the so-called "Witches' brooms". A high species diversity of 106 taxa of vascular plants, belonging to 37 families and 74 genera, is established in the research area. The investigation includes data about scientific name, family, vernacular name, life form, status (wild or cultivated), used parts and place of use. The relations between the plant characteristics and broom specific shape and working qualities, details of the traditionally broom planting and making, the broom as a part of folklore, traditions and religious rituals are discussed. Conclusion Collected data show how ecological, geographical features and different cultures are related with the variety of plants traditionally used as brooms as well as details for their uses. The data about the variety of plants traditionally used to make brooms and the ways in which they are used according to the specific characteristics of the areas are important for ethnobotanical knowledge. PMID:17475017

  10. Herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as agent for the control of biofilm: clinical evaluation in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    ... actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities...

  11. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

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    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  12. Microsculpture of cypselae surface of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae (Asteraceae from Brazil

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    Boldrini, Ilsi Iob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the microsculpture of the cypselae surface of the Brazilian species of Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. (Asteraceae, and to compare this data it with the taxonomy of the group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the cypsela surface of 25 taxa of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae from Brazil. According to the micromorphology of the cypsela surface, the species can be classified into five distinct groups. The cypselae of the species of the Baccharis trimera species complex (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala, and B. trimera share the same micromorphological features.Para examinar la superficie de cipselas de 25 táxones de Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. de Brasil se ha utilizado la microscopía electrónica de barrido. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la microescultura de la superficie de cipselas de la sección y colaborar con la delimitación taxonómica a nivel específico. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cinco grupos distintos según la micromorfología y asignados a la terminología existente. El complejo Baccharis trimera (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala y B. trimera mostró afinidades micromorfológicas de las cipselas.

  13. Investigação sobre compostos voláteis de espécies de Baccharis nativas do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Vanessa Barbieri

    2011-01-01

    As espécies do gênero Baccharis spp. (Compositae) são uma importante fonte de pesquisa para busca de novos princípios ativos para produtos naturais medicinais. Logo, o presente trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre compostos voláteis de três espécies de Baccharis nativas (Baccharis anomala DC, Baccharis dentata (Vell) G. M. Barroso e Baccharis uncinella DC) coletadas em janeiro e maio de 2011, em São Francisco de Paula (RS) no Centro de Pesquisa e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata (CPCN-Pr...

  14. Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Peumus boldus e Baccharis genistelloides

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    Ana Lúcia T. G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available Um grande número de espécies com uso medicinal tradicional ainda continua sem comprovação da eficácia e da segurança de seu uso. Este artigo apresenta uma pequena revisão sobre os trabalhos publicados com boldo (Peumus boldus e carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides. Os estudos farmacológicos realizados com P. boldus e B. genistelloides comprovam várias das atividades atribuídas popularmente a esses chás, além de correlacionarem esses efeitos a compostos puros, isolados a partir desses extratos. Já os estudos toxicológicos sugerem que o chá de boldo deve ser consumido com moderação e cuidado, principalmente no primeiro trimestre da gravidez (indícios de teratogenia e no uso por tempo prolongado (indícios de hepatotoxicidade, enquanto o consumo do chá de carqueja deve ser proibido para gestantes (risco comprovado de aborto e para pacientes que utilizam drogas para tratamento de problemas pressóricos (ação hipotensora. Estes relatos reforçam a necessidade de um maior conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente, não apenas para a confirmação das atividades descritas pelo uso tradicional, mas também para que o uso seguro seja estabelecido.

  15. Spasmolytic effects of baccharis conferta and some of its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, C; Goransson, U; Pongprayoon-Claeson, U; Claeson, P; Bohlin, L; Rimpler, H; Heinrich, M

    2002-01-01

    The Nahua of the Mexican state of Veracruz use Baccharis conferta in the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal illnesses, especially diarrhoea associated with gastrointestinal cramps. The aerial parts of B. conferta were investigated phytochemically and pharmacologically using the guinea pig ileum assay as a model (histamine, KCI and electric stimulation). The crude ethanolic extract showed a dose-dependent antispasmodic effect that was particularly strong in flavonoid-rich fractions (e.g. IC50 value for fraction E.3.1 from the ethyl acetate fraction, in histamine-induced contraction, 10 microg mL(-1)). Several flavonoids (apigenin-4',7-dimethylether, naringenin-4',7-dimethylether, pectolinarigenin and cirsimaritin) were isolated, while others were identified in complex fractions by GC-MS. The flavonoids play an important role in the antispasmodic activity of this indigenous drug. Additionally, oleanolic acid and its methyl ester as well as erythrodiol were isolated. Oleanolic acid methyl ester shows weak antibacterial activity against M. luteusand E. coli (20 microg/spot in a TLC assay). The phytochemical as well as the pharmacological data provide some in-vitro evidence forthe use of B. conferta in thetreatment of gastrointestinal cramps.

  16. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    Scotch broom is a large, leguminous shrub that has invaded 27 U.S. states. The species produces seeds with a hard coat that remain viable in the soil for years. Growth-chamber studies were conducted to determine effects of temperature regime and cold-stratification period on seed germination. Seedling emergence, mortality, and biomass also were studied in response to...

  17. Gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae: aspectos químicos, econômicos e biológicos The Baccharis genus (Asteraceae: chemical, economic and biological aspects

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    Luiz Gonzaga Verdi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.

  18. Seasonality Role on the Phenolics from Cultivated Baccharis dracunculifolia

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    João Paulo B. de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia is the source of Brazilian green propolis (BGP. Considering the broad spectrum of biological activities attributed to green proplis, B. dracunculifolia has a great potential for the development of new cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the cultivation of 10 different populations of native B. dracunculifolia had been undertaken aiming to determine the role of seasonality on its phenolic compounds. For this purpose, fruits of this plant were collected from populations of 10 different regions, and 100 individuals of each population were cultivated in an experimental area of 1800 m2. With respect to cultivation, the yields of dry plant, essential oil and crude extract were measured monthly resulting in mean values of 399 ± 80 g, 0.6 ± 0.1% and 20 ± 4%, respectively. The HPLC analysis allowed detecting seven phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, ferulic acid, aromadendrin-4′-methyl ether (AME, isosakuranetin, artepillin C, baccharin and 2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran acid, which were the major ones throughout the 1-year monthly analysis. Caffeic acid was detected in all cultivated populations with mean of 4.0%. AME displayed the wide variation in relation to other compounds showing means values of 0.65 ± 0.13% at last quarter. Isosakuranetin and artepillin C showed increasing concentrations with values between 0% and 1.4% and 0% and 1.09%, respectively. The obtained results allow suggesting that the best time for harvesting this plant, in order to obtain good qualitative and quantitative results for these phenolic compounds, is between December and April.

  19. Experimental control of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum invading natural grasslands

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    Cristina Sanhueza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of legumes generically known as brooms are among the most successful shrubs invading grasslands in South America and otherregions. These species share a set of biological features that enhance their invasiveness, such as abundant and long-lasting seed banks,aggressive root systems and rapid growth, combined with their ability for re-sprouting after cutting or burning and for avoiding herbivores.They grow in dense stands that exclude native vegetation and are able to change ecological processes, increasing fire frequency and intensity,and fixing atmospheric nitrogen. The Spanish broom (Spartium junceum is a shrub native form the Mediterranean that was introduced intothe Argentine Pampas grasslands where it spreads over remnants of pristine ecosystems, threatening their biodiversity. This paper reports theresults obtained after an adaptive management strategy aimed at controlling this species in a nature reserve, and compares the efficiency ofdifferent mechanical and chemical control techniques in terms of the number of plants killed and the effects on surrounding vegetation andon the recruitment of broom seedlings. Control was implemented in two phases, the first included three treatments: i cut at the base of theplant, ii cut followed by the immediate application of Togar (Picloram 3% + Triclopyr 6%, at a 5% dilution in diesel oil on top of the cut stump, and iii foliar spraying with Togar. The follow-up treatments, implemented one year later, consisted of spraying the re-sprouts with Togar (5% in diesel oil or Glyphosate 36% (2% in water. The best option in terms of controlling Spanish broom was spraying the resprouts with Togar which gave 100% mortality of the treated plants, compared with values of 40% - 100% re-sprouting for the other optionstested. None of the methods was associated with an increase in seedling recruitment, nor with significant changes in the vegetation in the immediate vicinity of the controlled brooms.

  20. Ethnobotany, phytochennistry and pharmacology of medicinal plants belonging to the genus Baccharis (Astera ceas) used at Ayacucho city

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Enrique; Instituto de Recursos Vegetales y Terapéuticos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Anaya, Brita; Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga.; Alarcón, José; Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga.; Tinco, Aldo; Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga.

    2014-01-01

    Spedes from Baccharis genus were studied fo the viewpoint ethnobotanical, chemical and pharmacological which are used as medicinal plants at de Ayacucho depaIllllent. Three species from Baccharis genus were collected from the Quinua district and the Muyurina VaHey (Huamanga province, Ayacucho), during april to june months of 2006. The ethnobotanical study was realized using the Caceres's methodologíe(I996) and the phytochemical study in according to Miranda and Cuellar (2000), prostaglandine ...

  1. Whisk Broom Imaging Sensor LandSat-7

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    sim present anim Simulation Presentation Animation Interactive Media Element This presentation demonstrates using animations how a whisk-broom imaging sensor operates. It shows: The optical path through the primary and secondary mirrors to the Scan Line Correction (SLC) assembly., How the satellite captures images of the ground using the Scan Mirror assembly., The change in the scanned image when the SLC is turned off. SS3020 Introduction to Measurement and Signatur...

  2. Intoxicação experimental por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae in cattle

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    Mary Suzan Varaschin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Treze terneiros receberam Baccharis coridifolia recém-colhida ou dessecada, em doses únicas que variaram entre 0,5 e 5g/kg. Um terneiro recebeu quatro administrações diárias de 0,5g/kg da planta dessecada. Dois terneiros não receberam a planta e serviram como controles. A planta foi colhida mensalmente de julho de 1991 a maio de 1992 e em março de 1993, e foi analisada para seu conteúdo em tricotecenos macrocíclicos. Quando em floração, as amostras dos espécimes macho e fêmea da planta foram analisadas e administradas aos terneiros separadamente. Os níveis de tricotecenos macrocíclicos e seus glicosídeos foram muito maiores nas plantas fêmeas em floração do que os níveis observados nas plantas não em floração e nas plantas machos em floração. Dez bovinos morreram espontaneamente ou foram sacrificados devido à toxicose. Dois terneiros que receberam a planta fêmea em floração, adoeceram e morreram, enquanto que três terneiros que receberam a planta macho em floração não adoeceram. Os sinais clínicos nos terneiros intoxicados foram anorexia, desidratação, atonia ruminal, tensão e dores abdominais, diarréia líquida, focinho seco, instabilidade dos membros posteriores e decúbito esternal. Os achados patológicos incluiram lesões necróticas no tubo gastrintestinal, particularmente nos pré-estômagos, e nos tecidos linfóides com exceção do timo. Esse último achado sugere um efeito sobre as células B do tecido linfóide. A distribuição das lesões nos sistemas digestivo e linfóide foi sistematicamente determinada. Conclui-se que os tricotecenos macrocíclicos presentes na planta são responsáveis pelas lesões observadas na toxicose e que a planta fêmea em floração é substâncialmente mais tóxica que a planta macho em floração ou das plantas que não estão em floração. Essa diferença em toxicidade é devida à diferença no conteúdo de tricotecenos macrocíclicos.Thirteen calves were fed

  3. Anatomical studies of Baccharis grisebachii Hieron. (Asteraceae). Used in folk medicine of San Juan province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hadad, Martín Ariel; Gattuso, Susana Julia; Gattuso, Martha Ana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Aníbal Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Baccharis grisebachii Hieron., commonly known as “quilchamali”, is a bushy plant that lives in the high mountains of Argentina and southern Bolivia. The infusion or decoction of aerial parts is used in the traditional medicine of San Juan province, Argentina, to treat gastric ulcers, digestive problems, and as antiseptic and wound healing in humans and horses. The aim of this study is to analyze the anatomical characters of B. grisebachii for specific identification and quality control. The r...

  4. Invasive scotch broom alters soil chemical properties in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Anthony W. D′Amato

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Scotch broom is an N-fixing invasive species that has high potential to alter soil properties. We compared soil from areas of Scotch broom invasion with nearby areas that had no evidence of invasion to assess the influence of broom on soil P fractions and other chemical properties. Methods The study was...

  5. Pruning dwarf mistletoe brooms reduces stress on Jeffrey pines, Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Richard S. Smith; Detlev Vogler

    1987-01-01

    Western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum) is a damaging parasite of Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi) in southern California. Infected branches that develop into brooms are believed to reduce tlee vigor and increase mortality. Brooms were pruned from Jeffrey pines with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection and live...

  6. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae', respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, C; Gibb, K S; Streten, C; Schneider, B

    2004-07-01

    Spartium witches'-broom (SpaWB), buckthorn witches'-broom (BWB) and allocasuarina yellows (AlloY) are witches'-broom and yellows diseases of Spartium junceum (Spanish broom), Rhamnus catharticus (buckthorn) and Allocasuarina muelleriana (Slaty she-oak), respectively. These diseases are associated with distinct phytoplasmas. The SpaWB, BWB and AlloY phytoplasmas share <97.5 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity with each other and with other known phytoplasmas, including the closely related phytoplasmas of the apple proliferation group. Also, the SpaWB, BWB and AlloY phytoplasmas each have a different natural plant host. Based on their unique properties, it is proposed to designate the mentioned phytoplasmas as novel 'Candidatus' species under the names 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae', respectively.

  7. Genotypic Characterization of Cherry Witches` Broom Pathogen Taphrina wiesneri Strains

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    Sang-Tae Seo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycetous fungus Taphrina wiesneri, the pathogen of cherry witches` broom, is highly pathogenic to Prunus yedoensis, the most widely planted cherry trees in Korea as park and roadside trees. A collection of 13 strains of the pathogen in Korea and Japan was characterized by 18S rDNA gene sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. In cluster analysis based on 18S rDNA gene sequence the strains were divided into 2 clusters. In RFLP analysis of the rDNA-IGS region using HhaI, the strains were separated into four patterns, B, C, D and G, of which pattern G was new.

  8. Roebuck Bay and the Town of Broome, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Roebuck Bay (18.0S, 122.0E) is a prominent bay on the arid northwest coast of Western Australia and the town of Broome is one of the few prominent towns along this very sparsley settled coast. The large gray area extending back from the shoreline of the bay is the Roebuck Plains slowly being filled with sediment by local streams draining the Great Sandy Desert. The irregular bare patches on the desert to the south are burn scars from brush fires.

  9. Plant phenology and absence of sex-biased gall attack on three species of Baccharis.

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    Mário M Espírito-Santo

    Full Text Available Dioecy represents a source of variation in plant quality to herbivores due to sexual differences in intensity and timing of resource allocation to growth, defense and reproduction. Male plants have higher growth rates and should be more susceptible to herbivores than females, due to a lower investment in defense and reproduction.We compared resource investment to growth and reproduction and its consequences to herbivore attack on three Baccharis species along one year (B. dracunculifolia, B. ramosissima, and B. concinna. Phenological patterns presented by the three species of Baccharis were quite different over time, but the number of fourth-level shoots and plant growth rate did not differ between sexes in any studied species. Intersexual difference in reproductive investment was only observed for B. concinna, with female individuals supporting higher inflorescence density than male individuals throughout the year. Gall abundance on the three Baccharis species was not influenced by plant sex. However, all plant traits evaluated here positively influenced the gall abundance on B. concinna, whereas only the number of fourth-level shoots positively influenced gall abundance on B. ramosissima and B. dracunculifolia.The absence of differential reproductive allocation may have contributed to similar growth and shoot production between the sexes, with bottom-up effects resulting in gender similarities in gall abundance patterns. The number of fourth-level shoots, an indicator of meristem availability to herbivores, was the most important driver of the abundance of the galling insects regardless of host plant gender or species. Albeit the absence of intersexual variation in insect gall abundance is uncommon in the literature, the detailed study of the exceptions may bring more light to understand the mechanisms and processes behind such trend.

  10. Estaquia de três espécies de Baccharis

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    Bona Claudine Maria de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da carqueja é importante para o fornecimento de matéria prima de alta qualidade para a indústria de fitoterápicos, sendo necessária a definição de uma forma eficiente de produção de mudas. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes partes do ramo e substratos na estaquia de Baccharis articulata, Baccharis trimera e Baccharis stenocephala. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação sob condição de nebulização intermitente, testando: 1diferentes partes do ramo (estaca basal, estaca mediana e estaca apical com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições de 15 estacas por parcela; e 2diferentes substratos (solo, areia, vermiculita, casca de arroz carbonizada e Plantmax®, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, quatro repetições de 15 estacas por parcela. A posição da estaca de B. trimera não afetou a porcentagem de enraizamento, massa seca de raízes e número de raízes emitidas por estaca, ocorrendo apenas maior porcentagem de estacas brotadas das partes mediana e basal. Para B. articulata e B. stenocephala, houve tendência das estacas apicais e medianas apresentarem maior enraizamento e desenvolvimento das raízes. Os substratos testados não apresentaram diferenças significativas para as variáveis analisadas em B. trimera, mas para B. stenocephala e B. articulata a areia foi o pior substrato.

  11. Development of Abrasive Selection Model/Chart for Palm Frond Broom Peeling Machine Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankwojike; B. Nduka

    2014-01-01

    A model for predicting the friction required by a palm frond broom peeling machine for effective peeling of palm leaf to broom bristle and a chart for selecting the best abrasive material for this machine’s peeling operation were developed in this study using mechanistic modeling method. The model quantified the relationship between the coefficient of friction and other operational parameters of this machine while the abrasives selection chart constitutes a plot of this measured f...

  12. Comparação entre os metais presentes em Croton floribundus Spreng. e Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

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    Patrícia A.Telles Macari

    Full Text Available Metals are very important in the vegetal fisiology, if so, it's necessary their quantification. In the soil the plants are acumulatives and detectors of metals. The medicinal plants Croton floribundus Spreng. and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. were collected in the Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA - Iperó - SP. The analysis method used the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  13. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. (carqueja against bacteria of medical interest

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    Álan Alex Aleixo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. (Asteraceae, popularly know as "carqueja", is a species commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment or prevention of diseases. In this context, the purpose of this work was to study the antibacterial activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis trimera against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli EHEC ATCC 43895, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430 of clinical interest. Antibacterial susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following the CLSI (formerly the NCCLS guidelines. The extract from B. trimera showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and the most interesting result was obtained against S. epidermidis that presented Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of 250μg/mL. These results indicate that B. trimera have bacterisostatic potential against Gram-positive bacterial strains of medical interest and could serve as a base for further studies on the use of isolated compounds from this species as future antimicrobials.

  14. Interaction between Apis mellifera L. and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, that favours green propolis production in Minas Gerais

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    EMAF. Bastos

    Full Text Available In Minas Gerais, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters associated with the interaction Apis mellifera x Baccharis dracunculifolia, to elucidate the supply of resin for green propolis production in Minas Gerais. We selected male and female individuals of two populations of Baccharis dracunculifolia located on São Judas Tadeu Farm - FSJT, in the municipality of Betim, MG and the Experimental Garden of the Ezequiel Dias Foundation - HORTO, located in an urban area in Belo Horizonte, MG. We made weekly observations, from June 2007 to June 2008, and evaluated in both populations: richness and abundance of insect visitors; resin collecting visits of Apis mellifera; presence of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae galls; growth of individuals and phenological phases. Statistical analyses were made using R software. The rainy season showed the highest number of visitors. A. mellifera collected resin in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia from August to April, only in the FSJT population, where galls of B. dracunculifoliae were also present. Ovoposition of gall inductor on host plants occurs during the rainy season, when there is a peak of visitants and resin collecting visits of honeybees. This fact stimulates plant defense strategies against parasitoids and predators, which includes the production of several secondary metabolites, and ultimately reduces competition for food by inhibiting the attack of other phytophagous insects, not adapted to the chemical environment of plant tissues. Green propolis production in Minas Gerais is related to the abundant supply of resin by Baccharis dracunculifolia, when they are parasitised by B. dracunculifoliae galls. They induce plant production of defense exudates, which attract Apis mellifera bees to collect resin and consequently favour the production of green

  15. Germinação de aquênios de Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C.(Asteraceae Germination of Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae achene

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    Vania Gomes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia D. C. (Asteraceae é uma espécie arbustiva dióica que apresenta características invasoras e colonizadoras e potencial para recuperação de áreas degradadas. Estudou-se o comportamento germinativo de aquênios de Baccharis dracunculifolia recém coletados e estocados por um ano. Aquênios coletados em 1998 foram postos para germinar em quatro repetições de 25 aquênios nas temperaturas de 15º, 20º, 25º e 30ºC sob luz ou escuro contínuo, enquanto que os coletados em 1997 germinaram a 20º e a 25ºC. As médias de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE foram calculados para responder às seguintes perguntas: (a Como varia o comportamento germinativo dos aquênios de B. dracunculifolia sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura? (b Existe relação entre o número total de aquênios germinados e o IVE? (c O armazenamento afeta as porcentagens de germinação? Os aquênios que germinaram a 15ºC na presença e na ausência de luz e a 20ºC na luz obtiveram porcentagens de germinação significativamente maiores que os aquênios que germinaram sob os demais tratamentos (p We studied the germination of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae, achene, a species that has colonizing traits, which makes it a potential candidate for forest rehabilitation. Achenes were collected in 1998 and were germinated at 15º, 20º, 25º and 30ºC under continuous light, and darkness conditions with four replicates with 25 achenes in each. We had also collected achenes in 1997, ând they were germinated at 20º and 25ºC, under the same conditions. The mean germination rate and emergency velocity index (EVI were calculated to answer the following questions: (a How does the germination behavior of B. dracunculifolia's achenes vary under different temperature and light conditions? (b Is there any relationship between the total number of germinated achenes and the EVI? (c How does achene storage affect the

  16. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

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    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma mortalidade de ovinos associada à intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia ("mio-mio". A intoxicação ocorreu no município de Caxias do Sul, RS, em novembro de 2004. De um lote de 212 ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, no município de Jaguarão, RS, morreram 35 ovinos em até 5 dias após serem liberadas para o pasto onde mio-mio era encontrado em abundância, apesar de terem sido removidos deste pasto 1 dia e meio após sua introdução. Ovinos que anteriormente estavam na propriedade não foram afetados. O quadro clínico iniciou-se 8 horas após a introdução dos animais na nova pastagem e incluiu anorexia, depressão, retração abdominal ou leve timpanismo, incoordenação de membros posteriores, fezes pastosas, corrimento nasal catarral, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, coma e morte com evolução clínica entre 5 e 48 horas. Os principais achados de necropsia foram no trato digestivo com edema de serosa e da parede dos pré-estômagos principalmente na região retículo-ruminal e do abomaso, avermelhamento e desprendimento da mucosa ruminal e do retículo e intensa hemorragia na submucosa. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose do epitélio do pré-estômago, com infiltrado polimorfonuclear, congestão, hemorragia e edema, e necrose do tecido linfóide de linfonodos, baço e trato digestivo.An outbreak of Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep is reported, which occurred in November 2004 in the county of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. From a herd of 212 sheep, coming from a Baccharis coridifolia free area, in the county of Jaguarão, RS, 35 sheep died until 5 days after the arrival in the new area where the plant was found with abundance. The clinical signs began 8 hours after introduction of the animals into the new pasture and included apathy, anorexia, abdominal retraction or mild distension, weakness of hind limbs

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais produzidos por Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Regina Ferronatto

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais obtidos de plantas nativas de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, também conhecido como óleo-de-vassoura, é utilizado na indústria de perfumaria, proporcionando um aroma exótico a diversos perfumes, além de muitos estudos sobre atividades biológicas dessas espécies destacam os efeitos alelopáticos, antioxidante, antimicrobianos, citotóxicos e antiinflamatórios. A vassoura é uma planta arbustiva de ocorrência espontânea no Brasil, assim como nos demais países do Mercosul. A composição do óleo depende da região geográfica e do processo de extração utilizado e a importância comercial está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de compostos oxigenados, destacando o nerolidol e o espatulenol. Óleos essenciais obtidos dessas duas espécies pelo processo de hidrodestilação, foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em disco de papel, em placas de Petri contendo meio de Müeller-Hinton, semeadas com suspensões bacterianas previamente ajustadas ao tubo 0,5 da escala de Mac Farland de quatro cepas provenientes da American Type Culture Colection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discos contendo diferentes volumes dos óleos essenciais sem qualquer diluição (1, 3, 5 e 10 µL/disco foram adicionadas às placas e incubadas a 36 ºC por 24 a 48 horas. Discos de cloranfenicol (CLO e amoxicilina (AMO com volumes de 50 e 10 µg/disco respectivamente, foram utilizados como controle. Os resultados apresentados revelam que ambos os óleos avaliados apresentam atividade antimicrobiana sobre S. aureus, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.

  18. Macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering

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    Jane Manfron Budel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Baccharis usterii for quality control purposes. The plant was prepared for light and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The stem consisted of three-winged cladodes with small leaves. In the caulinar axis, these was a uniseriate epidermis, chlorenchyma alternating with angular collenchyma, perivascular fibre caps adjoining the phloem which was outside the xylem, and parenchymatic pith. The wings and the leaves were alike, presenting a uniseriate epidermis, palisade parenchyma next to the both sides of the epidermis and spongy parenchyma traversed by minor collateral vascular bundles in the central region. In the leaf midrib, a single collateral vascular bundle was embedded in the ground parenchyma. Secretory ducts and glandular trichomes occured in the stem and leaf.Caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de Baccharis usterii, com aplicação no controle de qualidade. O material botânico foi preparado de acordo com técnicas para microscopia óptica e de varredura. O caule consistiu de cladódios trialados, nos quais se inserem pequenas folhas. O eixo caulinar apresentou epiderme unisseriada, clorênquima em alternância com colênquima angular, calotas de fibras perivasculares apostas ao floema, o qual se forma externamente ao xilema, e medula parenquimática. As alas e as folhas mostraram-se semelhantes, apresentando epiderme unisseriada, parênquima paliçádico junto a ambas as faces epidérmicas e parênquima esponjoso na região central, atravessado por feixes vasculares de pequeno porte. Na nervura central da folha, um feixe vascular colateral encontrou-se mergulhado no parênquima fundamental. Dutos secretores e tricomas glandulares ocorreram no caule e na folha

  19. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

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    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The structure of these compounds were identified by IR, CG/MS, ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature. In addition, the extracts were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test and the highier activity was observed in the chloroformic extract.

  20. Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa Antiproliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle and Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae on the Allium cepa test system

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    J.M. Fachinetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies medicinais Baccharis trimera e Baccharis articulata, nativas no sul do Brasil, são muito utilizadas na medicina popular. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial efeito citotóxico destas infusões sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Ramos de duas populações de cada espécie coletados durante os estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo (floração foram usados para preparar infusões em duas concentrações: 15 mg mL-1 e 75 mg mL-1. Células das pontas de raízes Allium cepa são usadas como sistema teste in vivo. Foram preparadas lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. As células foram analisadas em todo o ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 4000 células para cada grupo de bulbos. O índice mitótico (IM foi calculado e realizado análise estatística através do teste Qui-quadrado (c² = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que as infusões de B. trimera nas duas populações causaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, mas não entre as concentrações, em ambos estádios utilizados. Os extratos de B. articulata também apresentaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, sendo que uma das populações apresentou diferença do IM entre as concentrações nos dois estádios, o que não ocorreu na outra população. Com relação à presença de células com aberrações cromossômicas, esta ocorreu em todas as populações estudadas. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos dessas espécies apresentaram efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico para as concentrações estudadas, não possuindo diferença nesses efeitos quanto ao estádio de desenvolvimento das plantas.The medicinal species Baccharis trimera and Baccharis articulata, which are native to the south of Brazil, are extensively used in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Branches of two populations of each species collected during the vegetative and reproductive

  1. Effect of aqueous extracts of Baccharis trimera on development and hatching of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acaridae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Sirlene Fernandes; Fonseca, Leydiana Duarte; Martins, Ernane Ronie; de Oliveira, Neide Judith Faria; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (Asteraceae), colloquially known as carqueja, on egg production, and hatching rate of larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus. Plant samples were collected in Montes Claros, north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Adult female ticks were distributed into 24 homogeneous groups of 10. The in vitro test was performed by immersing each group in 10 ml solutions of aqueous extracts at 50, 100, 150, or 200mg of fresh leaves ml(-1). These concentrations were compared with distilled water as negative control and a commercial product as positive control and the tests were repeated four times. The carqueja extract at concentrations of 150 and 200mg of fresh leaves ml(-1) showed 100% efficacy in inhibiting egg hatching and therefore could have potential as an acaricide. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, H G; Davis, R E; Dally, E L; Hogenhout, S; Pimentel, J P; Brioso, P S

    2001-05-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'.

  3. Herbal medicines in dentistry: history, obtainment methods, and properties of Copaifera multijuga hayne and Baccharis dracunculifolia dc

    OpenAIRE

    de los Santos, Bruna Pinto; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Pereira,Jefferson Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to do a literature review on herbal medicines used in dentistry. For that purpose, an electronic search of papers in Portuguese, Spanish, and English was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Science Direct, LILACS, and BBO, supplemented by hand search in books, theses, and journals. For the search, the following keywords were used: phytotherapy, Copaifera, and Baccharis dracunculifolia. Medicinal plants have been used since ancient times and...

  4. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., Asteraceae: evaluation of antinutrients and effect on glycosidases

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Stefânia P. de; Pereira, Luciana L. S.; Souza,Alline A.; Custódio D. dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    In order to confirm the traditional use of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., Asteraceae, for the reduction of weight, plant extracts were evaluated on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL), an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet for its subsequent absorption. The aqueous and infused extracts did not show inhibitory activity on the PL, the ethanol inhibited 16% (66 ALI/g) and methanol extract inhibited 78% (241 ALI/g). The methanol extract of B. trimera (MEB) was su...

  5. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  6. Genetic and Biological Diversity of Trichoderma stromaticum, a Mycoparasite of the Cacao Witches'-Broom Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge T; Pomella, Alan W V; Bowers, John H; Pirovani, Carlos P; Loguercio, Leandro L; Hebbar, K Prakash

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The witches'-broom disease, caused by the basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa, is the most limiting factor for cacao cultivation in Brazil. Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the witches'-broom pathogen of cacao that is currently being applied in the field to manage the disease in Bahia State, Brazil. In this work, molecular and traditional methods were used to study the genetic and biological diversity of this mycoparasite. Ninety-one isolates, mostly collected from farms not sprayed with the fungus, were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), which showed that two genetic groups (I and II) of T. stromaticum occur in Bahia State. This classification of T. stromaticum into two distinct AFLP groups was also in agreement with several other characteristics, including growth on agar media at different temperatures and sporulation on infected stem segments (broom pieces) and rice grains. Group II favors higher temperatures compared with group I. The genetic and biological differences of the isolates, however, were not evident in field experiments, where sporulation was evaluated on the surface of brooms under natural conditions. Our results show that there is considerable genetic and biological diversity within T. stromaticum in Bahia and other cacao-growing regions of South America that are affected by the witches'-broom disease. This diversity could be explored in the development of efficient biological control agents against the disease. Factors that may affect the application and performance of this biocontrol agent in the field, such as sporulation on rice substrate and on the brooms and growth at various temperatures, are discussed.

  7. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches’ Broom Disease of cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches’ Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao’s meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle d...

  8. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar; Khan, Akhtar Jamal; Calari, Alberto; Al-Subhi, Ali Masoud; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2008-02-01

    Samples from plants of Cassia italica exhibiting typical witches'-broom symptoms (Cassia witches'-broom; CWB) were examined for the presence of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas by PCR amplification using universal phytoplasma primers. All affected plants yielded positive results. RFLP analyses of rRNA gene products indicated that the phytoplasmas detected were different from those described previously. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that CWB represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular comparison revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four CWB strains (IM-1, IM-2, IM-3 and IM-4) identified in symptomatic C. italica samples were nearly identical (99.6-100 % similarity). The closest relatives were members of the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma ribosomal group (16SrIX; 95-97 % sequence similarity). On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, the phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom of C. italica in Oman represents a coherent but discrete novel phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', with GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL accession number EF666051 representing the reference strain.

  9. Spaceborne L-band Radiometers: Push-broom or Synthetic Aperture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    L-band radiometers can measure ocean salinity and soil moisture from space. A synthetic aperture radiometer system, SMOS, is under development by ESA for launch in 2007. A real aperture push-broom system, Aquarius, has been approved by NASA for launch in 2008. Pros et cons of the two fundamentally...

  10. Design of a Push-Broom Multi-Beam Radiometer for Future Ocean Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The design of a push-broom multi-beam radiometer for future ocean observations is described. The radiometer provides a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than a traditional conical scanning radiometer, and has the big advantage of being fully stationary relative to the satellite platform...

  11. The invertebrate fauna on broom, Cytisus scoparius,in two native and two exotic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Jane; Fowler, Simon V.; Paynter, Quentin; Sheppard, Andrew W.; Syrett, Pauline

    2000-05-01

    This study quantifies the invertebrate fauna found on broom, Cytisus scoparius, L. (Link), in two countries where it grows as a native plant (France and England) and two countries where it grows as an alien plant (New Zealand and Australia). The data are used to test three hypotheses concerning the predicted differences in invertebrate community structure in native versus exotic habitats: (1) Are generalist phytophages dominant in exotic habitats and specialist phytophages dominant in native habitats? (2) Are there empty phytophage niches in exotic habitats? (3) As a plant species accumulates phytophages, do these in turn accumulate natural enemies? The broom fauna was sampled at five sites in each country by beating five broom bushes per site. The sampling efficiency of beating was quantified at one field site and it was shown to collect 87 % of invertebrate abundance, 95 % of invertebrate biomass and 100 % of phytophagous species found on the branches. Generalist phytophages were dominant on broom in exotic habitats and specialists dominant on broom in the native habitats. Thus, the two countries where broom grows as a native plant had higher numbers of total phytophage species and a higher abundance of specialist phytophages per bush. There was no significant difference in the average abundance of generalist phytophage species found per bush in native and alien habitats. Phytophages were assigned to seven feeding niches: suckers, root feeders, external chewers, flower feeders, seed feeders, miners and pollen feeders. Empty niches were found in the exotic habitats; species exploiting structurally specific parts of the host plant, such as flowers and seeds, were absent in the countries where broom grows as an alien plant. The pattern of niche occupancy was similar between native and exotic habitats when just the generalist phytophages were considered. As phytophage abundance and biomass increased, there were concomitant increases in natural enemy abundance and

  12. Methods of inducing conditioned food aversion to Baccharis coridifolia (mio-mio in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Begeres de Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of various methods of averting naïve cattle to prevent Baccharis coridifolia poisoning: forced oral administration of 0.5g kg-1 body weight of fresh B. coridifolia; forced inhalation of the smoke from burning B. coridifolia and rubbing the plant on the animals' muzzles and mouths; and introducing the animals into paddocks with low invasion by B. coridifolia. Results demonstrated that cattle forced to ingest low doses become strongly averted if introduced into paddocks 23-26 hours after the aversion. In contrast, cattle introduced into the paddocks between 1-10 hours were not fully averted. Inhalation of B. coridifolia smoke, and rubbing the plant on the animals' muzzles and mouths were not efficient to induce an aversion. The introduction of cattle into paddocks with approximately 1% of B. coridifolia was efficient if the animals remained 5 months in the area, but not if they only remained for 60 hours, as cattle required sufficient time to learn to avoid the plant.

  13. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lívero, Francislaine A Dos Reis; Martins, Gracianny Gomes; Queiroz Telles, José Ederaldo; Beltrame, Olair Carlos; Petris Biscaia, Stellee Marcela; Cavicchiolo Franco, Célia Regina; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-12-25

    Ethanol abuse is a serious public health problem that is associated with several stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), the earliest stage of ALD, is a multifactorial injury that involves oxidative stress and disruptions of lipid metabolism. Although benign and reversible, no pharmacological treatments are available for this condition. In the present study, we induced AFLD in mice with 10% ethanol and a low-protein diet and then orally treated them with a hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera (HEBT; 30 mg kg-1). HEBT reversed ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the liver, reduced lipoperoxidation, normalized GPx, GST, SOD and Cat activity, and GSH and total ROS levels. The reverser effect of HEBT was observed upon ethanol-induced increases in the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides, plasma cholesterol, plasma high-density lipoprotein, and plasma and hepatic low-density lipoprotein. Moreover, HEBT increased fecal triglycerides and reduced the histological ethanol-induced lesions in the liver. HEBT also altered the expression of genes that are involved in ethanol metabolism, antioxidant systems, and lipogenesis (i.e., CypE1, Nrf2, and Scd1, respectively). No signs of toxicity were observed in HEBT-treated mice. We propose that HEBT may be a promising pharmacological treatment for AFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemiparasitism effect on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. and consequences to its major galling herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaise de Oliveira Bahia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMistletoes obtain nutrients and water from their hosts, with varying effects among those hosts. We assessed the factors that influence the colonization of the mistletoe Struthanthus flexicaulis on Baccharis dracunculifolia and the subsequent effects on host performance. We evaluated the incidence of S. flexicaulis according to size (height classes and architecture of the host as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the host. Furthermore, we assessed the occurrence of insect galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae(Psyllidae, including the number of leaves infected, and the mortality of infected and non-infected branches. Taller hosts had a higher abundance of mistletoes (60%, p> 0.05. Physiological parameters of hosts were not affected by parasitism, although galling occurred more often (p 0.05 on infected branches. Taller individuals are more colonized by mistletoes and more architecturally complex hosts support a greater number of mistletoes. Mistletoe causes a top-down effect on host-associated organisms on parasitized branches. Mistletoes had a strong top-downeffect on B. dracunculifolia due to a reduction in the number of leaves on parasitized branches and the replacement of the bush crown, as well as an increased incidence of insect galls. Furthermore, the occurrence of a heavy parasite load increased the mortality rate of the host branches.

  15. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane A; Costa, Anna Carolina B Pereira; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane S; Rego, Marcos A; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microorganism, and alternative methods for its elimination are required. Different concentrations of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil (EO) were tested to determine its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in planktonic cultures, and this concentration was used in S. mutans biofilms. Additionally, we assessed the effect of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and saline solution in S. mutans biofilms. The biofilms were grown in discs of composite resin for 48h and exposed to B. dracunculifolia, CHX or saline solution for 5min. The viability of the biofilms was determined by counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) in agar, which was statistically significant (Pmutans was 6%. In biofilms of S. mutans clinical isolates, B. dracunculifolia EO (6%) and CHX resulted in reductions of 53.3-91.1% and 79.1-96.6%, respectively. For the biofilm formed by the S. mutans reference strain, the reductions achieved with B. dracunculifolia EO and CHX were, respectively, 39.3% and 88.1%. It was concluded that B. dracunculifolia EO showed antibacterial activity and was able to control this oral microorganism, which otherwise causes dental caries. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in the Trinitrobenzenesulphonic Acid Model of Rat Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena Cestari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae is a Brazilian medicinal plant popularly used for its antiulcer and anti-inflammatory properties. This plant is the main botanical source of Brazilian green propolis, a natural product incorporated into food and beverages to improve health. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical profile and intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of B. dracunculifolia extract on experimental ulcerative colitis induced by trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid (TNBS. Colonic damage was evaluated macroscopically and biochemically through its evaluation of glutathione content and its myeloperoxidase (MPO and alkaline phosphatase activities. Additional in vitro experiments were performed in order to test the antioxidant activity by inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain membrane. Phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC using authentic standards. The administration of plant extract (5 and 50 mg kg−1 significantly attenuated the colonic damage induced by TNBS as evidenced both macroscopically and biochemically. This beneficial effect can be associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status, since plant extract prevented glutathione depletion, inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced MPO activity. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, aromadendrin-4-O-methyl ether, 3-prenyl-p-coumaric acid, 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumaric acid and baccharin were detected in the plant extract.

  17. Regrowth morphophysiology of Baccharis trimera (Less DC., Asteraceae: Subsidies for control in natural pastures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci Maria Carneiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out on native grassland in Rio Grande do Sul. The purpose was to compare the vigor of the regrowth of Baccharis trimera after cutting at different heights (7 and 15cm and phenological stages (V= vegetative; beginning of spring; FE= end of flowering; end of summer. The design was ompletely randomized with ten replications, composed by plants. The cuts were on 09/26/02 (V and 03/14/03 (FE; the regrowth evaluation was made after the plants had achieved thermal sums of 1,525 degree-days (12/12/02 and 1,749 degree-days (06/26/03 for V-stage and FE-stage cuts respectively, by harvesting the plant shoots. The lowest regrowth was observed in the plants cut in the V-stage (22.9g DM/plant, in which the cutting height had no effect. In the FE-stage there was a significant effect of the cutting height: 21.7g DM/plant was obtained under 7cm and 75.6g DM/plant was obtained under 15cm. It was concluded that it is better to cut B. trimera in the vegetative stage (beginning of spring at a height of 15cm to minimize possible damage to valuable forage plants. Mowing realized at the end of the summer, when the plants are in the flowering stage, needs to be severe (7cm in order to reduce the basal stem growth. The horizontal underground system of B. trimera is formed by budding roots, and new shoots can be produced from the activation of their dormant buds.

  18. Spatial pattern of Baccharis platypoda shrub as determined by sex and life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Darliana da Costa; de Oliveira, Marcio Leles Romarco; Pereira, Israel Marinho; Gonzaga, Anne Priscila Dias; de Moura, Cristiane Coelho; Machado, Evandro Luiz Mendonça

    2017-11-01

    Spatial patterns of dioecious species can be determined by their nutritional requirements and intraspecific competition, apart from being a response to environmental heterogeneity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial pattern of populations of a dioecious shrub reporting to sex and reproductive stage patterns of individuals. Sampling was carried out in three areas located in the meridional portion of Serra do Espinhaço, where in individuals of the studied species were mapped. The spatial pattern was determined through O-ring analysis and Ripley's K-function and the distribution of individuals' frequencies was verified through x2 test. Populations in two areas showed an aggregate spatial pattern tending towards random or uniform according to the observed scale. Male and female adults presented an aggregate pattern at smaller scales, while random and uniform patterns were verified above 20 m for individuals of both sexes of the areas A2 and A3. Young individuals presented an aggregate pattern in all areas and spatial independence in relation to adult individuals, especially female plants. The interactions between individuals of both genders presented spatial independence with respect to spatial distribution. Baccharis platypoda showed characteristics in accordance with the spatial distribution of savannic and dioecious species, whereas the population was aggregated tending towards random at greater spatial scales. Young individuals showed an aggregated pattern at different scales compared to adults, without positive association between them. Female and male adult individuals presented similar characteristics, confirming that adult individuals at greater scales are randomly distributed despite their distinct preferences for environments with moisture variation.

  19. Variabilidade sazonal do teor de saponinas de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja e isolamento de flavona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Borella

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sazonalidade sobre o teor de saponinas e o isolamento e elucidação estrutural de constituinte químico (flavona de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja. O cultivo de indivíduos estaminados de B. trimera foi realizado no Campo Experimental da Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, em Ribeirão Preto, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1998 e foi conduzido em três blocos, sendo que cada um deles era constituído de 48 mudas. As amostras foram colhidas após seis meses do plantio (durante o inverno, três meses após a primeira colheita (durante a primavera e três meses após a segunda colheita (durante o verão. Após processo de secagem e moagem, as drogas foram submetidas ao ensaio para obtenção do índice de espuma. Os resultados mostraram que não há variabilidade neste índice em função da época de colheita. Parte da droga colhida no verão sofreu análise química para isolamento e elucidação estrutural de componente químico. O isolamento a partir do extrato metanólico de partes aéreas de B. trimera foi realizado através de métodos cromatográficos (CC e CLAE e a identificação estrutural da substância isolada, através de métodos espectrométricos (UV, RMN ¹H e 13C. Foi identificada a flavona denominada 5,6-diidroxi-7,3’,4’-trimetoxiflavona.

  20. Genetic molecular diversity, production and resistance to witches’ broom in cacao clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 32 cacao clones selected as being resistant following the witches’ broom epidemic and for having distinct productivitywere characterized according to their genetic diversity and were submitted to a new selection. These plants were assessed for eightyears at the Oceania Farm (FO in Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. The 13 microsatellite primers generated an average of 11.7 amplicons perlocus, and based on them it was demonstrated that the 32 clones distribute themselves in groups apart from the nine clones used ascontrols. The 32 materials displayed significant differences in relation to the characters assessed in the field. Two criteria were formedfrom the classification of the most productive and resistant plants, and then used to select plants within the clusters. The selected plantsdisplayed potential for the cacao improvement program, that they have a high production and high resistance to witches’ broom.

  1. RHIZOSPHERE pH AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN ORTHIC ALLOPHANIC SOIL UNDER Pinus radiata SEEDLINGS GROWN WITH BROOM AND RYEGRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad A. Rivaie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Under  Pinus radiata plantations  where  the tree spacing  is wider  and most soils are phosphorus  (P deficient,  the radiata  tree response to P fertilizer is expected  to be more influenced  by  the interaction between  the applied  P fertilizer, the tree and understorey vegetation.  Therefore,  a better understanding of the soil P chemistry under radiata pine trees in association  with  other  plants  is required.  We investigated  the effect of broom  (Cytisus scoparius L. and ryegrass  (Lolium multiflorum grown  with  radiata  seedlings  in Orthic Allophanic Soil treated with  0, 50, and 100 μg P g-1  soil of TSP on the pH and phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soils under glasshouse condition. The pHs of radiata rhizosphere soils either grown with broom or grass were lower than  those in the  bulk soils and the bulk and rhizosphere soils of grass and broom,  whether  they  were grown  alone or grown  with radiata at the  applications of 50 and 100 μg P g-1 soil. These results suggest that P application enhanced root induced acidification  in a P-deficient Allophanic Soil under radiata.  The soils in the rhizosphere of grass and broom, grown in association with radiata, were also acidified by  the effect of radiata  roots.  Acid  phosphatase  activity in soils under  radiata,  grass and broom  decreased with  an increased  rate of P application. At all P rates,  acid phosphatase activity was higher in the rhizosphere of radiata  grown  with  broom than in the bulk soils. The phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soil of radiata grown with broom was also higher than that of radiata grown with grass, but it was slightly lower than that in the rhizosphere of broom grown  alone. These results suggest that broom may have also contributed to the higher  phosphatase  activity in the rhizosphere soils than  in the bulk  soils of broom  and radiata when they were grown  together

  2. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care. PMID:25874255

  3. Anti-poliovirus activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and propolis by cell viability determination and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búfalo, M C; Figueiredo, A S; de Sousa, J P B; Candeias, J M G; Bastos, J K; Sforcin, J M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral activities of Baccharis dracunculifolia (extract and essential oil), propolis and some isolated compounds (caffeic and cinnamic acids) against poliovirus type 1 (PV1) replication in HEp-2 cells. Three different protocols (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments) were used to verify the effect of addition time of the variables on PV1 replication by crystal violet method and relative viral RNA quantification by real-time PCR for analysing in which step of virus replication the variables could interfere. Data revealed that the B. dracunculifolia showed the best antiviral activity percentage in the simultaneous treatment, as well as lower relative viral quantification by real-time PCR. Variables might block partially the viral entry within cells, affect the steps of viral cycle replication into cells, or lead to RNA degradation before the virus entry into cells or after their release to the supernatant. Baccharis dracunculifolia is the most important botanical source of the south-eastern Brazilian propolis, and its potential for the development of new phytotherapeutic medicines has been investigated. Propolis is commonly used for its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Nevertheless, B. dracunculifolia and propolis effects on PV1 have not been investigated yet.

  4. Plasticity to salinity and transgenerational effects in the nonnative shrub Baccharis halimifolia: Insights into an estuarine invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caño, Lidia; Fuertes-Mendizabal, Teresa; García-Baquero, Gonzalo; Herrera, Mercedes; González-Moro, M Begoña

    2016-05-01

    Abiotic constraints act as selection filters for plant invasion in stressful habitats. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and transgenerational effects play a major role in colonization of heterogeneous habitats when the scale of environmental variation is smaller than that of gene flow. We investigated how plasticity and parental salinity conditions influence the performance of the invasive dioecious shrub Baccharis halimifolia, which replaces heterogeneous estuarine communities in Europe with monospecific and continuous stands. In two greenhouse experiments, we grew plants derived from seeds and cuttings collected through interspersed patches differing in edaphic salinity from an invasive population. We estimated parental environmental salinity from leaf Na(+) content in parental plants, and we measured fitness and ion homeostasis of the offspring grown in contrasting salinity conditions. Baccharis halimifolia tolerates high salinity but experiences drastic biomass reduction at moderate salinity. At moderate salinity, responses to salinity are affected by the parental salinity: flowering initiation in seedlings and male cuttings is positively correlated with parental leaf Na(+) content, and biomass is positively correlated with maternal leaf Na(+) in female cuttings and seedlings. Plant height, leaf production, specific leaf area, and ionic homeostasis at the low part of the gradient are also affected by parental salinity, suggesting enhanced shoot growth as parental salinity increases. Our results support plasticity to salinity and transgenerational effects as factors with great potential to contribute to the invasive ability of B. halimifolia through estuarine communities of high conservation value. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae, popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t=1, there was no difference between products (P=0.602; that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t=2, there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P=0.674, so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test. It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care.

  6. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma luffae', a novel taxon associated with witches' broom disease of loofah, Luffa aegyptica Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Yan; Wei, Wei; Dally, Ellen L; Lee, Ing-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The phytoplasma associated with witches' broom disease of loofah [Luffa aegyptica Mill., syn. Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.J. Roem.] in Taiwan was classified in group 16SrVIII, subgroup A (16SrVIII-A), based on results from actual and in silico RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified, cloned DNA segments revealed rrn interoperon sequence heterogeneity in the loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma. Whereas the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region of rrnA contained a complete tRNA-Ile gene, the spacer of rrnB contained a nonfunctional remnant of a tRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the rrnA and rrnB 16S rRNA genes revealed that the LfWB phytoplasma represented a distinct lineage within the phytoplasma clade, and the LfWB phytoplasma shared less than 97.5 % nucleotide sequence similarity of 16S rRNA genes with previously described 'CandidatusPhytoplasma' taxa. Based on unique properties of DNA, we propose recognition of loofah witches' broom phytoplasma strain LfWBR as representative of a novel taxon, 'CandidatusPhytoplasma luffae'.

  7. Mechanisms of bamboo witches' broom symptom development caused by endophytic/epiphytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Aciculosporium take causes continuous shoot growth but maintains normal leaf-arrangement and branching patterns in the host plant, which eventually resulting in witches' broom disease of bamboo. An in situ hybridization technique with a species-specific oligonucleotide probe was recently used to demonstrate that endophytic mycelia of A. take is predominantly distributed in the intercellular spaces of the shoot apical meristem of the host. Endophytic hyphae in meristematic tissues, which may produce auxin, are responsible for continuous primordium initiation within the shoot apex. Here I examine another bamboo witches' broom causal fungus, Heteroepichloë sasae. Both species are biotrophic and belong to family Clavicipitaceae: however, H. sasae does not cause continuous shoot growth. Histological study showed that H. sasae mycelia were distributed superficially, even on shoot apical meristems. These observations suggest that when their stromata develop, endophytic A. take destroys shoot apical meristem and epiphytic H. sasae chokes the shoot apex of the host. Stromata formation consequently causes lateral bud outgrowth because of release from apical dominance. This process repeats and eventually results in the witches' broom symptoms.

  8. Relationships Between Black Pod and Witches'-Broom Diseases in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, J-M; Umaharan, R; Surujdeo-Maharaj, S; Latchman, B; Cilas, C; Butler, D R

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT Field observations were conducted from 1998 to 2001 at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, to evaluate 57 cacao clones for resistance to black pod (BP) and witches'-broom (WB) diseases (caused by Phytophthora sp. and Crinipellis perniciosa, respectively). Each month ripe pods were harvested and the number of healthy and diseased was recorded. The number of brooms on vegetative shoots was recorded three times a year on selected branches. Twenty-three clones showed less than 10% of infection for both BP and WB on pods. Among those, eight clones showed an absence of brooms on the observed branches: IMC 6, MAN 15/60 [BRA], PA 67 [PER], PA 195 [PER], PA 218 [PER], PA 296 [PER], PA 303 [PER], and POUND 32/A [POU]. Broad-sense heritability was estimated at 0.38 and 0.57 for WB disease on pods and shoots, respectively, and at 0.51 for BP disease. Genetic correlation between WB disease on pods and on shoots was low and estimated at 0.39, whereas the correlation between WB and BP diseases on pods was 0.48. To choose putative parents for breeding schemes, it is suggested that clones are first assessed for their level of resistance to WB on shoots, and the most promising individuals are screened for BP with a detached pods test. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the level of resistance to WB on pods can be predicted using an early test on seedlings.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MicroRNAs Involved in Witches’-Broom Phytoplasma Response in Ziziphus jujuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fenjuan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Hongwei; Lu, Shanfa; Qiu, Deyou

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Jujube witches’-broom a phytoplasma disease of Ziziphus jujuba is prevalent in China and is a serious problem to the industry. However, the molecular mechanism of the disease is poorly understood. In this study, genome-wide identification and analysis of microRNAs in response to witches’-broom was performed. A total of 85 conserved miRNA unique sequences belonging to 32 miRNA families and 24 novel miRNA unique sequences, including their complementary miRNA* strands were identified from small RNA libraries derived from a uninfected and witches’-broom infected Z. jujuba plant. Differentially expressed miRNAs associated with Jujube witches’-broom disease were investigated between the two libraries, and 12 up-regulated miRNAs and 10 down- regulated miRNAs identified with more than 2 fold changes. Additionally, 40 target genes of 85 conserved miRNAs and 49 target genes of 24 novel miRNAs were predicted and their putative functions assigned. Using the modified 5’-RACE method, we confirmed that SPL and MYB were cleaved by miR156 and miR159, respectively. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of witches’-broom disease in Z. jujuba. PMID:27824938

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MicroRNAs Involved in Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma Response in Ziziphus jujuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fenjuan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Hongwei; Lu, Shanfa; Qiu, Deyou

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Jujube witches'-broom a phytoplasma disease of Ziziphus jujuba is prevalent in China and is a serious problem to the industry. However, the molecular mechanism of the disease is poorly understood. In this study, genome-wide identification and analysis of microRNAs in response to witches'-broom was performed. A total of 85 conserved miRNA unique sequences belonging to 32 miRNA families and 24 novel miRNA unique sequences, including their complementary miRNA* strands were identified from small RNA libraries derived from a uninfected and witches'-broom infected Z. jujuba plant. Differentially expressed miRNAs associated with Jujube witches'-broom disease were investigated between the two libraries, and 12 up-regulated miRNAs and 10 down- regulated miRNAs identified with more than 2 fold changes. Additionally, 40 target genes of 85 conserved miRNAs and 49 target genes of 24 novel miRNAs were predicted and their putative functions assigned. Using the modified 5'-RACE method, we confirmed that SPL and MYB were cleaved by miR156 and miR159, respectively. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of witches'-broom disease in Z. jujuba.

  11. Colonization of cacao seedlings by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of the witches’ broom pathogen, and its influence on plant growth and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the cacao witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa. This beneficial fungus is being used in Bahia, Brazil to control the witches' broom disease under field conditions. The endophytic potential of this biocontrol agent was studied in both sterile ...

  12. The Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), a paradox in Denmark – an invasive plant or endangered native species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Lars; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2013-01-01

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, spreads rapidly in parts of Denmark and is considered an invasive species by some authors. However, the species has been present in the Danish flora for centuries and is therefore considered native to Denmark. In the present study we explore whether Danish Scotch...... broom consists of one or two gene pools with potential differences in phenotype and invasiveness. One plastid and five nuclear microsatellite markers were used to reveal potential substructuring of Danish Scotch broom. Nine populations were included representing populations exhibiting invasive behaviour...... and populations showing non-invasive behaviour. An Italian population was used as reference. Bayesian analysis based on genetic markers indicated that the sampled populations form two distinct gene pools, and this pattern was supported by neighbour-joining trees. Measurements of height and width of the analysed...

  13. Analysis of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chang

    Full Text Available Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS, respectively. The HPLC-APCI-MS technique, at the positive mode, furnished a complete and unequivocal chemical composition of the green propolis sample. It serves as fingerprint for different propolis samples. The composition of the ethanol extract consisted mainly of cinnamic acid and derivatives, flavonoids, benzoic acid and a few benzoates, non-hydroxylated aromatics, and aliphatic acids and esters, which are normally not reported in the literature because they do not absorb UV light. The main constituents of the dichloromethane extract were prenylated compounds, alkanes and terpenoids.

  14. Estudo farmacobotânico de partes vegetativas aéreas de Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Budel

    Full Text Available O gênero Baccharis pertence à família Asteraceae e se destaca por incluir espécies medicinais. Baccharis anomala DC., conhecida como "uva-do-mato" e "cambará-de-cipó", é utilizada popularmente como diurético e estudos fitoquímicos constataram a presença de taninos e saponinas. Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule dessa espécie. O material foi submetido a microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. A lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada revestida por cutícula delgada e estriada. Estômatos anomocíticos ocorrem somente na face abaxial. Em ambas as faces aparecem dois tipos de tricomas tectores pluricelulares unisseriados, um com ápice agudo e outro com célula apical flageliforme. O mesofilo é isobilateral e a nervura central é plano-convexa, sendo percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral. O pecíolo mostra três feixes vasculares que se dispõem em arco aberto. O caule tem secção circular e epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas similares aos da folha. Colênquima angular e clorênquima alternam-se no córtex e fibras perivasculares apõem-se ao floema. Evidencia-se uma zona cambial, cujas células formam xilema no sentido centrípeto e floema, centrifugamente, e a medula compõe-se de células parenquimáticas. Dutos secretores acompanham o sistema vascular na folha e no caule.

  15. Detection of Russian olive witches’-broom disease and its insect vector in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajizadeh Abasalt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Russian olive trees showing witches’-broom and little leaf symptoms have been widely observed in northwestern and central Iran. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and nested PCR assays using phytoplasma universal primer pairs confirmed phytoplasma symptomatic infection of trees. Sequence analyses showed that ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ was the causal agent of the disease in these regions. However, RFLP results using restriction enzymes HpaII, EcoRI, HinfI and AluI indicated that the collected isolates in these regions are genetically different. In addition, leafhopper Macropsis infuscata was recognized as a possible insect vector of the disease for the first time.

  16. Molecular identification of a new phytoplasma associated with alfalfa witches'-broom in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J; Botti, S; Al-Subhi, A M; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Bertaccini, A F

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants showing witches'-broom symptoms typical of phytoplasmas were observed from Al-Batinah, Al-Sharqiya, Al-Bureimi, and interior regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas were detected from all symptomatic samples by the specific amplification of their 16S-23S rRNA gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), utilizing phytoplasma-specific universal primer pairs, consistently amplified a product of expected lengths when DNA extract from symptomatic samples was used as template. Asymptomatic plant samples and the negative control yielded no amplification. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA of alfalfa using the P1/P7 primer pair identified phytoplasmas belonging to peanut witches'-broom group (16SrII or faba bean phyllody). Restriction enzyme profiles showed that the phytoplasmas detected in all 300 samples belonged to the same ribosomal group. Extensive comparative analyses on P1/P7 amplimers of 20 phytoplasmas with Tru9I, Tsp509I, HpaII, TaqI, and RsaI clearly indicated that this phytoplasma is different from all the other phytoplasmas employed belonging to subgroup 16SrII, except tomato big bud phytoplasma from Australia, and could be therefore classified in subgroup 16SrII-D. The alfalfa witches'-broom (AlfWB) phytoplasma P1/P7 PCR product was sequenced directly after cloning and yielded a 1,690-bp product. The homology search showed 99% similarity (1,667 of 1,690 base identity) with papaya yellow crinkle (PapayaYC) phytoplasma from New Zealand. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S plus spacer regions sequences of 35 phytoplasmas, mainly from the Southern Hemisphere, showed that AlfWB is a new phytoplasma species, with closest relationships to PapayaYC phytoplasmas from New Zealand and Chinese pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasmas from Taiwan but distinguishable from them considering the different associated plant hosts and the extreme geographical isolation.

  17. Genetic divergence in cocoa progenies for backcrossing program to witches' broom disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Macoto Yamada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Backcrossing has been little used in cacao breeding, particularly due to the long time required to transfer genes and recover the genetic background of the recurrent parent. The objective of this study was to select individuals, resulting from the backcross CEPEC-42 x SIC-19, genetically related to the recurrent parent SIC-19 by using RAPD molecular markers, among those with resistance to witches' broom. Of the 31 plants that clustered with SIC-19, 18 from the replanted material remained free of the disease in the field, with good vegetative aspect and, therefore can be used for backcross to reach the desired objective.

  18. Dr. Reggie J. Laird Broom: pionero de la ciencia del suelo en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Espinosa Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A casi tres años de su deceso, la Sociedad Mexicana de la Ciencia del Suelo, A.C. rinde, a través de esta semblanza, un homenaje póstumo a la memoria de uno de los pioneros de la Ciencia del Suelo en México. El trabajo realizado por el Dr. Reggie J. Laird Broom (Figura 1, a lo largo de 45 años, refleja de forma contundente su compromiso y pasión por ayudar a los pequeños productores de México, América Latina y el mundo.

  19. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego; Fernández, Osvaldo; Busso, Carlos; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, María de la Merced; Torres, Yanina; Daddario, Juan; Ithurrart, Leticia; Giorgetti, Hugo; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Montenegro, Oscar; Baioni, Sandra; Entío, José; Fioretti, María Nélida

    2013-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus. Para cada especie se regaron 100 ...

  20. [Cloning and analysis of tuf and rp gene of the phytoplasma associated with jujube witches' -broom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenli; Mou, Haiqing; Zhao, Wenjun; Xu, Qicong; Tian, Guozhong; Liao, Xiaolan; Zhu, Shuifang

    2010-10-01

    Jujube witches' -broom (JWB) is an important plant disease caused by phytoplasma. The major objective of our research was to classify JWB in Beijing and Hebei districts and to provide reference for classification in subgroup level. By use of PCR, the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene) and ribosomal protein (rp) gene of phytoplasma associated with JWB in Beijing and Hebei districts were amplified separately with universal primer pairs fTufu/rTufu and rp(v)F1A/rp(v) R1A. Partial tuf gene and rp gene were sequenced and similarity analysed with other phytoplasmas. We obtained partial tuf gene sequence (824bp) and complete rp gene (1196bp) from the diseased sample. In tuf gene, JWB in Beijing shared most similarity (92.84%) with Flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis), however, shared a low similarity (57.29%) with JWB in Shaanxi district which had been already reported. The similarity analysis for sequences of rp gene showed a high identity (> 96%) with members of the 16SrV group phytoplasmas. It shared most identity (99.83%) with JWB strain Taishan and Hemp fiber witches' -broom phytoplasma (HFWB) of the 16SrV group. The JWB strains in Beijing and Hebei are members of 16Sr V; JWB in Beijing and Hebei share high similarity, and show a diversity with JWB in Shaanxi.

  1. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae' associated with witches' broom disease of Balanites triflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nang Kyu Kyu; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Bertaccini, Assunta; Namba, Shigetou; Jung, Hee-Young

    2013-02-01

    A phytoplasma was identified in naturally infected wild Balanites triflora plants exhibiting typical witches' broom symptoms (Balanites witches' broom: BltWB) in Myanmar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that BltWB phytoplasma had the highest similarity to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi' and it was also closely related to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi'. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the BltWB phytoplasma clustered as a discrete subclade with Elm yellows phytoplasmas. RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene including the 16S-23S spacer region differentiated the BltWB phytoplasma from 'Ca. P. ziziphi', 'Ca. P. ulmi' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'. Analysis of additional ribosomal protein (rp) and translocase protein (secY) gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis of BltWB showed that this phytoplasma was clearly distinguished from those of other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa. Taking into consideration the unique plant host and the restricted geographical occurrence in addition to the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the BltWB phytoplasma is proposed to represent a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae'.

  2. A novel subgroup 16SrVII-D phytoplasma identified in association with Erigeron witches' broom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Daniela; Amaral Mello, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Pereira, Thays Benites Camargo; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    2015-08-01

    Erigeron sp. plants showing symptoms of witches' broom and stunting were found near orchards of passion fruit in São Paulo state, Brazil. These symptoms were indicative of infection by phytoplasmas. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect and identify possible phytoplasmas associated with diseased plants. Total DNA was extracted from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants and used in nested PCR conducted with the primer pairs P1/Tint and R16F2n/16R2. Amplification of genomic fragments of 1.2 kb from the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of phytoplasma in all symptomatic samples. The sequence identity scores between the 16S rRNA gene of the phytoplasma strain identified in the current study and those of previously reported 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini'-related strains ranged from 98% to 99% indicating the phytoplasma to be a strain affiliated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini'. The results from a phylogenetic analysis and virtual RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with 17 restriction enzymes revealed that the phytoplasma strain belongs to the ash yellows phytoplasma group (16SrVII); the similarity coefficient of RFLP patterns further suggested that the phytoplasma represents a novel subgroup, designated 16SrVII-D. The representative of this new subgroup was named EboWB phytoplasma (Erigeron bonariensis Witches' Broom).

  3. Low-power irradiation of Er: YAG laser using broom-type probe for dentine hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Kataoka, Kenzo; Iwami, Hideo; Shinoki, Takeshi; Okagami, Yoshihide; Ishikawa, Isao

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the possibility of Er:YAG laser for dentine hypersensitivity treatment using a novel laser probe; broom type probe. The morphological change of dentinal tubules of bovine dentine plate after low power laser irradiation (5 or 10 mJ, 10 pps) or boiling was observed by SEM. Fifty teeth from 13 patients aged 31-54 years with complain of dentine hypersensitivity were treated by laser irradiation at 25-35 mJ, 10 pps using the broomed probe. Clinical effect of laser irradiation was verified by the examination of sensitivity rate to cold water, air blow and mechanical stimuli of explorer at before, immediately after, and 1,3,5 and 12 weeks after laser irradiation. The ratio of blockade and reduction of dentinal tubules after laser irradiation was 16-61%. The accumulation due to vaporization of water in dentinal tubules and degeneration or coagulation of organinc elements at the site of blockade and reduction were superficially described by SEM. Remarkable clinical improvement of dentine hypersensitivity by laser was admitted but relapse was also detected partially. The present study suggests low power irradiation of Er:YAG laser would be effective on dentine hypersensitivity, but a partial limitation of laser treatment for dentine hypersensitivity may be exited.

  4. Ultraviolet action spectrum for anthocyanin formation in broom sorghum first internodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, H; Hashimoto, T; Shimizu, S

    1982-09-01

    An action spectrum for anthocyanin formation in dark-grown broom sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench, cv Acme Broomcorn and cv Sekishokuzairai Fukuyama Broomcorn) seedlings was determined over the wavelength range from 260 to 735 nanometers. The action peaks were at 290, 650, 385, and 480 nanometers in descending order of height. The action of the 290-nanometer peak was not affected by subsequently given far red light, whereas those of the other three action peaks were nullified completely. The nullification of the 385-nanometer peak action by far red light was reversible. When an irradiation at these action peaks was followed by a phytochrome-saturating fluence of red light irradiation, the action of the 290-nanometer peak remained, whereas that of the 385-nanometer peak as well as those of the 650- and 480-nanometer peaks was masked by the action of the second irradiation. These findings suggested that the 290- and 385-nanometer action peaks involved different photoreceptors, the latter being phytochrome. The blue light-absorbing photoreceptor as reported to be a prerequisite for phytochrome action in milo sorghum was not found to exist in the broom sorghums.The action spectrum deprived of the involvement of phytochrome was determined in the ultraviolet region by irradiating with far red light following monochromatic ultraviolet light. The spectrum had a single intense peak at 290 nanometers and no action at all at wavelengths longer than 350 nanometers.

  5. An HDR imaging method with DTDI technology for push-broom cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Lv, Hengyi; Shi, Junxia; Hu, Changhong; Li, Xiangzhi; Fu, Yao; Jiang, Xiaonan; Huang, Liang; Han, Hongyin

    2017-11-01

    Conventionally, high dynamic-range (HDR) imaging is based on taking two or more pictures of the same scene with different exposure. However, due to a high-speed relative motion between the camera and the scene, it is hard for this technique to be applied to push-broom remote sensing cameras. For the sake of HDR imaging in push-broom remote sensing applications, the present paper proposes an innovative method which can generate HDR images without redundant image sensors or optical components. Specifically, this paper adopts an area array CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) with the digital domain time-delay-integration (DTDI) technology for imaging, instead of adopting more than one row of image sensors, thereby taking more than one picture with different exposure. And then a new HDR image by fusing two original images with a simple algorithm can be achieved. By conducting the experiment, the dynamic range (DR) of the image increases by 26.02 dB. The proposed method is proved to be effective and has potential in other imaging applications where there is a relative motion between the cameras and scenes.

  6. Impact of Sauropod Dinosaurs on Lagoonal Substrates in the Broome Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulborn, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Existing knowledge of the tracks left by sauropod dinosaurs (loosely ‘brontosaurs’) is essentially two-dimensional, derived mainly from footprints exposed on bedding planes, but examples in the Broome Sandstone (Early Cretaceous) of Western Australia provide a complementary three-dimensional picture showing the extent to which walking sauropods could deform the ground beneath their feet. The patterns of deformation created by sauropods traversing thinly-stratified lagoonal deposits of the Broome Sandstone are unprecedented in their extent and structural complexity. The stacks of transmitted reliefs (underprints or ghost prints) beneath individual footfalls are nested into a hierarchy of deeper and more inclusive basins and troughs which eventually attain the size of minor tectonic features. Ultimately the sauropod track-makers deformed the substrate to such an extent that they remodelled the topography of the landscape they inhabited. Such patterns of substrate deformation are revealed by investigating fragmentary and eroded footprints, not by the conventional search for pristine footprints on intact bedding planes. For that reason it is not known whether similar patterns of substrate deformation might occur at sauropod track-sites elsewhere in the world. PMID:22662116

  7. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in horses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín L. de Alda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em equinos PSI. A intoxicação ocorreu em julho de 2008, em três de quatro animais que haviam sido transportados do estado do Paraná para uma propriedade no município de Aceguá, Rio Grande do Sul. A intoxicação ocorreu três dias após a entrada dos animais em uma área onde havia Baccharis coridifolia em brotação. A égua que não foi afetada não havia sido colocada no potreiro invadido pela planta. Os equinos estavam recebendo um terço da ração que normalmente consumiam para adaptação e permaneciam durante a noite na cocheira. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram inicialmente por desconforto abdominal, aumento da freqüência cardíaca e movimentos respiratórios, anorexia, hipermotilidade do intestino delgado e cólon, presença de gás no ceco e diarréia. A evolução da enfermidade variou de 18-36 horas, sendo que um dos animais afetados sobreviveu após tratamento sintomático. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizaram-se por congestão acentuada e hemorragias da mucosa glandular do estômago e presença de úlceras e edema acentuado da parede. Havia também, congestão, edema e hemorragias nas mucosas do íleo, ceco e cólon maior. Histologicamente observou-se degeneração e necrose do epitélio da porção aglandular do estômago, gastrite e enterite com necrose do epitélio de revestimento do estômago glandular, íleo, ceco e cólon observando-se acentuado infiltrado de células mononucleares e polimorfonucleares, edema da submucosa e dilatação de vasos linfáticos. Um equino intoxicado experimentalmente com 1g/kg de peso corporal de planta verde apresentou sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e histológicas similares aos casos espontâneos.An outbreak of spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in horses in July 2008 is reported from southern Brazil. The poisoning affected three mares out of four that were transported from the state

  8. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis', a novel taxon discovered in witches'-broom diseased salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt cedar trees with pronounced witches’-broom symptoms were observed in their natural habitat in China. 16S rRNA gene sequences unique to phytoplasmas were detected in every DNA sample extracted from stem and leaf tissues of the symptomatic trees, revealing a direct association between phytoplasm...

  9. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma luffae’, a novel taxon associated with a witches’-broom disease of loofah, Luffa aegyptica Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytoplasma associated with witches’ broom disease of loofah (Luffa aegyptica Mill., syn. L.uffa cylindrica (L.) M.J. Roem.) in Taiwan was classified in group 16SrVIII, subgroup A (16SrVIII-A), based on results from actual and in silico RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nucleotide sequ...

  10. Differential gene expression between the biotrophic-like and saprotrophic mycelia of the Witches’ broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes Witches’ Broom disease in cacao. Marked dimorphism characterizes the biotrophic phase, which actually causes the disease symptoms, and the saprotrophic phase. A combined strategy of DNA microarray, EST and real-time PCR analyses was em...

  11. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  12. Detection and Discrimination of Cotton Foreign Matter Using Push-Broom Based Hyperspectral Imaging: System Design and Capability: e0121969

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu Jiang; Changying Li

    2015-01-01

    .... A push-broom based hyperspectral imaging system with a custom-built multi-thread software was developed to acquire hyperspectral images of cotton fiber with 15 types of foreign matter commonly found in the U.S. cotton lint. A total of 450...

  13. Detection and discrimination of cotton foreign matter using push-broom based hyperspectral imaging: system design and capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    .... A push-broom based hyperspectral imaging system with a custom-built multi-thread software was developed to acquire hyperspectral images of cotton fiber with 15 types of foreign matter commonly found in the U.S. cotton lint. A total of 450...

  14. A potential role for an extracellular methanol oxidase secreted by Moniliophthora perniciosa in Witches' broom disease in cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao, is able to grow in methanol as sole carbon source. In plants, one of the main sources of methanol is the pectin present in the structure of cell walls. Pectin is composed b...

  15. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas = Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocaralterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanussativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can cause developmental changes in other plants or even in other organisms. Theobjective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of seedlings of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at 1g 10mL-1 (p/vconcentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations (100

  16. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y septiembre-período seco del 2012. Para la cuantificación de bacterias heterótrofas cultivables y BSF se empleó el método de recuento en placa en los medios Agar Tripticasa de Soya y Pikovskaya (PVK respectivamente. La capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos de las cepas aisladas se estimó a partir del diámetro de los halos formados alrededor de las colonias en el medio de cultivo PVK después de 7 días de incubación a 28 °C. Los ensayos de inoculación en B. macrantha se realizaron con las BSF más eficientes. La inoculación de las BSF B. firmus y P. fluorescens de forma individual y como inoculante combinado mostro un efecto benéfico, incrementando significativamente el porcentaje de germinación de semillas, la altura de la plántula, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco de B. macrantha. La inoculación de BSF podría ser considerada una estrategia para mejorar el crecimiento y establecimiento de B. macrantha en pastizales abandonados.Growth Promotion of Baccharis macrantha (Asteraceae by Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizosphere Bacteria     The objectives of this research was to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria (BSF associated to the rhizosphere of Baccharis macrantha and Viburnum triphyllum, and to assess their ability to solubilize phosphate under conditions in vitro. Furthermore to determine the effect of inoculation of the strains BSF more efficient on the growth of B. macrantha. Rhizosphere soil samples of B

  17. Identification of candidate genes involved in witches’ broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers in the Americas. Protective fungicides are ineffective, and disease management involving repeated phytosanitary removals increases labor costs. The best al...

  18. SIR2012-5282 Surficial Geology: Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and...

  19. Joint Sandia/NIOSH exercise on aerosol contamination using the BROOM tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Brown, Gary Stephen; Griffith, Richard O.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Knowlton, Robert G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    In February of 2005, a joint exercise involving Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was conducted in Albuquerque, NM. The SNL participants included the team developing the Building Restoration Operations and Optimization Model (BROOM), a software product developed to expedite sampling and data management activities applicable to facility restoration following a biological contamination event. Integrated data-collection, data-management, and visualization software improve the efficiency of cleanup, minimize facility downtime, and provide a transparent basis for reopening. The exercise was held at an SNL facility, the Coronado Club, a now-closed social club for Sandia employees located on Kirtland Air Force Base. Both NIOSH and SNL had specific objectives for the exercise, and all objectives were met.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from Theobroma cacao expressed sequence tags associated with witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L S; Gramacho, K P; Carels, N; Novais, R; Gaiotto, F A; Lopes, U V; Gesteira, A S; Zaidan, H A; Cascardo, J C M; Pires, J L; Micheli, F

    2009-07-14

    In order to increase the efficiency of cacao tree resistance to witches' broom disease, which is caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae), we looked for molecular markers that could help in the selection of resistant cacao genotypes. Among the different markers useful for developing marker-assisted selection, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of sequence difference between alleles and can be easily detected by in silico analysis from expressed sequence tag libraries. We report the first detection and analysis of SNPs from cacao-M. perniciosa interaction expressed sequence tags, using bioinformatics. Selection based on analysis of these SNPs should be useful for developing cacao varieties resistant to this devastating disease.

  1. Co-aligning aerial hyperspectral push-broom strips for change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringaby, Erik; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Wadströmer, Niclas; Forssén, Per-Erik

    2010-10-01

    We have performed a field trial with an airborne push-broom hyperspectral sensor, making several flights over the same area and with known changes (e.g., moved vehicles) between the flights. Each flight results in a sequence of scan lines forming an image strip, and in order to detect changes between two flights, the two resulting image strips must be geometrically aligned and radiometrically corrected. The focus of this paper is the geometrical alignment, and we propose an image- and gyro-based method for geometric co-alignment (registration) of two image strips. The method is particularly useful when the sensor is not stabilized, thus reducing the need for expensive mechanical stabilization. The method works in several steps, including gyro-based rectification, global alignment using SIFT matching, and a local alignment using KLT tracking. Experimental results are shown but not quantified, as ground truth is, by the nature of the trial, lacking.

  2. Variation in the degree of pectin methylesterification during the development of Baccharis dracunculifolia kidney-shaped gall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coelho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs (labeled by JIM5 and the arabinans (labeled by LM6 were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan and LM5 (1-4-β-D-galactans had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs.

  3. The diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plant Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae) from the Brazilian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana L A; Johann, Susana; Hughes, Frederic M; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-12-01

    The fungal endophyte community associated with Baccharis trimera, a Brazilian medicinal plant, was characterized and screened for its ability to present antimicrobial activity. By using molecular methods, we identified and classified the endophytic fungi obtained into 25 different taxa from the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The most abundant species were closely related to Diaporthe phaseolorum, Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, and Preussia pseudominima. The differences observed in endophytic assemblages from different B. trimera specimens might be associated with their crude extract activities. Plants that had higher α-biodiversity were also those that contributed more to the regional (γ) diversity. All fungal isolates were cultured and their crude extracts screened to examine the antimicrobial activities. Twenty-three extracts (12.8%) displayed antimicrobial activities against at least one target microorganism. Among these extracts, those obtained from Epicoccum sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, Cochliobolus lunatus, and Nigrospora sp. presented the best minimum inhibitory concentration values. Our results show that the endophytic fungal community associated with the medicinal plant B. trimera included few dominant bioactive taxa, which may represent sources of compounds with antifungal activity. Additionally, the discovery of these bioactive fungi in association with B. trimera suggests that Brazilian plants used as folk medicine may shelter a rich fungal diversity as well as taxa able to produce bioactive metabolites with antimicrobial activities.

  4. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae: evaluation of antinutrients and effect on glycosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia P. de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to confirm the traditional use of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae, for the reduction of weight, plant extracts were evaluated on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL, an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet for its subsequent absorption. The aqueous and infused extracts did not show inhibitory activity on the PL, the ethanol inhibited 16% (66 ALI/g and methanol extract inhibited 78% (241 ALI/g. The methanol extract of B. trimera (MEB was subjected to a wash with decreasing solvent polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and only the methanol fraction inhibited the lipase by 72% (230 ALI/g. We evaluated the MEB and infused inhibitory activity on the enzymes α-amylase and α and β-glycosidases. The α-amylase was not inhibited by any of the extracts, the enzyme α-glucosidase was inhibited by both extracts in the same proportion (46.9±0.1 and β-glucosidase was inhibited by 73% by the methanol extract and 65% by the infused. We also evaluated the presence of anti-nutrients. We detected the presence of saponins, polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors in the two samples. Tests performed in vivo can assess at which therapeutic concentration the presence of these anti-nutrients can be harmful to health.

  5. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae: evaluation of antinutrients and effect on glycosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia P. de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to confirm the traditional use of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae, for the reduction of weight, plant extracts were evaluated on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL, an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet for its subsequent absorption. The aqueous and infused extracts did not show inhibitory activity on the PL, the ethanol inhibited 16% (66 ALI/g and methanol extract inhibited 78% (241 ALI/g. The methanol extract of B. trimera (MEB was subjected to a wash with decreasing solvent polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and only the methanol fraction inhibited the lipase by 72% (230 ALI/g. We evaluated the MEB and infused inhibitory activity on the enzymes α-amylase and α and β-glycosidases. The α-amylase was not inhibited by any of the extracts, the enzyme α-glucosidase was inhibited by both extracts in the same proportion (46.9±0.1 and β-glucosidase was inhibited by 73% by the methanol extract and 65% by the infused. We also evaluated the presence of anti-nutrients. We detected the presence of saponins, polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors in the two samples. Tests performed in vivo can assess at which therapeutic concentration the presence of these anti-nutrients can be harmful to health.

  6. Artepillin C and phenolic compounds responsible for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, R S; De Mendonça, S; Mendes, P B; Paulino, N; Mimica, M J; Lagareiro Netto, A A; Lira, I S; López, B G-C; Negrão, V; Marcucci, M C

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the antimicrobial activity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) and antioxidant activity of green propolis, Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts and Artepillin C™. The amount of Artepillin C in different extracts was determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) was determined using 40 isolates of S. aureus inoculated in Müeller-Hinton agar culture medium containing the green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC extracts. PVEE (green propolis ethanolic extract) and BDEH (B. dracunculifolia hexanic extract) showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with MIC90 values of 246·3 and 295·5 μg ml-1 respectively. Green propolis ethanolic and hexanic extracts (PVEE and PVEH respectively) showed the greatest antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) with IC50 values of 13·09 and 95·86 μg ml-1 respectively. Green propolis ethanolic displays better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities compared to other extracts. These activities may be related to the presence of Artepillin C in synergism with the other constituents of the extracts. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC demonstrated in MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates indicated that they can be important tools to treat infections caused by these bacteria. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC Exhibits an Anti-Adipogenic Effect by Inhibiting the Expression of Proteins Involved in Adipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Souza Marinho do Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (gorse is a plant popularly used for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we prepared three B. trimera extracts aqueous extract (AE, decoction (AE-D, and methanol extract (ME and investigated their antioxidant effects in six different tests and their anti-adipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 cells. The extracts showed a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in all tests. AE was the most potent antioxidant in copper and ferric ion chelation assays, whereas AE-D was the most potent in superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, reducing power assay, and total antioxidant capacity analysis. Only ME showed a cytotoxic effect against 3T3-L1 cells. Lipid accumulation decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of AE and AE-D extracts (0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL. In addition, the extracts dramatically attenuated the levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ, and gamma receptors by peroxisome proliferators (PPARγ, during adipogenesis. AE-D (1.0 mg/mL caused an approximately 90% reduction in the levels of these molecules. We propose that B. trimera has an anti-adipogenic effect and could be used in the development of functional foods.

  8. Protective Effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia Leaves Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride- and Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio P. Rezende

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the in vivo protective effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves extract (BdE against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4- and acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity, and HPLC analysis were performed. Our results showed that pretreatment with BdE significantly reduced the damage caused by CCl4 and APAP on the serum markers of hepatic injury, AST, ALT, and ALP. Results were confirmed by histopathological analysis. Phytochemical analysis, performed by HPLC, showed that BdE was rich in p-coumaric acid derivatives, caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. BdE also showed DPPH antioxidant activity (EC50 of 15.75 ± 0.43 μg/mL, and high total phenolic (142.90 ± 0.77 mg GAE/g and flavonoid (51.47 ± 0.60 mg RE/g contents. This study indicated that B. dracunculifolia leaves extract has relevant in vivo hepatoprotective properties.

  9. Root reinforcement and slope bioengineering stabilization by Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giadrossich

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the root system's characteristics of Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L., a species whose capacity for adaptating and resisting to drought is worth investigating. In particular, the aims of the study were 1 to investigate the plant's bio-mechanical aspects and 2 to verify whether root reinforcement and the field rooting ability of stem cuttings enhance its potential for use in slope stabilization and soil bio-engineering techniques, particularly in the Mediterranean areas. Single root specimens were sampled and tested for tensile strength, obtaining classic tensile strength-diameter relationships. Analysis were performed on the root systems in order to assess root density distribution. The Root Area Ratio (RAR was analyzed by taking both direct and indirect measurements, the latter relying on image processing. The data obtained were used to analyze the stability of an artificial slope (landfill and the root reinforcement. The measurement and calculation of mean root number, mean root diameter, RAR, root cohesion and Factor of safety are presented in order to distinguish the effect of plant origin and propagation. Furthermore, tests were performed to assess the possibility of agamic propagation (survival rate of root-ball endowed plants, rooting from stem cuttings. These tests confirmed that agamic propagation is difficult, even though roots were produced from some buried stems, and for practical purposes it has been ruled out. Our results show that Spanish Broom has good bio-mechanical characteristics with regard to slope stabilization, even in critical pedoclimatic conditions and where inclinations are quite steep, and it is effective on soil depths up to about 50 cm, in agreement with other studies on Mediterranean species. It is effective in slope stabilization, but less suitable for soil bio-engineering or for triggering natural plant succession.

  10. Increased sodium and fluctuations in minerals in acid limes expressing witches' broom symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaithi, Aisha G; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Busaidi, Walid M; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', is a very serious disease of acid limes. The disease destroyed more than one million lime trees in the Middle East. WBDL results in the production of small, clustered leaves in some branches of lime trees. Branches develop symptoms with time and become unproductive, until the whole tree collapses within 4-8 years of first symptom appearance. This study was conducted to investigate differences in minerals between symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves of infected lime trees. The study included one set of leaves from uninfected trees and two sets of infected leaves: symptomatic leaves and asymptomatic leaves obtained from randomly selected acid lime trees. Nested polymerase chain reaction detected phytoplasma in the symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves from the six infected trees, but not from the uninfected trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all phytoplasmas belong to the 16S rRNA group II-B. Mineral analysis revealed that the level of Na significantly increased by four times in the symptomatic leaves compared to the non-symptomatic leaves and to the uninfected leaves. In addition, symptom development resulted in a significant increase in the levels of P and K by 1.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, and a significant decrease in the levels of Ca and B by 1.2 and 1.8 times, respectively. There was no significant effect of WBDL on the levels of N, Cu, Zn, and Fe. The development of witches' broom disease symptoms was found to be associated with changes in some minerals. The study discusses factors and consequences of changes in the mineral content of acid limes infected by phytoplasma.

  11. Tannins in Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: effects of seasonality, water availability and plant sex Taninos em Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: efeitos da sazonalidade, disponibilidade de água e sexo da planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário M Espírito-Santo

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Several ecological, genetic, and environmental factors are known to influence tannin concentration in plant tissues. In this study, the effects of seasonality, water availability, and sex of the plant on tannin concentration in the dioecious shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia were assessed. The effects of water availability on plant shoot growth and its relationship to tannin concentration were also experimentally evaluated. Tannins occurred in B. dracunculifolia from November to May, peaking during the summer (December to March. However, no relationship between tannin concentration, rainfall and temperature was found. No difference in tannin concentration and shoot growth was found between plants in the irrigated and control treatments, this suggesting that tannin production was affected by factors other than water availability, such as light intensity or plant phenology. There was a negative relationship between tannin concentration and shoot growth, possibly due to a trade-off between these metabolic activities. Plant gender did not influence tannin concentration and shoot growth, indicating that B. dracunculifolia did not show a differential resource allocation between male and female individuals.Vários fatores ecológicos, genéticos e ambientais podem influenciar a concentração de taninos em tecidos de uma planta. Neste estudo, os efeitos da sazonalidade, disponibilidade de água e sexo da planta sobre a concentração de taninos no arbusto dióico Baccharis dracunculifolia foram avaliados. Também foram verificados os efeitos da disponibilidade de água sobre o crescimento de ramos da planta e a relação com a concentração de taninos. Os indivíduos de B. dracunculifolia produziram taninos de novembro a maio, apresentando maiores concentrações durante o verão (dezembro a março. Entretanto, não foram encontradas relações entre a concentração de taninos e a precipitação e a temperatura, assim como também não foram observadas

  12. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego Javier; Fernandez, Osvaldo Alberto; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, Maria de la Merced; Torres, Yanina Alejandra; Daddario, Juan Facundo Fabian; Ithurrart, Leticia Soledad; Giorgetti, Hugo Dosindo; Rodriguez, Gustavo Dionisio; Montenegro, Oscar Alberto; Baioni, Sandra Sonia; Entio, Lisandro Jose; Fioretti, Maria Nelida

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa , Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus . Para cada especie se regaron 100 semillas y se mantuvieron a 25°C y oscuridad. Se registraron la germina...

  13. Identificación de un compuesto alelopático de Baccharis boliviensis (Asteraceae) y su efecto en la germinación de Trichocereus pasacana (Cactaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ada Cazón; Marta de Viana; Gianello, José C.

    2000-01-01

    El género Baccharis presenta una amplia distribución en regiones áridas del noroeste Argentino. Estudios realizados sobre la distribución espacial de T. pasacana con relación al espacio disponible, mostraron que a pesar de que las semillas del cardón son abundantes bajo la copa de B. boliviensis, no se detectan plantas de cardón creciendo en asociación, a pesar del requerimiento de plantas nodrizas para un establecimiento exitoso del cardón. Extractos acuosos del follaje de B. boliviensis par...

  14. Chemical composition of volatiles from male and female specimens of Baccharis trimera collected in two distant regions of southern brazil: a comparative study using chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available GC/MS/FID analyses of volatile compounds from cladodes and inflorescences from male and female specimens of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. collected in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil, showed that carquejyl acetate was the primary volatile component (38% to 73%, while carquejol and ledol were identified in lower concentrations. Data were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which confirmed that the chemical compositions of all samples were similar. The results presented here highlight the occurrence of the same chemotype of B. trimera in three southern states of Brazil.

  15. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Borgo

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  16. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis', a novel taxon discovered in witches'-broom-diseased salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Qingrong; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Wu, Wei; Liu, Qingzhong

    2009-10-01

    Salt cedar trees with pronounced witches'-broom symptoms were observed in their natural habitat in China. 16S rRNA gene sequences unique to phytoplasmas were detected in every DNA sample extracted from stem and leaf tissues of the symptomatic trees, revealing a direct association between phytoplasma infection and the salt cedar witches'-broom (SCWB) disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the SCWB phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the SCWB phytoplasma belonged to a subclade consisting of several mutually distinct 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa including 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum', 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali', 'Ca. Phytoplasma pyri' and 'Ca. Phytoplasma spartii'. Pairwise sequence similarity scores calculated from an alignment of near full-length 16S rRNA genes revealed that SCWB phytoplasma shared 96.6 % or less sequence similarity with each previously described or proposed 'Ca. Phytoplasma' taxon, justifying the recognition of SCWB phytoplasma as a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis'. The distinct virtual RFLP pattern derived from the SCWB phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequence, together with its lower-than-threshold similarity coefficient values with RFLP patterns of any of the 29 previously established groups, supported the recognition of a new 16Sr group, designated 16SrXXX, salt cedar witches'-broom phytoplasma group.

  17. Comparative Studies of the (Anti Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Varanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenylphenyl}-2(E-propenoic acid, is the main compound of interest in the leaves. This study was undertaken to assess the mutagenic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE: 11.4–182.8 µg/plate and ArtC (0.69–10.99 µg/plate by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and to compare the protective effects of Bd-EAE and ArtC against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens such as 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminofluorene.The mutagenicity test showed that Bd-EAE and ArtC did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies indicating absence of mutagenic activity. ArtC showed a similar antimutagenic effect to that of Bd-EAE in some strains of S. typhimurium, demonstrating that the antimutagenic activity of Bd-EAE can be partially attributed to ArtC. The present results showed that the protective effect of whole plant extracts is due to the combined and synergistic effects of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, the total activity of which may result in health benefits.

  18. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.

  19. Antitrypanosomal activity and evaluation of the mechanism of action of diterpenes from aerial parts of Baccharis retusa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Anderson K; Barcellos, Aline F; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Mesquita, Juliana T; Ferreira, Daiane D; Tempone, Andre G; Romoff, Paulete; Antar, Guilherme M; Lago, João Henrique G

    2018-03-01

    Baccharis retusa, a medicinal Brazilian plant from Asteraceae, has been used in Brazilian folk medicine to treatment of several illnesses, including parasitic diseases. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract from the aerial parts of B. retusa resulted in the isolation and characterization of three active related diterpenes: ent-15β-senecioyl-oxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1), ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (2) and ent-16-oxo-17-nor-kauran-19-oic (3) acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HRESIMS. Antitrypanosomal activity of 1-3 was performed against cell-derived trypomastigotes using the colorimetric resazurin assay. The obtained results demonstrated that isolated compounds displayed a reduced toxicity against NCTC cells and were effective against the trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi with IC 50 values of 3.8μM (1), 75.3μM (2) and 44.2μM (3). Additionally, compound 3 displayed activity against amastigote forms of T. cruzi with IC 50 of 83.2μM. Compound 1 displayed the highest selectivity index (SI) when considered the trypomastigote forms, and its effect in the plasma membrane of parasite was evaluated using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green. A considerable permeabilization (57%) in the membrane of the parasite was observed when compared to the untreated trypomastigotes. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the antitrypanosomal activity and mechanism of action of 1 and related compounds 2 and 3, obtained from aerial parts of B. retusa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Marcílio; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2011-09-01

    The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system.

  1. Additional collection devices used in conjunction with the SurePath Liquid-Based Pap Test broom device do not enhance diagnostic utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Jason C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that use of an EC brush device in combination with the Rovers Cervex-Brush (SurePath broom offered no significant improvement in EC recovery. Here we determine if use of additional collection devices enhance the diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap for gynecologic cytology. Methods After informed consent, 37 women ages 18–56 receiving their routine cervical examinations were randomized into four experimental groups. Each group was first sampled with the SurePath broom then immediately re-sampled with an additional collection device or devices. Group 1: Rover endocervix brush (n = 8. Group 2: Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 7. Group 3: Rover spatula + endocervix brush (n = 11. Group 4: Medscand spatula + CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 11. Results Examination of SurePath broom-collected cytology yielded the following abnormal diagnoses: atypia (n = 2, LSIL (n = 5 and HSIL (n = 3. Comparison of these diagnoses to those obtained from paired samples using the additional collection devices showed that use of a second and or third device yielded no additional abnormal diagnoses. Importantly, use of additional devices did not improve upon the abnormal cell recovery of the SurePath broom and in 4/10 cases under-predicted or did not detect the SurePath broom-collected lesion as confirmed by cervical biopsy. Finally, in 36/37 cases, the SurePath broom successfully recovered ECs. Use of additional devices, in Group 3, augmented EC recovery to 37/37. Conclusions Use of additional collection devices in conjunction with the SurePath broom did not enhance diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap. A potential but not significant improvement in EC recovery might be seen with the use of three devices.

  2. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa de duas espécies de carqueja: Baccharis microcephala DC. e B. trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manfron Budel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de espécies de Baccharis que são constituídas de cladódios, ou seja, caules alados, apresenta dificuldades até mesmo para especialistas em taxonomia vegetal. Baccharis microcephala e B. trimera pertencem ao grupo Trimera e são conhecidas vulgarmente como carquejas. Na medicina popular, é comum o uso de espécies aladas para a aplicação terapêutica como diurético, hepatoprotetor e digestivo. Baccharis trimera consta na F. Bras. IV e possui atividades antiinflamatória, analgésica, bacteriostática, bactericida e antidiabética. As espécies B. trimera e B. microcephala são freqüentemente confundidas e utilizadas pela população para as mesmas finalidades terapêuticas. Objetivou-se estudar a morfologia externa e a anatomia dos cladódios dessas espécies, com a finalidade de se obterem dados que auxiliem na diferenciação e conseqüentemente na identificação das mesmas, contribuindo para o controle de qualidade de fitoterápicos, além de auxiliar na caracterização do grupo taxonômico. O material botânico foi submetido às microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. As duas espécies são trialadas, sendo que em B. microcephala as alas são estreitas, praticamente contínuas em toda a extensão caulinar, enquanto que em B. trimera as alas são mais largas e interrompidas. As características morfológicas permitem a diferenciação dessas duas espécies, principalmente os tricomas tectores.The identification of Baccharis spp. which have cladodes, defined as winged stems, brings difficulties even for taxonomists. Baccharis microcephala and B. trimera belong to the Trimera group and are known as carquejas. In folk medicine, it is common the use of winged species for the same therapeutic indication, such as diuretic, hepatoprotective and digestive. The monograph of B. trimera is included in the F. Bras. IV and this species shows anti-inflammatory, analgesic, bacteriostatic, bactericidal and

  3. Cacao Phylloplane: The First Battlefield against Moniliophthora perniciosa, Which Causes Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D S M; Gramacho, K P; Cardoso, T H S; Micheli, F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2017-07-01

    The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGT) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with or without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant genotype CCN51 and susceptible Catongo presented a mean index of 1,600 and 700 SGT cm-2, respectively. The disease index in plants under drip irrigation was reduced by approximately 30% compared with plants under sprinkler irrigation prior to inoculation. Leaf water wash (LWW) of the cacao inhibited the germination of spores by up to 98%. Proteins from the LWW of CCN51 were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The gel showed 71 spots and identified a total of 42 proteins (28 from the plant and 14 from bacteria). Proteins related to defense and synthesis of defense metabolites and involved in nucleic acid metabolism were identified. The results support the hypothesis that the proteins and water-soluble compounds secreted to the cacao phylloplane participate in the defense against pathogens. They also suggest that SGT can contribute to the resistance of cacao.

  4. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches’ broom disease of cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant–fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. PMID:25540440

  5. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Identification and characterization of conserved and variable regions of lime witches' broom phytoplasma genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siampour, Majid; Izadpanah, Keramatollah; Marzachi, Cristina; Salehi Abarkoohi, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Several segments (∼20  kbp) of the lime witches' broom (LWB) phytoplasma genome (16SrII group) were sequenced and analysed. A 5.7  kbp segment (LWB-C) included conserved genes whose phylogenetic tree was consistent with that generated using 16S rRNA genes. Another 6.4  kbp LWB phytoplasma genome segment (LWB-NC) was structurally similar to the putative mobile unit or sequence variable mosaic genomic region of phytoplasmas, although it represented a new arrangement of genes or pseudogenes such as phage-related protein genes and tra5 insertion sequences. Sequence- and phylogenetic-based evidence suggested that LWB-NC is a genomic region which includes horizontally transferred genes and could be regarded as a hot region to incorporate more foreign genes into the genome of LWB phytoplasma. The presence of phylogenetically related fragments of retroelements was also verified in the LWB phytoplasma genome. Putative intragenomic retrotransposition or retrohoming of these elements might have been determinant in shaping and manipulating the LWB phytoplasma genome. Altogether, the results of this study suggested that the genome of LWB phytoplasma is colonized by a variety of genes that have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer events, which may have further affected the genome through intragenomic mobility and insertion at cognate or incognate sites. Some of these genes are expected to have been involved in the development of features specific to LWB phytoplasma.

  7. Survey of leafhopper species in almond orchards infected with almond witches'-broom phytoplasma in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhil, Hala A; Hammad, Efat Abou-Fakhr; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) account for more than 80% of all "Auchenorrhynchous" vectors that transmit phytoplasmas. The leafhopper populations in two almond witches'-broom phytoplasma (AlmWB) infected sites: Tanboureet (south of Lebanon) and Bourj El Yahoudieh (north of Lebanon) were surveyed using yellow sticky traps. The survey revealed that the most abundant species was Asymmetrasca decedens, which represented 82.4% of all the leafhoppers sampled. Potential phytoplasma vectors in members of the subfamilies Aphrodinae, Deltocephalinae, and Megophthalminae were present in very low numbers including: Aphrodes makarovi, Cicadulina bipunctella, Euscelidius mundus, Fieberiella macchiae, Allygus theryi, Circulifer haematoceps, Neoaliturus transversalis, and Megophthalmus scabripennis. Allygus theryi (Horváth) (Deltocephalinae) was reported for the first time in Lebanon. Nested PCR analysis and sequencing showed that Asymmetrasca decedens, Empoasca decipiens, Fieberiella macchiae, Euscelidius mundus, Thamnottetix seclusis, Balclutha sp., Lylatina inexpectata, Allygus sp., and Annoplotettix danutae were nine potential carriers of AlmWB phytoplasma. Although the detection of phytoplasmas in an insect does not prove a definite vector relationship, the technique is useful in narrowing the search for potential vectors. The importance of this information for management of AlmWB is discussed.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches'-broom Phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Hai-Qing; Lu, Jie; Zhu, Shui-Fang; Lin, Cai-Li; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Xu, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that have no cell wall and are responsible for major crop losses throughout the world. Phytoplasma-infected plants show a variety of symptoms and the mechanisms they use to physiologically alter the host plants are of considerable interest, but poorly understood. In this study we undertook a detailed analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches'-broom (PaWB) Phytoplasma using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and digital gene expression (DGE). RNA-Seq analysis identified 74,831 unigenes, which were subsequently used as reference sequences for DGE analysis of diseased and healthy Paulownia in field grown and tissue cultured plants. Our study revealed that dramatic changes occurred in the gene expression profile of Paulownia after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Genes encoding key enzymes in cytokinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and isopentenyltransferase, were significantly induced in the infected Paulownia. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and degradation were largely up-regulated and genes related to photosynthesis were down-regulated after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic data about plants infected by Phytoplasma. This information will help further our understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between plants and Phytoplasma.

  9. Identification of Genes Related to Paulownia Witches’ Broom by AFLP and MSAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L−1 MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB. PMID:25196603

  10. Saprotrophic proteomes of biotypes of the witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Sandra; Griffith, Gareth W; Morphew, Russell M; Mur, Luis A J; Scott, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes. Mycelial proteomes were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 619 gel spots were indexed on all replicate gels of at least one strain. Multivariate analysis of gel spots discriminated the L-biotype, but not the S-biotypes, from the remaining strains. The proteomic similarity of the S- and C-biotypes is consistent with their reported lack of phylogenetic distinction. Sequences from tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides from major 2-DE spots were matched with Moniliophthora genome and transcript sequences on NCBI and WBD Transcriptome Atlas databases. Protein-spot identifications indicated that M. perniciosa saprotrophic mycelial proteomes expressed functions potentially connected with a 'virulence life-style', including peroxiredoxin, heat-shock proteins, nitrilase, formate dehydrogenase, a prominent complement of aldo-keto reductases, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, and central metabolism enzymes with proposed pathogenesis functions. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of genes related to Paulownia witches' broom by AFLP and MSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-08-21

    DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L(-1) MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB.

  12. Effect of π electrons on the detection of silver ions by ion-selective electrodes containing tripodal broom molecules as an ionophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chihiro; Seto, Hirokazu; Ohto, Keisuke; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Harada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Tripodal "broom" molecule derivatives containing π electrons were used as ionophores of silver ion-selective electrodes. The ability of the electrodes to detect silver ions was evaluated using the Nernst equation. When allyl- and propargyl-type tripodal broom molecules, and a propargyl-type monopodal analog were used in the electrode, Nernstian responses for silver ions were observed, indicating that π electrons play an important role in the detection of silver ions. In the presence of interfering metal ions, the selectivity for silver ions was affected by the number and density of π electrons in the ionophore. The electrode containing the allyl-type tripodal broom molecule was used to accurately determine the concentration of glucosamine hydrochloride in a real sample.

  13. Morfofisiologia da rebrota de Baccharis trimera (Less DC., Asteraceae: Subsídios para seu controle em pastagens naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n3p31 O trabalho foi conduzido em área de pastagem natural do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de avaliar a rebrota da carqueja (Baccharis trimera a cortes em diferentes alturas (7 e 15cm e estádios fenológicos (V=vegetativo; início da primavera; FF=fi nal do florescimento; final do verão e determinar histologicamente a natureza do sistema subterrâneo horizontal da espécie. Os cortes foram em 26/09/02 (V e 14/03/03 (FF e a avaliação da rebrota foi realizada aos 1.525 graus-dia (V, em 12/12/02, e aos 1.749 graus-dia (FF, em 26/06/03, mediante a colheita da parte aérea. Houve menor produção de matéria seca (MS nas plantas cortadas no estádio-V, independente da altura de corte (22,9g MS/planta. No corte do estádio-FF houve efeito significativo da altura de corte: a 7cm obteve-se 21,7g MS/planta e a 15cm, 75,6g MS/planta. Concluiu-se que é melhor cortar a carqueja no estádio vegetativo (primavera a 15 cm, o que minimizaria os danos às plantas forrageiras desejáveis. A roçada realizada no final do verão, em plantas florescidas, deve ser a menor altura (7cm, a fim de reduzir o crescimento das hastes basilares. O sistema subterrâneo horizontal da carqueja é formado por raízes gemíferas, capazes de gerar novas plantas a partir da ativação de gemas dormentes.

  14. Extracto etanólico de Baccharis genistelloides (carqueja sobre el cáncer de colon inducido con 1,2-dimetilhidrazina en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Justil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se tiene conocimiento que el extracto etanólico de las hojas de Baccharis genistelloides puede reducir la aparición del cáncer gástrico y es marcador de estrés oxidativo. Objetivos: Determinar la eficacia quimioprotectora del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Baccharis genistelloides (EEBG en el cáncer de colon inducido por 1,2 - dimetilhidracina (DMH en ratas machos. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Carqueja recolectada en Huancayo, Junín, y ratas machos de 145 + 15 g. Intervenciones: Se indujo tumores intestinales con inyección subcutánea semanal de DMH durante 22 semanas, a 20 mg/kg. Se formó seis grupos: Grupo 1 suero fisiológico; Grupo 2 100 mg/kg EEBG; Grupo 3 DMH; Grupo 4 DMH más 100 mg/kg de EEBG; Grupo 5 DMH más 250 mg/kg de EEBG; y, Grupo 6 DMH más 500 mg/kg de EEBG. Finalmente, se extrajo muestra de sangre para determinar el nivel de malondialdehido y óxido nítrico. Principales medidas de resultados: Quimioprotección. Resultados: El estudio histopatológico mostró quimioprotección de los grupos que recibieron tratamiento con EEBG frente al grupo que no recibió tratamiento, presentando mejor quimioprotección a dosis de 500 mg/kg, donde el cáncer fue pobremente diferenciado, presentando adenomas, frente a adenocarcinoma in situ y adenocarcinoma a dosis de 250 mg/kg y 100 mg/kg; el potencial de oxidación de lipoproteínas fue reducido en los grupos que recibieron tratamiento con EEBG frente a los no tratados, mostrando mayor efecto la dosis de 500 mg/kg; los niveles de óxido nítrico también mostraron una mayor disminución a la dosis de 500 mg/kg. Conclusiones: En ratas, el extracto etanólico de Baccharis genistelloides tiene efecto quimioprotector sobre el cáncer de colon inducido con 1,2-dimetilhidracina.

  15. Development of novel microsatellites from Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jurema R Q; Figueira, Antonio; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Albuquerque, Paulo

    2008-07-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of the witches' broom disease of cacao. Based on available genomic sequences, we identified 30 new microsatellite loci, which were analysed using 50 isolates from four populations sampled over a wide geographical area in Brazil, including three populations from the Amazon, the fungal putative centre of diversity, plus one from Bahia. Nine loci were polymorphic, with an average of 2.9 alleles per locus. The level of polymorphism observed was low, but these markers may allow the evaluation of pathogen diversity and the establishment of molecular standards for isolate fingerprinting to support cacao breeding. © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  17. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondego, Jorge M C; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo G L; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela P T; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia Bl; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis A B; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio Cm; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-11-18

    The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9x coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem.

  18. Push-broom imaging spectrometer based on planar lightwave circuit MZI array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minyue; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2017-05-01

    We propose a large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS) based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) MZI array. The imaging spectrometer works in the push-broom mode with the spectrum performed by interferometry. While the satellite/aircraft is orbiting, the same source, seen from the satellite/aircraft, moves across the aperture and enters different MZIs, while adjacent sources enter adjacent MZIs at the same time. The on-chip spectrometer consists of 256 input mode converters, followed by 256 MZIs with linearly increasing optical path delays and a detector array. Multiple chips are stick together to form the 2D image surface and receive light from the imaging lens. Two MZI arrays are proposed, one works in wavelength ranging from 500nm to 900nm with SiON(refractive index 1.6) waveguides and another ranging from 1100nm to 1700nm with SOI platform. To meet the requirements of imaging spectrometer applications, we choose large cross-section ridge waveguide to achieve polarization insensitive, maintain single mode propagation in broad spectrum and increase production tolerance. The SiON on-chip spectrometer has a spectral resolution of 80cm-1 with a footprint of 17×15mm2 and the SOI based on-chip spectrometer has a resolution of 38cm-1 with a size of 22×19mm2. The spectral and space resolution of the imaging spectrometer can be further improved by simply adding more MZIs. The on-chip waveguide MZI array based Fourier transform imaging spectrometer can provide a highly compact solution for remote sensing on unmanned aerial vehicles or satellites with advantages of small size, light weight, no moving parts and large input aperture.

  19. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondego, Jorge MC; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo GL; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela PT; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia BL; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis AB; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio CM; Pereira, Gonçalo AG

    2008-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem. PMID:19019209

  20. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and antigenotoxicity/antimutagenicity induced by propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia, by in vitro study with HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Matsumoto, Sílvia Tamie; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of propolis, especially the Brazilian green type, is widely and mainly used for therapeutic purposes despite the lack of knowledge about its effects and its cellular mode of action. This type of propolis, derived from Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo), has been extensively commercialized and the consumers use it to enhance health. This work aimed to assess the genotoxic/mutagenic and antigenotoxic/antimutagenic potentials of the ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and of B. dracunculifolia, on mammalian cells. It was not observed genotoxic and mutagenic effects by both extracts. After evaluate the exposure of the cells to each extract with a recognized mutagen, simultaneously, the results showed a significant reduction on DNA damage. The experiment carried out with a pre-incubation period was more effective than without incubation test, showing that the tested extracts were able to inactivate the mutagen before it could react with the DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Baccharis dracunculifolia methanol extract enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets of monosodium glutamate induced-obesity model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocayen, Palloma de A S; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Leite, Nayara C; Pochapski, Márcia T; Pereira, Ricardo A; da Silva, Luiz A; Snack, Andre L; Michel, R Garcia; Kagimura, Francini Y; da Cunha, Mário A A; Malfatti, Carlos R M

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Secondary metabolites with biological activities and pharmacological potential have been identified in species of the Baccharis genus that are specifically distributed in the Americas. This study evaluated the effects of methanol extracts from Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. Asteraceae on metabolic parameters, satiety, and growth in monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced-obesity model rats. MSG was administered to 32 newborn rats (4 mg/g of body weight) once daily for 5 consecutive days. Four experimental groups (control, control + extract, MSG, and MSG + extract) were treated for 30 consecutive days with 400 mg/kg of B. dracunculifolia extract by gavage. Biochemical parameters, antioxidant activity, total extract phenolic content (methanolic, ethanolic, and acetone extractions), and pancreatic islets were evaluated. High levels of phenolic compounds were identified in B. dracunculifolia extracts (methanol: 46.2 ± 0.4 mg GAE/L; acetate: 70.5 ± 0.5 mg GAE/L; and ethanol: 30.3 ± 0.21 mg GAE/L); high antioxidant activity was detected in B. dracunculifolia ethanol and methanol extracts. The concentration of serum insulin increased 30% in obese animals treated with extract solutions (1.4-2.0 µU/mL, p < 0.05). Insulin secretion in pancreatic islets was 8.3 mM glucose (58%, p < 0.05) and 16.7 mM (99.5%, p < 0.05) in rats in the MSG + extract and MSG groups, respectively. Treatment with B. dracunculifolia extracts protected pancreatic islets and prevented the irreversible cellular damage observed in animals in obesity and diabetes models.

  3. Identificación de un compuesto alelopático de Baccharis boliviensis (Asteraceae y su efecto en la germinación de Trichocereus pasacana (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Cazón

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available El género Baccharis presenta una amplia distribución en regiones áridas del noroeste Argentino. Estudios realizados sobre la distribución espacial de T. pasacana con relación al espacio disponible, mostraron que a pesar de que las semillas del cardón son abundantes bajo la copa de B. boliviensis, no se detectan plantas de cardón creciendo en asociación, a pesar del requerimiento de plantas nodrizas para un establecimiento exitoso del cardón. Extractos acuosos del follaje de B. boliviensis particionado en hexano, cloroformo y acetato de etilo, inhibieron la germinación de T. pasacana. El cloroformo fue el solvente más efectivo para la extracción del material fitotóxico. La estructura del ácido ferrúlico fue determinada por metodos espectroscópicos y TLC sobre gel de sílice.The genus Baccharis has a wide distribution in Northwestern arid regions of Argentina. Studies carried out on the spatial distribution of T. pasacana in relation to the available space, show that although beneath B. boliviensis canopy, cacti seeds are abundant, no adult plants are found growing in association to that species in spite of the requirement of a nurse plant for a successfull cacti establishment. Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts from B. boliviensis folliage inhibited T. pasacana germination completely.The bioassays were carried out in a germination chamber following a random design, with four replicates by treatment. The chloroform extract was the most effective solvent for extracting the phytotoxic material from the aqueous extracts. The ferrulic acid structure was determined by 13C NMR, ¹HNMR spectra and TLC on silica gel.

  4. Complete genome sequence of longan witches' broom-associated virus, a novel member of the family Potyviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2017-05-13

    The complete genome sequence of a new virus isolated from a longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) plant showing witches' broom syndrome was determined. The viral genome is composed of a monopartite single-stranded RNA of 9,428 nucleotides excluding the 3' poly(A) tail and contains one large single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3086 amino acids. BLAST searches of protein databases showed that the encoded polyprotein has a maximum amino acid sequence identity of 35% (with 85% coverage) to that of the isolate Minnesota of rose yellow mosaic virus (RoYMV; family Potyviridae; genus not assigned). Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the genome and encoded protein sequences showed that the identified virus has the general features that are characteristic of members of the family Potyviridae although it has extremely low sequence similarity to known members of the family Potyviridae. The name longan witches' broom-associated virus (LWBaV) is proposed for this new virus, which may be considered a member of a new genus in the family Potyviridae.

  5. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) fibers impregnated with vancomycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as new antibacterial wound dressing: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Teresa; Abruzzo, Angela; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Vitali, Beatrice; De Rose, Renata; Chidichimo, Giuseppe; Ceseracciu, Luca; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Saladini, Bruno; Dalena, Francesco; Bigucci, Federica; Luppi, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we propose as new wound dressing, the Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with vancomycin (VM) loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Spanish Broom fibers were extracted by patented method DiCoDe and the morphological, physical and mechanical properties were investigated. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using different weight ratios between chitosan (CH) and tripolyphosphate (TPP). Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, stability and drug release. Finally, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as in vitro cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells were evaluated. The best formulation CH/TPP 4:1 was selected based on the encapsulation efficiency and yield. Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with loaded nanoparticles showed an increased antibacterial activity against S. aureus compared to the same fibers containing VM without nanoparticles. Moreover, these fibers were not toxic to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In conclusion, Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with VM loaded CH/TPP nanoparticles would appear to be a promising candidate for wound dressing application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. First Report of a New ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’-related strain Associated with Witches’-broom of Virginia pine in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April of 2015, a pine tree (Pinus virginiana Mill.) in Laurel, Maryland was observed to have abnormal shoot branching and witches’ broom symptoms. Total nucleic acids were extracted from needles collected from a symptomatic branch. Polymerase chain reaction assays (PCRs) for amplification of th...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches' Broom Disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li; Yang, Jun-Yi; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-11-25

    The bacterial genus "Candidatus Phytoplasma" contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches' broom disease in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Chang et al.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches’ Broom Disease in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial genus “Candidatus Phytoplasma” contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches’ broom disease in Taiwan. PMID:26607900

  10. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  11. Identification of candidate genes involved in Witches' broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royaert, Stefan; Jansen, J.; Silva, da Daniela Viana; Jesus Branco, de Samuel Martins; Livingstone, Donald S.; Mustiga, Guiliana; Marelli, Jean Philippe; Araújo, Ioná Santos; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Witches' broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers. One of the ways to combat WBD is to plant resistant cultivars. Resistance may be governed by a few genetic factors, mainly found in wild

  12. Toxicidade pré-clínica de fitoterápico contendo Gentiana lutea, Rheum palmatum, Aloe ferox, Cynara scolymus, Atropa belladona, Peumus boldus e Baccharis trimera em Coelhos Nova Zelândia

    OpenAIRE

    Braga de Mello Joao Roberto; de Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    The phytotherapic formulation constituted by Gentiana lutea (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) and Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) was investigated from the potential of toxicological effects when orally administered for 30 days to male and female New Zealand rabbits. The daily oral dose was ten times the prescribed dosage to humans. The general signs of toxicity...

  13. [Molecular detection and variability of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasmas from different cultivars in various regions of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qicong; Tian, Guozhong; Wang, Zhengliang; Kong, Fanhua; Li, Yong; Wang, He

    2009-11-01

    Jujube witches'-broom is an important disease in jujube cultivation areas, which causes serious losses in jujube fruit production. To understand the genetic variability and diversity of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma population from the different cultivars and various regions of China. We collected 32 samples from 14 cultivars or wild sour jujubes in 7 regions of China and detected them with PCR with the primers R16mF2/R16mR1 for phytoplasma 16S rDNA, SR1/SR for 16S-23SrRNA space region (SR) and FD9f/r for secretion proteins (secY). The direct sequencing of PCR products and sequencing by cloned PCR products were used for sequence polymorphism and phylogenetic analyses by comparison to the databases of known conserved gene sequences. We detected phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of 16SrDNA from all the diseased jujube samples. All the phytoplasma isolates infected various jujube cultivars belonged to subgroup 16SrV-B of elm yellows group and had closer homology with Bischofia polycarpa witches'-broom and cherry lethal yellows phytoplasmas occurred in China than other 16SrV phytoplasmas in other countries. The sequence polymorphism at different extent in 16SrDNA, SR and secY gene and genetic diversity were revealed in phytoplasma strain population related to different habitats, among which the dominant strains were always detected by the direct sequencing of PCR products in all the diseased areas of China. The degree of variability on secY gene of collected phytoplasma strains was greater than that of 16SrDNA and SR sequences, and some base substitutions could not alter encoded amino acid, however certain single base deletions detected in a Shandong and a Beijing strains may have impact on the gene structure or function. Phytoplasma strains from different cultivars and regions show dramatic genetic diversity. Compared with direct sequencing of PCR products, the sequencing by cloning PCR products was more useful for the displaying of variants and phylogeny in

  14. Comparison of volatile and polyphenolic compounds in Brazilian green propolis and its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia Comparação de volatilidade e compostos polifenólicos na própolis verde brasileira e sua origem botânica Baccharis dracunculifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts and essential oils from Green Propolis from southeastern Brazil and leaf buds from its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC, Reversed Phase High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (RP-HPTLC and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. Both ethanolic extracts and essential oils showed similar chromatographic profiles. Thirteen flavonoids were identified by RP-HPLC and RP-HPTLC analyses in both samples. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses. Seventeen were present in both essential oils. The major flavonoid compound in both extracts was artepillin C. The major volatile compound in both essential oils was nerolidol. The major compounds identified in this work could be used as chemical markers in order to classify and identify botanical origins of propolis.Extratos etanólicos e óleos essenciais de própolis verde do sudeste brasileiro e gemas de sua origem botânica (Baccharis dracunculifolia foram analisados por CLAE-FR (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência em Fase Reversa, CCDAE (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada de Alta Eficiência e CG-EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidro destilação. Extratos etanólicos e óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e de própolis mostraram perfis cromatográficos similares entre si. Treze flavonóides foram identificados por CLAE-FR e CCDAE em ambas as amostras. Vinte e três compostos voláteis foram identificados por CG EM, sendo dezessete deles presentes em ambos os óleos essenciais. Artepillin C foi o flavonóide encontrado em maiores concentrações em ambas as amostras, enquanto nerolidol foi o volátil majoritário em ambos os óleos essenciais. Os compostos majoritários identificados neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como

  15. Working with grocers to reduce dietary sodium: lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Yvonne A; McFadden, Mary; Lamphere, Marissa; Buch, Karen; Stark, Beth; Salton, Judith Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe implementation of and lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities grocery store initiative. This pilot project was conducted in collaboration with a regional supermarket chain and endeavored to develop population-based strategies for reducing sodium intake. Key interventions included marketing strategies, taste test demonstrations, and a public media campaign. Project staff worked closely with corporate registered dietitian nutritionists, a nutrition specialist, and an advertising agency in its development and implementation. A social marketing approach was used to educate consumers about the hidden sources of dietary sodium, to raise awareness of the adverse health effects of excess sodium intake, to encourage consumers to read food labels, and to urge them to purchase food items lower in sodium. The lessons learned from this experience may be of assistance to other communities that seek to implement similar sodium-reduction strategies in the grocery store environment.

  16. [Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of Phytoplasma CWB1 strain associated with cactus witches' broom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H; Li, F; Kong, B; Chen, H

    2001-12-01

    A 1.5 kb DNA fragment was amplified in DNA samples extracted from Opuntia salmiana porm showed witches'-broom symptom. The result indicates the existence of phytoplasma associated with this disease and this phytoplasma was designated as CWB1. The amplified fragment was ligated to pGEM-T easy vector and then transformed into JM109 strain of E. coli. Cloned DNA fragments were verified by PCR, restriction endonuclease (EcoRI) digestion and sequence analysis. The result revealed that the 16S rRNA gene of CWB1 consists of 1489 bp and shared 99.7% homology with Faba bean phyllody which belongs to phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup. So we can classify this strain into phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup.

  17. [Cloning, expression and characterization of tRNA-isopentenyltransferase genes (tRNA-ipt) from paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaxu; Tian, Guozhong; Lin, Caili; Song, Chuansheng; Mu, Haiqing; Ren, Zhengguang; Guo, Song; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng; Li, Huaifang

    2013-08-04

    To identify the tRNA-ipt gene of phytoplasmas and analyze the relationship between tRNA-ipt and synthesis of cytokinin as well as pathogenesis in phytoplasmas. The paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma (PaWB) tRNA-ipt gene was expressed in E. coli and specific antibody was prepared. Then the growth curve and cytokinin contents of E. coli with PaWB tRNA-ipt were measured by photodensitometry and ELISA respectively. The length of tRNA-ipt genes from PaWB as well as mulberry dwarf, periwinkle virescence and Chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasmas were 876 bp. All these genes encoded the proteins consisting of 291 amino acids. They contained and indentical motif (GPTASGKT) at N-terminal region related to the ATP or GTP binding sites. Four phytoplasma tRNA-IPTs shared the 99.1-99.5%, amino acid sequence indentity with each other, shared 95.4-99.3% sequence identity with the same group phytoplasmas, whereas the less than 70% identity with 16SrX apple proliferation and 16SrXII Australia grapevine yellows phytoplasmas. The expression of the tRNA-IPT protein and localization in the phloem in phytoplasma-infected paulownia were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence detection. The determination of growth curve suggested that the growth rate increase of E. coli was affected by the transformation of exogenous tRNA-ipt gene,which might be associated with the cytokinin accumulation. This protein was assumed to be involved in the cytokinin synthesis in phytoplasmas as well as other bacteria, which may play an important role in pathogenic processes of phytoplasmas and symptom development.

  18. Genes differentially expressed in Theobroma cacao associated with resistance to witches' broom disease caused by Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Gildemberg Amorim; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    SUMMARY The basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao (cocoa). Hypertrophic growth of infected buds ('brooms') is the most dramatic symptom, but the main economic losses derive from pod infection. To identify cocoa genes differentially expressed during the early stages of infection, two cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach. Subtraction hybridization was conducted between cDNAs from infected shoot-tips of the susceptible genotype 'ICS 39' and the resistant 'CAB 214', in both directions. A total of 187 unique sequences were obtained, with 83 from the library enriched for the susceptible 'ICS 39' sequences, and 104 for the resistant 'CAB 214'. By homology search and ontology analyses, the identified sequences were mainly putatively categorized as belonging to 'signal transduction', 'response to biotic and abiotic stress', 'metabolism', 'RNA and DNA metabolism', 'protein metabolism' and 'cellular maintenance' classes. Quantitative reverse transcription amplification (RT-qPCR) of 23 transcripts identified as differentially expressed between genotypes revealed distinct kinetics of gene up-regulation at the asymptomatic stage of the disease. Expression induction in the susceptible 'ICS 39' in response to C. perniciosa was delayed and limited, while in 'CAB 214' there was a quicker and more intense reaction, with two peaks of gene induction at 48 and 120 h after inoculation, corresponding to morphological and biochemical changes previously described during colonization. Similar differences in gene induction were validated for another resistant genotype ('CAB 208') in an independent experiment. Validation of these genes corroborated similar hypothetical mechanisms of resistance described in other pathosystems.

  19. Broom-like and flower-like heterostructures of silver molybdate through pH controlled self assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. P.; Sirota, B.; Talpatra, S.; Kohli, P.; Rebholz, C.; Aouadi, S. M.

    2012-03-01

    Silver molybdate microrods are self-assembled into micron sized, broom-like and flower-like structures. Our investigations indicate that through a simple hydrothermal process, large scale production of such structure is possible. Using ammonium molybdate and silver nitrate solutions as precursors, we were able to show that the self assembled architectures were dependent on the pH of the starting precursor material. To understand the formation and destructions of the flower-like morphology, a systematic broad range (from acidic to basic) of pH-controlled experiments were performed and its influence on the structure/microstructure of synthesized materials was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the morphology and microstructure of the products varied significantly by changing pH values from 3 to 8 during mixing of the reactants. pH = 3 and 4 resulted in the self assembly of monoclinic Ag2(Mo2O7) microrods into broom-like structures, whereas pH = 5 resulted into the flower-like morphology of mixed phase of monoclinic and triclinic Ag2Mo2O7. We also found that increasing the pH after a certain threshold value (for example pH > 6) resulted in total collapse of the flower-like morphology. Further increase of the pH to 7 and 8 resulted, the formation of microparticles of Ag2MoO4. A tentative scheme based on the pH-driven evolution of the self-assembly has been given to explain the formation of the observed heterostructures. Preliminary electrical characterization of thin films of the flower-like structures rendered non-linear current-voltage (I-V) responses. We also observed a strong hysteresis in the I-V responses of the flower-like structures developed under high bias conditions.

  20. Establishment and Optimization of Rigorous Geometric Model of Push-broom Camera Using TDI CCD Arranged in an Alternating Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Weican

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Push-broom cameras using TDI CCD arranged in an alternating pattern are widely carried by typical high-resolution optical satellites in order to obtain high space resolution and enough strip width. For this kind of cameras, several TDI CCD are arranged in an alternating pattern in two lines on the focal plane and push-broom imaging mode is always adopted. Imaging principle and characteristic of this kind of camera is introduced. Exterior parameters of TDI CCD are modeled together based on their same values in any instant of time and an integrated geometric model is finally established. Error compensation methods are designed to remove exterior error and interior error based on this integrated geometric model. A series of tests are designed to verify models and methods proposed in this paper using original image of TH-1 Satellite HR Camera whose detectors are divided into 8 modules arranged in an alternating pattern. As the results, the imaging geometry of this kind of camera can be rigorously described by this integral geometrical model. The positioning accuracy can be obviously improved by our exterior error compensation method, however, different residual error would be remained for different TDI CCD. The positioning accuracy will not be obviously improved while systematic errors of different TDI CCD can be effectively removed by the interior error compensation method. 2 m positioning accuracy in X, Y and Z directions can be achieved and different systematic errors can be removed when both exterior and interior error were compensated. The same accuracy can be achieved in the other scenes when the calculated inner distortion parameters are adopted.

  1. Avaliação da qualidade das amostras comercias de Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja vendidas no Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050 Quality Evaluation of Commercial Samples of Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja sold in Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da qualidade de 12 amostras comerciais de ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. que são empregadas na medicina tradicional como estomáquicas e diuréticas e são vendidas em estabelecimentos comerciais farmacêuticos no Estado do Paraná, visando ao preparo de chás. Foram avaliados parâmetros de qualidade preconizados na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica: características dos rótulos e bulas, análise sensorial, autenticidade das amostras, material estranho e doseamento de marcadores químicos. Todos os produtos avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessária maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 12 samples prepared with ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. used in traditional medicine as stomachic and diuretic medicines, and sold in commercial pharmacies in Paraná State. The analyses used parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. The methodology consisted in evaluating the product labels and instructions of the samples to verify their accordance to the specific legislation, sensorial analysis, authenticity of the samples, purity and dosage of chemical markers. All products showed some type of mistake or irregularity according to the official codes. These results showed that is necessary to intensify the inspection of medicinal plants in Brazil.

  2. Genetic diversity among phytoplasmas infecting Opuntia species: virtual RFLP analysis identifies new subgroups in the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Chen, Hairu; Zhao, Yan

    2008-06-01

    Phytoplasmas were detected in cactus (Opuntia species) plants exhibiting witches'-broom disease symptoms in Yunnan Province, south-western China. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that an overwhelming majority of the cactus-infecting phytoplasmas under study belonged to the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrII). Genotyping through use of computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a remarkable genetic diversity among these cactus-infecting phytoplasma strains. Based on calculated coefficients of RFLP pattern similarities, seven new 16SrII subgroups were recognized, bringing the total of described group 16SrII subgroups to 12 worldwide. Geographical areas differed from one another in the extent of genetic diversity among cactus-infecting phytoplasma strains. The findings have implications for relationships between ecosystem distribution and the emergence of group 16SrII subgroup diversity.

  3. Effect of chlorogenic acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the structure and pharmacological activities of secretory phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Daniela O; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A; Gaeta, Henrique H; Toyama, Marcos H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2.

  4. Multilocus sequences confirm the close genetic relationship of four phytoplasmas of peanut witches'-broom group 16SrII-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Piao, Chun-gen; Tian, Guo-zhong; Liu, Zhi-xin; Guo, Min-wei; Lin, Cai-li; Wang, Xi-zhuo

    2014-08-01

    Four witches'-broom diseases associated with Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Crotalaria pallida, Tephrosia purpurea, and Cleome viscosa were observed in Hainan Province, China during field surveys in 2004, 2005, and 2007. In previously reported studies, we identified these four phytoplasmas as members of subgroup 16SrII-A, and discovered that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.9-100% identical to one another. In this study, we performed extensive phylogenetic analyses to elucidate relationships among them. We analyzed sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and rplV-rpsC, rpoB, gyrB, dnaK, dnaJ, recA, and secY combined sequence data from two strains each of the four phytoplasmas from Hainan province, as well as strains of peanut witches'-broom from Taiwan (PnWB-TW), "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", "Ca. Phytoplasma mali AT", aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, and onion yellows phytoplasma OY-M. In the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree, the eight Hainan strains form a clade with PnWB-TW. Analysis of the seven concatenated gene regions indicated that the four phytoplasmas collected from Hainan province cluster most closely with one another, but are closely related to PnWB-TW. The results of field survey and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Cr. pallida, T. purpurea, and Cl. viscosa may be natural plant hosts of peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Use of Vegetable Fibers for PRB to Remove Heavy Metals from Contaminated Aquifers-Comparisons among Cabuya Fibers, Broom Fibers and ZVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayacela Rojas, Celia Margarita; Rivera Velásquez, María Fernanda; Tavolaro, Adalgisa; Molinari, Antonio; Fallico, Carmine

    2017-06-24

    The Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) is the material most commonly used for permeable reactive barriers (PRB). For technical and economic reasons, hoter reactive substances usable in alternative to ZVI are investigated. The present study takes into account a vegetable fibers, the cabuya, investigating its capacity to retain heavy metals. The capacity of the cabuya fibers to adsorb heavy metals was verified in laboratory, by batch and column tests. The batch tests were carried out with cabuya and ZVI, using copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The results obtained by the cabuya fibers showed a very high adsorption capacity of heavy metals and resulted very similar to those obtained for the broom fibers in a previous study. The high value of the absorption capacity of the cabuya fibers was also confirmed by the analogous comparison made with the results of the batch tests carried out with ZVI. Column tests, using copper, zinc and cadmium, allowed to determine for the cabuya fibers the maximum removal percentage of the heavy metals considered, the corresponding times and the time ranges of the release phase. For each metal considered, for a given length and three different times, the constant of degradation of cabuya fibers was determined, obtaining values very close to those reported for broom fibers. The scalar behavior of heavy metal removal percentage was verified. An electron microscope analysis allowed to compare, by SEM images, the characteristics of the cabuya and broom fibers. Finally, to investigate the chemical structure of cabuya and broom fibers, the FTIR technique was used, obtaining their respective infrared spectra.

  6. Evaluation of physiological and defense characteristics and ions contents of Red and Brooms cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum biolor under salt stress stress in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Razavizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate defense and physiological responses of some red and broomscultivars of Sorghum to salinity stress under in vitro culture. Seeds of Sorghum cultivars were cultured on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962 medium containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl under in vitro condition. After 2 weeks, the effect of salinity was studied on percentage of germination, growth parameters, photosynthetic capacity (total chlorophyll and carotenoids, total anthocyanin, total felavonoids, reducing sugars, proline, Na+/K+/Ca2+ ions, total soluble protein content, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in roots and shoots. According to percentage of seed germination and growth parameters, Red and brooms cultivars were selected as susceptible and resistant to salinity in the study, respectively. The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids and the anthocyanin content decreased by increasing salt levels in both cultivars, while flavonoids increased in three wavelengths 270, 300 and 330 nm. The results showed proline, suger and protein contents increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars by increasing salinity. The content of Na+ ion increased in the roots of red and brooms cultivars and shoot of Red cultivar. Ratio Na/K increased in roots of two cultivars and shoots of red by increasing salinity. Ratio Na/K in the shoots of brooms cultivar didn’t change significantly under salt stress. Generally in the presence of salt, potassium decreased in roots and shoots of two cultivars. Calcium ion amount in the roots of two cultivars didn’t change significantly under salt stress while it increased in shoots of two cultivars. The CAT activity increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars but APX activity increased in brooms cultivar and decreased significantly in red cultivar.

  7. Push-Broom-Type Very High-Resolution Satellite Sensor Data Correction Using Combined Wavelet-Fourier and Multiscale Non-Local Means Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In very high-resolution (VHR push-broom-type satellite sensor data, both destriping and denoising methods have become chronic problems and attracted major research advances in the remote sensing fields. Since the estimation of the original image from a noisy input is an ill-posed problem, a simple noise removal algorithm cannot preserve the radiometric integrity of satellite data. To solve these problems, we present a novel method to correct VHR data acquired by a push-broom-type sensor by combining wavelet-Fourier and multiscale non-local means (NLM filters. After the wavelet-Fourier filter separates the stripe noise from the mixed noise in the wavelet low- and selected high-frequency sub-bands, random noise is removed using the multiscale NLM filter in both low- and high-frequency sub-bands without loss of image detail. The performance of the proposed method is compared to various existing methods on a set of push-broom-type sensor data acquired by Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite 3 (KOMPSAT-3 with severe stripe and random noise, and the results of the proposed method show significantly improved enhancement results over existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative assessments.

  8. Push-Broom-Type Very High-Resolution Satellite Sensor Data Correction Using Combined Wavelet-Fourier and Multiscale Non-Local Means Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonseok; Yu, Soohwan; Seo, Doochun; Jeong, Jaeheon; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    In very high-resolution (VHR) push-broom-type satellite sensor data, both destriping and denoising methods have become chronic problems and attracted major research advances in the remote sensing fields. Since the estimation of the original image from a noisy input is an ill-posed problem, a simple noise removal algorithm cannot preserve the radiometric integrity of satellite data. To solve these problems, we present a novel method to correct VHR data acquired by a push-broom-type sensor by combining wavelet-Fourier and multiscale non-local means (NLM) filters. After the wavelet-Fourier filter separates the stripe noise from the mixed noise in the wavelet low- and selected high-frequency sub-bands, random noise is removed using the multiscale NLM filter in both low- and high-frequency sub-bands without loss of image detail. The performance of the proposed method is compared to various existing methods on a set of push-broom-type sensor data acquired by Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite 3 (KOMPSAT-3) with severe stripe and random noise, and the results of the proposed method show significantly improved enhancement results over existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative assessments. PMID:26378532

  9. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  10. Proteomic analysis during of spore germination of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Joise Hander; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Santos, Everton Cruz; da Silva Santiago, André; Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2017-08-17

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. A total of 316 proteins were identified. Molecular changes during the development of the germinative tube were identified by a hierarchical clustering analysis based on the differential accumulation of proteins. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, such as septin and kinesin, were detected only 4 h after germination (hag). A transcription factor related to biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite fumagillin, which can form hybrids with polyketides, was induced 2 hag, and polyketide synthase was observed 4 hag. The accumulation of ATP synthase, binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), and catalase was validated by western blotting. In this study, we showed variations in protein expression during the early germination stages of fungus M. perniciosa. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, and consequently with virulence, were detected in basidiospores 4 hag., for example, septin and kinesin. We discuss these results and propose a model of the germination of fungus M. perniciosa. This research can help elucidate the mechanisms underlying basic processes of host invasion and to develop strategies for control of the disease.

  11. Specific In Situ Visualization of the Pathogenic Endophytic Fungus Aciculosporium take, the Cause of Witches’ Broom in Bamboo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches’ broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host. PMID:19465522

  12. Evaluation of anti-phytoplasma properties of surfactin and tetracycline towards lime witches' broom disease using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Najmeh; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Mousivand, Maryam; Foroutan, A; Hagh Nazari, Ali; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Soheilivand, Saeed; Mardi, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-phytoplasma activities of surfactin (derived from Iranian native Bacillus subtilis isolates) and tetracycline towards Candidatus "Phytoplasma aurantifolia", the agent of lime Witches' broom disease, were investigated. HPLC was used to quantify the surfactin production in four previously characterized native surfactin-producing strains, and the one producing the highest amount of surfactin (about 1,500 mg/l) was selected and cultivated following optimized production and extraction protocols. Different combinations of purified surfactin and commercial tetracycline were injected into artificially phytoplasmainfected Mexican lime seedlings using a syringe injection system. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR system was developed to monitor the phytoplasma population shifts in the lime phloem during 3 months following the injections. The results revealed that the injections of surfactin or tetracycline had a significant inhibitory effect on Candidatus "P. aurantifolia". However, the combined treatment with both surfactin and tetracycline (1:1) resulted in the highest inhibition due to a synergic effect, which suppressed the phytoplasma population from about 2×10(5) to less than 10 phytoplasma units/g plant tissue.

  13. Morphological changes of Paulownia seedlings infected phytoplasmas reveal the genes associated with witches' broom through AFLP and MSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by phytoplasma might result in devastating damage to the growth and wood production of Paulownia. To study the effect of phytoplasma on DNA sequence and to discover the genes related to PaWB occurrence, DNA polymorphisms and DNA methylation levels and patterns in PaWB seedlings, the ones treated with various concentration of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and healthy seedlings were investigated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Our results indicated that PaWB seedlings recovered a normal morphology, similar to healthy seedlings, after treatment with more than 20 mg · L-1 MMS; Phytoplasma infection did not change the Paulownia genomic DNA sequence at AFLP level, but changed the global DNA methylation levels and patterns; Genes related to PaWB were discovered through MSAP and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results implied that changes of DNA methylation levels and patterns were closely related to the morphological changes of seedlings infected with phytoplasmas.

  14. Population genetic analysis reveals a low level of genetic diversity of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' causing witches' broom disease in lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Shaikha Y; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Dickinson, Matthew; Al-Hammadi, Mohammed S; Al-Shariqi, Rashid; Al-Yahyai, Rashid A; Kazerooni, Elham A; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) is a serious phytoplasma disease of acid lime in Oman, the UAE and Iran. Despite efforts to study it, no systemic study attempted to characterize the relationship among the associated phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', from the three countries. This study utilized sequences of the 16S rRNA, imp and secA genes to characterize 57 strains collected from Oman (38), the UAE (9) and Iran (10). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 57 strains shared 98.5-100 % nucleotide similarity to each other and to strains of 'Ca. P. aurantifolia' available in GenBank. The level of genetic diversity was low based on the 16S rRNA (0-0.011), imp (0-0.002) and secA genes (0-0.015). The presence of low level of diversity among phytoplasma strains from Oman, the UAE and Iran can be explained by the movement of infected lime seedlings from one country to another through trading and exchange of infected plants. The study discusses implication of the findings on WBDL spread and management.

  15. Searching for active mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtovyy, A A; Baranov, O Yu; Rubel', I E; Razumova, O A; Padutov, V E; Khromov, A V; Makhotenko, A V; Tkachuk, A P; Makarov, V V; Gushchin, V A

    2017-06-01

    The most common type of coniferous mobile genetic elements are retrotransposons. Despite of their early positive impact on evolution of modern coniferous species they can have a significant negative impact for Forestry and breeding. Breaking genomic structural integrity mobile elements can cause phenotypic defects of plants. In this regard, the study of the diversity of coniferous mobile genetic elements is particularly interesting. In the present paper, we describe mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities. In result of assembled contigs analysis by RepeatMasker 70 mobile genetic elements were identified. A 68 of that were retroelements. Most of elements represented by Gypsy (16 contigs) and Copia (48 contigs). In 4 cases retroelements specific to Pinus taeda were identified. In most cases fragments of integrase (24), reverse transcriptase (22) and RNaseH (15) were identified. Results of the study may be of interest for coniferous breeding and genetic specialists. The raw data of these experiments have been deposited at NCBI under the accession number SAMN06185845.

  16. Isolation and characterization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system genes from loofah witches' broom phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Lin; Ho, Kuo-Chieh

    2007-10-01

    A clone containing a 3903 bp EcoRI-restriction fragment was obtained from a lambda(ZAP) genomic library of loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma by plaque hybridization using a PCR fragment as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment contained three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF 1 and ORF 2 showed a high homology with the ATP-binding proteins of the ABC transporter system genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and encoded proteins with a molecular mass of 36 and 30 kDa, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, secondary structure, hydrophilicity and a signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus, we predicted that ORF 3 might encode a specific solute-binding prolipoprotein of the ABC transporter system with a molecular mass of 62 kDa. The cleavage site of this prolipoprotein signal peptide was similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. In addition to nutrient uptake, ABC transporter systems of bacteria also play a role in signal transduction, drug-resistance and perhaps virulence. The possible implications of the system to the survival and the pathogenesis of phytoplasma were discussed.

  17. Production of calcium oxalate crystals by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Maria Carolina S do; de Oliveira, Bruno V; de Tomazella, Daniela P T; Silva, José A Fracassi da; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-04-01

    Oxalic acid has been shown as a virulence factor for some phytopathogenic fungi, removing calcium from pectin and favoring plant cell wall degradation. Recently, it was published that calcium oxalate accumulates in infected cacao tissues during the progression of Witches' Broom disease (WBD). In the present work we report that the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of WBD, produces calcium oxalate crystals. These crystals were initially observed by polarized light microscopy of hyphae growing on a glass slide, apparently being secreted from the cells. The analysis was refined by Scanning electron microscopy and the compositon of the crystals was confirmed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The production of oxalate by M. perniciosa was reinforced by the identification of a putative gene coding for oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate. This gene was shown to be expressed in the biotrophic-like mycelia, which in planta occupy the intercellular middle-lamella space, a region filled with pectin. Taken together, our results suggest that oxalate production by M. perniciosa may play a role in the WBD pathogenesis mechanism.

  18. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host.

  19. Differential gene expression between the biotrophic-like and saprotrophic mycelia of the witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincones, Johana; Scarpari, Leandra M; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Mondego, Jorge M C; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Barau, Joan G; Costa, Gustavo G L; Carraro, Dirce M; Brentani, Helena P; Vilas-Boas, Laurival A; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Sabha, Maricene; Dias, Robson; Cascardo, Júlio M; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-07-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao. Marked dimorphism characterizes this fungus, showing a monokaryotic or biotrophic phase that causes disease symptoms and a later dikaryotic or saprotrophic phase. A combined strategy of DNA microarray, expressed sequence tag, and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses was employed to analyze differences between these two fungal stages in vitro. In all, 1,131 putative genes were hybridized with cDNA from different phases, resulting in 189 differentially expressed genes, and 4,595 reads were clusterized, producing 1,534 unigenes. The analysis of these genes, which represent approximately 21% of the total genes, indicates that the biotrophic-like phase undergoes carbon and nitrogen catabolite repression that correlates to the expression of phytopathogenicity genes. Moreover, downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the presence of a putative ngr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could help explain its lower growth rate. In contrast, the saprotrophic mycelium expresses genes related to the metabolism of hexoses, ammonia, and oxidative phosphorylation, which could explain its faster growth. Antifungal toxins were upregulated and could prevent the colonization by competing fungi. This work significantly contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WBD and, to our knowledge, is the first to analyze differential gene expression of the different phases of a hemibiotrophic fungus.

  20. Phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom disease of Ulmus minor MILL . in the Czech Republic: Electron microscopy and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, M; Safárová, D; Válová, P; Fránová, J; Simková, M

    2009-01-01

    Visual inspections of elm trees in south Moravia in 1997-2007 revealed a rare occurrence of plants with smaller and cowl-forming leaves on some twigs, i.e. a feature resembling witches'-broom disease observed on the end of twigs. The presence of phytoplasma-like bodies was observed by transmission electron microscopy of phloem tissue. On the other hand, no phytoplasmas were found in asymptomatic trees. Nucleic acids extracted from these plants were used in nested-PCR assays with primers amplifying 16S rRNA sequences specific for phytoplasmas. Sequence analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal operon (1852 bp) allowed for the classification of the detected phytoplasmas in the elm yellows group, but its position remained on the boundary of the 16SrV-A and 16SrV-C ribosomal subgroups. Sequence analyses of the ribosomal protein of the rpl22-rps3 and secY genes lead to further classification and revealed the phytoplasmas' affiliations to the 'Candidates Phytoplasma ulmi'. Some exceptions in unique oligonucleotide sequences defined for 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi' were found in the Czech isolate. This is the northernmost confirmed occurrence of phytoplasma on elm trees within Europe.

  1. Multigene characterization of a new 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'-related strain associated with blackberry witches' broom in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fránová, Jana; de Sousa, Esmeraldina; Koloniuk, Igor; Mimoso, Céu; Matos, José; Cardoso, Fernando; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2016-01-13

    A new phytoplasma was identified in naturally infected blackberry plants exhibiting witches' broom symptoms in Portugal. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that it is related to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi' (16SrV-E ribosomal subgroup) and RFLP analysis showed a unique profile following MseI endonuclease digestion of R16F2n/R2 amplicons that distinguished it from the strains belonging to previously established 16SrV phytoplasma subgroups. The in silico restriction analyses confirmed that the phytoplasma strain from blackberry is different from all the other strains reported in group 16SrV. Phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, sequence analyses of 16S-23S, tuf, rplV-rpsC, rplF-rplR, rplO-SecY-map and uvrB-degV genetic loci, as well as the variability of unique oligonucleotide sequences defined for 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi' confirmed the uniqueness of this phytoplasma strain from Portugal for which a novel ribosomal subgroup, 16SrV-I, is proposed. The representative of this new subgroup was named blackPort phytoplasma (Portuguese blackberry phytoplasma).

  2. Transcriptomics and systems biology analysis in identification of specific pathways involved in cacao resistance and susceptibility to witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora Junior, Braz Tavares; Poloni, Joice de Faria; Lopes, Maíza Alves; Dias, Cristiano Villela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Schuster, Ivan; Sabau, Xavier; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar De Mattos; Mauro, Sônia Marli Zingaretti Di; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Bonatto, Diego; Micheli, Fabienne

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on expression analysis associated with molecular systems biology of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. Gene expression data were obtained for two cacao genotypes (TSH1188, resistant; Catongo, susceptible) challenged or not with the fungus M. perniciosa and collected at three time points through disease. Using expression analysis, we identified 154 and 227 genes that are differentially expressed in TSH1188 and Catongo, respectively. The expression of some of these genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Physical protein-protein interaction (PPPI) networks of Arabidopsis thaliana orthologous proteins corresponding to resistant and susceptible interactions were obtained followed by cluster and gene ontology analyses. The integrated analysis of gene expression and systems biology allowed designing a general scheme of major mechanisms associated with witches' broom disease resistance/susceptibility. In this sense, the TSH1188 cultivar shows strong production of ROS and elicitors at the beginning of the interaction with M. perniciosa followed by resistance signal propagation and ROS detoxification. On the other hand, the Catongo genotype displays defense mechanisms that include the synthesis of some defense molecules but without success in regards to elimination of the fungus. This phase is followed by the activation of protein metabolism which is achieved with the production of proteasome associated with autophagy as a precursor mechanism of PCD. This work also identifies candidate genes for further functional studies and for genetic mapping and marker assisted selection.

  3. Peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma-mediated leafy flower symptoms and abnormal vascular bundles development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Te; Huang, Hsin-Mei; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    The peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma causes virescence symptoms such as phyllody (leafy flower) in infected peanuts. However, the obligate nature of phytoplasma limits the study of host-pathogen interactions, and the detailed anatomy of PnWB-infected plants has yet to be reported. Here, we demonstrate that 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining can be used to track PnWB infection. The DAPI-stained phytoplasma cells were observed in phloem/internal phloem tissues, and changes in vascular bundle morphology, including increasing pith rays and thinner cell walls in the xylem, were found. We also discerned the cell types comprising PnWB in infected sieve tube members. These results suggest that the presence of PnWB in phloem tissue facilitates the transmission of phytoplasma via sap-feeding insect vectors. In addition, PnWB in sieve tube members and changes in vascular bundle morphology might strongly promote the ability of phytoplasmas to assimilate nutrients. These data will help further an understanding of the obligate life cycle and host-pathogen interactions of phytoplasma.

  4. Development and morphological changes in leaves and branches of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia affected by witches’ broom

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    Rashid Abdullah AL-YAHYAI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Witches’ broom (WB, associated with the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’, is one of the most serious diseases of acid lime. This study determined incidence, distribution, and development of the disease, and morphological changes in leaves and branches of affected host plants. Survey in different parts of Oman showed that WB occurs in most regions in the country, where 108 out of 158 (68% surveyed farms were found to have diseased trees. A survey of 6,926 acid lime trees showed that severity of WB was positively related (r = 0.948; P<0.01 to tree age. The mean percentage of symptomatic branches was 1% in 3-year-old trees compared to 63% in 12-year-old trees. To further characterize morphological changes in WB-affected limes, apical stems (40 cm long were collected from three infected trees during the autumn of 2009 and spring of 2010. Increases in the numbers of leaves (1,208%, numbers of branches (309% and total length of branches (712% were recorded for symptomatic branches relative to non-symptomatic branches. In the spring of 2009 these respective increases were 159%, 243% and 121%.Overall area of leaves in the symptomatic branches was 81% less than for non-symptomatic branches in the autumn of 2009 and 34% less in the spring of 2010. This study is the first to characterize morphological changes in leaves and branches of acid lime affected by WB.

  5. Discovery of genes related to witches broom disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongning; Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Xibing; Niu, Suyan

    2013-01-01

    In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches' Broom (PaWB) disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current study, we performed the de novo assembly of a transcriptome on P. tomentosa × P. fortunei using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina). 203,664 unigenes with a mean length of 1,328 bp was obtained. Of these unigenes, 32,976 (30% of all unigenes) containing complete structures were chosen. Eukaryotic clusters of orthologous groups, gene orthology, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations were performed of these unigenes. Genes related to PaWB disease resistance were analyzed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Paulownia. This transcriptome provides a quick way to understanding Paulownia, increases the number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies and provides clues to the identification of potential PaWB disease resistance genes. This study has provided a comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different states, which facilitates the study of each gene's roles in the developmental process and in PaWB disease resistance.

  6. Discovery of genes related to witches broom disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo assembled transcriptome.

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    Rongning Liu

    Full Text Available In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches' Broom (PaWB disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current study, we performed the de novo assembly of a transcriptome on P. tomentosa × P. fortunei using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina. 203,664 unigenes with a mean length of 1,328 bp was obtained. Of these unigenes, 32,976 (30% of all unigenes containing complete structures were chosen. Eukaryotic clusters of orthologous groups, gene orthology, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations were performed of these unigenes. Genes related to PaWB disease resistance were analyzed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Paulownia. This transcriptome provides a quick way to understanding Paulownia, increases the number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies and provides clues to the identification of potential PaWB disease resistance genes. This study has provided a comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different states, which facilitates the study of each gene's roles in the developmental process and in PaWB disease resistance.

  7. Morphological changes of Paulownia seedlings infected phytoplasmas reveal the genes associated with witches' broom through AFLP and MSAP.

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    Xibing Cao

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB caused by phytoplasma might result in devastating damage to the growth and wood production of Paulownia. To study the effect of phytoplasma on DNA sequence and to discover the genes related to PaWB occurrence, DNA polymorphisms and DNA methylation levels and patterns in PaWB seedlings, the ones treated with various concentration of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS and healthy seedlings were investigated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP. Our results indicated that PaWB seedlings recovered a normal morphology, similar to healthy seedlings, after treatment with more than 20 mg · L-1 MMS; Phytoplasma infection did not change the Paulownia genomic DNA sequence at AFLP level, but changed the global DNA methylation levels and patterns; Genes related to PaWB were discovered through MSAP and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results implied that changes of DNA methylation levels and patterns were closely related to the morphological changes of seedlings infected with phytoplasmas.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCIAL TERAPÊUTICO DE BACCHARIS DRACUNCULIFOLIA E PEUMUS BOLDUS NO PROCESSO FIBROSANTE HEPÁTICO

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    Caio Mateus da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do fígado são consideradas um problema de saúde mundial e ainda terapias eficientes não foram desenvolvidas para a maioria dessas patologias. Mais especificamente, a fibrose hepática é característica comum do início de várias das anomalias no órgão. Dentro desse contexto, a busca por novos fármacos é necessária e o uso de plantas medicinais tem ganhado destaque. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado os efeitos dos extratos de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Peumus boldus em culturas de células hepáticas estreladas LX-2 em relação as alterações na morfologia dos filamentos de actina do citoesqueleto e no núcleo celular em ensaios de microscopia e na avaliação do padrão de expressão de genes relacionados à processos de apoptose e marcadores clássicos da fibrose hepática. Nos resultados, para as concentrações testadas o extrato de P. boldus altera o perfil de expressão de genes relacionados a apoptose causando maior estresse celular e quebrando a homeostase celular quando observados os filamentos de actina. Enquanto que a planta B. dracunculifolia apresentou uma grande melhora na reorganização do citoesqueleto e diminuição do estresse celular.

  9. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.

  10. Detection of synergistic combinations of Baccharis extracts with terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum with high throughput screening synergy assay (HTSS) followed by 3D graphs. Behavior of some of their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, María Victoria; Sortino, Maximiliano A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Pellegrino, José M; Favier, Laura S; Raimondi, Marcela P; Gattuso, Martha A; Zacchino, Susana A

    2013-10-15

    Forty four extracts from nine Baccharis spp. from the Caulopterae section were tested in combination with terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum with the HTSS assay at six different ratios with the aim of detecting those mixtures that produced a ≥50% statistically significant enhancement of growth inhibition. Since an enhanced effect of a combination respective of its components, does not necessarily indicate synergism, three-dimensional (3D) dose-response surfaces were constructed for each selected pair of extract/antifungal drug with the aid of CombiTool software. Ten extracts showed synergistic or additive combinations which constitutes a 22% hit rate of the extracts submitted to evaluation. Four flavonoids and three ent-clerodanes were detected in the active Baccharis extracts with HPLC/UV/ESI-MS methodology, all of which were tested in combination with terbinafine. Results showed that ent-clerodanes but not flavonoids showed synergistic or additive effects. Among them, bacchotricuneatin A followed by bacrispine showed synergistic effects while hawtriwaic acid showed additive effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. THE MAKING OF BROOMS AS A HANDICRAFT UNIQUE TO EDİRNE AND THE TERMS USED IN THE MAKING OF BROOMS EDİRNE’YE HAS BİR EL SANATI OLARAK SÜPÜRGECİLİK VE SÜPÜRGECİLİKTE KULLANILAN TERİMLER

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    Rifat GÜRGENDERELİ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Edirne hand-made broom, which was formerly used in the Edirne daily life as an important cleaning tool, has presently lost its function due to the technological advances, and has become a handicraft and a souvenir advertising Edirne culture. This article argues the verb “to sweep” in the historical process and the noun “a broom/besom” in terms of its word structure, and expresses them within the concept of vernacular language. Besides, the broom terms used in making brooms in Edirne have been classified and studied according to their production and utilization fields. Önceleri günlük hayatta önemli bir temizlik aracı olarak kullanılan Edirne el yapımı süpürgeleri, bugün teknolojinin ilerlemesiyle gerçek işlevini kaybederek Edirne kültürünü tanıtan bir el sanatı ve hediyelik ürün haline gelmiştir.Çalışmada; tarihi süreç içinde süpürmek fiili ve süpürge kelimesinin yapısı ele alınmış ve halk dili bağlamında ifade edilmiştir. Edirne süpürgeciliğinde kullanılan süpürgecilik terimleri, üretim ve kullanım alanlarına göre sınıflandırılmış ve incelenmiştir.

  12. [Complete sequence of a full-length DNA and molecular characterization of one plasmid from chinaberry (Melia azedarach Z) witches'-broom phytoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuansheng; Lin, Caili; Tian, Guozhong; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Shuifang; Mou, Haiqing; Hu, Jiaxu; Wang, Xizhuo; Guo, Minwei

    2011-09-01

    To clone plasmid from chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma and analyse its molecular characterization. Fragments of one plasmid (pCWBFq) in chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma-Fuqing strain (CWBFq) were amplified with primer pairs which were designed according to plasmid sequences published on NCBI. Transmembrane domain and subcellular localization predictions of proteins encoded by the plasmid pCWBFq as well as phylogenetic analysis among the plasmid sequences were completed by using bioinformatic softwares. Southern blot analysis was performed to detect the plasmids existed in CWBFq and several other phytoplasmas with the pCWBFq repA probe. One complete plasmid was sequenced from CWBFq. pCWBFq comprised 4446 bp and had a nucleotide content of 73.5% A + T and encoded six proteins. Protein P2, P3, P4 and P5 of pCWBFq contained 3, 2, 1 and 2 tranmembrane domains respectively, and their predicted signal peptide values were 0.989, 0.505, 0.918 and 0.914 respectively. Homologous comparison showed that RepA homology between pCWBFq and other phytoplasmas was between 9.6% -85.6% , however, the homology of different SSB proteins was between 74.0% - 89.4%. Southern blotting with pCWBFq repA probe confirmed the existence of the plasmids in CWBFq. In addition, The hybridizations occurred with paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma-Nanyang strain (PaWBNy), periwinkle virescence phytoplasma-Hainan stanin (PeVHn), chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma-Fuzhou strain (CWBFz) and mulberry dwarf phytoplasma - Puyang strain (MDPy), whereas, no hybridizarions occurred with jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma-Beijing strain (JWBBj), cherry lethal yellows phytoplasma-Xichang strain (CLYXc) and Bischofia polycarpa witches'-broom phytoplasma-Nanchang strain (BiWBNc). The plasmid encoded a replication associated protein (RepA) and a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), which were for the replication of plasmid. Four putative proteins encoded by the plasmid were predicted to contain

  13. Composição química do óleo essencial de duas amostras de carqueja (Baccharis sp. coletadas em Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro Chemical composition of essential oil from two samples of carqueja (Baccharis sp. collected in Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    L.A.S. Morais

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui em sua flora a maior diversidade genética do mundo, apresentando varias espécies nativas. Dentre as plantas nativas do Brasil encontra-se o gênero Baccharis (família Asteraceae que possui algumas espécies popularmente conhecidas como carqueja, carqueja amarga ou vassoura. Estas espécies são utilizadas na medicina popular como protetora e estimulante do fígado, para o controle da obesidade, diabetes, hepatite, gastroenterite, digestiva, diurética, depurativa, tônica, antianêmica e anti-reumática. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a composição química do óleo essencial de duas populações do gênero Baccharis coletadas em Paty do Alferes, visando encontrar novas fontes de carquejol e acetato de carquejila. Amostras de duas populações diferentes de carqueja foram coletadas em propriedades particulares Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro em novembro de 2010. Estas foram secas a temperatura ambiente (28ºC +- 2 e à sombra. O óleo essencial das duas amostras de Baccharis sp. foi extraído por hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger modificado durante 4 horas. O mesmo foi analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrômetro de massas (CG-EM Shimadzu, QP 5050, coluna capilar DB-5 - 30 m x 0.25µm x 0.25mm. Utilizou-se o Helio como gás carreador (1.7mL/min; temperatura do injetor: 240ºC e detector: 230ºC, Split: 1:20, no seguinte programa de temperatura: 60º C - 240º C (3ºC/ min. A identificação da composição química dos óleos essenciais foi realizada pela comparação de seus espectros de massa e valores de índice de Kovats (IK com compostos conhecidos descritos na literatura. Foram identificados 19 compostos nestes óleos essenciais. Os principais compostos encontrados foram trans-cariofileno (22,0 % e 18,1%, seguido por germacreno-D (7,0%, biciclogermacreno (8,5%, ledol (13,7%, espatulenol (13,8% e 20,7% e óxido de cariofileno (8,3% e 12,0%. Carquejol e acetato de carquejila n

  14. Composition of essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus from 'campos de altitude' of the atlantic forest of Sao Paulo; Composicao quimica dos oleos essenciais das folhas de seis especies do genero Baccharis de 'campos de altitude' da Mata Atlantica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Romoff, Paulete; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@mackenzie.com.br; Soares, Marisi G.; Baraldi, Patricia T.; Correa, Arlene G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Fatima O. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Curadoria do Herbario

    2008-07-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus (B. dracunculifolia, B. microdonta, B. regnelli, B. schultzii, B. trimera, and B. uncinella), collected in the 'Campos de Altitude' of the Atlantic Forest (SP), were extracted using hydrodistillation procedures and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. There was a predominance of sesquiterpenes in all studied oils as {beta}-elemene in B. dracunculifolia and B. regnelli, {alpha}-humulene in B. trimera, {gamma}-gurjunene in B. schultzii, bicyclogermacrene in B. regnelli, {delta}-cadinene in B. regnelli and B. uncinella, spathulenol in B. schultzii, caryophyllene oxide in B. microdonta and guaiol in B. uncinella. However, a high amount of monoterpenes was also observed in B. uncinella ({alpha}-pinene), B. regnelli ({delta}-car-3-ene) and B. schultzii (limonene). The chemical compounds of the essential oils of B. schultzii, B. regnelli and B. microdonta are described for the first time in this work. (author)

  15. Molecular Characterization of the 16S rRNA Gene of Phytoplasmas Detected in Two Leafhopper Species Associated with Alfalfa Plants Infected with Witches' Broom in Oman

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    A.J. Khan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two leafhopper species, Austroagallia avicula and Empoasca sp., were consistently found in alfalfa fields infected with witches’ broom phytoplasma (OmanAlfWB in the Al-Batinah, Dakhliya, North and South Sharqiya, Muscat, and Al-Bureimi regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas from both leafhoppers were detected by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and the spacer region in direct PCR using P1/P7 primer pairs. Comparative RFLP profiles of the amplified rRNA gene and the spacer region from leafhopper phytoplasmas and from 20 phytoplasma controls yielded patterns referable to phytoplasmas belonging to the peanut witches’ broom group (16SrII group. In particular, extensive RFLP analyses with the endonucleases HpaII, Tru9I, Tsp509I, and RsaI indicated that the phytoplasmas in A. avicula and Empoasca sp. were identical but showed some differences from OmanAlfWB; however, RFLP patterns obtained with TaqI showed the OmanAlfWB and the phytoplasmas from the two leafhoppers to be identical. Direct PCR products amplified from phytoplasma leafhopper DNA using the P1/P7 primer pair were cloned and sequenced yielding 1758 bp and 1755 bp products from A. avicula and Empoasca sp. respectively; the homology of these sequences with OmanAlfWB and papaya yellow crinkle phytoplasmas was more than 98%. A phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene and spacer region sequences from 44 phytoplasmas revealed that the phytoplasmas from the leafhoppers clustered with OmanAlfWB, papaya yellow crinkle, and gerbera phyllody phytoplasmas, all belonging to 16SrII group, but were distinct from lime witches’ broom phytoplasma, the most commonly found phytoplasma in the Sultanate of Oman.

  16. Fungos, fazendeiros e cientistas em luta contra a vassoura-de-bruxa Fungi, farmers and scientists fighting witch's broom disease

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    Carlos Henrique Fioravanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as interações entre produtores de cacau e pesquisadores acadêmicos, agências de financiamento à pesquisa e atores não-humanos, como fungos em meio à propagação e tentativas de contenção da vassoura-de-bruxa, doença que abateu a lavoura cacaueira da Bahia. A análise deste caso, usando uma abordagem construtivista em sociologia da ciência, procura ilustrar como a produção de conhecimento é multifacetada, ocorre na interface de diferentes espaços institucionais e passa por momentos de resistência e conflitos à medida que incorpora novos atores e transita por tais espaços. Uma lista de discussão pela internet emergiu como meio capaz de aproximar diversos grupos de interessados e de promover a produção coletiva de conhecimento.This article describes the interaction between producers of cocoa and academic researchers, research funding agencies and non-human actors such as fungi along the spread and the attempts to contain the witch's broom disease in Bahia state, Brazil. The analysis of this case, using a constructivist approach in sociology of science, seeks to illustrate how the production of knowledge is multifaceted, occurs at the interface of different institutional spaces and passes through moments of resistance and conflict as it incorporates new actors and transits such spaces. A discussion list by internet emerged as a medium able to bring together diverse groups of stakeholders and promote the collective production of knowledge.

  17. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

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    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  18. Comparative analysis of the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma genome reveals horizontal transfer of potential mobile units and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Chia; Chen, Ling-Ling; Lo, Wen-Sui; Lin, Chan-Pin; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are a group of bacteria that are associated with hundreds of plant diseases. Due to their economical importance and the difficulties involved in the experimental study of these obligate pathogens, genome sequencing and comparative analysis have been utilized as powerful tools to understand phytoplasma biology. To date four complete phytoplasma genome sequences have been published. However, these four strains represent limited phylogenetic diversity. In this study, we report the shotgun sequencing and evolutionary analysis of a peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma genome. The availability of this genome provides the first representative of the 16SrII group and substantially improves the taxon sampling to investigate genome evolution. The draft genome assembly contains 13 chromosomal contigs with a total size of 562,473 bp, covering ∼90% of the chromosome. Additionally, a complete plasmid sequence is included. Comparisons among the five available phytoplasma genomes reveal the differentiations in gene content and metabolic capacity. Notably, phylogenetic inferences of the potential mobile units (PMUs) in these genomes indicate that horizontal transfer may have occurred between divergent phytoplasma lineages. Because many effectors are associated with PMUs, the horizontal transfer of these transposon-like elements can contribute to the adaptation and diversification of these pathogens. In summary, the findings from this study highlight the importance of improving taxon sampling when investigating genome evolution. Moreover, the currently available sequences are inadequate to fully characterize the pan-genome of phytoplasmas. Future genome sequencing efforts to expand phylogenetic diversity are essential in improving our understanding of phytoplasma evolution.

  19. A potential role for an extracellular methanol oxidase secreted by Moniliophthora perniciosa in Witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruno V; Teixeira, Gleidson S; Reis, Osvaldo; Barau, Joan G; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; do Rio, Maria Carolina S; Domingues, Romênia R; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Rincones, Johana; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2012-11-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao, is able to grow on methanol as the sole carbon source. In plants, one of the main sources of methanol is the pectin present in the structure of cell walls. Pectin is composed of highly methylesterified chains of galacturonic acid. The hydrolysis between the methyl radicals and galacturonic acid in esterified pectin, mediated by a pectin methylesterase (PME), releases methanol, which may be decomposed by a methanol oxidase (MOX). The analysis of the M. pernciosa genome revealed putative mox and pme genes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR performed with RNA from mycelia grown in the presence of methanol or pectin as the sole carbon source and with RNA from infected cacao seedlings in different stages of the progression of WBD indicate that the two genes are coregulated, suggesting that the fungus may be metabolizing the methanol released from pectin. Moreover, immunolocalization of homogalacturonan, the main pectic domain that constitutes the primary cell wall matrix, shows a reduction in the level of pectin methyl esterification in infected cacao seedlings. Although MOX has been classically classified as a peroxisomal enzyme, M. perniciosa presents an extracellular methanol oxidase. Its activity was detected in the fungus culture supernatants, and mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of this enzyme in the fungus secretome. Because M. pernciosa possesses all genes classically related to methanol metabolism, we propose a peroxisome-independent model for the utilization of methanol by this fungus, which begins with the extracellular oxidation of methanol derived from the demethylation of pectin and finishes in the cytosol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' associated with almond witches'-broom disease: from draft genome to genetic diversity among strain populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, Fabio; Kube, Michael; Jawhari, Maan; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf; Siewert, Christin; Choueiri, Elia; Sobh, Hana; Casati, Paola; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Lova, Marina Molino; Alma, Alberto; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2015-07-30

    Almond witches'-broom (AlmWB), a devastating disease of almond, peach and nectarine in Lebanon, is associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. In the present study, we generated a draft genome sequence of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' strain SA213, representative of phytoplasma strain populations from different host plants, and determined the genetic diversity among phytoplasma strain populations by phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groEL, tufB and inmp gene sequences. Sequence-based typing and phylogenetic analysis of the gene inmp, coding an integral membrane protein, distinguished AlmWB-associated phytoplasma strains originating from diverse host plants, whereas their 16S rRNA, tufB and groEL genes shared 100 % sequence identity. Moreover, dN/dS analysis indicated positive selection acting on inmp gene. Additionally, the analysis of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' draft genome revealed the presence of integral membrane proteins and effector-like proteins and potential candidates for interaction with hosts. One of the integral membrane proteins was predicted as BI-1, an inhibitor of apoptosis-promoting Bax factor. Bioinformatics analyses revealed the presence of putative BI-1 in draft and complete genomes of other 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species. The genetic diversity within 'Ca. P. phoenicium' strain populations in Lebanon suggested that AlmWB disease could be associated with phytoplasma strains derived from the adaptation of an original strain to diverse hosts. Moreover, the identification of a putative inhibitor of apoptosis-promoting Bax factor (BI-1) in 'Ca. P. phoenicium' draft genome and within genomes of other 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species suggested its potential role as a phytoplasma fitness-increasing factor by modification of the host-defense response.

  1. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Janice L; Felix, Carlos Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity. PMID:11835696

  2. Toward immunomodulation of witches broom disease of lime (WBDL) by targeting immunodominant membrane protein (IMP) of candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, F; Safarnejad, M R; Shams-Bakhsh, M; Jouzani, G R Salehi

    2010-01-01

    The witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia is the most devastating disease of acidian lime in southern part of Iran as it destroy thousands of trees yearly throughout these regions. Traditional methods such as eradication of infected trees and insect vector control have shown limited effect on this case. Therefore, alternative approaches such as plantibody-mediated resistance, have been considered. Throughout present study we prepared sufficient amount of antigen that is required for generation of specific monoclonal recombinant antibodies against Immunodominant membrane protein (IMP) which will be exploited for plantibody-mediated resistance approach. The gene encoding IMP protein was obtained by PCR amplification using specific primers and DNA extracted from the infected plants. Amplified fragment was then inserted into T/A cloning vector. Intact clones containing the right sequence was selected after digestion, PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing analysis. IMP encoding region having the right sequence was sub-cloned into pET28a bacterial expression vector. Large scale expression of His tagged recombinant protein was performed in the BL21-de3 strain of E. coli and purification under native conditions was carried out through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) in a column containing Ni-NTA agarose beads. Successful expression and purification steps were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analyses. The results obtained indicated the successful production of about 18 mg purified recombinant IMP protein with a low level of contamination in one liter cultured medium. Finally the purified protein was dialyzed in phosphate saline buffer and applied for immunization of mice.

  3. Antioxidant activities and molecular mechanisms of the ethanol extracts of Baccharis propolis and Eucalyptus propolis in RAW64.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianglin; Shen, Xiaoge; Wang, Kai; Cao, Xueping; Zhang, Cuiping; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2016-10-01

    Context Numerous studies have reported that propolis possesses strong antioxidant activities. However, their antioxidant molecular mechanisms are unclear. Objective We utilize ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis (EECP) as a reference to compare ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus propolis (EEEP) with ethanol extracts of Baccharis propolis (EEBGP) based on their antioxidant capacities and underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods HPLC and chemical analysis are utilized to evaluate compositions and antioxidant activities. ROS-eliminating effects of EEBGP (20-75 μg/mL), EEEP (1.25-3.75 μg/mL) and EECP (1.25-5 μg/mL) are also determined by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we compared antioxidant capacities by determining their effects on expressions of antioxidant genes in RAW264.7 cells with qRT-PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy analysis. Results EEBGP mainly contains chlorogenic acid (8.98 ± 0.86 mg/g), kaempferide (11.18 ± 8.31 mg/g) and artepillin C (107.70 ± 10.86 mg/g), but EEEP contains 10 compositions, whereas EECP contains 17 compositions. Meantime, although EEEP shows DPPH (IC50 19.55 ± 1.28), ABTS (IC50 20.0 ± 0.31) and reducing power (2.70 ± 0.08 mmol TE/g) better than EEBGP's DPPH (IC50 43.85 ± 0.54), ABTS (IC50 38.2 ± 0.33) and reducing power (1.53 ± 0.05 mmol TE/g), EEBGP exerts much higher ROS inhibition rate (40%) than EEEP (under 20%). Moreover, EEBGP strengthen antioxidant system by activating p38/p-p38 and Erk/p-Erk kinase via accelerating nucleus translocation of Nrf2. EEEP and EECP improve antioxidant gene expression only via Erk/p-Erk kinase-Nrf2 signalling pathway. Discussion and conclusion EEBGP and EEEP exert antioxidant activities via different molecular mechanisms, which may depend on chemical compositions.

  4. Structure-based drug design studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphosrylase, a key enzyme for the control of witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Manoelito C Santos; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Duarte, Angelo Amâncio; Alves, Ricardo José; Junior, Moacyr Comar; Taranto, Alex Gutterres

    2013-03-05

    The witches' broom disease is a plague caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa in the Theobroma cacao, which has been reducing the cocoa production since 1989. This issue motivated a genome project that has showing several new molecular targets, which can be developed inhibitors in order to control the plague. Among the molecular targets obtained, the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UNAcP) is a key enzyme to construct the fungal cell wall. The inhibition of this enzyme results in the fungal cell death. The results show that the molecular recognition of the enzyme with the substrates occurs mainly by hydrogen bonds between ligands and Arg116, Arg383, Gly381, and Lys408 amino acids; and few hydrophobic interactions with Tyr382 and Lys123 residues. Among the compounds analyzed, the NAG5 showed the best binding energy (-95.2 kcal/mol). The next steps for the control of witches' broom plague involve the synthesis and biological evaluation of these compounds, which are in progress.

  5. Structure-based drug design studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphosrylase, a key enzyme for the control of witches’ broom disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The witches’ broom disease is a plague caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa in the Theobroma cacao, which has been reducing the cocoa production since 1989. This issue motivated a genome project that has showing several new molecular targets, which can be developed inhibitors in order to control the plague. Among the molecular targets obtained, the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UNAcP) is a key enzyme to construct the fungal cell wall. The inhibition of this enzyme results in the fungal cell death. Results The results show that the molecular recognition of the enzyme with the substrates occurs mainly by hydrogen bonds between ligands and Arg116, Arg383, Gly381, and Lys408 amino acids; and few hydrophobic interactions with Tyr382 and Lys123 residues. Conclusions Among the compounds analyzed, the NAG5 showed the best binding energy (−95.2 kcal/mol). The next steps for the control of witches’ broom plague involve the synthesis and biological evaluation of these compounds, which are in progress. PMID:23497581

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  7. Composição química e produtividade dos principais componentes do óleo essencial de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. em função da adubação orgânica Chemical composition and productivity of essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. as affected by organic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química e produtividade dos principais componentes do óleo essencial de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. em função de doses de composto orgânico (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1. Foi realizada uma colheita, aos 150 dias após o transplante das mudas. O óleo essencial, da massa seca útil da parte aérea, foi extraído por hidrodestilação e analisado em cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (Shimadzu, QP-5000. A identificação dos constituintes químicos foi realizada através da análise comparativa dos espectros de massas das substâncias com o banco de dados do sistema CG-EM (Nist 62.lib, literatura e índice de retenção. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, às médias obtidas foram submetidas à análise de regressão e o teste Tukey para o efeito das doses de composto orgânico. Os três componentes sesquiterpênicos, E-nerolidol, espatulenol e óxido de cariofileno, perfazem 58,44% da média relativa da composição química do óleo essencial de B. dracunculifolia, composto pela presença de 28 substâncias. Na produtividade dos componentes γ-muroleno, valenceno, δ-cadineno e E-nerolidol as dosagens estudadas influenciaram as plantas, que na dosagem 30 t ha-1 obtiveram os melhores resultados. Se o objetivo no cultivo de B. dracunculifolia for o componente espatulenol as dosagens 30 e 40 t ha-1 obtiveram os melhores resultados. Para a produtividade do componente óxido de cariofileno as dosagens estudadas influenciaram as plantas, que na dosagem 40 t ha-1 obtiveram os melhores resultados.The objective was to evaluate the chemical composition and productivity of the main components of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. due to organic compound (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1. We performed a harvest, 150 days after transplanting. The essential oil of the dry mass useful in the aerial part was extracted by hydrodistillation and

  8. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3592 Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Horácio Couto Bittencourt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can provoke development changes in other plants or even in other organisms. The objective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays seedlings. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at a 1g 10 mL-1 (p/v concentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations

  9. Etnobotánica, anatomía y caracterización físico-química del aceite esencial de Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae Ethnobotany, anatomy and physicochemical characterization of essential oil of Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae

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    Soledad Molares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. es una especie aromática conocida como "wautro", y forma parte destacada de la herbolaria Mapuche de la Patagonia Argentina. Los objetivos fueron investigar la etnobotánica, la anatomía del vástago, y caracterizar físicoquímicamente el aceite esencial presente en el mismo. Se realizaron entrevistas a pobladores de dos comunidades Mapuches del noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina, y se colectó material vegetal para su observación al microscopio óptico y de barrido ambiental, como así también, para la hidrodestilación del aceite esencial. Los informantes indicaron que la planta es utilizada en forma consensuada para el tratamiento de alopecia, caspa, diversas dermatitis, y cefaleas. Las principales características de la hoja son: mesofilo isobilateral, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas glandulares pluricelulares, y cavidades esquizógenas secretoras de aceites esenciales. El tallo primario presenta tricomas y cavidades secretoras semejantes a los de las hojas, colénquima en las costillas, clorénquima en los valles interrumpido por espacios de aire, cilindro vascular continuo, endodermis uniseriada y por sectores biseriada, esclerénquima discontinuo, y cristales aciculares en células periféricas de médula. Las determinaciones físico-químicas que se aportan son rendimiento medio anual, tiempo óptimo de destilación, densidad relativa, rotación específica e índice de refracción. B. obovata es una especie cosmecéutica de interés, este trabajo contribuye a su conocimiento general, aportando información para futuras tareas de control de calidad y para su conservación biocultural.Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. is an aromatic species known as "wautro", and is an important part of the Mapuche herbolarium of Patagonia Argentina. The objectives were to investigate its ethnobotany and shoot anatomy, as well as to characterize physically and chemically its essential oil. Rural informant-interviews were

  10. Efeitos do sexo, do vigor e do tamanho da planta hospedeira sobre a distribuição de insetos indutores de galhas em Baccharis pseudomyriocephala Teodoro (Asteraceae Effects of gender, vigor and size of the host plant Baccharis pseudomyriocephala Teodoro (Asteraceae on gall-inducing insect distribution

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    Ana Paula A. Araújo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the patterns of host plant utilization by herbivorous insects in natural communities. We tested four hypotheses aiming to understand the pattern of attack by gall-inducing insects on the dioecious shrub, Baccharis pseudomyriocephala (Asteraceae. The shrub occurs in the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, Southeastern Brazil, and supports ten species of galling insects. The following hypotheses were tested: i male plants are more attacked by galling insects than female plants; ii larger plant modules are preferentially attacked by galling insects; iii galling insects perform better on larger modules than on smaller modules; iv galling insects increase in abundance with meristematic availability. To address these questions, 240 plants (120 of each sex were sampled in both reproductive and vegetative periods. We recorded the growth rate (4 cm, inflorescence and fruit production, attack rates of the galling insects, and their survivorship and mortality per shoot (module. Modules were separated into size classes (cm and analyzed by regressions and ANCOVAs. Module size and reproductive effort were positively correlated with host plant size. We did not observe any effect of host plant gender on either variables. In the same way, host plant sex did not show any influence on the abundance and richness of galling insects. Although the abundance of galling insects showed a positive correlation with shoot size, the trend disappeared when the analyses were performed taking into consideration the number of galls per unit of growth (number of galls/cm of shoot or biomass (number of galls/dry weight. Larval survivorship was not influenced by shoot size. Also, we observed that the abundance of one species of hemipteran galling insect showed a positive relation with leaf biomass. Therefore, we conclude that gender and vigor of this plant species do not influence the community structure of its galling herbivores.

  11. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  12. In vitro production of biotrophic-like cultures of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Bellato, Cláudia de M; Rincones, Johana; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Cascardo, Julio C M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2006-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus, Crinipellis perniciosa, exhibits a succession of symptoms that are caused by the biotrophic phase of the fungus. However, the study of this biotrophic phase is limited by its exclusive growth inside the plant or in the presence of callus. Here we report for the first time a method for the growth and maintenance of the biotrophic-like phase of C. perniciosa on a defined medium with metabolites found in the diseased tissues. Our results suggest that glycerol is a key carbon source for this interaction. This is a crucial achievement toward understanding the biology of this fungus during the infectious phase of WBD.

  13. Production of hydrolytic enzymes by Trichoderma isolates with antagonistic activity against Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Janice Lisboa De

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two isolates of Trichoderma, which reduce the incidence of witches'broom disease caused in cocoa by Crinipellis perniciosa, were evaluated for their potential to produce hydrolases in liquid medium. Very low or no hydrolytic activity was produced in the absence of any substrate. The activities of chitinase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-1,3-glucanase, total cellulase, endoglucanase, aryl- beta-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, protease and amylase increased dramatically within 72-120 h of growth in the presence of specific substrates. Except for N-acetylglucosaminidase and beta-glucosidase Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 produced the largest amounts of hydrolases. The possible involvement of these enzymes in the antagonistic interaction between Trichoderma and C. perniciosa is discussed.

  14. Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao: what's new from this old foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Rincones, Johana; Bailey, Bryan A; Aime, M Catherine; Griffith, Gareth W; Zhang, Dapeng; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-09-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa (=Crinipellis perniciosa) causes one of the three main fungal diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao), the source of chocolate. This pathogen causes Witches' broom disease (WBD) and has brought about severe economic losses in all of the cacao-growing regions to which it has spread with yield reductions that range from 50 to 90%. Cacao production in South America reflects the severity of this pathogen, as the yields in most of the infected regions have not returned to pre-outbreak levels, even with the introduction of resistant varieties. In this review we give a brief historical account and summarize the current state of knowledge focusing on developments in the areas of systematics, fungal physiology, biochemistry, genomics and gene expression in an attempt to highlight this disease. Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus with two distinct growth phases. The ability to culture a biotrophic-like phase in vitro along with new findings derived from the nearly complete genome and expression studies clearly show that these different fungal growth phases function under distinct metabolic parameters. These new findings have greatly improved our understanding of this fungal/host interaction and we may be at the crossroads of understanding how hemibiotrophic fungal plant pathogens cause disease in other crops. The first WDB symptoms appear to have been described in the diaries of Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira (described as lagartão; meaning big lizard) from his observations of cacao trees in 1785 and 1787 in Amazonia, which is consistent with the generally accepted idea that M. perniciosa, like its main host T. cacao, evolved in this region. The disease subsequently arrived in Surinam in 1895. WBD moved rapidly, spreading to Guyana in 1906, Ecuador in 1918, Trinidad in 1928, Colombia in 1929 and Grenada in 1948. In each case, cacao production was catastrophically affected with yield reductions of 50-90%. After the arrival of M

  15. LISK-BROOM: Clearing near-Earth space debris in 4 years using a 20-kW, 530-nm repetitively pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Michaelis, M.M. [Natal Univ., Pietermaritzburg (South Africa). Faculty of Science

    1994-10-01

    When space debris forced a change of plan for a recent US Space Shuttle mission, it finally reached the point of broad awareness. Almost a million pieces of debris have been generated by 35 years of spaceflight, and now threaten some long-term space missions. This problem can best a be solved by causing space debris items to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory. Illumination of the objects by a repetitively-pulsed laser will easily produce a laser-ablation jet providing the impulse to de-orbit the object. For reasons we will discuss, we propose the use of a ground-based laser system, atmospheric-turbulence compensating beam director, computer and high resolution detection system to solve this problem. A laser of just 2OkW average power and state-of-the-art detection capabilities could clear near-Earth space below 1100km altitude of all space debris larger than 1 cm but less massive than 100kg in about 4 years. The LISK-BROOM laser would be located near the Equator above 5km elevation [e.g., the Uhuru site on Kilimanjarol, minimizing turbulence correction and absorption of the 530-nm wavelength laser beam. LISK-BROOM is a special case of Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP), by which objects are propelled in space by the ablation jet due to a distant laser. We will also discuss active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and the object detection system which are necessary.

  16. BROOME COUNTY, NEW YORK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. A new broom?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication has relevance and a niche in the future digital age, an issue highlighted by the South African Medical Journal editor in her editorial of September this year.[1] Why should researchers publish in our Journal and why should child health professionals in SA read the articles? How do we compete with international ...

  18. Parent selection for cocoa resistance to witches'-broom Seleção de progenitores de cacaueiro quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify genotypes with high general combining ability for resistance to witches'-broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa in populations formed from a first cycle of recurrent selection. Highly productive and resistant clones from different origins were interbred using the North Carolina II design. The clones SCA 6, CSUL 7, RB 39, CEPEC 89, OC 67, BE 4, EEG 29 and ICS 98 were used as paternal parents, while the maternal ones were NA 33, CCN 10, IMC 67, P 4B, CCN 51, CEPEC 86, SGU 54 and ICS 9. Twenty days after germination, 56 seedlings of each cross (four replicates of 14 seedlings received the inoculation of a 1-mL suspension with 7.5x10(4 basidiospores mL-1. Symptoms were evaluated 60 days after inoculation. Significant differences were observed among paternal and among maternal parents, for resistance to witches'-broom assessed according to the proportion of progeny seedlings with the disease symptoms. Differences were also observed between groups of mothers or fathers previously defined as resistant, and groups previously defined as susceptible. It is possible to obtain a combination of genes that can increase the level of resistance to witches'-broom directly from the first cycle of recurrent selection.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos com alta capacidade geral de combinação quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa (Moniliophthora perniciosa, em populações formadas a partir do primeiro ciclo de seleção recorrente. Clones altamente produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa, de diferentes procedências, foram intercruzados com uso do delineamento Carolina do Norte II. Como progenitores paternos, foram utilizados os clones SCA 6, CSUL 7, RB 39, CEPEC 89, OC 67, BE 4, EEG 29 e ICS 98 e, como maternos, NA 33, CCN 10, IMC 67, P 4B, CCN 51, CEPEC 86, SGU 54 e ICS 9. Vinte dias após a germinação, 56 plântulas de cada cruzamento (quatro repetições de 14 plântulas receberam inocula

  19. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsottini, M.; Zaparoli, G.; Garcia, O.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J.F.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Dias, S.M.G. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  20. Crystal Structure of MpPR-1i, a SCP/TAPS protein from Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes Witches’ Broom Disease of Cacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Renata M.; Luo, Zhipu; Darwiche, Rabih; Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Schneiter, Roger; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Mondego, Jorge M.C.; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A. (Fribourg); (Baylor); (NCI); (IAC-- Brazil); (UNICAMP)

    2017-08-10

    The pathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa causes Witches’ Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao. The structure of MpPR-1i, a protein expressed by M. perniciosa when it infects cacao, are presented. This is the first reported de novo structure determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing upon soaking with selenourea. Each monomer has flexible loop regions linking the core alpha-beta-alpha sandwich topology that comprise ~50% of the structure, making it difficult to generate an accurate homology model of the protein. MpPR-1i is monomeric in solution but is packed as a high ~70% solvent content, crystallographic heptamer. The greatest conformational flexibility between monomers is found in loops exposed to the solvent channel that connect the two longest strands. MpPR-1i lacks the conserved CAP tetrad and is incapable of binding divalent cations. MpPR-1i has the ability to bind lipids, which may have roles in its infection of cacao. These lipids likely bind in the palmitate binding cavity as observed in tablysin-15, since MpPR-1i binds palmitate with comparable affinity as tablysin-15. Further studies are required to clarify the possible roles and underlying mechanisms of neutral lipid binding, as well as their effects on the pathogenesis of M. perniciosa so as to develop new interventions for WBD.

  1. Identification and characterization of a class III chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Catiane S; Oliveira, Bruno M; Costa, Gustavo G L; Schriefer, Albert; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Taranto, Alex G; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de M; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2009-08-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is a glucosyltransferase that converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into chitin, one of the main components of fungal cell wall. Class III chitin synthases act directly in the formation of the cell wall. They catalyze the conversion of the immediate precursor of chitin and are responsible for the majority of chitin synthesis in fungi. As such, they are highly specific molecular targets for drugs that can inhibit the growth and development of fungal pathogens. In this work, we have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Mopchs) by primer walking. The complete gene sequence is 3,443 bp, interrupted by 13 small introns, and comprises a cDNA with an ORF with 2,739 bp, whose terminal region was experimentally determined, encoding a protein with 913 aa that harbors all the motifs and domains typically found in class III chitin synthases. This is the first report on the characterization of a chitin synthase gene, its mature transcription product, and its putative protein in basidioma and secondary mycelium stages of M. perniciosa, a basidiomycotan fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

  2. Characterization of necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (NEP) in the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Odalys; Macedo, Joci A N; Tibúrcio, Ricardo; Zaparoli, Gustavo; Rincones, Johana; Bittencourt, Livia M C; Ceita, Geruza O; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon; Mariano, Andréa C; Schiavinato, Marlene A; Medrano, Francisco J; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Cascardo, Júlio C M

    2007-04-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao. Analysis of the M. perniciosa draft genome led to the identification of three putative genes encoding necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (MpNEPs), which are apparently located on the same chromosome. MpNEP1 and 2 have highly similar sequences and are able to induce necrosis and ethylene emission in tobacco and cacao leaves. MpNEP1 is expressed in both biotrophic and saprotrophic mycelia, the protein behaves as an oligomer in solution and is very sensitive to temperature. MpNEP2 is expressed mainly in biotrophic mycelia, is present as a monomer in solution at low concentrations (<40 microM) and is able to recover necrosis activity after boiling. These differences indicate that similar NEPs can have distinct physical characteristics and suggest possible complementary roles during the disease development for both proteins. This is the first report of NEP1-like proteins in a basidiomycete.

  3. Crystal Structure of MpPR-1i, a SCP/TAPS protein from Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Renata M; Luo, Zhipu; Darwiche, Rabih; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Schneiter, Roger; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Mondego, Jorge M C; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A

    2017-08-10

    The pathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa causes Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao. The structure of MpPR-1i, a protein expressed by M. perniciosa when it infects cacao, are presented. This is the first reported de novo structure determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing upon soaking with selenourea. Each monomer has flexible loop regions linking the core alpha-beta-alpha sandwich topology that comprise ~50% of the structure, making it difficult to generate an accurate homology model of the protein. MpPR-1i is monomeric in solution but is packed as a high ~70% solvent content, crystallographic heptamer. The greatest conformational flexibility between monomers is found in loops exposed to the solvent channel that connect the two longest strands. MpPR-1i lacks the conserved CAP tetrad and is incapable of binding divalent cations. MpPR-1i has the ability to bind lipids, which may have roles in its infection of cacao. These lipids likely bind in the palmitate binding cavity as observed in tablysin-15, since MpPR-1i binds palmitate with comparable affinity as tablysin-15. Further studies are required to clarify the possible roles and underlying mechanisms of neutral lipid binding, as well as their effects on the pathogenesis of M. perniciosa so as to develop new interventions for WBD.

  4. Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas in the pigeon pea witches'-broom group (16SrIX): an update based on multiple gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-M; Bottner-Parker, K D; Zhao, Y; Bertaccini, A; Davis, R E

    2012-09-01

    The pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrIX) comprises diverse strains that cause numerous diseases in leguminous trees and herbaceous crops, vegetables, a fruit, a nut tree and a forest tree. At least 14 strains have been reported worldwide. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and the moderately conserved rplV (rpl22)-rpsC (rps3) and secY genes indicated that the 16SrIX group consists of at least six distinct genetic lineages. Some of these lineages cannot be readily differentiated based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences alone. The relative genetic distances among these closely related lineages were better assessed by including more variable genes [e.g. ribosomal protein (rp) and secY genes]. The present study demonstrated that virtual RFLP analyses using rp and secY gene sequences allowed unambiguous identification of such lineages. A coding system is proposed to designate each distinct rp and secY subgroup in the 16SrIX group.

  5. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aime, M C; Phillips-Mora, W

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao)--the source of chocolate--in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environmental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relationships of M. roreri have yet to be conclusively established. In this paper, extensive phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear gene regions (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, ITS, RPB1, and EF1-alpha) confirm that C. perniciosa and M. roreri are sister taxa that belong in the Marasmiaceae (euagarics). Furthermore, these taxa form part of a separate and distinct lineage within the family. This lineage includes the biotrophic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa comb. nov. and M. roreri, as well as one undescribed endophytic species. The sister genera to Moniliophthora are Marasmius, Crinipellis and Chaetocalathus, which consist mainly of saprotrophic litter fungi.

  6. Estudo de toxicidade pré-clínica de fitoterápico contendo Gentiana lutea, Rheum palmatum, Aloe ferox, Cynara scolymus, Atropa belladona, Peumus boldus e Baccharis trimera

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Joao Roberto Braga de; de Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    A formulação fitoterápica contendo Gentiana lutea, (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) e Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) foi investigada quanto aos potenciais efeitos tóxicos em doses repetidas quando administrada por via oral (gavagem) a ratos e ratas Wistar (machos por 30 dias e fêmeas por 44 dias, correspondendo à gestação e lactação). Nos estudos a dosagem diária usada fo...

  7. Simulation of a valley-fill aquifer system to delineate flow paths, contributing areas, and traveltime to wellfields in southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.; Coon, William F.

    2001-01-01

    A valley-fill aquifer system that extends along a 14-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley in southwestern Broome County, N.Y., is a major source of water supply to local municipalities and industries, but is highly susceptible to contamination from human activities. Protection of ground-water supplies requires accurate delineation of the areas that are the sources of water pumped by wells. A previously developed two-layer steady-state ground-water flow model of the aquifer system was upgraded with an improved method of simulating stream-aquifer interactions, then recalibrated and coupled to a particle-tracking program. Three-dimensional, ground-water flow modeling coupled with particle tracking is the most reliable method of simulating groundwater flow paths in multiaquifer systems such as this; it also allows delineation of contributing areas to well.elds. A primary advantage of three-dimensional particle-tracking analysis is that it shows the complexities of the flow paths in each aquifer.Model and particle tracking analyses indicate that groundwater frequently follows convoluted three-dimensional flow paths. The contributing areas of individual supply wells in this aquifer system each has a unique flow pattern and shape. Results of the model simulation indicate that recharge from precipitation, rivers, and tributaries contribute 35 percent, 29 percent, and 25 percent, respectively to the aquifer system and that pumpage from supply wells accounts for 67 percent of the discharge from the aquifer system. Particle-tracking results indicate that the simulated contributing areas to the 24 supply wells includes most of the valley floor.

  8. Quantitative proteome-level analysis of paulownia witches’ broom disease with methyl methane sulfonate assistance reveals diverse metabolic changes during the infection and recovery processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaoqiao; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Yabing

    2017-01-01

    Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) disease caused by phytoplasma is a fatal disease that leads to considerable economic losses. Although there are a few reports describing studies of PaWB pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma pathogenicity in Paulownia trees remain uncharacterized. In this study, after building a transcriptome database containing 67,177 sequences, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to quantify and analyze the proteome-level changes among healthy P. fortunei (PF), PaWB-infected P. fortunei (PFI), and PaWB-infected P. fortunei treated with 20 mg L−1 or 60 mg L−1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (PFI-20 and PFI-60, respectively). A total of 2,358 proteins were identified. We investigated the proteins profiles in PF vs. PFI (infected process) and PFI-20 vs. PFI-60 (recovered process), and further found that many of the MMS-response proteins mapped to “photosynthesis” and “ribosome” pathways. Based on our comparison scheme, 36 PaWB-related proteins were revealed. Among them, 32 proteins were classified into three functional groups: (1) carbohydrate and energy metabolism, (2) protein synthesis and degradation, and (3) stress resistance. We then investigated the PaWB-related proteins involved in the infected and recovered processes, and discovered that carbohydrate and energy metabolism was inhibited, and protein synthesis and degradation decreased, as the plant responded to PaWB. Our observations may be useful for characterizing the proteome-level changes that occur at different stages of PaWB disease. The data generated in this study may serve as a valuable resource for elucidating the pathogenesis of PaWB disease during phytoplasma infection and recovery stages. PMID:28690927

  9. Quantitative proteome-level analysis of paulownia witches' broom disease with methyl methane sulfonate assistance reveals diverse metabolic changes during the infection and recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Wenshan; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhai, Xiaoqiao; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Yabing

    2017-01-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) disease caused by phytoplasma is a fatal disease that leads to considerable economic losses. Although there are a few reports describing studies of PaWB pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma pathogenicity in Paulownia trees remain uncharacterized. In this study, after building a transcriptome database containing 67,177 sequences, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to quantify and analyze the proteome-level changes among healthy P. fortunei (PF), PaWB-infected P. fortunei (PFI), and PaWB-infected P. fortunei treated with 20 mg L(-1) or 60 mg L(-1) methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (PFI-20 and PFI-60, respectively). A total of 2,358 proteins were identified. We investigated the proteins profiles in PF vs. PFI (infected process) and PFI-20 vs. PFI-60 (recovered process), and further found that many of the MMS-response proteins mapped to "photosynthesis" and "ribosome" pathways. Based on our comparison scheme, 36 PaWB-related proteins were revealed. Among them, 32 proteins were classified into three functional groups: (1) carbohydrate and energy metabolism, (2) protein synthesis and degradation, and (3) stress resistance. We then investigated the PaWB-related proteins involved in the infected and recovered processes, and discovered that carbohydrate and energy metabolism was inhibited, and protein synthesis and degradation decreased, as the plant responded to PaWB. Our observations may be useful for characterizing the proteome-level changes that occur at different stages of PaWB disease. The data generated in this study may serve as a valuable resource for elucidating the pathogenesis of PaWB disease during phytoplasma infection and recovery stages.

  10. The crystal structure of necrosis- and ethylene-inducing protein 2 from the causal agent of cacao's Witches' Broom disease reveals key elements for its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Barsottini, Mario Ramos de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Juliana Ferreira; Dyszy, Fabio; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Barau, Joan Grande; Garcia, Odalys; Costa-Filho, Antonio José; Ambrosio, Andre Luis Berteli; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Dias, Sandra Martha Gomes

    2011-11-15

    The necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (NEP1)-like proteins (NLPs) are proteins secreted from bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, triggering immune responses and cell death in dicotyledonous plants. Genomic-scale studies of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes the Witches' Broom disease in cacao, which is a serious economic concern for South and Central American crops, have identified five members of this family (termed MpNEP1-5). Here, we show by RNA-seq that MpNEP2 is virtually the only NLP expressed during the fungus infection. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that MpNEP2 has an expression pattern that positively correlates with the necrotic symptoms, with MpNEP2 reaching its highest level of expression at the advanced necrotic stage. To improve our understanding of MpNEP2's molecular mechanism of action, we determined the crystallographic structure of MpNEP2 at 1.8 Å resolution, unveiling some key structural features. The implications of a cation coordination found in the crystal structure were explored, and we show that MpNEP2, in contrast to another previously described member of the NLP family, NLP(Pya) from Pythium aphanidermatum, does not depend on an ion to accomplish its necrosis- and electrolyte leakage-promoting activities. Results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed the importance of a negatively charged cavity and an unforeseen hydrophobic β-hairpin loop for MpNEP2 activity, thus offering a platform for compound design with implications for disease control. Electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence assays with MpNEP2 performed in the presence of lipid vesicles of different compositions showed no sign of interaction between the protein and the lipids, implying that MpNEP2 likely requires other anchoring elements from the membrane to promote cytolysis or send death signals.

  11. Quantitative proteome-level analysis of paulownia witches’ broom disease with methyl methane sulfonate assistance reveals diverse metabolic changes during the infection and recovery processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB disease caused by phytoplasma is a fatal disease that leads to considerable economic losses. Although there are a few reports describing studies of PaWB pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma pathogenicity in Paulownia trees remain uncharacterized. In this study, after building a transcriptome database containing 67,177 sequences, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ to quantify and analyze the proteome-level changes among healthy P. fortunei (PF, PaWB-infected P. fortunei (PFI, and PaWB-infected P. fortunei treated with 20 mg L−1 or 60 mg L−1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS (PFI-20 and PFI-60, respectively. A total of 2,358 proteins were identified. We investigated the proteins profiles in PF vs. PFI (infected process and PFI-20 vs. PFI-60 (recovered process, and further found that many of the MMS-response proteins mapped to “photosynthesis” and “ribosome” pathways. Based on our comparison scheme, 36 PaWB-related proteins were revealed. Among them, 32 proteins were classified into three functional groups: (1 carbohydrate and energy metabolism, (2 protein synthesis and degradation, and (3 stress resistance. We then investigated the PaWB-related proteins involved in the infected and recovered processes, and discovered that carbohydrate and energy metabolism was inhibited, and protein synthesis and degradation decreased, as the plant responded to PaWB. Our observations may be useful for characterizing the proteome-level changes that occur at different stages of PaWB disease. The data generated in this study may serve as a valuable resource for elucidating the pathogenesis of PaWB disease during phytoplasma infection and recovery stages.

  12. Discovery of microRNAs and transcript targets related to witches' broom disease in Paulownia fortunei by high-throughput sequencing and degradome approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Suyan; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Xu, Enkai; Cao, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by the phytoplasma is a devastating disease of Paulownia trees. It has caused heavy yield losses to Paulownia production worldwide. However, knowledge of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs), especially miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease stress, is still rudimentary. In this study, to identify miRNAs and their transcript targets that are responsive to PaWB disease stress, six sequencing libraries were constructed from healthy (PF), PaWB-infected (PFI), and PaWB-infected, 20 mg L(-1) methyl methane sulfonate-treated (PFI20) P. fortunei seedlings. As a result, 95 conserved miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families, as well as 122 potential novel miRNAs, were identified. Most of them were found to be a response to PaWB disease-induced stress, and the expression levels of these miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The study simultaneously identified 109 target genes from the P. fortunei for 14 conserved miRNA families and 24 novel miRNAs by degradome sequencing. Furthermore, the functions of the miRNA targets were annotated based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. The results presented here provide the groundwork for further analysis of miRNAs and target genes responsive to the PaWB disease stress, and could be also useful for addressing new questions to better understand the mechanisms of plant infection by phytoplasma in the future.

  13. A multidisciplinary approach to digital mapping of dinosaurian tracksites in the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Romilio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundant dinosaurian tracksites of the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia, form an important part of the West Kimberley National Heritage Place. Previous attempts to document these tracksites using traditional mapping techniques (e.g., surface overlays, transects and gridlines combined with conventional photography have been hindered by the non-trivial challenges associated with working in this area, including, but not limited to: (1 the remoteness of many of the tracksites; (2 the occurrence of the majority of the tracksites in the intertidal zone; (3 the size and complexity of many of the tracksites, with some extending over several square kilometres. Using the historically significant and well-known dinosaurian tracksites at Minyirr (Gantheaume Point, we show how these issues can be overcome through the use of an integrated array of remote sensing tools. A combination of high-resolution aerial photography with both manned and unmanned aircraft, airborne and handheld high-resolution lidar imaging and handheld photography enabled the collection of large amounts of digital data from which 3D models of the tracksites at varying resolutions were constructed. The acquired data encompasses a very broad scale, from the sub-millimetre level that details individual tracks, to the multiple-kilometre level, which encompasses discontinuous tracksite exposures and large swathes of coastline. The former are useful for detailed ichnological work, while the latter are being employed to better understand the stratigraphic and temporal relationship between tracksites in a broader geological and palaeoecological context. These approaches and the data they can generate now provide a means through which digital conservation and temporal monitoring of the Dampier Peninsula’s dinosaurian tracksites can occur. As plans for the on-going management of the tracks in this area progress, analysis of

  14. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique.

  15. Identification of candidate genes involved in Witches' broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royaert, Stefan; Jansen, Johannes; da Silva, Daniela Viana; de Jesus Branco, Samuel Martins; Livingstone, Donald S; Mustiga, Guiliana; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Araújo, Ioná Santos; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2016-02-11

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers. One of the ways to combat WBD is to plant resistant cultivars. Resistance may be governed by a few genetic factors, mainly found in wild germplasm. We developed a dense genetic linkage map with a length of 852.8 cM that contains 3,526 SNPs and is based on the MP01 mapping population, which counts 459 trees from a cross between the resistant 'TSH 1188' and the tolerant 'CCN 51' at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in Barro Preto, Bahia, Brazil. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are associated with WBD were identified on five different chromosomes using a multi-trait QTL analysis for outbreeders. Phasing of the haplotypes at the major QTL region on chromosome IX on a diversity panel of genotypes clearly indicates that the major resistance locus comes from a well-known source of WBD resistance, the clone 'SCAVINA 6'. Various potential candidate genes identified within all QTL may be involved in different steps leading to disease resistance. Preliminary expression data indicate that at least three of these candidate genes may play a role during the first 12 h after infection, with clear differences between 'CCN 51' and 'TSH 1188'. We combined the information from a large mapping population with very distinct parents that segregate for WBD, a dense set of mapped markers, rigorous phenotyping capabilities and the availability of a sequenced genome to identify several genomic regions that are involved in WBD resistance. We also identified a novel source of resistance that most likely comes from the 'CCN 51' parent. Thanks to the large population size of the MP01 population, we were able to pick up QTL and markers with relatively small effects that can contribute to the creation and selection of more tolerant/resistant plant material.

  16. Molecular detection of 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups of phytoplasma associated with flat stem and witches' broom disease of Celosia argentea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhupriya; Yadav, Amit; Thorat, Vipool; Rao, G P

    2017-10-01

    Symptoms of stunting (shortening of internodes), twisting and flat stem (the fasciation of a stem), discoloration of petals, deformed flowers, and witches' broom were recorded on an ornamental plant, plumed cockscomb (Celosia argentea L., fam: Amaranthaceae). The survey conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) campus, New Delhi and Karnal region, Haryana, India, during September 2014 to March 2015 revealed disease incidence of 40 and 10%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison and phylogenetic relationships of Celosia phytoplasma strains under study confirmed that they were associated with two different phytoplasma groups ('Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia' and 'Ca. P. asteris'). Virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences allowed further classification of the Celosia phytoplasma strains into the 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups. Notably, the detection of 'Ca. P. asteris' phytoplasma was reported in seeds of C. argentea by nested PCR assays; however, no evidence of phytoplasma presence was detected in seedlings raised from these seeds. This observation is the first record of the association of 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups of phytoplasmas with flat stem and witches' broom disease of C. argentea anywhere from the world.

  17. Efficacy and safety of a Butcher's broom preparation (Ruscus aculeatus L. extract) compared to placebo in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Jost, Volker; Wolna, Peter; Lücker, Peter W; Müller, Alfred; Theurer, Christoph; Patz, Brigitte; Grützner, Karen I

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from Butcher's broom rhizome (Ruscus aculeatus) have been widely used in the oral treatment of lower leg edema in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. The aim of the present multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to confirm the efficacy and safety of a ruscus extract (Fagorutin Ruscus Kapseln) according to the latest scientific standards. 166 women suffering from chronic venous insufficiency (Widmer grade I and II, CEAP (Clinical signs, Etiological classification, Anatomic distribution, Pathophysiology) 3-4) were included. The data of 148 patients (30-89 years, 150-182 cm height, 49-97 kg body weight) with a mean disease duration of 14.6 years in the ruscus extract group and 15.1 years in the placebo group were eligible for the intent-to-treat-analysis. The primary parameter was the area under baseline of the leg volume changes over 12 weeks (AUB0-12). Secondary parameters were the changes in circumference of the lower leg and the ankle, changes in subjective symptoms and quality of life, the overall efficacy and tolerability and safety parameters. The study was carried out according to the guidelines for testing drugs for chronic venous insufficiency. There were significant differences between the treatment groups ruscus and placebo for the AUB0-12 (-827 ml x day), for the change of leg volume after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment (-16.5 ml and -20.5 ml), for changes in ankle and leg circumferences after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, and for the changes in subjective symptoms, heavy tired legs and sensation of tension (week 12). For the changes in the symptoms heavy lower legs, sensation of tension, and tingling sensation a significant positive correlation with the changes in leg volume was shown. Overall assessment of efficacy was significantly better for ruscus extract compared to placebo. Overall tolerability for both treatments was assessed as good and very good. Of all 48 adverse events occurring in both treatment

  18. Marcadores microssatélites relacionados com a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro Microsatellite markers related to resistance of cocoa tree against witches'-broom

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    Rogério Mercês Ferreira Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa de plantas de cacau originadas do cruzamento entre TSH 1188 e CCN 51 (população segregante, por meio de dois métodos de inoculação em condições de campo, e identificar marcadores microssatélites específicos para grupos de plantas resistentes e suscetíveis. As plantas-controle avaliadas pelos métodos de inoculação natural e inoculação artificial em campo produziram os mesmos padrões de sintomas. As plantas da população segregante também coincidiram os padrões de sintomas em 90%, por esses dois métodos. O método de inoculação artificial em campo permite detectar falso-resistentes. Dos 18 pares de primers microssatélites amplificados, 15 foram polimórficos entre os genitores, e seis entre os grupos de plantas segregantes contrastantes quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa. Foram confirmadas três marcas previamente associadas a QTL (locos para características quantitativas relacionados com a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa, comuns a outras populações. Também foram identificados três novos QTL para esta característica, típicos desta população, o que comprova sua utilidade para o melhoramento genético do cacaueiro.The objectives of this work were to evaluate cocoa tree resistance against witches'-broom, in plants originated from the crossing between TSH 1188 and CCN 51 (segregating population, by means of two methods of inoculation in field conditions, and to identify microsatellite markers specific for resistant and susceptible plants. The control plants bore identical symptoms as the plants of the segregating population in 90% of the cases under the two methods. The method of artificial inoculation in the field allows the detection of false resistance to the disease. Of the 18 pairs of microsatellite primers amplified, 15 were polymorphic between genitors and six were polymorphic between the two groups of plants evaluated

  19. Witches' brooms in Siberian stone pine as somatic mutations and initial genetic material for breeding of nut-bearing and ornamental cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Yamburov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For the raising of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour nut-bearing and ornamental cultivars, the most important traits are adense crown, slow growth and precocity. Generative mutations of this kind are eliminated by natural selection, therefore, somatic mutationrsearch is important. Among somatic mutations, the most promising one is the so-called 'witches' brooms' (WB where crown fragments demonstrate slowed growth and intensive branching. WB occasionally occurs in native populations. According to phytopathology textbooks, WB are caused by various pathogen species (viruses, mycoplasmas, fungi. The WB of this kind are characterized by a sickly look, full suppression of reproductive functions, a short life and a nidus patternof distribution. There are also WB of different types: with a high vitality and fertility, a long life and sporadic distribution. They occur very rarely(about 1 per 10 000 trees across the species' range. We investigated 18 trees with WB of this type. The size of WB ranged from 0.3 to 30 m, age varied from 30 to 300 years. Male cones were absent inall WB. Female cone initiation was normal if the WB was located in the top part of a crown. Scions from WB and a normal crown (NC of the same tree were grafted on identical rootstocks. On average,the height of 7-year-old WB grafts (WBG was 2 times lower, and the stem diameter was 2 times higher than in the NC grafts (NCG. It wasachieved due to the fundamental differences in the shoot system morphogenesis. Here are three principal differences in decreasing order of importance: (i WBGs were characterized by the absence or near absence of apical dominance. The NCG had no more than 3 orders of branching, and the length of the 1st order axis was on average 5times larger than the axis of the 3rd order. The WBG had 6-7 orders of branching, and the length of shoots of 5-6th orders averaged 80-90% of the length of the first orders. (ii At an

  20. The activity of TcCYS4 modified by variations in pH and temperature can affect symptoms of witches' broom disease of cocoa, caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Souza, Cristiane Ferreira; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Garcia, Wanius; de Almeida, Alex Alan Furtado; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease. TcCYS1 was sensitive to temperatures above 50°C, while TcCYS2, TcCYS3, and TcCYS4 were thermostable. TcCYS4 presented a decrease of inhibitory activity when it was treated at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, with the greater decrease occurring at 65°C. Analyses by native gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography showed that TcCYS4 forms oligomers at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, condition where reduction of inhibitory activity was observed. TcCYS4 oligomers remain stable for up to 20 days after heat treatment and are undone after treatment at 80°C. TcCYS4 presented approximately 90% of inhibitory activity at pH values between 5 and 9. This protein treated at temperatures above 45°C and pH 5 presented reduced inhibitory activity against papain, suggesting that the pH 5 enhances the formation of TcCYS4 oligomers. A variation in the titratable acidity was observed in tissues of T. cacao during the symptoms of witches' broom disease. Our findings suggest that the oligomerization of TcCYS4, favored by variations in pH, is an endergonic process. We speculate that this process can be involved in the development of the symptoms of witches' broom disease in cocoa.

  1. The Activity of TcCYS4 Modified by Variations in pH and Temperature Can Affect Symptoms of Witches’ Broom Disease of Cocoa, Caused by the Fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Souza, Cristiane Ferreira; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Garcia, Wanius; de Almeida, Alex Alan Furtado; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease. TcCYS1 was sensitive to temperatures above 50°C, while TcCYS2, TcCYS3, and TcCYS4 were thermostable. TcCYS4 presented a decrease of inhibitory activity when it was treated at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, with the greater decrease occurring at 65°C. Analyses by native gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography showed that TcCYS4 forms oligomers at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, condition where reduction of inhibitory activity was observed. TcCYS4 oligomers remain stable for up to 20 days after heat treatment and are undone after treatment at 80°C. TcCYS4 presented approximately 90% of inhibitory activity at pH values between 5 and 9. This protein treated at temperatures above 45°C and pH 5 presented reduced inhibitory activity against papain, suggesting that the pH 5 enhances the formation of TcCYS4 oligomers. A variation in the titratable acidity was observed in tissues of T. cacao during the symptoms of witches’ broom disease. Our findings suggest that the oligomerization of TcCYS4, favored by variations in pH, is an endergonic process. We speculate that this process can be involved in the development of the symptoms of witches’ broom disease in cocoa. PMID:25830226

  2. A phytoplasma closely related to the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma (16Sr IX) is associated with citrus huanglongbing symptoms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, D C; Wulff, N A; Martins, E C; Kitajima, E W; Bassanezi, R; Ayres, A J; Eveillard, S; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2008-09-01

    In February 2007, sweet orange trees with characteristic symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were encountered in a region of São Paulo state (SPs) hitherto free of HLB. These trees tested negative for the three liberibacter species associated with HLB. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from symptomatic fruit columella DNA amplifications with universal primers fD1/rP1 was cloned and sequenced. The corresponding agent was found to have highest 16S rDNA sequence identity (99%) with the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma of group 16Sr IX. Sequences of PCR products obtained with phytoplasma 16S rDNA primer pairs fU5/rU3, fU5/P7 confirm these results. With two primers D7f2/D7r2 designed based on the 16S rDNA sequence of the cloned DNA fragment, positive amplifications were obtained from more than one hundred samples including symptomatic fruits and blotchy mottle leaves. Samples positive for phytoplasmas were negative for liberibacters, except for four samples, which were positive for both the phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The phytoplasma was detected by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of midribs from symptomatic leaves. These results show that a phytoplasma of group IX is associated with citrus HLB symptoms in northern, central, and southern SPs. This phytoplasma has very probably been transmitted to citrus from an external source of inoculum, but the putative insect vector is not yet known.

  3. Identification of a second family of genes in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, encoding necrosis-inducing proteins similar to cerato-platanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Cabrera, Odalys García; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tiburcio, Ricardo; Lacerda, Gustavo; Pereira, Gonçalo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao. This is a dimorphic species, with monokaryotic hyphae during the biotrophic phase, which is converted to dikaryotic mycelia during the saprophytic phase. The infection in pod is characterized by the formation of hypertrophic and hyperplasic tissues in the biotrophic phase, which is followed by necrosis and complete degradation of the organ. We found at least five sequences in the fungal genome encoding putative proteins similar to cerato-platanin (CP)-like proteins, a novel class of proteins initially found in the phytopathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata. One M. perniciosa CP gene (MpCP1) was expressed in vitro and proved to have necrosis-inducing ability in tobacco and cacao leaves. The protein is present in solution as dimers and is able to recover necrosis activity after heat treatment. Transcription analysis ex planta showed that MpCP1 is more expressed in biotrophic-like mycelia than saprotrophic mycelia. The necrosis profile presented is different from that caused by M. perniciosa necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (MpNEPs), another family of elicitors expressed by M. perniciosa. Remarkably, a mixture of MpCP1 with MpNEP2 led to a synergistic necrosis effect very similar to that found in naturally infected plants. This is the first report of a basidiomycete presenting both NEP1-like proteins (NLPs) and CPs in its genome.

  4. The fauna of sawflies (Symphyta, Hymenoptera in a forest of sessile oak and hornbeam with butcher’s-broom (Querco-Carpinetum serbicum aculeatetosum Jovanović, 1951 on Mt. Avala

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    Nikolić Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a phytocenosis of sessile oak and hornbeam with butcher’s broom (Querco-Carpinetum serbicum aculeatetosum Jovanović 1951 on the territory of Mt. Avala, 42 species of sawflies belonging to the families Argidae Pamphiliidae and Tenthredinidae have been registered. The 42 species that were found, as many as 19 (or 45.23% are new for the entomofauna of Serbia and Montenegro. Of these 19 species, one belongs to a genus newly recorded on our territory (the genus Cephaleia. The dominant family is the family Tenthredinidae, to which 38 of the registered species belong. The family Tenthredinidae is also dominant in this community with respect to the number of specimens caught, as only a few specimens of species of the other two families were present. The subfamily Tenthredininae is the most numerous subfamily of the family Tenthredinidae inasmuch as 19 of its species were registered in the course of two-year sampling. The most abundant species in the observed phytocenosis are species of the genus Macrophya, while the majority of species of sawflies during the research were present in the field in only small numbers.

  5. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less (DC) Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flattening, distortions, and shrinkage were observed in the SEM images of structures of the five fungal species that were subjected to the action of the EO. Conclusion: The results indicate that EO has antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and may be developed as an alternative for the treatment of onychomycosis.

  6. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less (DC) Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil of B. trimera against the main strains of filamentous fungi that cause onychomycosis. EXPERIMENTAL. B. trimera essential oil. The essential oil of the leaves of B. trimera (lot. BATRI0111), which was extracted by vapor entrainment, was obtained from Laszlo.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of conidia of Trichoderma stromaticum, a biocontrol agent of witches' broom disease of cocoa Microscopia eletrônica de varredura de conídios de Trichoderma stromaticum, um agente de biocontrole da vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A field emission electron microscope (SEM was used to study the conidia surface of Trichoderma stromaticum, a biocontrol of witches broom disease of cocoa. Surface features of conidia were difficult distinguish by light microscope. Conidia appeared to be verrugose and minutely roughened, but the nature of the roughening was not easy to discern. It was common to observe sheath-like structures that completely covered groups of conidia, and also details of wide cells that form the pustules.Estudos morfológicos de conídios de Trichoderma harzianun, um agente de biocontrole da vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro, foram feitos sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura com emissão de campo. Características da superfície de conídios do fungo mostraram ser rugosas quando observadas em alta magnificação; fato esse impossível de ser visualizado por microscopia ótica. Também foram observados, com freqüência, massas de conídios completamente envolvidos por material mucilaginoso e detalhes de células ramificadas dicotomicamente que formam as pústulas.

  8. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

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    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  9. Phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in cocoa mass and chocolates produced from "witch broom disease" resistant and non resistant cocoa cultivars Compostos fenólicos, metilxantinas e atividade antioxidante em massa de cacau e chocolates produzidos a partir de cultivares resistentes e não resistentes a "vassoura de bruxa"

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    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The "witch broom disease" caused by the fungus called Moniliophthora perniciosa is one of the most important cocoa diseases in Latin America, causing around 70% production reduction in the southern Bahia. In attempt to solve the problem, many cultivars resistant to the disease have been recommended to farmers. On the other hand, the chocolate flavour is composed by many compounds whose formation depends on the genetic background, environment where cocoa is grown and processing operations. Therefore, this work aimed at determining the monomeric phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity of cocoa mass and dark chocolate from cocoa cultivars resistant to "witch broom disease" and non resistant to the disease. The total phenolic compounds in cocoa mass did not vary among cultivars with values ranging from 23.95mg g-1 to 25.03mg g-1. Chocolates made from non resistant cultivars showed higher total phenolic compounds (19.11mg g-1 than SR162 and PH16 with 16.08mg g-1 and 15.46mg g-1, respectively. Epicatechin had higher content than catechin and the levels of these two compounds were higher in SR162. There were significant differences among samples of cocoa mass analyzed for caffeine. Chocolate made from SR162 had the highest amount of monomeric compounds due to its high concentration of catechin and epicatechin. The chocolate sample with the highest antioxidant activity was the SR162, followed by non resistant blend and PH16, showing relationship between the antioxidant activity and monomeric phenolics content.A "vassoura bruxa" causada pelo fungo Moniliophthora perniciosa, é uma das doenças mais importantes do cacau na América Latina, provocando uma redução de cerca de 70% na produção das amêndoas na Bahia. Para tentar resolver o problema, muitos cultivares resistentes à enfermidade têm sido recomendados para os agricultores. Por outro lado, as características do chocolate são oriundas de várias substâncias, cuja forma

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity on a sample of cocoa accessions resistant to witches' broom disease based on RAPD and pedigree data Avaliação da diversidade genética em uma amostra de acessos de cacau resistentes à doença vassoura-de-bruxa, com base em dados de RAPD e pedigree

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    Ronaldo Carvalho dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. has been assessed based on morphological and molecular markers for germplasm management and breeding purposes. Pedigree data is available in cocoa but it has not been used for assessing genetic relatedness. The geneitic diversity of 30 clonal cocoa accessions resistant to witche´ broom disease, from the CEPEC series, were studied on the basis of RAPD data and pedigree information. Twenty of these accessions descend from the TSA-644 clone, originated from a cross between the Upper Amazon germplasm called Scavina-6, the main source of resistance to witches' broom disease, and IMC-67. The ten remaining clones come from different sources including Amazon and Trinitario germplasm. RAPD data was collected using 16 primers and pedigree information was obtained from the International Cocoa Germplasm Database. Genetic similarities, genetic distances and coefficient of parentage were calculated using available software. Relatively low genetic diversity was observed in this germplasm set, probably because of great genetic relatedness amongst accessions studied and the poor representation of the germplasm. The TSA-644 descendants were more diverse than the other accessions used in the study. This might be due to the origin of the TSA clone, which was derived from highly divergent genotypes. Association between genetic similarities based on RAPD data and coefficient of parentage, based on pedigree data, was very low, probably due to the homogeneity of the breeding stocks and poor pedigree information. These findings are useful to cocoa breeders in planning crosses for the development of hybrid and clonal cultivars.A diversidade genética em cacau (Theobroma cacao L., embasada em dados morfológicos e em marcadores moleculares, tem sido avaliada com fins de manejo de germoplasma e uso no melhoramento genético. Dados de genealogia de cacau, embora disponíveis, não têm sido utilizados. Foi analisada a

  11. Edirne’de süpürge üretimi çalışanlarında SO2 etkisinin değerlendirilmesi - 2012/Evaluation of SO2 effetcs among workers of the broom-making business in Edirne-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk berberoğlu

    2013-08-01

    bölümde çalışma sırasında, kişisel koruyucu maske kullanılmalıdır. Anahtar kelimeler: İç ortam havası, SO2, süpürge işçileri, solunum fonksiyon testi  Abstract Objective: Sulphur dioxide (SO2,which is encountered in the ambient air of the working rooms used for making brooms, is a gas that primarily affects the respiratory system of the staff. Method: This study was conducted to investigate the exposure to SO2 which is used in the production process in broom-making in Edirne between January-February of 2012. A questionnaire was applied to 25 broom-makers and to 25 other individuals. The study included demographic data, a history and a physical examination of the respiratory system, and the results of spirometry. The amount of SO2 in the rooms used for the industrial processes were measure by a Gas Alert Micro 5 brand device. Results: The average age of the workers affected by SO2 and of the non exposured group were (47.6±1.2, 45.2±3.4 respectively and the rates of smoking were (64%, 64% similar (p>0.05. Differences in sputum levels (32% and 16%, p<0.05 and cough rates (24% and 12%, p<0.05 for the workers and controls respectively were statistically significant; whereas dyspnea (20% and 20%, p>0.05 and pathological respiratory sounds ratios (12% and 12%, p>0.05 were similar. Spirometry findings including FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and MEF (FEF25-75% were significantly lower for the workers than the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: SO2 room gas amounts were higher than both WHO and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH standards. SO2 gas amounts higher than the standards are harmful especially for the respiratory system of the workers. Workers in this industry should be warned of the potential risks and should be educated. Workers of the complex using SO2 should use masks during working hours and rooms should have efficient air-conditioning. Key Words: Indoor air, SO2, sweeper workers, pulmonary function test  

  12. LISK-BROOM: A laser concept for clearing space junk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Claude

    1994-10-01

    A mathematical model predicts the economical effectiveness of using powerful laser beams for cleaning space junk. The propelling force comes from the ablation caused by repetitive laser pulses. Lasers will use Earth-based power to de-orbit waste objects in cooperation with observatory telescopes. (AIP)

  13. The Greatest Comets in History Broom Stars and Celestial Scimitars

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2009-01-01

    Comets have fascinated and awed humankind since ancient times. Of the thousands of comets recorded throughout history, those deemed to have been the most spectacular have been described in the accounts of eyewitnesses and often recorded in official documents. This book introduces you to the greatest of the greats, starting with the comet in 372 B. C. called "Aristotle’s Comet" and ending with the spectacular appearance of McNaught’s Comet in 2007. There is an introductory chapter explaining what comets are and how they are classified, and correcting a few popular misconceptions. Later in the book you will read about the different returns of Halley’s Comet and the Kreutz sungrazing group, often called the kamikaze comets. There is even a chapter on comets that were visible in broad daylight. This book is unique. There are a few books on comets that make passing reference to some of the more famous or spectacular objects of the past, and a few catalogs with long lists of comets. But little detailed and de...

  14. Aksenoks proves true to "new broom" theory / Aaron Eglitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eglitis, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Riia linnapea Aivars Aksenoks tühistas linnas hasartmängukeelu, väites, et see oli eelmise linnapea Gundars Bojarsi valimiseelne kampaania. Aksenoks tegi riigi korruptsioonivastase võitluse büroole ettepaneku uurida eelmise Riia linnapea ja välireklaamifirma Clear Channel Latvia vahelist tehingut

  15. Sediment Properties Off Broome, Port Headland and Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    measured at sea on box-cores were obtained using a vane shear test device ( Monney , 1971). This consisted of two square brass vanes, arranged in a...259. 10. Monney , N. T. (1971) Measurements of the engineering properties of marine sediments. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 5, 21 -30. 11. Mulhearn, P. J

  16. Restoration of Hyperspectral Push-Broom Scanner Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    1997-01-01

    , for instance over water.Following these initial corrections we use minimum/maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis in order to separate the spatially coherent signal components from the noise components. The MAF transformation is a linear transformation into new orthogonal variables that are ordered...... increase in visual image quality....

  17. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lívero, Francislaine A. Dos Reis; Martins, Gracianny Gomes; Queiroz Telles, José Ederaldo; Beltrame, Olair Carlos; Petris Biscaia, Stellee Marcela; Cavicchiolo Franco, Célia Regina; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is a serious public health problem that is associated with several stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), the earliest stage of ALD, is a multifactorial injury that involves oxidative stress and

  18. Insecticide activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil against Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Amanda; Martins, Carlos Eduardo Nogueira; Bretanha, Lizandra Czermainski; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Carrer, Alessandra Regina; Rosa, Nathália França; Ferreira, Luisa; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2017-10-20

    The ethnobotanical uses of Brazilian plants for different injuries and diseases conjoined with local rich biodiversity represent an important resource for research and development. This study aimed to characterise BDEO and its in vitro activity on the third instar larvae (L3) of Cochliomyia macellaria. Groups of 20 L3 were placed on filter paper impregnated with increasing concentrations of 5-30% (v/v), equivalent to 0.79-4.77 μL/cm2, solubilised in ethanol or acetone. The major constituents of BDEO were β-pinene (9.94%), D-limonene (9.59%), β-nerolidol (7.93%), caryophyllene (7.69%), spathulenol (6.69), α-muurolene (6.74%) and α-pinene (5.31%). Lethal concentrations of 50% for BDEO on C. macellaria (LC50) after 24 and 48 h of exposure were 2.63 and 2.47 μL/cm2 for ethanol and 9.58 and 8.11 μL/cm2 for acetone, respectively. Furthermore, larvae cuticle abnormalities and adult deformity were observed. Our data confirm the effectiveness of BDEO as an ecofriendly product against blowflies.

  19. Screening antimycobacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia, Centella asiatica, Lantana camara and Pterodon emarginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.P. MACHADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The permanent investigation of new antimycobacterial drugs is necessary for the eradication programs of tuberculosis and other mycobacterium-related diseases. The aim of the present study is to search for new sources of antimycobacterial drugs using plant materials. In this study, 11 plant materials (extracts, essential oils and some fractions obtained from 4 species of medicinal plants traditionally used as general therapeutics for different illnesses and specifically as treatment of tuberculosis, were evaluated using the microplate resazurin assay against 2 species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and 3 nontuberculous mycobacteria. The results showed the hexane extract and the essential oil from fruits of Pterodonemarginatus (Vogel as potential sources of antimycobacterial drugs against 4 species of tested mycobacteria. The hexane fraction of methanol extract from leaves of Centella asiatica also presented significant mycobacterial growth inhibition, but against M. chelonae only. In conclusion, it was possible to contribute to the antimycobacterial investigations by presenting three new samples of plants with significant antimicrobial activity against four Mycobacteriumspp and suggest future studies about the antimycobacterial properties of fruits from P. emarginatus.

  20. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  1. ALELOPATIA DE CARQUEJA (Baccharis trimera Less) E AÇÃO DE FUNGOS EM CAPIM-ANNONI (Eragrostis plana Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Prates Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    A pecuária na Região Sul do Brasil é sustentada, em grande parte, por pastagens nativas, que apresentam grande diversidade de espécies. Esse território faz parte do bioma Pampa. A espécie invasora capim-annoni ameaça essas pastagens. Torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos alternativos de controle dessa espécie, pois práticas convencionais de controle, embora relativamente eficientes, não tem a preservação da vegetação nativa como princípio. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estu...

  2. UNIFORM FARM OPERATIONS (UFO ON HEMP BROOM RAPE SEED GERMINATION BY BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are a constant problem in agronomy and they not only compete with crops for water, nutrients, sunlight, andspace but also harbor insect and disease pests; clog irrigation and drainage systems; undermine crop quality; anddeposit weed seeds into crop harvests. In order to the microbial herbicide (Orocide influence on seed germinationin Orobancheramosa L., this experiment was conducted in 2011 at Islamic Azad University Shahr-e-Qods Branch inTehran by a completely randomized design with four replications. The factor studied included use of Orocide(0(T1, 2(T2, 4(T3 and 6(T4 percentage. The results showed that the effect of microbial herbicide (Orocide wassignificant on germination percentage of Orobancheramosa. Mean comparison showed that the highest germinationpercentage (79% was achieved by non-application of Orocide and lowest germination percentage (8% wasachieved by application of 4% Orocide.The results of this experiment showed that the use of Orocide can decreasedthe germination in Orobancheramosa L. that is uniform farm operations (UFO very important for weed biologicalcontrol management at Iran.

  3. Essential oil composition and bioinformatic analysis of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Ghasemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil, isolated by hydrodistillation from fresh flowers of Spartium junceum L. collected from medicinal plant garden in Shiraz faculty of pharmacy, near Shiraz, Fars, Iran, was investigated by Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS method. The GC/MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of 30 constituents, of which linalool (26.18%, tetradecanoic acid (22.83%, camphor (13.50%, and dodecanoic acid (13.09% were the major, constituting altogether almost 75.60% of total composition. This is the first report of linalool as a major compound in S. junceum oil composition. For studying of 18S rRNA gene, genomic DNA content was extracted and PCR procedure was done. Sequence similarity searches were done using NCBI database and CLC sequence viewer software. The result of PCR blasted with other sequenced genes in NCBI showed 98% similarity to the 18S small subunit rRNA of Pisumsativum (Fabaceae and Phaseoleae environmental samples of Elev and Amb clones. The phylogenetic relationships among 71 previously reported sequences of ribosomal encoding genes from plants and this novel sequence was investigated as well.

  4. A new broom? The space agency faces a shake-up

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The results of a recent report have pointed a grim picture of the agency's mismanagement of the ISS. The newly appointed administrator of NASA is likely to implement some combination of mission cancellations and staff lay-offs to cut costs (1/2 page)

  5. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  6. Ruscus aculeatus (butcher's broom) as a potential treatment for orthostatic hypotension, with a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, D A

    2000-12-01

    Chronic orthostatic hypotension (OH) is frequently a severely debilitating disease that affects large groups of the population with autonomic insufficiency--the elderly; patients with diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome; and anyone on drugs that affect the autonomic nervous system. Unfortunately, even though more than 60 medications are currently being used to treat OH, none of them is particularly or consistently effective. Ruscus aculeatus, a phytotherapeutic agent that is well known in Europe, may, however, change this. Its vasoconstrictive and venotonic properties make it ideally suited to treat the pooling of blood in the limbs, lack of venous tone, and lack of neurally mediated vasoconstriction that frequently characterize OH. Although it has never been suggested as a treatment for OH, it already has a long, proven record of use in Europe for treating a variety of circulatory disorders. To provide evidence for what appears to be an effective, safe, inexpensive botanical therapy for OH and encourage further studies on the efficacy of Ruscus for OH patients. Review of OH and therapies currently available for OH and evaluation of the properties of Ruscus aculeatus, its mechanism of action, and its suitability as a therapeutic agent for treatment of OH. A review of the many pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic agents for treating OH reveals that all of the drug therapies are disappointing and marginally useful. Although nonpharmacologic management is preferred, in the many cases in which OH becomes debilitating, pharmacologic intervention becomes a last resort. But drug therapy may not always be necessary, because Ruscus aculeatus, a phytotherapeutic agent containing ruscogenins and flavonoids, may prove useful for the treatment of OH if denervation is not so advanced that it has compromised receptor activity at the venous wall. Ruscus aculeatus is an alpha-adrenergic agonist that causes venous constriction by directly activating postjunctional alpha1- and alpha2-receptors, in turn stimulating the release of noradrenaline at the level of the vascular wall. It also possesses venotonic properties: it reduces venous capacity and pooling of blood in the legs and exerts protective effects on capillaries, the vascular endothelium, and smooth muscle. Its flavonoid content strengthens blood vessels, reduces capillary fragility, and helps maintain healthy circulation. Unlike most of the drug therapies used to treat OH, Ruscus aculeatus does not cause supine hypertension. It also appears to do something no other therapy can offer--alleviate the worsening effects of OH in environmentally hot conditions. Finally, it is an extremely safe, inexpensive, over-the-counter botanical medicine. With proven phlebotherapeutic properties, including vasoconstrictive action and venotonic properties, Ruscus aculeatus shows great promise for ameliorating the symptoms of OH and improving the quality of life for large groups in the population. It clearly deserves to be the object of wider research and study as a treatment for OH.

  7. No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Angelica M.; Carruthers, Raymond I.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2011-03-01

    Some invasive plants perform better in their area of introduction than in their native region. This may be a consequence of rapid evolutionary change due to different selection pressures encountered in introduced regions. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis (EICA) suggests that release from natural enemies results in selection of more vigorous plant genotypes as a result of plants allocating resources away from costly herbivore-resistance traits and toward increased growth. We tested the prediction that introduced plant genotypes of Genista monspessulana (Fabaceae) are less resistant to herbivory by a specialist psyllid, Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by measuring and comparing A. hakani performance on plants from native (southern France) and introduced (California, U.S.) populations. A. hakani performed equally well on plants from the native and introduced regions; there were no significant differences in psyllid egg and nymphal development, nymphal survival rates, female longevity or fecundity between the test plants. Egg survival rates were significantly higher on native populations, but the difference was minimal. These results provide preliminary evidence that native and introduced G. monspessulana populations are equally resistant to A. hakani and do not support the EICA hypothesis prediction of reduced investment in defense in introduced plant populations. Possible explanations for the lack of effects found in this study include the type of parameters measured and the feeding ecology of the herbivore used to test EICA, and finally, that evolutionary changes in plant defense in introduced G. monspessulana populations may not have occurred.

  8. Towards The Identification Of Candidate Genes Involved In Witches' Broom Disease Resistance In Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  9. Multibeam collection for FK150324: Multibeam data collected aboard Falkor from 2015-03-24 to 2015-04-06, departing from Broome, Australia and returning to Broome, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Mating-type orthologous genes in the primarily homothallic Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kües, Ursula; Navarro-González, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    The cacao-pathogenic Moniliophthora perniciosa C-biotype is a primarily homothallic Agaricomycete of which the genome has recently become available. Searching of the genome sequence with mating type proteins from other basidiomycetes detected one or possibly two potential genes for HD1 homeodomain transcription factors, 7 or possibly 8 genes for potential pheromone receptors and five genes for putative pheromone precursors. Apparently, the fungus possesses gene functions encoded in the tetrapolar basidiomycetes in the A and B mating loci, respectively. In the tetrapolar species, the A and B mating type genes govern formation of clamp cells at hyphal septa of the dikaryon and their fusion with sub-apical cells as well as mushroom production. The C-biotype forms fused clamp cells and also basidiocarps on mycelia germinated from basidiospores and their development might be controlled by the detected genes. It represents the first example of a primarily homothallic basidiomycete where A - and B -mating-type-like genes were found. Various strategies are discussed as how self-compatibility in presence of such genes can evolve. An A -mating-type like gene for an HD2 homeodomain transcription factor is, however, not included in the available sequence representing estimated 69% coverage of the haploid genome but there are non-mating genes for other homeodomain transcription factors of currently unknown function that are conserved in basidiomycetes and also various ascomycetes.

  11. The interaction of Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease, during parthenocarpy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of Theobroma cacao L. flower cushions by Moniliophthora perniciosa induces parthenocarpy. Healthy and parthenocarpic immature cacao pods were obtained from seven cacao clones. Microscopic observations of parthenocarpic pods confirmed fruits lack viable seed. Septate mycelium colonized part...

  12. dsRNA-induced gene silencing in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caribé dos Santos, A C; Sena, J A L; Santos, S C; Dias, C V; Pirovani, C P; Pungartnik, C; Valle, R R; Cascardo, J C M; Vincentz, M

    2009-11-01

    The genome sequence of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa revealed genes possibly participating in the RNAi machinery. Therefore, studies were performed in order to investigate the efficiency of gene silencing by dsRNA. We showed that the reporter gfp gene stably introduced into the fungus genome can be silenced by transfection of in vitro synthesized gfpdsRNA. In addition, successful dsRNA-induced silencing of endogenous genes coding for hydrophobins and a peroxiredoxin were also achieved. All genes showed a silencing efficiency ranging from 18% to 98% when compared to controls even 28d after dsRNA treatment, suggesting systemic silencing. Reduction of GFP fluorescence, peroxidase activity levels and survival responses to H(2)O(2) were consistent with the reduction of GFP and peroxidase mRNA levels, respectively. dsRNA transformation of M. perniciosa is shown here to efficiently promote genetic knockdown and can thus be used to assess gene function in this pathogen.

  13. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Moniliophthoraperniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Juliana O; Pereira, Jorge F; Rincones, Johana; Barau, Joan G; Araújo, Elza F; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Queiroz, Marisa V

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the cloning, sequence and expression analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the most important pathogen of cocoa in Brazil. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single copy of the GAPDH gene in the M. perniciosa genome (MpGAPDH). The complete MpGAPDH coding sequence contained 1,461 bp with eight introns that were conserved in the GAPDH genes of other basidiomycete species. The cis-elements in the promoter region of the MpGAPDH gene were similar to those of other basidiomycetes. Likewise, the MpGAPDH gene encoded a putative 339 amino acid protein that shared significant sequence similarity with other GAPDH proteins in fungi, plants, and metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the MPGAPDH protein with other homobasidiomycete fungi of the family Tricholomataceae. Expression analysis of the MpGAPDH gene by real-time PCR showed that this gene was more expressed (~1.3X) in the saprotrophic stage of this hemibiotrophic plant pathogen than in the biotrophic stage when grown in cacao extracts.

  14. Killer yeasts inhibit the growth of the phytopathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' Broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Cabral, Anderson; de Carvalho, Patricia Maria Barroso; Pinotti, Tatiana; Hagler, Allen Norton; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Fruit and soil yeasts isolated from the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforests and an organic farm were screened for killer activity against yeasts. Killer yeasts were then tested against the phytopathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa (syn. Crinipellis perniciosa) and a Dipodascus capitatus strain and a Candida sp strain inhibited its growth.

  15. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana O. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the cloning, sequence and expression analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the most important pathogen of cocoa in Brazil. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single copy of the GAPDH gene in the M. perniciosa genome (MpGAPDH. The complete MpGAPDH coding sequence contained 1,461 bp with eight introns that were conserved in the GAPDH genes of other basidiomycete species. The cis-elements in the promoter region of the MpGAPDH gene were similar to those of other basidiomycetes. Likewise, the MpGAPDH gene encoded a putative 339 amino acid protein that shared significant sequence similarity with other GAPDH proteins in fungi, plants, and metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the MPGAPDH protein with other homobasidiomycete fungi of the family Tricholomataceae. Expression analysis of the MpGAPDH gene by real-time PCR showed that this gene was more expressed (~1.3X in the saprotrophic stage of this hemibiotrophic plant pathogen than in the biotrophic stage when grown in cacao extracts.

  16. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  17. Temporal evolution of organic carbon and nitrogen forms in volcanic soils under broom scrub affected by a wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario Del Pino, Jesús Santiago; Almenar, Ifara Dorta; Rivero, Francisco Navarro; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rodríguez, Carmen Arbelo; Herrera, Cecilia Armas; Guerra García, José A; Mora Hernández, Juan Luis

    2007-05-25

    The evolution of total N, total oxidizable C, water-soluble NH(4)(+)-N, exchangeable NH(4)(+)-N and soluble NO(3)(-)-N was studied in Canarian volcanic soils under mountainous legume scrub affected by a wildfire by June 2003. Three systematic soil samplings in the burned area and in neighbouring non-burned sampling points were carried out 3, 7 and 12 months after the fire event. The results showed an important mobilization of N (as total N and soluble and exchangeable NH(4)(+)-N) in the soil within the burned area at short term, with a simultaneous depletion of nitrates. Later on, the water-soluble NH(4)(+)-N levels remained nearly constant along the study period in the burned area, whereas the exchangeable NH(4)(+) decreased progressively. Nitrates were found to increase inside and outside the burned area, but the increase rate was much higher for the burned samples. Total N fluctuated along the year, although its levels were generally higher in the burned area. However, such a response pattern of N to fire in this environment was insufficient to prompt the recovery of the plant cover.

  18. Efeito acaricida in vitro de extratos de Baccharis trimera Vernonia nudiflora, e Eupatorium buniifolium (Asterales: Asteraceae) em larvas e adultos de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Juliana Antunes

    2014-01-01

    O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é um ectoparasito, hematófago e monóxeno, cujo hospedeiro preferencial é o bovino, sendo um dos grandes entraves para a produção pecuária devido aos prejuízos econômicos decorrentes de seu parasitismo. Em todo o Brasil, e na vasta área onde se estabelece o Bioma Pampa, a pecuária desempenha um papel primordial no desenvolvimento da economia. A realização desse projeto teve como proposta explorar o potencial da flora nativa do Bioma Pampa, invest...

  19. Plasticidade fenotípica de Baccharis genistelloides subsp. crispa (Spreng. Joch. Müll. (2006 - Asteraceae - sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho, relacionado a produção orgânica, utilizou preparados homeopáticos visando incremento na biomassa e no teor de flavonóides em plantas dióicas de carqueja. Os tratamentos foram: controle com água, controle com álcool 70%, Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH, e a combinação destas homeopatias. Variações fenotípicas foram registradas a partir da análise de crescimento, realizada quinzenalmente durante 60 dias e dos caracteres morfológicos, tais como: como altura, número de ramificações, comprimento do ramo principal, diâmetro do caule e ala caulinar mediana. Na colheita foram medidos: a fitomassa fresca/seca e o volume de raiz. Posteriormente, foi quantificado o teor de flavonóides totais conforme as análises prescritas pela Farmacopéia Brasileira. O experimento foi avaliado em delineamento de blocos casualizados (2x5x2, sendo suas médias avaliadas pelo teste Tukey e o coeficiente de variação ambiental para estimar a plasticidade. Quanto ao estudo do crescimento da planta ao longo do tempo, verificou-se aumento linear simples para a maioria das variáveis nos dois sexos. Foram detectadas respostas plásticas na maioria dos caracteres avaliados. De acordo com os resultados, em ambos os sexos, 60 dias de cultivo são suficientes para obtenção de matéria prima com teor aceitável de flavonóides, bem como para verificação dos efeitos de patogenesia e similitude na aplicação de preparados homeopáticos Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH e sua combinação Phosphorus 12CH + Sulphur 6CH. A fitomassa e o teor de flavonóides totais foram semelhantes entre plantas dióicas durante o período de estudo.

  20. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cacao WRKY transcription factors and analysis of their expression in response to witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Dayanne; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Del-Bem, Luiz-Eduardo; Bronze Dos Santos, Emily; Santana Silva, Raner José; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Vincentz, Michel; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types. The 61 putative WRKY sequences were distributed on the 10 cacao chromosomes and 24 of them came from duplication events. The sequences were phylogenetically organized according to the general WRKY groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroups IIa and IIb are sister groups and share a common ancestor, as well as subgroups IId and IIe. The most divergent groups according to the plant origin were IIc and III. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 7 TcWRKY genes were selected and analyzed by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant cacao plants infected (or not) with M. perniciosa. Some TcWRKY genes presented interesting responses to M. perniciosa such as Tc01_p014750/Tc06_p013130/AtWRKY28, Tc09_p001530/Tc06_p004420/AtWRKY40, Tc04_p016130/AtWRKY54 and Tc10_p016570/ AtWRKY70. Our results can help to select appropriate candidate genes for further characterization in cacao or in other Theobroma species.

  2. Restriction enzyme improves the efficiency of genetic transformations in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease in Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Julio Fagundes Lopes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of restriction enzymes in the transformation mixture improved the efficiency of transformation in Moniliophthora perniciosa. The influence of the vector shape (linear or circular, the patterns of plasmid integration in genomic sites and the influence of the promoter used to express the gene marker were also analyzed. The addition of BamHI or NotI increased the number of transformants by 3-10-fold and 3-fold, respectively, over the control without added enzyme. The use of pre-linearized plasmid did not increase the transformation efficiency in comparison with the circular plasmid. However, the frequency of multi-copy transformants increased significantly. The transformation procedure here reported resulted in better production of protoplasts and transformation efficiency. In addition, the time necessary for the detection of the first transformants and the number of insertions were reduced.A presença de enzima de restrição na mistura de transformação aumentou a eficiência da transformação em Moniliophthora perniciosa. A influência da forma do vetor (linear ou circular, o padrão de integração do plasmídeo nos sítios genômicos e a influência do promotor usado para expressar o gene marcador foram também analisados. A adição de BamHI ou NotI aumentou o número de transformantes 3-10 vezes e 3 vezes, respectivamente, em relação ao controle sem a adição da enzima. O uso de plasmídeos pré-linearizados não aumentou a eficiência da transformação quando comparado à eficiência obtida com plasmídeos circulares. No entanto, a freqüência de transformantes multi-cópias aumentou significativamente. Juntos os procedimentos reportados aqui resultaram em processos mais eficientes de produção de protoplastos e transformação, onde o tempo necessário para o aparecimento dos transformantes e o número de inserções múltiplas foi reduzido.

  3. Protein extraction for proteome analysis from cacao leaves and meristems, organs infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of the witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Carvalho, Heliana Argôlo Santos; Machado, Regina Cele Reboucas; Gomes, Dayane Santos; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de Mattos; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Micheli, Fabienne

    2008-06-01

    Preparation of high-quality proteins from cacao vegetative organs is difficult due to very high endogenous levels of polysaccharides and polyphenols. In order to establish a routine procedure for the application of proteomic and biochemical analysis to cacao tissues, three new protocols were developed; one for apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) extraction, and two for protein extraction--under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The first described method allows a quick and easy collection of AWF--using infiltration-centrifugation procedure--that is representative of its composition in intact leaves according to the smaller symplastic contamination detected by the use of the hexose phosphate isomerase marker. Protein extraction under denaturing conditions for 2-DE was remarkably improved by the combination of chemically and physically modified processes including phenol, SDS dense buffer and sonication steps. With this protocol, high-quality proteins from cacao leaves and meristems were isolated, and for the first time well-resolved 1-DE and 2-DE protein patterns of cacao vegetative organs are shown. It also appears that sonication associated with polysaccharide precipitation using tert-butanol was a crucial step for the nondenaturing protein extraction and subsequent enzymatic activity detection. It is expected that the protocols described here could help to develop high-level proteomic and biochemical studies in cacao also being applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues.

  4. First report of a new subgroup 16SrIX-E, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'-related, phytoplasma associated with juniper witches' broom disease in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) is a native tree indigenous to parts of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada and California. The tree has increased in density since settlement of these areas, raising concern over loss of understory plants, decreased wildlife habitat, and increased soil erosio...

  5. Multibeam collection for FK150410: Multibeam data collected aboard Falkor from 2015-04-10 to 2015-05-04, Broome, Australia to Darwin, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  7. Evaluation of physiological and defense characteristics and ions contents of Red and Brooms cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum biolor) under salt stress stress in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Razavizadeh; Neda Talaei Salavati

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate defense and physiological responses of some red and broomscultivars of Sorghum to salinity stress under in vitro culture. Seeds of Sorghum cultivars were cultured on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962) medium containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl under in vitro condition. After 2 weeks, the effect of salinity was studied on percentage of germination, growth parameters, photosynthetic capacity (total chlorophyll and carotenoids), total anthocyanin, total f...

  8. National Dam Safety Program. Finch Hollow Watershed Project, Site 1. Inventory Number NY-697 Susquehanna River Basin. Broome County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    John Wiley and Sons , - 1969. 6) University of the State of New York, Geology of New York , Education Leaf let 20 , Reprinted 1973. 7) Cornell...S~2 [ NW CPaPS ~4~~ • LLBO* ~J 011k. INT IRNA L ANG~~ Lh01 KOr~)2 ” 9(7’ ELB0W5 13’ O’0~- 1CUS1 ~~~~~~4~ ~45~ ELB~)~IS (1O’DS’~ : isl i-S

  9. National Dam Safety Program. Little Choconut Watershed Site 2B Dam (Inventory Number 721), Susquehanna River Basin, Broome County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    ASSESSMENT/RECOMMENDATIONS 20 7.1 ASSESSMENT 20 7.2 RECOMMENDED MEASURES 21 APPENDICES A. PHOTOGRAPHS B. VISUAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST C. HYDROLOGIC...I I I I I I I I APPENDIX B I VISUAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST I I I I I I I VISUAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST 1) Basic Data a. General Name of Dam Little...010iMiTS N i NO4ARD SAMPLE WA uchl) DSE E OW- 0 5, JaC QRAVEL CLASS- -~~~ - - ICATIAM UILIS’A DR OPTMU 2 L - , - Caw[E DEISIAT I liull M, Dio #4 2 5/ P 1

  10. Reconsolidation of Crushed Salt to 250°C Under Hydrostatic and Shear Stress Conditions Scott Broome, Frank Hansen, and SJ Bauer Sandia National Laboratories, Geomechanics Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    Design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste require knowledge of thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt. Mechanical properties, Bulk (K) and Elastic (E) Moduli and Poisson's ratio (ν) are functions of porosity which decreases as the surrounding salt creeps inward and compresses granular salt within the rooms, drifts or shafts. To inform salt repository evaluations, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine K, E, and ν of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity and temperature and to establish the deformational processes by which the salt reconsolidates. The experiments will be used to populate the database used in the reconsolidation model developed by Callahan (1999) which accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent on effective stress to account for the effects of porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 105 °C for a few days. Undeformed right-circular cylindrical sample assemblies of unconsolidated granular salt with an initial porosity of ~ 40%, nominally 10 cm in diameter and 17.5 cm in length, are jacketed in lead. Samples are placed in a pressure vessel and kept at test temperatures of 100, 175 or 250 °C; samples are vented to the atmosphere during the entire test procedure. At these test conditions the consolidating salt is always creeping, the creep rate increases with increasing temperature and stress and decreases as porosity decreases. In hydrostatic tests, confining pressure is increased to 20 MPa with periodic unload/reload loops to determine K. Volume strain increases with increasing temperature. In shear tests at 2.5 and 5 MPa confining pressure, after confining pressure is applied, the crushed salt is subjected to a differential stress, with periodic unload/reload loops to determine E and ν. At predetermined differential stress levels the stress is held constant and the salt consolidates. Displacement gages mounted on the samples show little lateral deformation until the samples reach a porosity of ~10%. Interestingly, vapor is vented in tests at 250°C and condenses at the vent port. Release of water is not observed in the lower two test temperatures. It is hypothesized that the water originates from fluid inclusions, which were made accessible by intragranular deformational processes including decrepitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Restriction enzyme improves the efficiency of genetic transformations in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease in Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Julio Fagundes Lopes; Marisa Vieira de Queiroz; Juliana de Oliveira Lima; Viviane Aline Oliveira Silva; Elza Fernandes Araújo

    2008-01-01

    The presence of restriction enzymes in the transformation mixture improved the efficiency of transformation in Moniliophthora perniciosa. The influence of the vector shape (linear or circular), the patterns of plasmid integration in genomic sites and the influence of the promoter used to express the gene marker were also analyzed. The addition of BamHI or NotI increased the number of transformants by 3-10-fold and 3-fold, respectively, over the control without added enzyme. The use of pre-lin...

  12. First report of 16SrII-C subgroup phytoplasma causing phyllody and witches’-broom disease in Soybean in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.; Owati, A.; Madata, C.S.; Joosten, M.; Beed, F.; Lava Kumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean production in Tanzania is steadily increasing, driven by growing demand from feed and livestock producers and also for human consumption. Soybean production area has increased from 795 ha in 2003 to 4,100 ha in 2013 (FAO 2014). Major soybean production is in the Morogro, Ruvuma, Iringa, and

  13. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cacao WRKY transcription factors and analysis of their expression in response to witches' broom disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Dayanne; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Del-Bem, Luiz-Eduardo; Bronze dos Santos, Emily; Santana Silva, Raner José; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types. The 61 putative WRKY sequences were distributed on the 10 cacao chromosomes and 24 of them came from duplication events. The sequences were phylogenetically organized according to the general WRKY groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroups IIa and IIb are sister groups and share a common ancestor, as well as subgroups IId and IIe. The most divergent groups according to the plant origin were IIc and III. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 7 TcWRKY genes were selected and analyzed by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant cacao plants infected (or not) with M. perniciosa. Some TcWRKY genes presented interesting responses to M. perniciosa such as Tc01_p014750/Tc06_p013130/AtWRKY28, Tc09_p001530/Tc06_p004420/AtWRKY40, Tc04_p016130/AtWRKY54 and Tc10_p016570/ AtWRKY70. Our results can help to select appropriate candidate genes for further characterization in cacao or in other Theobroma species. PMID:29084273

  14. Avaliação dos efeitos do extrato de Baccharis trimera (carqueja) sobre parâmetros metabólicos e de estresse oxidativo em modelo de diabetes melito tipo 1 induzido por aloxano em ratas.

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Natália Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    O diabetes mellitus tipo 1 é uma doença caracterizada pela destruição das células beta pancreáticas com consequente deficiência na secreção da insulina, resultando em hiperglicemia. As complicações do diabetes são onerosas para a saúde pública e de prejuízos irreparáveis para o portador da doença, pois abrange aspectos clínicos e sociais. Uma das causas das complicações do diabetes é o aumento do estresse oxidativo, situação na qual há um desequilíbrio entre as espécies reativas e as defesas ...

  15. Tc-cAPX, a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase of Theobroma cacao L. engaged in the interaction with Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causing agent of witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, Luciana Rodrigues; Filadelfo, Ciro Ribeiro; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2013-12-01

    The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plants signalizes the induction of several genes, including that of ascorbate peroxidase (APX-EC 1.11.1.11). APX isoenzymes play a central role in the elimination of intracellular H2O2 and contribute to plant responses to diverse stresses. During the infection process in Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora perniciosa oxidative stress is generated and the APX action recruited from the plant. The present work aimed to characterize the T. cacao APX involved in the molecular interaction of T. cacao-M. perniciosa. The peroxidase activity was analyzed in protein extracts from cocoa plants infected by M. perniciosa and showed the induction of peroxidases like APX in resistant cocoa plants. The cytosolic protein of T. cacao (GenBank: ABR68691.2) was phylogenetically analyzed in relation to other peroxidases from the cocoa genome and eight genes encoding APX proteins with conserved domains were also analyzed. The cDNA from cytosolic APX was cloned in pET28a and the recombinant protein expressed and purified (rTc-cAPX). The secondary structure of the protein was analyzed by Circular Dichroism (CD) displaying high proportion of α-helices when folded. The enzymatic assay shows stable activity using ascorbate and guaiacol as an electron donor for H2O2 reduction. The pH 7.5 is the optimum for enzyme activity. Chromatographic analysis suggests that rTc-cAPX is a homodimer in solution. Results indicate that the rTc-cAPX is correctly folded, stable and biochemically active. The purified rTc-cAPX presented biotechnological potential and is adequate for future structural and functional studies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15133-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EU651838_3( EU651838 |pid:none) Jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma ... 44 0.005 ( P46772 ) RecName: Full=30S...witches'-broom phytoplasma ... 44 0.005 FJ154857_3( FJ154857 |pid:none) Jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma...FJ154849_3( FJ154849 |pid:none) Jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma ... 44 0.005 AY332656_3( AY332656 |pid:none)...AY197672_3( AY197672 |pid:none) Spartium witches'-broom phytoplasm... 43 0.009 (Q1ISB6) RecName: Full=30S...EF199933_3( EF199933 |pid:none) Paulownia witches'-broom phytoplas... 37 0.85 (Q0ABG9) RecName: Full=30S

  17. Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Closure (Withdrawal of Units) of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Creeper Certhia americana House Wren Troglodytes aedon Cactus Wren Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula Western...harbor, etc.) Rosmarinus officinalis prostratus (Dwarf Rosemary) Baccharis pilularis (Coyote Brush) Shrubs Dodonaea viscosa "Purpureat"(Hopseed Bush

  18. Le sacrum de Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q ( Australopithecus africanus): nouvelles données sur la croissance et sur l'âge osseux du spécimen (hommage à R. Broom et J.T. Robinson) . The sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q (Australopithecus africanus): new data on the growth and on the osseus age of the specimen (homage to R. Broom and J.T. Robinson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Christine; Gommery, Dominique

    1999-08-01

    The fossil sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14Q ( Australopithecus africanus) was compared with 96 human sacrums of known age so as to reveal its growth stage. Robinson (1972) noticed the presence of an immature trait (unfused intervertebral disc between S1 and S2) in this individual which in other respects is supposed to be a fully matured adult. Our study brings us to define a "sub-adult" category corresponding to a class between the ages of 16 to 25 years in modern humans. Sts 14Q had the same state of maturation, which corresponds to a post-pubertal individual which had not finished its growth concerning the sacral breadth, and probably the pelvic breadth.

  19. Isolation and identification of the constituents from Ruscus aculeatus L. and their in vitro activity

    OpenAIRE

    Barbic, Matej

    2011-01-01

    Ruscus aculeatus L., also known as Butcher’s Broom, Kneeholy, Jew's Myrtle or Sweet Broom, belongs to the family Ruscaceae and is sometimes also classified in the families of Liliaceae, Asparagaceae or Convallariaceae. Main constituents of the underground parts of R. aculeatus are steroidal saponins, where both spirostanols and furostanols occur. Traditionally, rhizomes of Butcher's Broom were used for the treatment of inflammations, as a diuretic laxative and for the treatment of hemorrhoids...

  20. 77 FR 45373 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...., Binghamton, 12000531 General Cigar Company--Ansco Camera Factory Building, (Industrial Resources of Broome..., 12000533 Kings County Loew's Kings Theatre, 1027 Flatbush Ave., Brooklyn, 12000534 Westchester County...

  1. 75 FR 13337 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ..., extension 623. Public Agency: Broome County Department of Aviation, Johnson City, New York. Application.... Decision Date: December 23, 2009. For Further Information Contact: Amy Hanson, Chicago Airports District...

  2. 76 FR 33360 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    .... R63, Indianola, 11000393 KANSAS Sedgwick County Broom Corn Warehouse, 416 S. Commerce, Wichita..., Missouri MPS) Address Restricted, Kansas City, 11000399 Miller County Union Electric Administration...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15995-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01-1... 56 0.002 2 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 42 0.003 19 ( CP000743...CP000061_289( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 35 9.2 >E71622( E71622 )probable

  4. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    23Thomas M. Huber, Michael D. Pearlman, Jerry D. Morelock, Jerold E. Brown, John T. Broom, Gary J. Bjorge , Randall...Pearlman, Jerry D. Morelock, Jerold E. Brown, John T. Broom, Gary J. Bjorge , Randall N. Briggs, and Robert F. Baumann. Compound Warfare–That Fatal Knot

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09760-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 0.019 9 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 36 0.021 20 ( FG337391 )...CP000061_339( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 35 8.3 >AC116956_77( AC116956 |pid:none)

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15103-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 38 2.9 3 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 34 2.9 16 ( BJ414368 ) Dictyostelium...CP000061_529( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 37 2.1 CS163776_1( CS163776 |pid:none) Sequence

  7. Future spaceborne ocean missions using high sensitivity multiple-beam radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2014-01-01

    Design considerations concerning a scanning as well as a push-broom microwave radiometer system are presented. Strict requirements to spatial and radiometric resolution leads to a multiple-beam scanner achieving good sensitivity through integration over many beams, or to a push-broom system where...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0388 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0388 ref|YP_456746.1| phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase [Aster yellows witches...'-broom phytoplasma AYWB] gb|ABC65667.1| phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase [Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB] YP_456746.1 2e-06 35% ...

  9. Evapotranspiration data at Starkey pasture site, Pasco County, Florida, January 2010 - April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data release consists of evapotranspiration measurements made at the USGS Starkey pasture climate station beginning January 1, 2010 and ending April 30, 2016. Annual ET rates corrected to a near-surface energy-budget for the 12 calendar years of record at this site (2004-2015) varied from 718 mm (2007) to 903 mm (2010). The eddy-covariance method was used, with high-frequency sensors installed above the pasture to measure sensible and latent heat fluxes. Ancillary meteorological data are also included in the data set: net radiation, soil temperature and moisture, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, and ground-water levels. Data were collected at 30-minute resolution, with evapotranspiration corrected to the near-surface energy-budget at that timescale. Related data sets are presented at 30-minute, daily, and monthly time intervals. The study was conducted at a nearly flat, non-irrigated site (latitude 28 13 31 N and longitude 82 33 33 W, (in degrees minutes and seconds, NAD 1927), Section 13, Township 26S, Range 17E) within the Anclote River Ranch property owned by the Southwest Florida Water Management District in Pasco County, Florida. Instrumentation was installed in April 2003. The dominant (about 80 percent of surface coverage) plant cover at the study site is bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) that varies from a lush green during the summer to a drab brown during the winter. The bahiagrass is ungrazed and grass height can reach 0.5 meter (m). During the study, the pasture was mowed periodically to 0.2 m. Vegetation tables provided with each data release list when mowing occurred. Maximum grass rooting depth at the site is about 0.5 m. Other plants at the study site, intermixed with the bahiagrass and occurring as distinct patches, include bushy broom grass (Andropogon glomeratus), rush (Juncus spp.), dog fennel (Eupatorium capillifolium), flat-topped goldenrod (Euthamia minor), and groundsel

  10. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  11. 77 FR 27537 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... rehabilitation, phase I. Purchase airport snow removal truck/plow. Design and construct noise mitigation measures.... Runway high speed snow removal broom. Taxiway R extension and road relocation--construction. PFC...

  12. Short communication Population structure and genetic trends for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-23

    Carolino & Gama, 2008;. Oltenacu & Broom, 2010). The loss of genetic diversity due to increased inbreeding within cattle breeds has been reported to have negative effects on some production and fitness traits in dairy (Oltenacu ...

  13. OLCI/SENTINEL-3A L1 Reduced Resolution Top of Atmosphere Reflectance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board European Earth Observation satellite mission, SENTINEL-3, is a push-broom imaging spectrometer that measures...

  14. OLCI/SENTINEL-3A L1 Full Resolution Top of Atmosphere Reflectance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board European Earth Observation satellite mission, SENTINEL-3, is a push-broom imaging spectrometer that measures...

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Hercules Tanker Plane Recapitalization at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    grassland community include sand sage brush ( Artemisia tridentata), winter fat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), and broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae...agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers . HC/MC-130 Recapitalization Final EA 49 Historically, the aviation sector is responsible for

  16. Tualatin River - Bump/Brenner Riparian Forest Pre-Restoration Invasive Plant Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project seeks to intensively treat a 38–acre subunit of the refuge heavily infested with red hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius),...

  17. 37 CFR 6.2 - Prior U.S. schedule of classes of goods and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-metal ware. 29 Brooms, brushes, and dusters. 30 Crockery, earthenware, and porcelain. 31 Filters and..., parasols, and umbrellas. 42 Knitted, netted, and textile fabrics, and substitutes therefor. 43 Thread and...

  18. Reframing Teacher Education for Democratic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahley, Lisa; D'Arpino, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a partnership between teacher education students at SUNY Broome and students at a local elementary school that led to all participants gaining a stronger sense of themselves as civic change agents in their communities.

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Use of White Phosphorus Rockets at Melrose Air Force Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    dactyloides), and broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) along Canada del Tule. Prickly pear and cholla ( Opuntia spp.) occur throughout Melrose AFR...101 West First, County Courthouse, Portales, NM 88130 Commissioner Gene Creighton, 101 West First, County Courthouse, Portales, NM 88130 Bill

  20. 3(2) NEW.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    estimated one-fifth of the patients attending the primary care physician's office do so on account of LBP (7). It has also been estimated that thirteen million physician office visits have been attributed to chronic ...... Lean-over posture with traditional broom. 41 (75.9). 13 (24.1). 54 (100.0). Stand erect with broom-stick. 66 (78.6).

  1. Operational Analysis of Time-Optimal Maneuvering for Imaging Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Earth orbit EOS Earth Observing Satellite EPS Electrical Power System AOI Area of Interest ROI Return on Investment AHP Analytic Hierarchy Process...absorption to reduce spacecraft systems’ reliance on internal Electrical Power System (EPS). d. Targeting imaging equipment and sensor systems at AOIs for...image collection. Instead of sweeping the imaging sensors from side to side (whisk- broom or push- broom mode3), the entire spacecraft body is able to

  2. Fast and Deterministic Computation of Fixation Probability in Evolutionary Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    and Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science United States Military Academy West Point, NY email: paulo.shakarian@usma.edu Patrick Roos Dept...18) 2006, 188104. [6] M. Broom , C. Hadjichrysanthou, J. Rychtar, B. T. Stadler, Two results on evolutionary processes on general non-directed graphs...Journal of Com- putational and Mathematical Sciences 2 (1). [9] M. Broom , J. Rychtář, An analysis of the fixation probability of a mutant on special

  3. Killer yeasts inhibit the growth of the phytopathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' Broom disease Leveduras micocinogênicas inibem o crescimento do fitopatógeno Moniliophthora perniciosa, o agente causador da doença Vassoura-de-bruxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Cabral

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and soil yeasts isolated from the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforests and an organic farm were screened for killer activity against yeasts. Killer yeasts were then tested against the phytopathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa (syn. Crinipellis perniciosa and a Dipodascus capitatus strain and a Candida sp strain inhibited its growth.Leveduras de frutas e de solo isoladas da Floresta Amazônica, Mata Atlântica e de uma fazenda orgânica foram selecionadas em uma triagem para atividade micocinogênica. As estirpes micocinogênicas foram posteriormente testadas frente a Moniliophthora perniciosa (syn. Crinipellis perniciosa. Uma estirpe de Dipodascus capitatus e outra de Candida sp.inibiram o crescimento deste fitopatógeno.

  4. Efeito de nutrientes combinados com indutores de resistência na proteção contra a vassoura-de-bruxa no cacaueiro Effect of nutrients combined with inducers of resistance on the protection of cocoa seedlings against witches' broom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Lettiere do Socorro Santos da Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Na busca por novos indutores de resistência contra a vassoura-de-bruxa no cacaueiro avaliou-se o efeito de vários nutrientes, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM e a combinação desses nutrientes com ASM. Os produtos e as misturas foram pulverizados 30 dias antes da inoculação nas mudas do clone SIC-23. Foram utilizados os produtos comerciais Supa-potássio®(silicato de potássio, Hortifós® PK (fosfito de potássio e Broadacre® Mn (sulfato de manganês, testados nas dosagens 2,5 mL; 5,0 mL; 10 mL/L de água, isoladamente ou combinados com ASM (0,2g/L. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições de doze plantas/parcela. A incidência da doença foi avaliada 60 dias após a inoculação. Somente o ASM promoveu controle significativo da vassoura-de-bruxa. Os nutrientes aplicados isoladamente não apresentaram efeito na severidade da doença. Por outro lado, o efeito protetor do ASM desapareceu quando este foi misturado ao Supa-potássio®, na dose de 5 ou 10 mL/L.Aiming at improving the level of induction of resistance in cocoa, various nutrients, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM and their combination were tested on cocoa seedlings, clone SIC-23, 30 days before inoculation. The commercial products Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate, Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite and Broadacre® Mn (manganese sulfate were sprayed at doses of 2.5, 5.0 mL and 10.0 mL per liter of water, combined or not, with ASM® (0.2 g/L. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with four replicates of twelve plants each. Disease incidence was assessed 60 days after inoculation. Only ASM promoted significant control of the disease. Nutrients alone had no effect on disease incidence. On the other hand, the protective effect of ASM disappeared when this product was mixed to Supa-potássio at 5 or 10 mL/L.

  5. Characterization of α-amylase produced by the endophytic strain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sideney Becker Onofre, Dirceu Abatti, Douglas Refosco, Amarildo Antonio Tessaro, Jean Alisson Becker Onofre, Alessandra Buss Tessaro ... compare the yields of α-amylase produced by the endophytic fungus, Penicillium digitatum, strain D1-FB, isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae), through the solid ...

  6. Supercritical extraction of carqueja essential oil: experiments and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. F. Vargas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera is a native Brazilian plant which has medicinal properties. In this work a method of supercritical extraction was studied to obtain the popularly essential oil from Baccharis trimera, known as carqueja. The aim was to obtain experimental data and to compare two mathematical models used in the simulation of carqueja (Baccharis trimera oil extraction by supercritical CO2. The two mathematical models are based on mass transfer. One of the models, proposed by Reverchon, is solved numerically and requires two adjustable parameters from the experimental data. The other model chosen is the one proposed by Sovová. This model is solved analytically and requires four adjustable parameters. Numerical results are presented and discussed for the adjusted parameters. The experimental results are obtained in a temperature range of 313.15 K to 343.15 K at 90 bar. The extraction yield of carqueja essential oil using supercritical carbon dioxide ranged between 1.72 % (w/w at 323.15 K and 2.34 % (w/w at 343.15 K, 90 bar with a CO2 flow rate of 3.34.10-8 m³/s for a 0.0015 kg sample of Baccharis trimera.

  7. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  8. Antifungal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity activity of extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-15

    Jul 15, 2015 ... Phytolacca tetramera Hauman. J. Nat. Prod. 71(10):1720-1725. Fukuda M, Ohkoshi E, Makino M, Fujimoto Y (2006). Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Astaraceae) and their cytotoxic activity. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 54(10): 1465-1468. Jiménez M, Huerta T, Mateo R (1997).

  9. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material Monitoring Program. 1996 Annual report (Base Year Through Fy1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    coccinea and showy species such as Ludwigia decurrens, Ludwigia octovalvis, Bidens frondosa, Aster tenuifolius, and Aster subulatus. There were...fresh or brackish - Baccharis haiimifolia L shrub; elevated sites in fresh to saline marshes groundselbush - Bidens frondosa L - B...perennial; freshwater marsh, pond and stream margins Conyza bonariensis (L) Cronq hairy fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis) winter annual; fields and

  10. Final Environmental Assessment: Falcon 9 and Falcon 9 Heavy Launch Vehicle Programs from Space Launch Complex 4 East at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    dominant native species at this site are coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis), California sagebrush ( Artemisia californica), mock heather (Ericameria...Force Base: Population size, reproductive success, and management. Unpublished Report. Point Reyes Bird Observatory. Stinson Beach, California. 29 pp...observed. Startle responses are rare and reproductive success does not seem to be affected by launch activities, even near SLC-2 where Delta II

  11. Antifungal, Acute Toxicity and Mutagenicity Activity of Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Baccharis glutinosa, Jacquinia macrocarpa, and Krameria erecta extracts was investigated on the growth and the spore germination of Fusarium verticillioides (ATCC 52539). Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was used to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of the fractions obtained from plant extracts. The butanol ...

  12. Atlantic City Area Wetlands Review Volume 2. Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Tide Dminan GA N i L’ COASTAL MORPHOLOGY AND Inactive Flood Tidal Delta BEACH CLASSIFICATION Ebb Tidal Delta 4oo Wave Dominant Accretional Fgr... Blueberry Vaccinium spp. TDLFA Sea Lettuce DIva lactuca TRANSITION ZONE Eelgrass Zostera marina Algal Species Groundsel-tree Baccharis haiimitoiia

  13. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  14. Limitantes físicos y bióticos de la regeneración arbórea en matorrales sucesionales de la Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile Physical and biotic constraints on tree regeneration in secondary shrublands of Chiloé Island, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA F DÍAZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los matorrales sucesionales establecidos después de la corta y quema de bosques son frecuentes en Chiloé y territorios continentales vecinos. Estos sitios son dominados por arbustos de Baccharis patagonica, musgos en cojín del género Sphagnum, plantas palustres y helechos. En estos sitios hemos registrado escasa o nula colonización arbórea (Successional shrublands created by clearcutting and burning of forests are frequent in Chiloé Island and surrounding mainland in southern Chile. These areas are characterized by seasonally waterlogged soils, and vegetation dominated by sedges, ferns and shrubs, such as Baccharis patagonica, with thick carpets of Sphagnum moss occupying the spaces between shrubs. Tree regeneration in these sites was shown to be sparse or completely lacking (< 0.3 seedlings m-2 compared with 7.2 seedlings m-2 in adjacent forests. Colonization of shade-intolerant, pioneer trees may be reduced underneath Baccharis due to crown shading and on top of Sphagnum cushions, because of unfavorable conditions for tree establishment, including low pH and soil water saturation. We evaluated differences in germination rates among pioneer tree species grown in an experimental soil moisture gradient. Seed germination percentage was low for Drimys winteri and Nothofagus nitida unrelated to humidity conditions but differed between substrates (moss vs. soil. Embothrium had higher germination and survivorship when growing on Sphagnum cushions. We also monitored seedling survival of two pioneer tree species (Embothrium coccineum and Drimys winteri transplanted directly under Baccharis shrubs, in open areas, or on moss patches. Even though survivorship of Embothrium and Drimys under Baccharis was < 40 %, in one of the study sites, there were no differences between treatments. Waterlogged soils would constraint tree regeneration on successional shrublands due to a lack of elevated substrates. However, the presence of Sphagnum cushions favors

  15. Aphandra natalia(Arecaceae – a little known source of piassaba fibers from the western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Kronborg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aphandra natalia(Balslev & Henderson Barfod is a multipurpose palm that is exploited both commercially and for subsistence purposes. Its fibers are important in Peruvian and Ecuadorean broom industries and support many people economically. In Brazil, it is found in the western part of Acre, where it is the main source for a local broom market. Data from fieldwork in Peru (2007 suggests that the variation in gross profit per kilogram of fiber is considerable among the different segments in the broom industry. Harvesters and distributors earn negligible amounts of money whereas manufacturers reap of the major part of the earnings. Fiber extraction appears to be sustainable in Ecuador and in some parts of Peru, whereas in other parts of Peru unsustainable harvest occurs, involving felling of entire palm trees for the harvest of fibers. The same destructive extraction method is used in Brazil, where the palm is becoming rare in its natural distribution area.

  16. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  17. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. Enriz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5’-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1, aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2 and 5’-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3. The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 µg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 µg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 µg/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii.

  18. A determination of the optimum time of year for remotely classifying marsh vegetation from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. [Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A technique was used to determine the optimum time for classifying marsh vegetation from computer-processed LANDSAT MSS data. The technique depended on the analysis of data derived from supervised pattern recognition by maximum likelihood theory. A dispersion index, created by the ratio of separability among the class spectral means to variability within the classes, defined the optimum classification time. Data compared from seven LANDSAT passes acquired over the same area of Louisiana marsh indicated that June and September were optimum marsh mapping times to collectively classify Baccharis halimifolia, Spartina patens, Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemericanus, and Distichlis spicata. The same technique was used to determine the optimum classification time for individual species. April appeared to be the best month to map Juncus roemericanus; May, Spartina alterniflora; June, Baccharis halimifolia; and September, Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. This information is important, for instance, when a single species is recognized to indicate a particular environmental condition.

  19. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    helvola 1 4 6 SaZicornia virginica 1 I I GnaphaZliw’? purpureum I -- 4-.Carduus spp. I-- Baccharis halirnifol-ja10 Irisine rhizomatosa 0 1 Sabatia...capillifoliwn 10 9 -- Toxicodendron rachcans 6 3 68 Eupatorium serotinum 6 3 -- Spartina patens 4 3 -- Mijrica cerifera 4 7 11 Erigeron spp. 4 4 -- So tidago...Rwnex verticillatus -- 1 -- * Steltaria media I-1- Pyrrhopappus caroliniana I-1- N Lactuca canadensis -- 1 Eupatorium capillifoliwn - 1 -- Cenothera

  20. Plantas medicinais: efeito sobre insetos-praga e seus inimigos naturais

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Silva Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, entre as plantas medicinais Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae), Artemisia abisinthium L. e A. verlotorum L. (Asteraceae), Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart. (Leguminosae), Baccharis trimera Less. (Asteraceae), Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Caesalpinaceae), Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), qual (ais) possui (em) potencial inseticida para uso agrícola condizente com os princípios da Agroecologia. Diferent...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 2012 ... Y Dodehe, K Ernest, BA dit Philipp, T Antoine, B Calixte, M Souleymane, D Joseph, G-G Frédéri. Vol 14, No 11 (2015), In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less ... S Dewanjee, M Kundu, A Maiti, R Majumdar, A Majumdar, S C Mandel. Vol 15, No 8 (2016), In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effect of ...

  2. Actividad antifungica de extractos de plantas usadas en medicina popular en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Davicino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos pueden causar enfermedades en humanos, especialmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. En este estudio, extractos de 10 plantas utilizadas en medicina popular en Argentina fueron ensayadas para estudiar la actividad antifúngica in vitro contra 4 cepas de hongos. De todas las plantas testeadas, solo 4 mostraron actividad antifúngica: Larrea divaricata Cav, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum D.C, Baccharis trimera Less y Schinus terebenthifolius.

  3. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    OpenAIRE

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho; Ary Vieira de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves prev...

  4. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Redko, Flavia del Carmen; Muschietti, Liliana Victoria; Campos, Rodolfo Hector; Martino, Virginia Susana; Cavallaro, Lucia Vicenta

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sag...

  5. Master Plan, Tucson Diversion Channel, Recreation Development Program. Gila River and Tributaries, Arizona and New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    shrubs and a few cholla cactus (Sorghum, Phalaris, Baccharis, Psilostrophe, Opuntia , and Larrea) . (See photo 5.) On the inner slope of the...fruition. If you need any further clarifications or assistance, please do not hesitate to contact myself, or Gene Laos, Parks and Recreation Director...CAMc:mp cc: Dennis Majors Corps of Engineers Los Angeles District Gene Laos Director Pima County Parks ( Recreation A-4 ; PIMA COUNTY

  6. Forecasters Handbook for the Middle East/Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    particular phenomenon. No original m eteoro logical /oceanographic research was involved in prep - aration of this Handbook; however, climatological information...VIB Broome VIO VIC Canberra AXM AXM VIX Carnarvon Vic Vic *Darwin AXI AXI VID VID Esperance VIE VIE Hobart VIH Melbourne vim vim Perth VIP VIP

  7. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    usage or expressions which varies in meaning. For instance, the original word for 'Broom' in Yoruba dialect is ' ', which has changed to. 'Ig al ' nowadays. So also is .... urf in the speech of the Arabs is an infinitive noun of ma c ruf ,which according to c. Abbas al-Nadwi, a lexicographer is. “something universally accepted ...

  8. Association mapping of fruit, seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    An association mapping approach was employed to find markers for color, size, girth and mass of fruits; seed number and butterfat content; and resistance to black pod and witches’ broom diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  9. Breeding for disease resistance in cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao production must increase in order to meet the projected rise in the demand for chocolate. Approximately one-third of global production is lost annually to diseases and insects. Four diseases account for the greatest losses worldwide: black pod, caused by four Phytophthora spp; witches’ broom...

  10. Cacao diseases: A history of old enemies and new encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book reviews the current knowledge of cacao pathogens and their management methods. Topics discussed include the history, biology, and genetic diversity of Moniliophthora (causing witches’ broom and frosty pod rot) and Phytophthora species (causing black pod rot) that cause diseases resulting i...

  11. Indicators and associated decay of Engelmann spruce in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1966-01-01

    Average cull deductions for 11 cull indicators were determined from over 2,000 abnormalities on 1,027 merchantable Engelmann spruce in 21 stands throughout Colorado. On a board-foot basis, Fomes pini punk knots or sporophores caused an 81 percent deduction. Deduction for broken tops or dead tops with adjacent dead rust brooms amounted to 24 percent....

  12. New records of some Ascomycete truffle fungi from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz TÜRKOÐLU; Michael Angelo CASTELLANO

    2014-01-01

    We report the first records of 6 Ascomycete truffle taxa in Turkey: Genea verrucosa Vittad., Genea klotzschii Berk. & Broome, Stephensia bombycina (Vittad.) Tul. & C.Tul., Terfezia olbiensis Tul. & C.Tul., Tuber excavatum Vittad., and Tuber rufum Pico. We also...

  13. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  14. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  15. International Journal of Arts and Humanities(IJAH) Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    pharmaceutical products, livestock feeds and as lubricants for industrial machines. The need for cash in the newly .... houses, the vines were used for making brooms and the palm frond was used for making baskets and ropes. The fibre extracted from palm oil processing was used as fuel by the women. The palm tree was ...

  16. Bromidegehalte in graanprodukten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, F.G.

    1980-01-01

    Verlaging van het bromidegehalte in het voedselpakket door inventarisatie van de bronnen van besmetting. De ADI voor anorganisch broom is 10 mg/dag (RIV voorstel). De gemiddelde dagelijkse opname via het voedsel is 9,9 mg per dag (CIVO onderzoek - Vos R. H. de (1978 ) Voedingsmiddelen technologie

  17. Field Report : Anna Plains and Roebuck Bay Benthic Invertebrate Mapping 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Hickey, Robert; Rogers, Danny; Holthuijsen, Sander; Estrella, Sora-Marin; de Goeij, Petra; Findlay, Naomi; Storey, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    This project has been funded by the Department of Parks and Wildlife partnership with BHP Billiton “Eighty Mile Beach and Walyarta Conservation Program”, with in-kind support from NIOZ and Wetland Research & Management This report was produced at the Broome Bird Observatory in late October 2016.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2_092 Ceratonia siliqua flowers cDNA... 44 4.7 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB,... 4.7 1 ( DR393671 ) USDA-FP_153604 Adult Alate Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 44 4.7 1 ( FD381772 ) CeSi_F3_T7_C1

  19. Vacuum cleaner injury to penis: a common urologic problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R C

    1985-01-01

    Erotic stimulation by the use of vacuum cleaners or electric brooms appears to be a common form of masturbation. Unfortunately, and contrary to apparent public appreciation, injury due to this form of autostimulation may not be unusual. Five cases of significant penile trauma resulting from this form of masturbation are presented, with a spectrum of severe injuries, including loss of the glans penis.

  20. Comparative Measurement of Stream Flow in the Ethiope River for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates comparative measurement of stream flow in the Ethiope River for small hydropower development. Two methods – the Float and Current Meter or Bridge Broom Methods were investigated and values compared to determine best method for optimal power generation. Depth and width measurements ...

  1. Cloning and characterization of the immunodominant membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the MYD Amp gene consisted of 702 nt encoding a predicted protein of 233 aa which was highly similar to Amp of ''Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris'', sumac witches'-broom phytoplasma (SWB) strain and mulberry dwarf phytoplasma (MD) strain. Prediction of protein structure showed that the ...

  2. Rend Lake, Illinois (Operation and Maintenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Canada Poa compressa Bluegrass, Kentucky Poa pratensis Brachyelytrum Brachyelytrum spP. Brome-Grass Bromus spp. Broom-sedge Andropogon virginicus...Polioptila caerulea %Golden-crowned Kinglet Reuus satrapa Ruby-crowned Kinglet Reuus calendu ~a Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta **Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla

  3. A European Identity: Too Much to Hope For

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    right/a- 18802468. 55 vocabulary .”231 One of the AfD’s most significant spokesmen, the new broom Thuringian schoolteacher Björn Höcke, has been...decade ago. AfD was founded only in 2013 yet the political gains have been consistent in the face of crises that few foresaw and the mastery of

  4. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  5. Morphological Characterization of Fungal Disease on Tapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the color of the mycelia changes into black and it densely covered the whole surface of the. Petri dish. The color of the .... woodlands explained by climate and soil- stress gradients. Forest Ecology and ... (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of the Crinipelli sperniciosa, causal agent of. Witches Broom disease.

  6. 78 FR 61451 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Taylor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... or manmade factors, including low genetic diversity, small or isolated populations, low reproductive... and modified by encroaching trees, nonnative grasses, and the invasive, nonnative shrub Scot's broom... adult nymphalid butterflies (butterflies in the family Nymphalidae) (Murphy et al. 2004, p. 22; Page et...

  7. 75 FR 63103 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging and Transportation Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... reservations? (a) You must make your lodging reservations through your agency's travel management service. (b...Rooms Web site, and hotel reservation call centers). The FedRooms rate code (XVU) must be entered to get... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES...

  8. COCOS NUCIFERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... rat hind paw, hypotonicity induced haemolysis of human red blood cells and indomethacin – induced .... making baskets, masts rope, hats, brushes and broom. The palm leaves are used as a .... evaluated by incubating various concentrations of the extract with red blood cells and distilled water. This assay ...

  9. 78 FR 57213 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... construction. Electrical vault. Taxiway H construction. Storm water update. Gulfstream Road/tunnel design. Airfield electrical vault design. Taxiway A design. Taxiway H design. Decision Date: September 18, 2012... Collection and Use: Purchase of runway broom. Decision Date: September 18, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  10. 77 FR 14584 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    .... Hangar tail dock; 665 electrical/insulation; water study. Electrical/insulation of hangars 661, 663, 664... removal tractor. Friction measuring equipment and tow vehicle. Plow truck with broom and deicing equipment... account audit cost reimbursement. Topping trees in runway 25 approach. Electrical rehabilitation of...

  11. Centrality Measures of Dynamic Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    electrically charged particles and the edges were springs. Equation 1 represents the energy of the physical system, which is repeated until...CII A S H YOUNG ATTN RDRL CII B BROOME ATTN RDRL CII B L TOKARCIK ATTN RDRL CII B R WINKLER ATTN RDRL CII T V M HOLLAND

  12. Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties, Acute Toxicity and Immuno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Methanolic extract of the plant was assessed for antibacterial activity against ... Scoparia dulcis (sweet broom weed or licorice weed) ... Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C.): M.I.C. was .... Resarch Journal of Biological Sciences. ... Phytochemical analysis and Antimicrobial activity of Scoparia dulcis and ...

  13. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Nations, 1972). Bamboo is used for construction of houses, huts, boats, fences, props and furniture; as raw material for paper pulp; planted as ornamental or boundary marker; used to support banana plants; split stems used for brooms, baskets (Ohrnberger, 1999). In rural Tanzania, a bamboo pipe network is being used for.

  14. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    for making brooms and roofing materials. The thicker leaf stalk is used for making the walls of village huts. The bark of the frond is peeled and woven into baskets while the trunk (main stem) can be split and used as supporting frames in buildings. A sap tapped from the male flower is drunk as palm wine, which is a source of ...

  15. Phytoplasma adapt to the diverse environments of their plant and insect hosts by altering gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are intracellular insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria with small genomes. To understand how Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) adapts to their hosts, we performed qRT-PCR analysis of 179 in silico functionally annotated AY-WB genes that are likely to have...

  16. 70001: From Soaps to Hopes for School Dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Donna Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities and achievements of Broome County Catholic Youth Organization 70001, a unique program for economically disadvantaged youth and high school dropouts, which offers preemployment training, educational upgrading, motivational activities, and job placement assistance. Explains the benefits for the young participants, community,…

  17. Postimehe fotograaf võitis konkursi "Eesti foto 2004" / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumi ja fotoajakirja "Cheese" fotokonkursil osales 67 fotograafi. Grand prix' võitis Ove Maidla broomõlitehnikas fotodega, millel kujutatakse maastikke, aega ja inimesi. Järgnesid Kristo Rihm, Anu Vahtra ja Märten Kross. Parim noor fotograaf oli Laura Nõmmik

  18. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    1Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar university, Agra- 282004, India. 2Department of Botany, RBS College, Agra- 282004, India. Accepted 1 ... K2O. 14%. 32.48 kg method of rapid multiplication in potatoes (Ranalli et al.,. 1994) and in blueberry by Zimmerman and Broome.

  19. Hale som blev til hoved og andre resultater fra Galathea3´s havslangeprojekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Under Galathea3 ekspeditionen blev der iagttaget og indsamlet havslanger fra følgende tre områder: Broome (nord west Australien), Great Barrier Reef og Giza, Solomonøerne. Data er blandt andet blevet brugt til at, fremsætte hypoteser omkring haler som imiterer hoveder, producere nye...

  20. Phytoplasma-host interactions: tomato gibberellin homeostasis and its role in defense against potato purple top phytoplasma infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria that parasitize plant phloem sieve cells and cause numerous diseases in diverse plant species. Plants infected by phytoplasmas often exhibit symptoms such as general stunting, excessive shoot proliferation, witches’-broom growth, rapid senescence, and a...

  1. Results of Environmental Measurements on the North-West Shelf and Eastern Indian Ocean (April-May 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Experimental Method The Bureau of Meteorology made available the following records from Broome and Port Hedland:- Radiosonde flights Radar winds Surface...of the same institution for the use of his fluerometery equipment. I would also like to acknowledge Mr. R. Mackenzie of the Bureau of Meteorology who

  2. Lack of mirror use by pigs to locate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Elise T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314411240; Mijdam, Elco; van der Staay, F. Josef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653; Nordquist, Rebecca E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296303291

    Many mammalian species, as well as birds, are able to use a mirror either in the context of self-recognition, or instrumentally for discovering and manipulating objects that cannot be perceived directly. A noteworthy study by Broom et al. (2009) investigated the ability of pigs (Sus scrofa) to use a

  3. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-behind broom). Acquire snow removal equipment (motor grader). Security vehicle. Construction of snow... Description of Project Approved for Collection and Use: Security enhancements. Taxiways B, C, and D.... Perimeter fencing. Perimeter road bridge over Howell Avenue--design and construction. Cargo deicer...

  4. ONLINE MULTITASKING LINE-SCAN IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR SIMULTANEOUS SAFETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF APPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lab developed a push-broom, line-scan imaging system capable of simultaneous measurements of reflectance and fluorescence. The system allows multitasking inspections for quality and safety attributes of apples due to its dynamic capabilities in simultaneously capturing fluorescence and reflectan...

  5. ~ Nigerian VeterinaryJournal ARTIClE-------------------------------------------

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    noise, vibrations, poor air quality, and lack of water and feed (BROOM, 2000,. HARTUNG, 2003). .... Statistical analysis. Excitability score for each period of measurement were summed and results are presented as percentiles. Data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Minitab version 16.00 and the data are.

  6. Selecting the video frequency bandwidth for a remote-sensing opto-electronic scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, H.; Oertel, D.

    1980-10-01

    The present analysis deals with the influence of the videochannel harmonic response characteristic of a push-broom scanner on the spatial transmission function and the signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that when detector noise is prevalent, the video frequency bandwidth influences both the transmission function and the SNR, but influences only the transmission function when the photonoise prevails.

  7. Terrain mapping camera for Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shadowed polar regions and in a detailed study of regions of scientific interest. The digital ele- vation model available from TMC along with the Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) on. Chandrayaan-1 could improve the Moon gravity model. TMC is configured for imaging in the push broom-mode within the panchromatic ...

  8. 77 FR 61937 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Taylor's Checkerspot Butterfly and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... invasive plants; Predation; Inadequate existing regulatory mechanisms that allow significant threats such..., generally consisting of a minimum of 3 days of visits during the flight period, and occasionally numbering... and modified by encroaching trees, nonnative grasses, and the invasive, nonnative shrub Scot's broom...

  9. An Expert System for Managing Storage Space Constraints Aboard United States Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    data, or b. 12 months of demand history data has been entered in the C: \\W2WsnPUS.M3 spre teet . Execute File/save and you are now ready to create the...the broom or brush rinsed immediately. Sweepings must not be carried dry for disposal because the dust is dangerous in shipboard drafts. organic

  10. Novel laser contact probe for periodontal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Kataoka, Kenzo; Ishikawa, Isao

    2001-04-01

    Application of the erbium: YAG laser to periodontal treatment has been attempted and preferable results have been reported for calculus removal, vaporization of granulation tissue, periodontal pocket sterilization and so on. However, it has been difficult to reach and treat some conditions involving complex root morphology and furcated rots with conventional probes. The new broom probe was designed and tested to overcome these obstacles. The probe was made of 20 super-fine optical fibers bound into a broom shape. The experiments were carried out to evaluate the destructive power of a single fiber and to examine the morphology of tissue destruction and the accessibility to a bifurcated root of a human tooth using the broom probe. The Er:YAG laser prototype was used. A flat specimen plate was made by cutting the root of a cow tooth and then attached to an electrically operated table and irradiated under various conditions. The specimens were examined with both an optical and scanning electron microscope. The irradiated surfaces were also examined with a roughness meter. An irradiation applied with a single fiber with an energy level of 1 to 1.5 mJ at its tip results in a destruction depth of 3 to 24 micrometers . The optimum conditions for the fibers of this probe was 1.0 mJ at 10 pps and a scanning speed of 100 mm/min. No part of the tooth surface remained un-irradiated after using the broom probe to cover the surface 5 times parallel to the tooth axis and then five times at a 30 degree angle to the previous irradiation at a power of 20 mJ at 10 pps. Also curved and irregular surface were destroyed to a maximum depth of 19 micrometers . In conclusion, these results suggest that the broom probe would be applicable for periodontal laser treatments even if the tooth surface has a complex and irregular shape.

  11. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  12. Estudios etnobotánicos en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata, Argentina: Productos de plantas medicinales introducidos por inmigrantes paraguayos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio A. Hurrell; Jeremías P. Puentes; Patricia M. Arenas

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo incluye resultados parciales de una línea de investigación en Etnobotánica urbana, que estudia los conocimientos locales sobre las plantas, sus partes y productos derivados en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata. Se incluyen productos de plantas medicinales de reciente ingreso en el área de estudio a través de inmigrantes oriundos de Paraguay. Los productos corresponden a 10 especies: Achyrocline alata(“jateí-ka’á”), Baccharis gaudichaudiana (“jaguareté-ka’á”), Cuphea lysimachio...

  13. One or two species? A morphometric comparison between robust australopithecines from Kromdraai and Swartkrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Cofran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The type specimen of Paranthropus robustus (TM 1517, including a partial cranium was discovered at Kromdraai near Sterkfontein in 1938 and described by Robert Broom as a new species. Subsequently, more robust australopithecines were discovered at the nearby site of Swartkrans. These Swartkrans hominins were described by Broom as  Paranthropus crassidens. Many palaeoanthropologists currently regard the robust australopithecines from Kromdraai and Swartkrans as one species, but consensus has not been reached on this issue. A morphometric analysis has been undertaken to assess the probability that specimens attributed to P. crassidens represent the same species as that which is represented by TM 1517, the holotype of P. robustus. Our results failed to reject the null hypothesis that both sites sample the same, single species of robust australopithecine.

  14. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil - strategies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson Vanderlei Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao was introduced in Bahia in 1756, becoming later the largest producer state in the country. In order to supportthe planting of cacao in the region, a breeding program was established by CEPEC at the beginning of the 1970s. For a long time,the program consisted in testing new hybrids (full-sibs and releasing a mixture of the best ones to farmers. Lately, particularly afterthe witches´ broom arrival in the region, in 1989, recurrent breeding strategies were implemented, aiming mainly the developmentof clones. From 1993 to 2010, more than 500 progenies, accumulating 30 thousand trees, were developed by crossing many parentswith resistance to witches´ broom, high yield and other traits. In this period, more than 500 clones were put in trials and 39 clonesand 3 hybrids were released to farmers. In this paper the strategies and results achieved by the program are reviewed. Overall theprogram has good interface with pathology and genomic programs.

  15. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from shrub species in Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Regueira, L; Proupín-Castiñeiras, J; Rodríguez-Añón, J A

    2004-01-01

    In this study we present an alternative for the management of the excess of shrub species that nowadays take up around 800000 ha in Galicia (NW Spain). This alternative is based on the exploitation of the energetic resources contained in the excess of shrubs by their combustion in specially designed plants for production of electric energy. The different species were sorted into three groups: Ulex europaeus L. (furze), Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Link (broom) and Erica sp. (heaths). Their LHV were calculated through measurements of the corresponding HHV and resulted 7600, 7300 and 7200 kJ kg(-1) respectively. Biomass productions (T ha(-1)) were also calculated resulting 20 T ha(-1) (furze), 30 T ha(-1) (broom), and 15 T ha(-1) (heaths). Analyses of all these values make these species very valuable for their energy exploitation. Samples were collected over one year in different zones to study the effect of the environmental conditions on the calorific values.

  16. New records of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil Novos registros de Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota em Mata Atlântica no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-poroid Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota in areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil are reported. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr. Fr. and Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome Donk are new records to Northeast Brazil.Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota não poróides foram registrados em áreas de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste brasileiro. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr. Fr. e Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome Donk são novas ocorrências para o Nordeste do Brasil.

  17. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperand...

  18. A History of Research on Human Evolution in South Africa from 1924 to 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Thackeray, John Francis

    2017-01-01

    South Africa has a rich palaeo-anthropological heritage. The very first Plio-Pleistocene specimen of Australopithecus, from the site of Taung, was described by Raymond Dart in 1925. In 1936 the first australopithecine was discovered at the site of Sterkfontein. Thereafter there was an increase in the number of hominin specimens attributed to Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdraai (as reported by Robert Broom and John Robinson after 1947). The ...

  19. Numerical evaluation of pin-bearing strength for the design of bolted connections of pultruded FRP material

    OpenAIRE

    Girão Coelho, Ana M.; Mottram, J. Toby

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents finite-element predictions for the strength of a pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material subjected to pin-bearing loading with hole clearance. One of the distinct modes of failure in steel bolted connections is bearing. It is caused by the compression action from the shaft pressing into the laminate, and when there is no lateral restraint the mechanism observed at maximum load shows brooming for delamination failure. Each lamina in the glass fiber polyester matri...

  20. Démocratie d’en-bas ou « démocratie de la rue » ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi; Boni, Seydou

    2017-01-01

    Græsrods- og folkebevægelsen Cititizen’s Broom, der blev grundlagt i 2013 er blevet langt mere populær og opnået langt større indlydelse end nogen havde kunnet forudse da dens første aktiviteter fandt sted. Som følge af opstanden i okotober 2014 i Burkina Faso og i overgangsregimet, der fulgte, e...

  1. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  2. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1994. Technical note No. 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches` broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  3. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1993. Technical note No. 296

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches' broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  4. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikokavoura EA; Johnston KL; Broom J; Wrieden WL; Roll; C

    2015-01-01

    Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandroge...

  5. A Study of Combined Arms Warfare by Alexander the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    Arms Warfare by Alexander the Great Approved by: ^§FC ^ohn T. Broom, Ph.D. ^c^. Thesis Committee Chairman y v^X^; ■-. ■SA: Gary J. Bjorge ...research. Dr. Bjorge and LTC Clay have provided technical advice and copy editing for much of this thesis. Special acknowledgment is due LTC David...objective to destroy or disrupt the enemy forces. Additionally, ancient armies did not have the communication ability that the modern army possess

  6. Expeditionary Rubber Removal Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    polishing of the aggregate and damage to the pavement surface, particularly on grooved pavements . Due to these concerns a detergent removal method was...The quantity required can range from 15,000 to 27,000 gallons depending on the slope of the runway and the pavement surface texture . A broom is needed...training required to safely operate. The equipment and technique had to minimize the risk of damaging the existing pavement . Maximum use of commercial

  7. Snowpack, fire, and forest disturbance: interactions affect montane invasions by non-native shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Latimer, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    Montane regions worldwide have experienced relatively low plant invasion rates, a trend attributed to increased climatic severity, low rates of disturbance, and reduced propagule pressure relative to lowlands. Manipulative experiments at elevations above the invasive range of non-native species can clarify the relative contributions of these mechanisms to montane invasion resistance, yet such experiments are rare. Furthermore, global climate change and land use changes are expected to cause decreases in snowpack and increases in disturbance by fire and forest thinning in montane forests. We examined the importance of these factors in limiting montane invasions using a field transplant experiment above the invasive range of two non-native lowland shrubs, Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) and Spanish broom (Spartium junceum), in the rain-snow transition zone of the Sierra Nevada of California. We tested the effects of canopy closure, prescribed fire, and winter snow depth on demographic transitions of each species. Establishment of both species was most likely at intermediate levels of canopy disturbance, but at this intermediate canopy level, snow depth had negative effects on winter survival of seedlings. We used matrix population models to show that an 86% reduction in winter snowfall would cause a 2.8-fold increase in population growth rates in Scotch broom and a 3.5-fold increase in Spanish broom. Fall prescribed fire increased germination rates, but decreased overall population growth rates by reducing plant survival. However, at longer fire return intervals, population recovery between fires is likely to keep growth rates high, especially under low snowpack conditions. Many treatment combinations had positive growth rates despite being above the current invasive range, indicating that propagule pressure, disturbance, and climate can all strongly affect plant invasions in montane regions. We conclude that projected reductions in winter snowpack and increases in

  8. Spectrally Adaptable Compressive Sensing Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Compressive Sensing Imaging System” Submitted by: Gonzalo R. Arce, PI Dennis W. Prather and Javier Garcia-Frias Department of Electrical and Computer...spatio-spectral data cube. Push broom spectral imaging sensors, for instance, capture the spectral data cube by using a dispersive element as a prism...Multishot measurements can be attained by successively shifting, along the horizontal axis, the fixed coded aperture in CASSI. A novel piezo- electrical

  9. Fort Leonard Wood - Building 2101: Interior Character-Defining Features, Inventory and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    40 Figure 44. Example of an electrical box (center, left) marking the location of an original...the building. There is a small hallway with the original wood wainscot and original wallboard above (Figure 11), a broom closet off that hallway with...but these are not replicas of the origi- nal light fixtures In addition, there are electrical connection boxes on the ceiling that appear to mark the

  10. Genetic Interrelatedness among Clover Proliferation Mycoplasmalike Organisms (MLOs) and Other MLOs Investigated by Nucleic Acid Hybridization and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ing-Ming; Davis, Robert E.; Hiruki, Chuji

    1991-01-01

    DNA was isolated from clover proliferation (CP) mycoplasmalike organism (MLO)-diseased periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.) and cloned into pSP6 plasmid vectors. CP MLO-specific recombinant DNA clones were biotin labeled and used as probes in dot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to study the genetic interrelatedness among CP MLO and other MLOs, including potato witches'-broom (PWB) MLO. Results from dot hybridization analyses indicated that b...

  11. Traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology of Ruscus genus (“Murd esfarm” in traditional Persian medicine); a review

    OpenAIRE

    F. Shamalizade Baii; M. Barancheshme*; H. Bakhshi Jouybari; E. Habibi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ruscus genus from Asparagaceae (popularly called Butcher`s broom) are perennial rhizomatous evergreen herbs and grows in Europe and south western Asia. They are generally used as anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, diuretic, mildly laxative, and vasoconstrictive agents in many countries. Ruscus hyrcanus Woronov is widely distributed in north of Iran. It is known as “Murd esfarm” in Persian traditional medicine (TPM). Based on TPM, Iranian physicions applied “Murd esfarm...

  12. Zrożnicowanie plio-plejstoceńskich Hominidae III. Konsekwencje taksonomiczne i antropogenetyczne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaszycka, Katarzyna

    1986-01-01

    This work presents the final part of a cycle of articles among which the two latter ones discussed the morphology, ecology and sexual dimorphism of early hominids called Australopithecines. The present part evaluates two different interpretations of hominid phylogeny: multi-species hypothesis and the single species one. The proposals of R. Broom; Louis, Mary and Richard Leakey; J. Robinson, D. Pilbeam and M. Zwell; and D. Johanson and T. White have been discussed. Attention has been ...

  13. Parent-Assisted Patient Controlled Analgesia for Preoperational Children with Mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-05

    1980; Dixon & Stein, 1992; McGrath & Craig, 1989; Thompson & Varni, 1986). In this stage, a child’s thinking is egocentric . He understands the world...studied in the adolescent population (Mackie, et al., 1991). The researchers found that patients with PCA used a lower daily mean morphine dose with...no pain and worst pain. The VAS works well for adolescents but there are limited reports of its usefulness with younger children (Broome, 1991b

  14. Animal Sentience: Where Are We and Where Are We Heading?

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Proctor

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal sentience refers to the ability of animals to experience pleasurable states such as joy, and aversive states such as pain and fear (Broom, D.M. Dis. Aquat. Org. 2007, 75, 99–108). The science of animal sentience underpins the entire animal welfare movement. Demonstrating objectively what animals are capable of is key to achieving a positive change in attitudes and actions towards animals, and a real, sustainable difference for animal welfare. This paper briefly summarise...

  15. US physician practices for diagnosing familial hypercholesterolemia: data from the CASCADE-FH registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zahid S.; Andersen, Rolf L.; Andersen, Lars H.; O'Brien, Emily C.; Kindt, Iris; Shrader, Peter; Vasandani, Chandna; Newman, Connie B.; deGoma, Emil M.; Baum, Seth J.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Hudgins, Lisa C.; Ahmed, Catherine D.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Duffy, Danielle; Neal, William; Wilemon, Katherine; Roe, Matthew T.; Rader, Daniel J.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Linton, MacRae F.; Duell, P. Barton; Shapiro, Michael D.; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Knowles, Joshua W.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the US familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), patients are underidentified, despite an estimated prevalence of 1:200 to 1:500. Criteria to identify FH patients include Simon Broome, Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN), or Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths (MEDPED). The use of these criteria in US clinical practices remains unclear. Objective To characterize the FH diagnostic criteria applied by US lipid specialists participating in the FH Foundation's CASCADE FH (CAscade SCreening for Awareness and DEtection of Familial Hypercholesterolemia) patient registry. Methods We performed an observational, cross-sectional analysis of diagnostic criteria chosen for each adult patient, both overall and by baseline patient characteristics, at 15 clinical sites that had contributed data to the registry as of September 8, 2015. A sample of 1867 FH adults was analyzed. The median age at FH diagnosis was 50 years, and the median pretreatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) value was 238 mg/dL. The main outcome was the diagnostic criteria chosen. Diagnostic criteria were divided into five nonexclusive categories: “clinical diagnosis,” MEDPED, Simon Broome, DLCN, and other. Results Most adults enrolled in CASCADE FH (55.0%) received a “clinical diagnosis.” The most commonly used formal criteria was Simon–Broome only (21%), followed by multiple diagnostic criteria (16%), MEDPED only (7%), DLCN only (1%), and other (0.5%), P < .0001. Of the patients with only a “clinical diagnosis,” 93% would have met criteria for Simon Broome, DLCN, or MEDPED based on the data available in the registry. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate heterogeneity in the application of FH diagnostic criteria in the United States. A nationwide consensus definition may lead to better identification, earlier treatment, and ultimately CHD prevention. PMID:27678440

  16. Environmental Ends and Engineering Means: Becoming Environmental Engineers for the Nation and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    ter. The quality of the public city life depends therefore problems. The problems then become defined more on the quality of such works as aqueducts ...possi- when civil engineers did great things for people-built ble. dams, lit up valleys , and helped people rebuild from a depression. These same...Washington, D.C., 1988. Taft H. Broome,Jr. "The Slippery Ethics of Engineering," Wailgton Po Sunday, December, 1986. Lester R. Brown, Saef theWrld, W

  17. Chemical composition and acid pretreatement of cytisus striatus and cistus ladanifer for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, N.; Domingues, F.C.; Amaral, M.E.; Duarte, A.P. [Universidade da Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are an alternative source for ethanol production. Cytisus striatus (broom) and Cistus ladanifer (rock-rose) are arbustive species abundant in temperate zones and are available as forest residues. In the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol, is crucial a pretreatment of the material prior to enzymatic hydrolysis in order to obtain high overall yields of carbohydrates and ethanol. In this study, it was evaluated the effect of reaction temperature, residence time, sulfuric acid concentration and vegetal/liquid ratio on the content of released sugars in the hydrolysates resulting from pretreatment of broom and rock-rose. Batch reactions were carried out under various operating conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the pretreatment process in order to obtain high total sugars yield. The maximum concentration of total sugars found was 302.2 and 284.5 mg/g for rock-rose and broom, respectively. These results were achieved when reaction was performed at 150 {sup o}C during 75 minutes with 2.55 % of sulfuric acid and a vegetal/liquid ratio of 2 g/10 mL.

  18. Agronomic performance of 27 cocoa progenies and plant selection based on productivity, self-compatibility and disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Macoto Yamada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate 27 progenies of cocoa crosses considering the agronomic traits and select F1 plants within superior crosses. The experiment was installed in March 2005, in the Experimental Station Joaquim Bahiana (ESJOB, in Itajuipe, Bahia. The area of the experiment is of approximately 3 ha, with a total of 3240 plants. Thirteen evaluations of vegetative brooms, five of cushion brooms and 15 of number of pods per plant were accomplished. Thirty pollinations were made for each selected plant to test for self-compatibility. The production, based on the number of pods per plant, and resistance to witches´ broom indicated CEPEC 94 x CCN 10, RB 39 x CCN 51 and CCN 10 x VB 1151 as superior progenies. All selections tested were self-compatible. The analyses of progenies and individual tree data, associated to visual field observations, allowed the selection of 17 plants which were included in a network of regional tests to determine the phenotypic stability.

  19. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  20. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  1. Survey of plants popularly used for pain relief in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline D. Stolz

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil; we had access to nineteen studies.To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of ethnobotanical studies that focus on pain relief carried out in RS. The species native to RS cited in at least nine (about 50% of these studies were selected. The search retrieved 28 native species cited as used to alleviate painful conditions, which are distributed in eighteen botanical families, being Asteraceae the most mentioned. The species more frequently cited for pain relief were Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis articulata, Baccharis crispa, Lepidium didymum, Eugenia uniflora and Maytenus ilicifolia. The only species not reported in any pre-clinical study associated with pain relief was B. articulata. Among the six species cited, no studies on clinical efficacy were found. In conclusion, the folk use of native plants with therapeutic purposes is widespread in RS State (Brazil, being pain relief an important property.

  2. Recuentos cromosómicos en Compositae de Colombia Recuentos cromosómicos en Compositae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Robert K.

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-six chromosome counts of Compositae are reported from differentprovinces of Colombia. Twenty-four are first counts from the genusPlagiocheilus (Astereae, and from species in Achyrocline, Aspilia, Baccharis, Calea, Eupatorium, Hieracium, Liabum, T agetes, Verbesina, Vernonia and We delia. Additional counts are also provided for 62 populations of taxa counted previously of which nine are new numbers. The systematic significance of certain of these counts is discussed.Se proporciona información acerca de ochenta y seis recuentos cromosómicos de Compositae de varias regiones de Colombia.Veinticuatro recuentos corresponden a los primeros resultados citológicos para el género Plagiocbeilus (Astereae, y para especies de Aclryrocltne, Aspilia, Baccharis, Calea, Eupatorium, Hieracium, Liabum, Tagetes, Verbesina y Wedelia. Se mencionan también recuentos en sesenta y dos poblaciones de taxa investigados anteriormente, de las cuales nueve corresponden a nuevos números, Se menciona la importancia sistemática de algunos de los nuevos recuentos. 

  3. Yield and spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR; IR of essential oils from four plants of the Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Montenegro Castelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of essential oils from the species of the Brazilian native forests is still low, even thought its high biodiversity. Specifically for the Brazilian Savannah, a few species has been studied so far, then the research effort concerning essential oil should be raised. This paper aimed at evaluating the potential of some species from the Brazilian Savannah to produce essential oil by calculating the yield and determining the preliminary chemical composition. Leaves from Baccharis sp., Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Psidium myrcinides and Protium ovatum were collected at Fazenda Água Limpa, the ecologic experimental area of the University of Brasília. The essential oil from the material was extracted by steam distillation for 90 minutes, using laboratory distillatory equipment. The fresh distillate was collected and the essential oil was separated from the hydrosol by using a solvent. The preliminary chemical composition of the essential oils was determined by TLC (thin layer chromatography and 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Ressonance (NMR and Infrared (IR analyses. According to the results the essential oil yield of Baccharis sp., Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Psidium myrcinides and Protium ovatum was 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.10% and 0.13%, respectively. The observed yield values can be considered suitable for maintaining the research efforts. Chemical analysis showed that the essential oils obtained are composed by a complex mixture of compounds which should be studied more deeply.

  4. Efeito da concentração de sais e fitorreguladores na indução de calos em carqueja Callus induction in "carqueja" as affected by salt concentrations and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Guimarães Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar condições nutricionais e hormonais para maximizar a produção de calos friáveis de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC]. Foi verificado que a iniciação de calo é dependente de fitorreguladores e da concentração do meio. A melhor indução de calo ocorreu em meio MS contendo 50% da concentração de sais, inositol e vitaminas, suplementado com 15,0 mM ANA. Proliferação de brotos foi obtida pelo uso de TDZ.The influence of various growth regulators and medium concentrations, in different quantities, on the in vitro callus induction of carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.] was evaluated. It was found that the callus initiation was dependent on both, the growth regulator and medium concentration. The highest callus induction and development were obtained by using 15.0 mM 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA as growth regulators and half strength of salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol of Murashige and Skoog medium. In vitro shoot proliferation was obtained by using thidiazuron.

  5. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  7. Insetos indutores de galhas da porção sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brasil Gall inducing insects from southern portion of the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de insetos galhadores é maior nas latitudes intermediárias em hábitats quentes e com vegetação esclerófila sob estresse hídrico e de nutrientes. Em regiões tropicais, os campos rupestres são indicados como hábitats ricos em espécies de insetos galhadores. Neste trabalho, foram descritas as galhas induzidas por insetos e suas plantas hospedeiras na porção sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço, sudeste do Brasil. Foram selecionados 60 sítios em seis regiões ao longo na porção sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço no estado de Minas Gerais. Em cada sítio 100 plantas foram amostradas totalizando 6.000 plantas censuradas ao longo de um gradiente altitudinal de 668 a 1860m. Foram encontrados 241 morfotipos de galhas em 142 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 29 famílias e de um total de 384 espécies de plantas amostradas. As famílias mais ricas em espécies de insetos galhadores foram Asteraceae (42%, principalmente espécies do gênero Baccharis. A maior parte das galhas (85% foi induzida por insetos da família Cecidomyiidae seguidos por Lepidoptera (4% e Homoptera (3%. Os ramos foram os órgãos mais freqüentemente atacados (72% enquanto que os morfotipos mais comuns foram o elíptico (37% e o globóide (36%. A espécie de planta hospedeira que apresentou mais morfotipos de galhas foi Baccharis pseudomyriocephala com 10 galhas distintas. Este estudo sustenta a afirmativa que campos rupestres apresentam uma elevada riqueza em espécies de insetos galhadores.Galling species richness is higher at intermediate latitudes on warm habitats and sclerophyllous vegetation under water and nutrient stress. In the tropical region, galling species richness is higher in rupestrian fields. Here the gall-inducing insects and their host plants of the southern portion of the Espinhaço range, southeastern Brazil are described. 60 study sites from six distinct regions along the Espinhaço range, at Minas Gerais state were selected. In each study site 100

  8. Effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of vegetal species on seed germination of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf/ Ação de extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies vegetais na germinação de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal species on seed germination of B. decumbens. The experimental design was completely randomized with 19 treatments (9 aquous extracts, 9 ethanolic extracts and a check was deionized water with 4 replicates. The species and organs used to obtain the extracts were Baccharis trimera (shoot, Baccharis articulata (shoot, Canna denudata (leaves, Cymbopogom citratus (leaves, Eucalyptus citriodora (leaves, Lippia alba (leaves and branches, Momordica charantia (leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, branches and flowers e Ruta graveolens (leaves and branches. The extracts were obtained by aquous and ethanolic infusions in 10% and 1% concentration respectively. The seeds were treated with extracts for one hour and after this time sowed in plastic boxes. They were maintained in germination chamber (BOD with 16 hours of dark/20ºC and 8 hours of light/35ºC. The evaluation were made at 7Th and 21st days after seeding (DAS. The extraction methods affected seed germination. The use of aquous extract showed greater germination percentage than the ethanolic one at 7Th and 21st days. The evaluated extracts did not affect the seeds’ germination.O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies medicinais sobre germinação de sementes de B. decumbens. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos (9 extratos aquosos, 9 extratos etanólicos e 1 testemunha com água deionizada com quatro repetições. As espécies e as partes das plantas utilizadas para a obtenção dos extratos foram Baccharis trimera (caule, Baccharis articulata (caule, Canna denudata (folhas, Cymbopogom citratus (folhas, Eucalyptus citriodora (folhas, Lippia alba (folhas e ramos, Momordica charantia (folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes, Ocimum gratissimum (folhas, ramos e flores e

  9. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  10. Chemical profiling of six samples of Brazilian propolis

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    Caroline C. Fernandes-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of Brazilian propolis from Minas Gerais and Paraná states were analyzed to identify the constituents (GC/MS and HPLC/MS and to determine their contents (HPLC and external standardization. All samples contained characteristic constituents of green propolis, but the samples from Minas Gerais had higher contents of prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Kaempferide and two other flavonoids were among the major constituents of the samples from Minas Gerais. Luteolin 5-O-methyl ether was detected only in samples from Paraná. Baccharis dracunculifolia was a source of resins for all samples analyzed, but the samples from Paraná had more complex plant origin.

  11. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.

  12. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

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    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  13. Origin and Chemical Variation of Brazilian Propolis

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    Antonio Salatino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a hive product containing chiefly beeswax and plant-derived substances such as resin and volatile compounds. Propolis has been used as an antiseptic and wound healer since ancient times and interest for the product has increased recently. Probably few plant species contribute as major resin sources. Green propolis derives mainly from vegetative apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plants. However, wide variation detected in the chemical composition suggests contributions from alternative resin plant sources. Predominant components of the resin of green propolis are cinnamic acids, chiefly compounds bearing prenyl groups. Terpenoid compounds, such as sesqui, di and pentacyclic triterpenoids, have been detected in many, but not all, samples investigated. Propolis research has uncovered potentialities of substances previously isolated from plants and has detected constituents of plant origin that would hardly be known otherwise.

  14. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

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    Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD, by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronuclei (MN frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS.

  15. Spasmolytic activity of some plants used by the Otomi Indians of Quéretaro (México) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A; Bah, M; Rojas, J I; Serrano, V; Pacheco, S

    1999-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from Baccharis heterophylla H. B. K (Asteraceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae), Dyssodia pinnata var. pinnata Rob. (Asteraceae), Gentiana spathacea H. B. K. (Gentianaceae), Loeselia mexicana Brand. (Polemoniaceae), Selaginella pallescens Spring. (Selaginellaceae) and Zornia diphylla Pers. (Fabaceae) on the spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The concentration-response curves and IC50 values were obtained and the respective relaxant potencies were compared with that of the CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extract of Datura lanosa. The data showed that all the extracts produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous ileum contractions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was tested. The pharmacological actions shown by the extracts of the selected species tend to support ethnomedical use of the plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  16. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR

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    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  17. Búsqueda de actividad inhibitoria de tripsina y elastasa en extractos de vegetales autóctonos

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    Ana Laura Macció Betancurt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la capacidad inhibitoria para tripsina y elastasa de extractos de vegetales autóctonos: flores de Achyrocline satureioidehojas (marcela, hojas de Baccharis trimera (carqueja, frutos de Eugenia uniflora (pitanga y frutos Schinus molle (anacahuita. Los extractos, que presentaron diferentes propiedades, se obtuvieron utilizando agua o etanol como solventes en distintas condiciones de tiempo y temperatura. La acción inhibitoria para elastasa fue baja (< 30% o casi nula en los extractos ensayados. Para la tripsina, todos los extractos presentaron acción inhibitoria, observándose para un mismo material vegetal importantes diferencias según el solvente utilizado, independientemente de la temperatura de extracción. Los extractos de S. molle fueron los de mayor actividad inhibitoria para tripsina. Al extracto acuoso de este vegetal, obtenido a 100 °C, se le determinó IC50 y tipo de inhibición. 

  18. Imaging of SO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources as part of AROMAT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenot, H. H.; Merlaud, A.; Meier, A.; Ruhtz, T.; Van Roozendael, M.; Stebel, K.; Constantin, D.; Belegante, L.; Dekemper, E.; Theys, N.; Campion, R.; Schuettemeyer, D.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents field campaign measurements of SO2 emissions from pollution source in Romania. Three types of instruments (SO2 camera, whisk and push broom imager) proceeded ground-based and airborne data acquisition as part of the AROMAT ESA project (monitoring of SO2 plume from a large thermoelectric plant). The SO2 camera used is an imaging system composed of two UV cameras (synchronised in space and time) allowing fast acquisitions of intensity. Each camera is equipped with the same lens and a specific narrow band-pass filter (one at the wavelength at which SO2 absorbs and one at an off-band wavelength). The combination of two UV cameras provides a 2D image of the integrated content of SO2. The Small Whisk broom Imager for trace gases monitoriNG (SWING) used in this study and developed at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA), is based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. The Airborne imaging instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) constructed at the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen (IUP), performed SO2 measurements in the UV-visible spectral range. Both whisk and push broom scanner use the DOAS technique, that is based on the relationship between the quantity of light absorbed and the number of SO2 molecules in the light path. SWING and AirMAP instruments provide scans of SO2 column density. Quantification of 2D field contents and fluxes of anthropogenic SO2 emissions from Turceni power station (Romania) are shown. Preparatory results from data acquisition in the harbour of Antwerp (monitoring of SO2 emissions from refinery and chemical industry) are also presented.

  19. A combination of thematic and similarity-based semantic processes confers resistance to deficit following left hemisphere stroke

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    Solene eKalenine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Semantic knowledge may be organized in terms of similarity relations based on shared features and/or complementary relations based on co-occurrence in events. Thus, relationships between manipulable objects such as tools may be defined by their functional properties (what the objects are used for or thematic properties (e.g., what the objects are used with or on. A recent study from our laboratory used eye-tracking to examine incidental activation of semantic relations in a word-picture matching task and found relatively early activation of thematic relations (e.g., broom – dustpan, later activation of general functional relations (e.g., broom – sponge, and an intermediate pattern for specific functional relations (e.g., broom – vacuum cleaner. Combined with other recent studies, these results suggest that there are distinct semantic systems for thematic and similarity-based knowledge and that the specific function condition drew on both systems. This predicts that left hemisphere stroke that damages either system (but not both may spare specific function processing. The present experiment tested these hypotheses using the same experimental paradigm with participants with left hemisphere lesions (N=17. The results revealed that, compared to neurologically intact controls (N=12, stroke participants showed later activation of thematic and general function relations, but activation of specific function relations was spared and was significantly earlier for stroke participants than controls. Across the stroke participants, activation of thematic and general function relations was negatively correlated, further suggesting that damage tended to affect either one semantic system or the other. These results support the distinction between similarity-based and complementarity-based semantic relations and suggest that relations that draw on both systems are relatively more robust to damage.

  20. PUSHBROOM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING FROM AN UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (UAS) – GEOMETRIC PROCESSINGWORKFLOW AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    KAUST Repository

    Turner, D.

    2017-08-31

    In this study, we assess two push broom hyperspectral sensors as carried by small (10-15 kg) multi-rotor Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). We used a Headwall Photonics micro-Hyperspec push broom sensor with 324 spectral bands (4-5 nm FWHM) and a Headwall Photonics nano-Hyperspec sensor with 270 spectral bands (6 nm FWHM) both in the VNIR spectral range (400-1000 nm). A gimbal was used to stabilise the sensors in relation to the aircraft flight dynamics, and for the micro-Hyperspec a tightly coupled dual frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and Machine Vision Camera (MVC) were used for attitude and position determination. For the nano-Hyperspec, a navigation grade GNSS system and IMU provided position and attitude data. This study presents the geometric results of one flight over a grass oval on which a dense Ground Control Point (GCP) network was deployed. The aim being to ascertain the geometric accuracy achievable with the system. Using the PARGE software package (ReSe - Remote Sensing Applications) we ortho-rectify the push broom hyperspectral image strips and then quantify the accuracy of the ortho-rectification by using the GCPs as check points. The orientation (roll, pitch, and yaw) of the sensor is measured by the IMU. Alternatively imagery from a MVC running at 15 Hz, with accurate camera position data can be processed with Structure from Motion (SfM) software to obtain an estimated camera orientation. In this study, we look at which of these data sources will yield a flight strip with the highest geometric accuracy.

  1. Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imaging from AN Unmanned Aircraft System (uas) - Geometric Processingworkflow and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D.; Lucieer, A.; McCabe, M.; Parkes, S.; Clarke, I.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assess two push broom hyperspectral sensors as carried by small (10-15 kg) multi-rotor Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). We used a Headwall Photonics micro-Hyperspec push broom sensor with 324 spectral bands (4-5 nm FWHM) and a Headwall Photonics nano-Hyperspec sensor with 270 spectral bands (6 nm FWHM) both in the VNIR spectral range (400-1000 nm). A gimbal was used to stabilise the sensors in relation to the aircraft flight dynamics, and for the micro-Hyperspec a tightly coupled dual frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and Machine Vision Camera (MVC) were used for attitude and position determination. For the nano-Hyperspec, a navigation grade GNSS system and IMU provided position and attitude data. This study presents the geometric results of one flight over a grass oval on which a dense Ground Control Point (GCP) network was deployed. The aim being to ascertain the geometric accuracy achievable with the system. Using the PARGE software package (ReSe - Remote Sensing Applications) we ortho-rectify the push broom hyperspectral image strips and then quantify the accuracy of the ortho-rectification by using the GCPs as check points. The orientation (roll, pitch, and yaw) of the sensor is measured by the IMU. Alternatively imagery from a MVC running at 15 Hz, with accurate camera position data can be processed with Structure from Motion (SfM) software to obtain an estimated camera orientation. In this study, we look at which of these data sources will yield a flight strip with the highest geometric accuracy.

  2. PUSHBROOM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING FROM AN UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (UAS – GEOMETRIC PROCESSINGWORKFLOW AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Turner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assess two push broom hyperspectral sensors as carried by small (10–15 kg multi-rotor Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS. We used a Headwall Photonics micro-Hyperspec push broom sensor with 324 spectral bands (4–5 nm FWHM and a Headwall Photonics nano-Hyperspec sensor with 270 spectral bands (6 nm FWHM both in the VNIR spectral range (400–1000 nm. A gimbal was used to stabilise the sensors in relation to the aircraft flight dynamics, and for the micro-Hyperspec a tightly coupled dual frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, and Machine Vision Camera (MVC were used for attitude and position determination. For the nano-Hyperspec, a navigation grade GNSS system and IMU provided position and attitude data. This study presents the geometric results of one flight over a grass oval on which a dense Ground Control Point (GCP network was deployed. The aim being to ascertain the geometric accuracy achievable with the system. Using the PARGE software package (ReSe – Remote Sensing Applications we ortho-rectify the push broom hyperspectral image strips and then quantify the accuracy of the ortho-rectification by using the GCPs as check points. The orientation (roll, pitch, and yaw of the sensor is measured by the IMU. Alternatively imagery from a MVC running at 15 Hz, with accurate camera position data can be processed with Structure from Motion (SfM software to obtain an estimated camera orientation. In this study, we look at which of these data sources will yield a flight strip with the highest geometric accuracy.

  3. Caracterização agronômica de acessos de cacau Agronomical characterization of cacao accessions

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    Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento agronômico de 140 acessos de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. de diferentes origens. De 2002 a 2005, foram avaliados oito caracteres relativos a componentes de produção de amêndoas e de resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa e à coleóbroca-dos-frutos. Os dados anuais, totalizados por colheitas e acesso, foram submetidos a análises descritivas de correlação e de variância em esquema fatorial, seguidas de testes de médias. Os acessos apresentaram elevada variabilidade em todos os caracteres avaliados. Os acessos CAB 9, 13, 40, 218, 226, 417 e 452 destacaram-se quanto à tolerância à vassoura-de-bruxa e coleóbrocas e quanto ao desempenho produtivo, que foi de intermediário a elevado. A identificação de acessos tolerantes à vassoura-de-bruxa ampliou as fontes de genes para uso em melhoramento de cultivares quanto à resistência horizontal ao patógeno Moniliophthora perniciosa.The aim of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of 140 cacao (Theobroma cacao L. accessions of different origins. From 2002 to 2005, the accessions were evaluated for yield components and field-resistance components to witches' broom and fruit borer. Annual data computed per harvests and accession were analyzed by descriptive, linear correlation and variance analyses in factorial experiment and mean tests. All evaluated traits had expressive variability. The accessions CAB 9, 13, 40, 218, 226, 417 e 452 were outstanding for witches' broom and fruit borer resistance and yield performance. The identification of witches' broom tolerant accessions increased the gene sources for utilization in plant breeding for horizontal resistance to Moniliophthora perniciosa.

  4. Optical MEMS for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  5. Generation and expression in plants of a single-chain variable fragment antibody against the immunodominant membrane protein of Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, F; Safarnejad, M R; Shams-Bakhsh, M; Schillberg, S; Nölke, G

    2013-08-01

    Witches' broom of lime is a disease caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia, which represents the most significant global threat to the production of lime trees (Citrus aurantifolia). Conventional disease management strategies have shown little success, and new approaches based on genetic engineering need to be considered. The expression of recombinant antibodies and fragments thereof in plant cells is a powerful approach that can be used to suppress plant pathogens. We have developed a single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFvIMP6) against the immunodominant membrane protein (IMP) of witches' broom phytoplasma and expressed it in different plant cell compartments. We isolated scFvIMP6 from a naïve scFv phage display library and expressed it in bacteria to demonstrate its binding activity against both recombinant IMP and intact phytoplasma cells. The expression of scFvIMP6 in plants was evaluated by transferring the scFvIMP6 cDNA to plant expression vectors featuring constitutive or phloem specific promoters in cassettes with or without secretion signals, therefore causing the protein to accumulate either in the cytosol or apoplast. All constructs were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfiltration, and antibodies of the anticipated size were detected by immunoblotting. Plant-derived scFvIMP6 was purified by affinity chromatography, and specific binding to recombinant IMP was demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results indicate that scFvIMP6 binds with high activity and can be used for the detection of Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia and is also a suitable candidate for stable expression in lime trees to suppress witches' broom of lime.

  6. Study of the adsorption of mercury (II) on lignocellulosic materials under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Arias, Fabian E; Beneduci, Amerigo; Chidichimo, Francesco; Furia, Emilia; Straface, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    WHO has declared mercury as one of the most dangerous pollutants for human health. Unfortunately, several cases of rivers and aquifers contaminated by mercury inevitably poses the problem on how to remediate them. Considerable efforts are being addressed to develop cost-effective methodologies, among which the use of low-cost adsorbing materials. In this paper, the adsorption performances of an alternative lignocellulosic material derived from the Spanish broom plant, are presented. This plant is widely diffused in the world and its usage for Hg(II) removal from water in real working conditions requires only minimal pretreatment steps. A thoroughly investigation on the kinetics and thermodynamics of Hg(II) adsorption on Spanish broom is presented, by using Hg(II) polluted aqueous solutions specifically prepared in order to simulate typical groundwater conditions. Several batch experiments, under static conditions, were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature. A maximum adsorption capacity of 20 mg L -1 can be obtained at pH 5, following a pseudo second order kinetics. Moreover, adsorption experiments in dynamic conditions were carried out using Spanish broom filters. Interestingly, a systematic, unconventional double S-shape breakthrough curve was observed under different experimental conditions, revealing the occurrence of two adsorption processes with different time scales. This behavior has been fitted by a bimodal Thomas model which, unlike the single Thomas fitting, gives satisfactory results with the introduction of a new parameter related to the fraction of surface active sites involved in the adsorption processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of arginine and phytogenic additive supplementation on performance and health of brown-egg layers

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    Vitor Barbosa Fascina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was performed to evaluate the effects of the association of different digestible arginine and phytogenic additive dietary levels on performance and health status of brown-egg layers. In this study, a total of 504 33-week-old Hisex Brown layers were distributed into a completely randomized experimental design to a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (dietary digestible arginine levels: 880, 968, 1056, or 1144 mg/kg of feed × phytogenic additive levels: 0, 100, and 200 mg/kg of feed with six replicate cages of seven birds per cage. The phytogenic additive was composed of extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia (40%, Astragalus membranaceus lipopolysaccharides (20%, cinnamon, and grape seed (20%. Feed intake was reduced when diets containing 1056 mg of arginine were supplemented with 100 or 200 mg phytogenic additive per kg. Feed conversion ratio was improved when diets were supplemented with 100 mg of phytogenic additive or with 1056 mg of arginine per kg of feed. Egg mass was increased when diets were supplemented with 1056 mg arginine per kg of feed. Arginine supplementation quadratically increased albumen percentage and reduced yolk percentage. Higher arginine and phytogenic additive levels reduced heterophyl:lymphocyte ratio and blood uric acid, total cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels. Dietary supplementation of 100 mg of phytogenic additive associated with high arginine levels increased nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages and 1056 mg of arginine increased antibodies titers against Newcastle disease virus. Blood and intestinal malonaldehyde levels were reduced when 200 mg of the phytogenic additive was added. Dietary supplementation of 968 mg of arginine or 100 mg of a phytogenic additive (40% Baccharis dracunculifolia, 20% Astragalus membranaceus, 20% cinnamon, and 20% grape seed extracts per kilogram of diet improves the feed conversion ratio and associated inclusion of 1144 mg of

  8. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L. amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Shima Luize

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, and Tanacetum vulgare showed significant effects against one or both parasites, with a percentage of growth inhibition between 49.5 and 99%. The extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on sheep erythrocytes. These medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that are clinically active against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi.Este estudo descreve a triagem de extratos obtidos de 19 espécies de plantas usadas na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças. Os extratos foram testados contra formas amastigota axênica e promastigota de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, e formas epimastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro na concentração de 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, e Tanacetum vulgare apresentaram efeito significante contra um ou ambos parasitas, com a porcentagem de inibição de crescimento entre 49,5 e 99%. Os extratos não mostraram efeito citotóxico em hemácias de carneiro. Essas plantas medicinais podem ser fontes alternativas de novos compostos clinicamente ativos contra L. amazonensis e T. cruzi.

  9. Statistical relative gain calculation for Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson (CTR), Cody; Helder, Dennis; Jeno (CTR), Drake

    2017-01-01

    The Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is an optical multispectral push-broom sensor with a focal plane consisting of over 7000 detectors per spectral band. Each of the individual imaging detectors contributes one column of pixels to an image. Any difference in the response between neighboring detectors may result in a visible stripe or band in the imagery. An accurate estimate of each detector’s relative gain is needed to account for any differences between detector responses. This paper describes a procedure for estimating relative gains which uses normally acquired Earth viewing statistics.

  10. The eccentric-distance sum of some graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Let $G = (V,E$ be a simple connected graph. Theeccentric-distance sum of $G$ is defined as$\\xi^{ds}(G =\\ds\\sum_{\\{u,v\\}\\subseteq V(G} [e(u+e(v] d(u,v$, where $e(u$ %\\dsis the eccentricity of the vertex $u$ in $G$ and $d(u,v$ is thedistance between $u$ and $v$. In this paper, we establish formulaeto calculate the eccentric-distance sum for some graphs, namelywheel, star, broom, lollipop, double star, friendship, multi-stargraph and the join of $P_{n-2}$ and $P_2$.

  11. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1992. Technical note No. 276. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, J.R.; McPhee, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park in 1992, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Balsam gall midge, balsam twig aphid, birch casebearer, gypsy moth, porcupines, sirococcus shoot blight, white pine weevil, whitespotted sawyer beetle, yellowheaded spruce sawfly, leaf blister of yellow birch, snow damage, yellow witches' broom of balsam fir, and fall webworm.

  12. Scandinavian bovine practitioners' attitudes to the use of analgesics in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Gidekull, M; Herskin, Mette S

    2010-01-01

    implementation of new knowledge regarding pain in dairy cattle, it is important to understand the attitudes of bovine practitioners and their perceived limiting factors. This short communication presents the results of a questionnaire survey focusing on the use of analgesics in cows and calves among bovine......In recent years, pain in cattle (Stafford and Mellor 2007) and the welfare of diseased animals (Broom 2006) have received increased scientific attention. New knowledge has emerged regarding the pain that may be associated with typical production diseases (Todd and others 2007) and routine...

  13. educationUndergraduate: Journal of undergraduate research in education (Volume 9)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, P.; McBroom, S.; Tomlinson, L.; Arthur, A.; Camp, D.; Martin, L.

    2017-01-01

    Contents\\ud Page\\ud Bridging pedagogical discontinuity: to what extent can play-based learning be sustained beyond children’s transition to Year 1?\\ud Philip Nicholson: BA (Hons) Education Studies and Sport\\ud Teacher talk or teaching talk? Teacher perspectives on effective strategies for the teaching of speaking and listening in primary classrooms.\\ud Sarah McBroom: BA (Hons) Education Studies and Sport\\ud Making marks: the road to literacy?\\ud An exploratory study into the role of the pract...

  14. Oceanography and the base of the pelagic food web in the southern Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Processes governing productivity at the base of the pelagic food web of the southern Indian Ocean are influenced primarily by physical–chemical conditions with implications for the structure and function of the entire pelagic food web. Here, we report observations along a great circle transect from...... Cape Town, South Africa, to Broome in north western Australia. Primary production was tightly linked to water column stability and nutrient availability, with high productivity (1144 mg C m22 day21) in the sub-tropical convergence zone, and falling off by an order of magnitude in the sub-tropical gyre...

  15. Chilocoris capensis n. sp., the first species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) recorded in the Republic of South Africa with an annotated checklist of South African burrower bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara; Compton, Stephen G

    2016-08-08

    Chilocoris capensis n. sp. collected from fallen ripe figs of broom cluster fig Ficus sur Forsskål, 1775, the first burrower bug species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 recorded in the Republic of South Africa, is described and compared with Chilocoris laevicollis Horváth, 1919, the morphologically most closely allied Afrotropical species. Additionally, an annotated checklist of burrower bug species recorded in the Republic of South Africa is provided. The known biology of Afrotropical Chilocoris species is briefly summarized.

  16. Evaluating planetary digital terrain models-The HRSC DTM test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heipke, C.; Oberst, J.; Albertz, J.; Attwenger, M.; Dorninger, P.; Dorrer, E.; Ewe, M.; Gehrke, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hirschmuller, H.; Kim, J.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Mayer, H.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Rengarajan, R.; Rentsch, M.; Schmidt, R.; Scholten, F.; Shan, J.; Spiegel, M.; Wahlisch, M.; Neukum, G.

    2007-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) has been orbiting the planet Mars since January 2004 onboard the European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express mission and delivers imagery which is being used for topographic mapping of the planet. The HRSC team has conducted a systematic inter-comparison of different alternatives for the production of high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) from the multi look HRSC push broom imagery. Based on carefully chosen test sites the test participants have produced DTMs which have been subsequently analysed in a quantitative and a qualitative manner. This paper reports on the results obtained in this test. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Optimal Beamforming Algorithm for Phased-Array Antennas Used in Multi-Beam Spaceborne Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, O. A.; Ivashina, M. V.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Strict requirements for future spaceborne ocean missions using multi-beam radiometers call for new antenna technologies, such as digital beamforming phased arrays. In this paper, we present an optimal beamforming algorithm for phased-array antenna systems designed to operate as focal plane arrays...... (FPA) in push-broom radiometers. This algorithm is formulated as an optimization procedure that maximizes the beam efficiency, while minimizing the side-lobe and cross-polarization power in the area of Earth, subject to a constraint on the beamformer dynamic range. The proposed algorithm is applied...

  18. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    tons kilometer could purchase 14.9 tons of raw coal, 1.15 tons of pig iron, 3.37 tons of charcoal , 1.13 cubic meters of antisep- tic bed timber, and...2.95 cubic meters of logs. In 1986, however, the amount could purchase only 6.2 tons of raw coal, 0.7 tons of pig iron, 1.8 tons of charcoal , 0.6...lighting equipment with bamboo brooms and cut the microphone wires into several pieces. Then they dashed into the men’s changing room, shouting

  19. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of monofloral honeys from Tenerife, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentabol Manzanares, Antonio; Hernández García, Zoa; Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Physicochemical parameters, sugar composition and botanical origin were determined in four monofloral honeys, chestnut, fennel, tajinaste, and Teide broom honeys, abundantly produced in Tenerife Island. All the parameters were within the established intervals in Europe for each type of honey. Large differences between the four monofloral honeys were observed, being the chestnut honeys with most of differential characteristics. Linear discriminant analysis on the physicochemical parameters and sugar composition allows to distinguishing the four types of honeys analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cacao families and parents selected as resistant to natural infection of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known sources of resistance to witches’ broom (WB, a severe disease of cacao, are limited. Aiming to identify families and parents resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa, a population of 22 families was evaluated by assessing the number of brooms formed per tree during 10 years under field conditions. The population was established in randomized blocks with three replications of 12 plants each. Significant differences were observed among families. The most outstanding families were NA33 x RB39 and RB39 x P4B, which presented the lowest WB incidence during 10 years. The increase in natural field infection of Scavina clones families and their descendants were clearly demonstrated after 2006. The existence of additive effects for resistance appears clearly for families, which had other source of resistance associated with Scavina. Clones RB39, RB36, P4B, NA33 and CSUL3 are promising parents for pyramiding resistance genes and increasing the stability and durability of resistance to WB.

  1. Expression analysis of transcription factors from the interaction between cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M A; Hora, B T; Dias, C V; Santos, G C; Gramacho, K P; Cascardo, J C M; Gesteira, A S; Micheli, F

    2010-07-06

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most important tropical crops; however, production is threatened by numerous pathogens, including the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease. To understand the mechanisms that lead to the development of this disease in cacao, we focused our attention on cacao transcription factors (TFs), which act as master regulators of cellular processes and are important for the fine-tuning of plant defense responses. We developed a macroarray with 88 TF cDNA from previously obtained cacao-M. perniciosa interaction libraries. Seventy-two TFs were found differentially expressed between the susceptible (Catongo) and resistant (TSH1188) genotypes and/or during the disease time course--from 24 h to 30 days after infection. Most of the differentially expressed TFs belonged to the bZIP, MYB and WRKY families and presented opposite expression patterns in susceptible and resistant cacao-M. perniciosa interactions (i.e., up-regulated in Catongo and down-regulated in TSH1188). The results of the macroarray were confirmed for bZIP and WRKY TFs by real-time PCR. These differentially expressed TFs are good candidates for subsequent functional analysis as well as for plant engineering. Some of these TFs could also be localized on the cacao reference map related to witches' broom resistance, facilitating the breeding and selection of resistant cacao trees.

  2. Image Mosaicking Approach for a Double-Camera System in the GaoFen2 Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Based on the Big Virtual Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng; Jin, Shuying; Wang, Mi; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Zhipeng

    2017-06-20

    The linear array push broom imaging mode is widely used for high resolution optical satellites (HROS). Using double-cameras attached by a high-rigidity support along with push broom imaging is one method to enlarge the field of view while ensuring high resolution. High accuracy image mosaicking is the key factor of the geometrical quality of complete stitched satellite imagery. This paper proposes a high accuracy image mosaicking approach based on the big virtual camera (BVC) in the double-camera system on the GaoFen2 optical remote sensing satellite (GF2). A big virtual camera can be built according to the rigorous imaging model of a single camera; then, each single image strip obtained by each TDI-CCD detector can be re-projected to the virtual detector of the big virtual camera coordinate system using forward-projection and backward-projection to obtain the corresponding single virtual image. After an on-orbit calibration and relative orientation, the complete final virtual image can be obtained by stitching the single virtual images together based on their coordinate information on the big virtual detector image plane. The paper subtly uses the concept of the big virtual camera to obtain a stitched image and the corresponding high accuracy rational function model (RFM) for concurrent post processing. Experiments verified that the proposed method can achieve seamless mosaicking while maintaining the geometric accuracy.

  3. Ground-based Observation System Development for the Moon Hyper-spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Wang, Shurong; Li, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Zihui; Hu, Xiuqing; Zhang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The Moon provides a suitable radiance source for on-orbit calibration of space-borne optical instruments. A ground-based observation system dedicated to the hyper-spectral radiometry of the Moon has been developed for improving and validating the current lunar model. The observation instrument using a dispersive imaging spectrometer is particularly designed for high-accuracy observations of the lunar radiance. The simulation and analysis of the push-broom mechanism is made in detail for lunar observations, and the automated tracking and scanning is well accomplished in different observational condition. A three-month series of hyper-spectral imaging experiments of the Moon have been performed in the wavelength range from 400 to 1000 nm near Lijiang Observatory (Yunnan, China) at phase angles -83°-87°. Preliminary results and data comparison are presented, and it shows the instrument performance and lunar observation capability of this system are well validated. Beyond previous measurements, this observation system provides the entire lunar disk images of continuous spectral coverage by adopting the push-broom mode with special scanning scheme and leads to the further research of lunar photometric model.

  4. Shotgun proteomic analysis of the Mexican lime tree infected with "CandidatusPhytoplasma aurantifolia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarfeshani, Aboozar; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Sarhadi, Elham; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Khayam Nekouei, Mojtaba; Haynes, Paul A; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Infection of Mexican lime trees (Citrus aurantifolia L.) with the specialized bacterium "CandidatusPhytoplasma aurantifolia" causes witches' broom disease. Witches' broom disease has the potential to cause significant economic losses throughout western Asia and North Africa. We used label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics to study changes in the proteome of Mexican lime trees in response to infection by "Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia". Of 990 proteins present in five replicates of healthy and infected plants, the abundances of 448 proteins changed significantly in response to phytoplasma infection. Of these, 274 proteins were less abundant in infected plants than in healthy plants, and 174 proteins were more abundant in infected plants than in healthy plants. These 448 proteins were involved in stress response, metabolism, growth and development, signal transduction, photosynthesis, cell cycle, and cell wall organization. Our results suggest that proteomic changes in response to infection by phytoplasmas might support phytoplasma nutrition by promoting alterations in the host's sugar metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, and expression of defense-related proteins. Regulation of defense-related pathways suggests that defense compounds are induced in interactions with susceptible as well as resistant hosts, with the main differences between the two interactions being the speed and intensity of the response.

  5. Identifikasi Molekuler Fitoplasma yang Berasosiasi dengan Tanaman Kaktus Hias Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariny Prasetya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cactus species (Opuntia sp. is a popular ornamental succulent plant. Some ornamental cactus species in Indonesia showing proliferation and green mosaic pattern symptoms have been reported to be associated with phytoplasma infection. However, further molecular identification for accurate classification of the causal phytoplasma has not been done.  This study aimed to diagnose phytoplasma associated with Opuntia sp. based on molecular methods involving PCR standard combined with nested-PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. Standard PCR was carried out using P1/P7 primers followed by nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 or fU5/rU3 primer pairs which amplify the 16S rRNA gene targets of 1.2 kb and 880 bp, respectively. Amplified fragment of nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 primers was chosen to be cloned and sequenced for further identification and classification of phytoplasma.  BLASTn analysis showed that the phytoplasma from Opuntia sp. was closely related to 16SrII group. Phylogenetic analysis and in silico RFLP indicated that phytoplasma strain infecting Opuntia sp. was a member of subgroup 16SrII-C (cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma. This is a newly report of cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma on Opuntia sp. in Indonesia.   

  6. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from shrub species in Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Rodriguez-Anon, J.A. [University of Santiago (Spain). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2004-01-01

    In this study we present an alternative for the management of the excess of shrub species that nowadays take up around 800,000 ha in Galicia (NW Spain). This alternative is based on the exploitation of the energetic resources contained in the excess of shrubs by their combustion in specially designed plants for production of electric energy. The different species were sorted into three groups: Ulex europaeus L. (furze), Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Link (broom) and Erica sp. (heaths). Their LHV were calculated through measurements of the corresponding HHV and resulted 7600, 7300 and 7200 kJ kg{sup -1} respectively. Biomass productions (T ha{sup -1}) were also calculated resulting 20 T ha{sup -1} (furze), 30 T ha{sup -1} (broom), and 15 T ha{sup -1} (heaths). Analyses of all these values make these species very valuable for their energy exploitation. Samples were collected over one year in different zones to study the effect of the environmental conditions on the calorific values. (Author)

  7. The stochastic modelling of kleptoparasitism using a Markov process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Crowe, Mary L; Fitzgerald, Meghan R; Rychtár, Jan

    2010-05-21

    Kleptoparasitism, the stealing of food items from other animals, is a common behaviour observed across a huge variety of species, and has been subjected to significant modelling effort. Most such modelling has been deterministic, effectively assuming an infinite population, although recently some important stochastic models have been developed. In particular the model of Yates and Broom (Stochastic models of kleptoparasitism. J. Theor. Biol. 248 (2007), 480-489) introduced a stochastic version following the original model of Ruxton and Moody (The ideal free distribution with kleptoparasitism. J. Theor. Biol. 186 (1997), 449-458), and whilst they generated results of interest, they did not solve the model explicitly. In this paper, building on methods used already by van der Meer and Smallegange (A stochastic version of the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response: Modelling interference for a finite number of predators. J. Animal Ecol. 78 (2009) 134-142) we give an exact solution to the distribution of the population over the states for the Yates and Broom model and investigate the effects of some key biological parameters, especially for small populations where stochastic models can be expected to differ most from their deterministic equivalents. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for Control of Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa in Theobroma cacao L.: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Tirado-Gallego,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limitations of cocoa production worldwide is primarily diseases caused by the pathogenic fungi of the genus Moniliophthora sp., especially, Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causing moniliasis and the witches' broom disease, respectively; both diseases are highly invasive and endemic in cocoa. The objective of this study was to describe the control strategies that can be used to handle the moniliasis and witches' broom diseases. This study was conducted in accor-dance with the Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, for which a systematic literature search in the ScienceDirect, Springer Link and Scopus databases was used. Original investigation articles over the last 12 years were included, inclusion and exclusion criteria were also applied. In countries like Brazil and Costa Rica, the year with most reports of related articles was 2008. The most used strategies for the disease control are the phytosanitation, the copper-based fungicides and biologic agents control of fungus and bacteria, specially, Trichoderma sp. and Bacillus sp. One of the most recommended methodologies on the studied articles was the optimization of treatments employing the combination of physical, biological and chemical agents

  9. Phytoplasma Effector SAP54 Induces Indeterminate Leaf-Like Flower Development in Arabidopsis Plants1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M.; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V.; Findlay, Kim C.; Grieve, Victoria M.; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches’ broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host. PMID:21849514

  10. Sources of resistance to Crinipellis perniciosa in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the Brazilian Amazon Fontes de resitência a Crinipellis perniciosa em progênies de cacaueiros coletados na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rodrigues Lavigne de Mello Paim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The witches' broom disease caused by the fungus Crinipellis perniciosa is the main phytossanitary constraint for cacao production in Brazil. The integrated management of the disease involves resistance as one of the components. The breeding program conducted by the Brazilian Institution, CEPLAC is directed toward the pyramidation of resistance genes from different sources to achieve a more durable resistance. This study aimed to identify sources of resistance in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the basins of ten Amazonian rivers and compared to progenies from the Peruvian clones 'Scavina 6' and 'Sacavina 12'. Progenies from 40 Amazonian accessions and 'Scavina' were evaluated in the field for six years for witches' broom resistance through multivariate and repeated measurement analyses evaluating the effect of progeny, area, block, year, and their interactions. There were differences in the mean number of vegetative brooms on some Amazonian progenies and 'Scavina' descendants. There was an increase in the number of vegetative brooms in the last year for 'Scavina' progenies, but that was not observed for the Amazonian progenies 64, 66, 156, 194, 195, 269 and 274. There were different gene/alleles for resistance in the Amazonian progenies in comparison to the traditional 'Scavina' accessions. These new sources of resistance will be important for pyramiding resistance genes and consequently increasing the stability and durability of the resistance to witches' broom.A doença vassoura-de-bruxa, causada pelo fungo Crinipellis perniciosa, é o principal problema fitossanitário para o cultivo do cacaueiro no Brasil. O manejo integrado da doença envolve a resistência como um dos componentes. O programa de melhoramento genético do cacaueiro conduzido pela Instituição brasileira CEPLAC é direcionado para acumular genes de resistência de diferentes fontes visando à obtenção de uma resistência mais durável. O objetivo deste estudo foi

  11. Automated Ortho-Rectification of UAV-Based Hyperspectral Data over an Agricultural Field Using Frame RGB Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Habib

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs equipped with consumer-grade imaging systems have emerged as a potential remote sensing platform that could satisfy the needs of a wide range of civilian applications. Among these applications, UAV-based agricultural mapping and monitoring have attracted significant attention from both the research and professional communities. The interest in UAV-based remote sensing for agricultural management is motivated by the need to maximize crop yield. Remote sensing-based crop yield prediction and estimation are primarily based on imaging systems with different spectral coverage and resolution (e.g., RGB and hyperspectral imaging systems. Due to the data volume, RGB imaging is based on frame cameras, while hyperspectral sensors are primarily push-broom scanners. To cope with the limited endurance and payload constraints of low-cost UAVs, the agricultural research and professional communities have to rely on consumer-grade and light-weight sensors. However, the geometric fidelity of derived information from push-broom hyperspectral scanners is quite sensitive to the available position and orientation established through a direct geo-referencing unit onboard the imaging platform (i.e., an integrated Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and Inertial Navigation System (INS. This paper presents an automated framework for the integration of frame RGB images, push-broom hyperspectral scanner data and consumer-grade GNSS/INS navigation data for accurate geometric rectification of the hyperspectral scenes. The approach relies on utilizing the navigation data, together with a modified Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF detector and descriptor, for automating the identification of conjugate features in the RGB and hyperspectral imagery. The SURF modification takes into consideration the available direct geo-referencing information to improve the reliability of the matching procedure in the presence of repetitive texture

  12. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento da flora com potencial apícola nos municípios de Ubiratã e Nova Aurora-PR, por meio da coleta de plantas e análises polínicas em amostras de mel coletadas mensalmente. Foram registradas 208 espécies de plantas, distribuídas em 66 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza de tipos polínicos foram Asteraceae, Myrtaceae e Solanaceae. Aproximadamente 80 tipos polínicos foram encontrados nas amostras de mel e, na maioria, foram caracterizados como heteroflorais. Plantas cultivadas, como Glycine max (soja e Eucalyptus spp. foram representativas em alguns meses do ano. Espécies exóticas, tais como Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach também foram frequentes. No entanto, mais de 50% dos tipos polínicos pertencem a espécies nativas da região, tais como Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp., Alchornea triplinervea, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp

  13. Biodiversidad de la flora del flanco oriental del Cordón del Plata (Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. Catálogo florístico Biodiversity of the flora of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata (Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La biodiversidad de la flora de la vertiente oriental del Cordón del Plata, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina se analizó a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal, entre los 1200 y 4500 m s.n.m. Para ello se utilizó la lista florística de las especies de 89 comunidades vegetales distribuidas en 14 unidades de vegetación, 5 pisos de vegetación y 3 unidades fitogeográficas. Para cada especie se consideró su distribución en los grupos de comunidades vegetales, ubicación fitogeográfica, formas de vida, origen y registro de colección. La flora examinada contiene 667 especies vegetales que se corresponden con 338 géneros y 82 familias. Las familias están representadas por 8 Pteridophyta, 1 Gymnospermae y 73 Angiospermae, con 12 Monocotyledoneae y 61 Dicotyledoneae. Las familias mejor representadas son Asteraceae y Poaceae que tienen en conjunto 110 géneros y 249 especies. Los géneros Senecio, Baccharis y Adesmia son los más ricos en especies. Aproximadamente el 20 % de las especies son endémicas de Argentina. La flora del área se la compara con la del país, la provincia y la de otras áreas.Floristic catalogue. The floristic biodiversity of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina, was studied along an altitudinal gradient, between 1200 and 4500 m a.s.l. For this we used a floristic list of 89 plant communities, distributed in 14 vegetation types, 5 vegetation belts and 3 phytogeographic units. For each of the species, its distribution in the groups of plant communities, phytogeographic position, life form, biogeographical origin, and registration of each collection was considered. The studied flora has 667 species, corresponding to 338 genera and 82 families. There are 8 Pteridophyta, 1 Gymnospermae, and 73 Angiospermae, of which 12 are Monocotyledons and 61 Dicotyledons. The most represented families are Asteraceae and Poaceae, which in total have 110 genera and 249 species. The most species

  14. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em rizosferas de plantas do litoral arenoso do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil: 2 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant rhizospheres from sandy soil of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brazil: 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. B. Trufem

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available De março/1988 a julho/1990, em 14 ocasiões, foram coletadas 410 amostras de solo de rizosfera de plantas do litoral arenoso da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil, com finalidade de se conhecer a micota de fMA. Foram investigadas as rizosferas das plantas: Baccharis trimera DC., Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hil. Mears, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub., Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam., Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Swett e Polygala cyparisseas St. Hil. & Moq. Verificaram-se 24 espécies de fMA. Os resultados obtidos permitiram constatar que: a há tendência em ter-se aumento no número de esporos no solo com o aumento da temperatura, precipitação e insolação; b diferentes espécies de fMA ocorrem em diferentes espécies de plantas hospedeiras, sugerindo a existência de especificidade ecológica; c há maior abundância de esporos das espécies de Acaulospora, Gigaspora e Scutellospora sobre as de Glomus. Não se verificou relação entre a fenologia das plantas hospedeiras, o número de esporos no solo e a porcentagem de colonização das raízes.From March/1988 to July/1990, in 14 opportunities, it was collected 410 soil samples of rhizospheres of native plants from sandy soils of Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brazil to investigate the occurrence of AM fungi. The studied plants were: Baccharis trimera DC., Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hil. Mears, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub., Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam., Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Swett and Polygala cyparisseas St. Hil. It was observed 24 species of AM fungi. The results showed: a a tendency to increase the number of spores in the soil with the increase of the temperature, rainfall and sunlight; b different species of AM fungi occurred in different species of hosts, suggesting ecological specificity of AM fungi; c it was observed higher abundance of spores of Acaulospora, Gigaspora and Scutellospora over spores of Glomus and Sclerocystis. It was not observed relatonships between the number of spores in the

  15. Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraz, Maëlle; Lavergne, Cédric; Jullian, Valérie; Wright, Michel; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Gonzales de la Cruz, Mercedes; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2015-05-26

    The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders. Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes. Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary

  16. Leaf anatomy of Medicinal Shrubs and Trees from Gallery Forests of the Paranaense Province (Argentina: Part 1 Anatomía foliar de árboles y arbustos medicinales de las selvas en galería de la provincia Paranaense (Argentina. Parte 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Arambarri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two species of shrubs and trees belonging to 28 families inhabiting gallery forests of the Paranaense biogeographic province (Argentina have been cited with medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to provide a tool to recognize these taxa from fragmented leaf samples. Fresh material and hydrated herbarium specimens fixed in FAA were surveyed. The main differential traits are: hypodermis presence (e.g. Myrceugenia glaucescens ; stomata and trichome types (e.g. ciclocytic stomata in Baccharis spp.; cystolith-like structure in trichomes in Aloysia gratissima var. gratissima ; midvein transection outlines (e.g. midvein convex and keel-shaped on the adaxial side in Allophylus edulis , mesophyll of the leaf blade (e.g. indifferentiated in Poiretia tetraphylla ; presence of idioblastic sclereids (e.g. in the petiole of Rollinia emarginata , presence and types of crystals (e.g. crystal sand in Sambucus australis ; presence of secretory structures (e.g. large secretory cavities in Malvaceae and Myrtaceae. We can conclude that the leaf features have diagnostic value to identify species. As a result, we offer a key to distinguish these 62 species and illustrations to clarify it. Ecological interpretation of leaf structures is also given.Entre los árboles y arbustos que forman las selvas en galería de la provincia biogeográfica Paranaense (Argentina, 62 especies pertenecientes a 28 familias son citadas como medicinales. El objetivo de este trabajo es proveer elementos para el reconocimiento de estos taxones a partir de hojas fragmentadas. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario recuperados y fijados en FAA. Algunos de los principales caracteres de identificación son: la presencia de una hipodermis (e.g. en Myrceugenia glaucescens ; los tipos de estomas (e.g. los estomas ciclocíticos en Baccharis spp. y de tricomas (e.g. los tricomas cistolíticos en Aloysia gratissima var. gratissima ; el contorno de la vena

  17. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis Screening de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.Staphylococcus aureus é o principal agente causador de mastite bovina. A atividade de diversos extratos de dez plantas medicinais tradicionalmente usadas no Brasil como anti-sépticas foi investigada contra quinze cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de animais com manifestação de mastite pelo método de difusão em ágar e ensaio de microdiluição. A interferência dos extratos na célula bacteriana em forma de colônias aderidas também foi avaliada. Os valores de MIC variaram de 0.5 mg/mL a 1.0 mg/mL e a concentração inibitória de biofilme (BIC variou de 0.25 mg/mL a 0.8 mg/mL. Os resultados revelaram o potencial dos extratos de Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus e Baccharis dracunculifolia como agentes antibacterianos contra cepas de S. aureus isolados de mastite bovina e suportam o possível uso destas plantas no manejo clínico da doença.

  18. Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.3206 Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.3206

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    Andréia Sangalli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residents use different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of the medicines. These women are responsible to cultivate the plants in the backyards and around their houses. The botanical families which presented higher number of species were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Leguminosae. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Mentha piperita L. and Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. were the most used plants by the interviewees, which were prepared in form of tea or plasters.The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residents use different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of

  19. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites of plants and insects and cause significant crop yield losses worldwide. A number of microarray gene expression studies have been performed to understand better the effects of phytoplasma infection on plant physiology. However, little effort has been made...... this technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly...... expressed in the plant or insect hosts. In silico operon prediction corroborated the experimental data. Our findings suggest that the delta delta Ct method can be used to study the physiology of this pathogen...

  20. Genomic analyses and expression evaluation of thaumatin-like gene family in the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sulamita de Freitas; Baroni, Renata Moro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Reis, Osvaldo; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2015-10-30

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are found in diverse eukaryotes. Plant TLPs, known as Pathogenicity Related Protein (PR-5), are considered fungal inhibitors. However, genes encoding TLPs are frequently found in fungal genomes. In this work, we have identified that Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete pathogen that causes the Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao, presents thirteen putative TLPs from which four are expressed during WBD progression. One of them is similar to small TLPs, which are present in phytopathogenic basidiomycete, such as wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis. Fungi genomes annotation and phylogenetic data revealed a larger number of TLPs in basidiomycetes when comparing with ascomycetes, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in specific traits of mushroom-forming species. Based on the present data, we discuss the contribution of TLPs in the combat against fungal competitors and hypothesize a role of these proteins in M. perniciosa pathogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq

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    Alkuwaiti Nawres Abdulelah Sadeq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of phytoplasma was investigated in symptomatic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., eggplant (Solanum melongen L., mallow (Malva spp. and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. plants exhibiting witches’ broom and white leaf diseases, respectively. Total DNA was extracted from tomato (n=3, eggplant (n=2, mallow (n=2 and Bermuda grass (n=8 samples. Direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using P1/P7 primer set, then PCR products were sequenced. Sequences obtained from tomato, eggplant and mallow shared 99% maximum nucleotide identity with phytoplasma belonging to subgroup 16SrII-D, and resulted therefore ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’-related. Sequences obtained from Bermuda grass showed 100% maximum nucleotide identity to 16SrXIV-A subgroup and were ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’-related. The study presents the first molecular confirmation and sequence data of presence of ‘Ca. P. australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq.

  2. Estudo em raiz e ráquis foliar de spathelia excelsa: fitoquímica e atividade frente ao fungo Moniliophthora perniciosa associado ao cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum

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    Loretta Ennes de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Spathelia excelsa (Krause R. S. Cowan & Brizicky was investigated and the limonoids harrisonin (1 and deacetylspathelin (2, alkaloids folinin and casimiroin mixture (3a, b, plus a further casimiroin (3b were identified in methanol extract from root. The CH2Cl2 extract from the rachis yielded protolimonoid 3β-angeloyl-21,24-epoxy-7α,21α,23α,25-tetrahydroxy-4α,4β,8β,10β-tetramethyl-25-dimethyl-14,18-cyclo-5α,13α,14α,17α-cholestane (4, and methanol extract, the limonoids limonin diosphenol (5 and perforatin (6, as well as the chromone biflorin (7. Harrisonin and biflorin were isolated for the first time in this genus. On the antifungal assay against witches' broom (Moniliophthoraperniciosa compound 3b was found to be active.

  3. Study of root and leaf rachis of Spathelia excelsa: phytochemistry and activity against fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa associated with cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum); Estudo em raiz e raquis foliar de Spathelia excelsa: fitoquimica e atividade frente ao fungo Moniliophthora perniciosa associado ao cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Loretta Ennes de; Lima, Maria da Paz; Maximo, Ariane da Costa; Pereira, Elaine Cristina da Silva; Moreira, Wagner Alan dos Santos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Tecnologia e Inovacao; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Veras, Solange de Mello [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias; Souza, Maria Geralda de, E-mail: mdapaz@inpa.gov.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of Spathelia excelsa (Krause) R. S. Cowan and Brizicky was investigated and the limonoids harrisonin (1) and deacetylspathelin (2), alkaloids folinin and casimiroin mixture (3a,b), plus a further casimiroin (3b) were identified in methanol extract from root. The CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} extract from the rachis yielded protolimonoid 3{beta}-angeloyl-21,24-epoxy-7{alpha},21{alpha},23{alpha},25-tetrahydroxy-4{alpha},4{beta},8{beta},10{beta}-tetramethyl -25-dimethyl-14,18-cyclo-5{alpha},13{alpha},14{alpha},17{alpha}-cholestane (4), and methanol extract, the limonoids limonin diosphenol (5) and perforatin (6), as well as the chromone biflorin (7). Harrisonin and biflorin were isolated for the first time in this genus. On the antifungal assay against witches' broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa) compound 3b was found to be active. (author)

  4. Characteristics of virus and virus-like rose degeneration and dieback diseases

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    Marek S. Szyndel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented review of rose diseases, associated with the plant degeneration symptoms, includes rose streak, rose colour break, rose rosette or rose witches' broom, rose dieback, rose wilt, rose stunt, rose leaf curl, rose spring dwarf, rose little leaf, rose "frisure", rose bud proliferation and rose flower proliferation. Most of these disorders are characterized by stunting or dwarfing of plants accompanied by a partial wilt and dieback of shoots. Proliferation and epinasty often occurred. Apart from detected viruses (TSV. SLRSV parts of degeneration syndrome have been transmitted by grafting other have failed to achieve any transmission of the causal agent. It seems likely that rose degeneration disorders in spite of symptom similarities are due to a complex of interacting factors including probably viruses.

  5. First report of the occurrence of Livia junci (Schrank, 1789 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Juncus fontanesii J. Gay ex Laharpe (Juncaceae from Portugal

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    Jarzembowski Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available “Witches’ brooms” is a disease or deformity in a plant where the natural structure of the plant is changed, i.e., a dense mass of shoots grows, usually from a single point, with the resulting structure resembling a broom. The specimens of Juncus fontanesii J. Gay ex Laharpe were collected on July 21, 2003, in Portugal (LISU 189105. We observed the larvae of the last (i.e., fifth stadium of Livia junci (Schrank, 1789 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae. Many exuvia of the early larval stages from Livia junci were obtained from the galls. This confirmed that the parasites lived in its larval period on Juncus fontanesii. Additionally, J. fontanesii formed the galls as a result of response to feeding, similar to other representatives of the genus Juncus. Livia junci is the only representative of the genus Livia that feeds on Juncus species in the Western Palearctic area.

  6. Diverse targets of phytoplasma effectors: from plant development to defense against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; MacLean, Allyson M; Kingdom, Heather N; Grieve, Victoria M; Manimekalai, R; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasma research begins to bloom (75). Indeed, this review shows that substantial progress has been made with the identification of phytoplasma effectors that alter flower development, induce witches' broom, affect leaf shape, and modify plant-insect interactions. Phytoplasmas have a unique life cycle among pathogens, as they invade organisms of two distinct kingdoms, namely plants (Plantae) and insects (Animalia), and replicate intracellularly in both. Phytoplasmas release effectors into host cells of plants and insects to target host molecules, and in plants these effectors unload from the phloem to access distal tissues and alter basic developmental processes. The effectors provide phytoplasmas with a fitness advantage by modulating their plant and insect hosts. We expect that further research on the functional characterization of phytoplasma effectors will generate new knowledge that is relevant to fundamental aspects of plant sciences and entomology, and for agriculture by improving yields of crops affected by phytoplasma diseases. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variation assessment of acid lime accessions collected from south of Iran using SSR and ISSR molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Ata Allah; Abkenar, Asad Asadi; Sharafi, Ali; Masaeli, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Iran has a long history of acid lime cultivation and propagation. In this study, genetic variation in 28 acid lime accessions from five regions of south of Iran, and their relatedness with other 19 citrus cultivars were analyzed using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Nine primers for SSR and nine ISSR primers were used for allele scoring. In total, 49 SSR and 131 ISSR polymorphic alleles were detected. Cluster analysis of SSR and ISSR data showed that most of the acid lime accessions (19 genotypes) have hybrid origin and genetically distance with nucellar of Mexican lime (9 genotypes). As nucellar of Mexican lime are susceptible to phytoplasma, these acid lime genotypes can be used to evaluate their tolerance against biotic constricts like lime "witches' broom disease".

  8. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintakham, Kanjanar; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI) model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01). This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task.

  9. Compact high-resolution VIS/NIR hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Timo; Herrala, Esko; Procino, Wes; Weatherbee, Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Current hyperspectral imagers are either bulky with good performance, or compact with only moderate performance. This paper presents a new hyperspectral technology which overcomes this drawback, and makes it possible to integrate extremely compact and high performance push-broom hyperspectral imagers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and other demanding applications. Hyperspectral imagers in VIS/NIR, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR spectral ranges have been implemented. This paper presents the measured performance attributes for a VIS/NIR imager which covers 350 to 1000 nm with spectral resolution of 3 nm. The key innovation is a new imaging spectrograph design which employs both transmissive and reflective optics in order to achieve high light throughput and large spatial image size in an extremely compact format. High light throughput is created by numerical aperture of F/2.4 and high diffraction efficiency. Image distortions are negligible, keystone being gimbals. In addition to laboratory characterization, results from a flight test mission are presented.

  10. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  11. Criteria for Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Different Guidelines, Appraising their Suitability in the Omani Arab Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rasadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Familial hypercholesterolemia are at increased risk for cardiac events such as premature myocardial infarction and early death from coronary heart disease, especially in patients with severe forms of the disease if left unattended. Therefore, there is an ardent need for the early diagnosis followed by aggressive therapeutic intervention and lifestyle modification. Three groups have developed clinical diagnostic tools for Familial hypercholesterolemia: the US MedPed Program, the Simon Broome Register Group in the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network. In this article, the individual criteria are reviewed with particular emphasis on their advantage(s and disadvantage(s, and in turn assess their suitability in diagnosing Familial hypercholesterolemia in the Omani Arab population. A brief insight into the process of "Cascade Screening" is also provided, this is a procedure that we are in the process of establishing in Oman.

  12. Bonneville Power Administration, Lower Columbia Region: Noxious Weed Management, 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR; Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program

    1996-01-01

    During the 1996 season ODA executed the contract between BPA and ODA. Execution of this contract included the following activities: Survey for target noxious weeds, such as Gorse; collection and redistribution of biological control agents, for example, Apion seed weevils for Scotch broom, bioagents for diffuse and spotted knapweed, Gorse spider mite, and gall fly releases for control of Canada thistle and bull thistle; and control of isolated infestations of Gorse on BPA rights-of-way. Training was provided for line crews at the Chemawa, Alevy and North Bend districts. The purpose of the program is to assist BPA in the integrated prevention and control of noxious weed species on BPA transmission line maintenance right-of-ways.

  13. Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS). Digital image storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.; Listmann, H.; Meissner, D.

    1982-05-01

    An imaging instrument for remote sensing to be used on space platforms (Shuttle Pallet Satellite-SPAS, Spacelab, satellites) is presented. The mapping principle is based on electrical scanning with high resolution linear photoarrays (push broom principle, charge coupled devices technology). The scanning is done in several pixel-coincide spectral channels between 0.45 and 1.05 microns by combining several similar modules. Almost any line length can be obtained using the double-lens principle (at present 6912 pixels). The signals are real-time corrected for the different dark signals, for the different sensitivities of the single elements, and for each lens transmittance. The digitized and corrected data are stored on a high density digital recorder.

  14. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Khairul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis.

  15. The Impact of Organizational Stress and Burnout on Client Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Brittany; Knight, Danica K.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of organizational attributes on client engagement within substance abuse treatment. Previous research has identified organizational features, including small size, accreditation, and workplace practices that impact client engagement (Broome, Flynn, Knight, & Simpson, 2007). The current study sought to explore how aspects of the work environment impact client engagement. The sample included 89 programs located in 9 states across the U.S. Work environment measures included counselor perceptions of stress, burnout, and work satisfaction at each program, while engagement measures included client ratings of participation, counseling rapport, and treatment satisfaction. Using multiple regression, tests of moderation and mediation revealed that staff stress negatively predicted client participation in treatment. Burnout was related to stress, but was not related to participation. Two additional organizational measures – workload and influence – moderated the positive relationship between staff stress and burnout. Implications for drug treatment programs are discussed. PMID:22154029

  16. Alternative and complementary antileishmanial treatments: assessment of the antileishmanial activity of 27 Lebanese plants, including 11 endemic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Carole; Delmas, Florence; Tueni, Marie; Cheble, Edmond; Khalil, Taoubi; Balansard, Guy

    2008-03-01

    Aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts from 27 Lebanese plants were investigated for their in vitro immunomodulatory and antileishmanial activities as compared to their toxicity against human cells. Extracts from yellow chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria), white larkspur (Consolida rigida), Syrian broom (Cytisus syriacus), coast spurge (Euphorbia paralias), shield fibigia (Fibigia clypeata), Auchers golden-drop (Onosma aucheriana), shell-flower sage (Salvia multicaulis), snowy woundwort (Stachys nivea), Palestine woundwort (Stachys palaestina), and polium-leaved speedwell (Veronica polifolia) exhibited interesting antileishmanial activities on the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite, while several extracts from A. tinctoria, F. clypeata, and O. aucheriana were shown to induce nitrous oxide (NO) production by human macrophages. Further experiments should be performed in order to purify and characterize the chemical compounds responsible for these activities.

  17. Estrategias para el cultivo, comercialización y exportación del cacao fino de aroma en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León-Villamar, Fersenth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pest attack as "la monilla" and "witch broom" have caused a decline in production and export of cocoa in Ecuador in recent years. This situation led to the research for making this study in order to explore the possible problems and solutions that cocoa sector has to face during the stages of cultivation, commercialization, industrialization and export. The study was conducted through a mixed research which included field and documentary ones. The results evidence how Ecuador could significantly increase production and export of cocoa if the Government establishes as state policy to improve crop areas, developing the production yield per hectare; creating tax incentives to attract foreign investment to the cocoa sector, and increase the export of semi-finished cocoa.

  18. Spectral-spatial classification combined with diffusion theory based inverse modeling of hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluchowski, Lukasz A.; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Nordgaard, Hâvard B.; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2016-02-01

    Hyperspectral imagery opens a new perspective for biomedical diagnostics and tissue characterization. High spectral resolution can give insight into optical properties of the skin tissue. However, at the same time the amount of collected data represents a challenge when it comes to decomposition into clusters and extraction of useful diagnostic information. In this study spectral-spatial classification and inverse diffusion modeling were employed to hyperspectral images obtained from a porcine burn model using a hyperspectral push-broom camera. The implemented method takes advantage of spatial and spectral information simultaneously, and provides information about the average optical properties within each cluster. The implemented algorithm allows mapping spectral and spatial heterogeneity of the burn injury as well as dynamic changes of spectral properties within the burn area. The combination of statistical and physics informed tools allowed for initial separation of different burn wounds and further detailed characterization of the injuries in short post-injury time.

  19. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [Institute of Biophysics, Pisa (Italy)

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. High lipoprotein(a) as a possible cause of clinical familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Kamstrup, Pia Rørbœk; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN), Simon Broome, and Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Death (MEDPED) criteria to clinically diagnose familial hypercholesterolaemia. Cox proportional hazard regression calculated hazard ratios (95% CI) of myocardial infarction. FINDINGS: Using unadjusted LDL...... cholesterol, mean lipoprotein(a) concentrations were 23 mg/dL in individuals unlikely to have familial hypercholesterolaemia, 32 mg/dL in those with possible familial hypercholesterolaemia, and 35 mg/dL in those with probable or definite familial hypercholesterolaemia (ptrend... LDL cholesterol for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol content the corresponding values were 24 mg/dL for individuals unlikely to have familial hypercholesterolaemia, 22 mg/dL for those with possible familial hypercholesterolaemia, and 21 mg/dL for those with probable or definite familial...