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Sample records for broom baccharis sarothroides

  1. Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jones, Gary L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and Desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg−1, respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10~15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg−1 and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg−1 for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. PMID:17964035

  2. Baccharis pteronioides toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccharis pteronioides DC. occasionally poisons livestock in the southwestern United States. Various toxins including diterpenic lactones, sesquiterpenes , flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compounds and essential oils have been isolated and described from several Baccharis species, but none...

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais produzidos por Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of essential oils produced by Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ferronatto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais obtidos de plantas nativas de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, também conhecido como óleo-de-vassoura, é utilizado na indústria de perfumaria, proporcionando um aroma exótico a diversos perfumes, além de muitos estudos sobre atividades biológicas dessas espécies destacam os efeitos alelopáticos, antioxidante, antimicrobianos, citotóxicos e antiinflamatórios. A vassoura é uma planta arbustiva de ocorrência espontânea no Brasil, assim como nos demais países do Mercosul. A composição do óleo depende da região geográfica e do processo de extração utilizado e a importância comercial está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de compostos oxigenados, destacando o nerolidol e o espatulenol. Óleos essenciais obtidos dessas duas espécies pelo processo de hidrodestilação, foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em disco de papel, em placas de Petri contendo meio de Müeller-Hinton, semeadas com suspensões bacterianas previamente ajustadas ao tubo 0,5 da escala de Mac Farland de quatro cepas provenientes da American Type Culture Colection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discos contendo diferentes volumes dos óleos essenciais sem qualquer diluição (1, 3, 5 e 10 µL/disco foram adicionadas às placas e incubadas a 36 ºC por 24 a 48 horas. Discos de cloranfenicol (CLO e amoxicilina (AMO com volumes de 50 e 10 µg/disco respectivamente, foram utilizados como controle. Os resultados apresentados revelam que ambos os óleos avaliados apresentam atividade antimicrobiana sobre S. aureus, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.Essential oils obtained from the native plants Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, known also as "óleo de vassoura", are used in the perfumery industry, providing diverse perfumes with exotic aromas. Besides several studies about the biological activities of these species highlight the allelopathic

  4. Broome and the Intuition of Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowicz, Wlodek

    2009-01-01

    In “Weighing Lives” (2004) John Broome criticizes a view common to many population axiologists. This is the view that population increases with extra people leading decent lives are axiologically neutral: they make the world neither better nor worse, ceteris paribus. Broome argues that this intuition, however, attractive, cannot be sustained, for several independent reasons. I respond to his criticisms and suggest that the neutrality intuition, if correctly interpreted, can after all be defen...

  5. Potencial ornamental de Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentatacomo folhagem de corte

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    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas amplia a oferta de produtos para o mercado da floricultura. Entretanto, antes de uma espécie ser indicada como ornamental, suas características estéticas devem ser avaliadas pelo público consumidor. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi prospectar novas plantas para uso como folhagem de corte e avaliar o seu potencial ornamental. O potencial ornamental das espécies prospectadas foi avaliado por 10 profissionais especialistas em arte floral, com base em metodologia que considera características qualitativas e quantitativas de importância ornamental para o mercado consumidor. Cada critério foi pontuado por meio de notas de dez (mínima a 100 (máxima. Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentata foram selecionadas na região de Mata Atlântica, em borda de mata, por apresentarem ocorrência frequente na paisagem, hastes longas, folhas exuberantes, com coloração destacada na paisagem e aspecto aparentemente rústico. Ambas as espécies apresentam alto potencial ornamental para uso como folhagem de corte com características adequadas para o uso como complementos para arranjos florais.

  6. Ant assemblages in successional stages of Scotch Broom stands

    OpenAIRE

    Dauber, Jens; Simmering, D.

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius [L.] LINK) stands are important seminatural habitats in cultural landscapes of Ger-many. High structural diversity of broom stands is reflected by a high species diversity of the flora and fauna, giving them a high value for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and structure of ant assemblages among successional stages of Scotch Broom stands, and compare these with assemblages in arable land and the climax ...

  7. Deconstructing the Broom of the System

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosz, Anna Maria; Richards, Henry Chase; Tatum, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discover to what extent the philosopher Jacques Derrida is present in the novel The Broom of the System by David Foster Wallace. It will explore key themes from the writing and philosophy of Jacques Derrida as they are relevant to the novel. Having gained an understanding of the thought being applied in interpreting the novel, we will move on to explore aspects of the work from the perspective of deconstruction, of which Derrida was a key figure.

  8. Estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule de Baccharis uncinella DC., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Manfron Budel Jane; Duarte, Márcia do Rocio

    2008-01-01

    Baccharis uncinella DC. belongs to the Asteraceae family and is included in the Spicata group. Its synonym is Baccharis discolor Baker and it is popularly known as vassoura and vassoura-lageana in Portuguese. The phytochemical screening has shown the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. Baccharis uncinella has presented antiviral activity against Herpes simplex type I. The volatile oil of the aerial organs has exhibited antimicrobial a...

  9. Avaliação da atividade mutagênica da infusão de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. em teste de Allium cepa e teste de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos Evaluation of mutagenic activity resulting from the infusion Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. using the Allium cepa test and a chromosomal test for aberrations in human lymphocytes

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    Daiane S. de Pinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A carqueja (Baccharis trimera(Less. DC. é uma planta medicinal da família Asteraceae muito utilizada como chá no sul do Brasil no tratamento de doenças renais, intestinas, estomacais e principalmente como emagrecedora. O objetivo desde trabalho foi de avaliar a mutagenicidade in vivoe in vitrodo chá e para isso foi realizado o teste de Allium cepaL. e o de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos utilizando quatro tratamentos: T1 (água; T2 (20 g/L de carqueja; T3 (200 g/L de carqueja, e T4 (paracetamol, a 400 mg/L. Ambos os procedimentos foram analisados pelo teste Mann-Whitney U. Este estudo evidencia um efeito mutagênico do chá em células vegetais (Allium cepa e em células humanas (aberrações cromossômicas cultivadas, pois em ambos os testes, T2 e T3 obteve-se uma média mais elevada que nos outros tratamentos. Este estudo demonstra que o efeito é dependente da dose, portanto recomenda-se que o chá de carqueja seja consumido com moderação.Broom (Baccharis trimera(Less. DC. is a medicinal plant from Asteraceae that is commonly used as a tea in the south of Brazil for the treatment of renal, intestinal and stomach diseases. It is also used as a slimming agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of the tea in vivoand in vitro. In order to do this, the Allium cepatest was carried out and the chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes were tested using four treatments: T1 (water; T2 (20 g/L of broom; T3 (200 g/L of broom and T4 (paracetamol at 400 mg/L. Both procedures were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. This study provided evidence of a mutagenic effect of the tea in vegetable cells (Allium cepa and in cultivated human cells. In tests T2 and T3 there was a higher average than the other treatments. This study shows that the effect is dependent on the dose. It is therefore recommended that broom tea be consumed with moderation.

  10. Morfoanatomia foliar e caulinar de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Manfron Budel, Jane; Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbiré; Paulo V. Farago

    2004-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., pertencente ao grupo Spicata e à secção Discolores, é conhecida na medicina tradicional como "carqueja", "chilca", "vassourinha". É utilizada popularmente para combater distúrbios gástricos, inapetência, cansaço físico e afecções febris. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar estudos morfoanatômicos da folha e do caule de B. dracunculifolia, contribuindo na diagnose desse fármaco vegetal e fornecendo subsídios taxonômicos ao grupo. O material botânico foi submetido...

  11. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em bovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in cattle

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    Daniel R. Rissi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos dois surtos de intoxicação por Baccharis coridifolia em bovinos no Sul do Brasil. Os casos ocorreram quando bovinos estressados, com fome e sede, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, foram introduzidos em locais altamente infestados por essa planta tóxica. A morbidade nos dois surtos foi de 21,73% e 22,51%, e a letalidade foi virtualmente de 100%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam discreto timpanismo, instabilidade dos membros pélvicos, tremores musculares, focinho seco, fezes secas ou diarréicas, polidipsia e inquietação. Alterações presentes em todas as necropsias incluíam desidratação, grande quantidade de conteúdo líquido no rúmen, avermelhamento e erosões da mucosa dos pré-estômagos. As principais alterações histopatológicas encontradas foram degeneração e necrose do revestimento epitelial dos pré-estômagos e do tecido linfóide.Two outbreaks of Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in cattle in southern Brazil are described. Cases occurred when stressed, hungry and thirsty cattle brought from pastures free of B. coridifolia were placed into pastures heavily infested by this poisonous plant. In the two outbreaks morbidity was 21.73% and 22.51% and lethality was virtually 100%. Clinical signs included mild bloat, instability of hind limbs, muscle tremors, dry muzzle, dry feces or diarrhea, polydipsia and restlessness. Consistent necropsy findings included dehydration, large amounts of ruminal fluid, reddening and erosions of the mucosae of the forestomachs. Degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the forestomachs and of lymphoid tissue were the main histopathological changes encountered.

  12. Experimental control of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum invading natural grasslands

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    Cristina Sanhueza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of legumes generically known as brooms are among the most successful shrubs invading grasslands in South America and otherregions. These species share a set of biological features that enhance their invasiveness, such as abundant and long-lasting seed banks,aggressive root systems and rapid growth, combined with their ability for re-sprouting after cutting or burning and for avoiding herbivores.They grow in dense stands that exclude native vegetation and are able to change ecological processes, increasing fire frequency and intensity,and fixing atmospheric nitrogen. The Spanish broom (Spartium junceum is a shrub native form the Mediterranean that was introduced intothe Argentine Pampas grasslands where it spreads over remnants of pristine ecosystems, threatening their biodiversity. This paper reports theresults obtained after an adaptive management strategy aimed at controlling this species in a nature reserve, and compares the efficiency ofdifferent mechanical and chemical control techniques in terms of the number of plants killed and the effects on surrounding vegetation andon the recruitment of broom seedlings. Control was implemented in two phases, the first included three treatments: i cut at the base of theplant, ii cut followed by the immediate application of Togar (Picloram 3% + Triclopyr 6%, at a 5% dilution in diesel oil on top of the cut stump, and iii foliar spraying with Togar. The follow-up treatments, implemented one year later, consisted of spraying the re-sprouts with Togar (5% in diesel oil or Glyphosate 36% (2% in water. The best option in terms of controlling Spanish broom was spraying the resprouts with Togar which gave 100% mortality of the treated plants, compared with values of 40% - 100% re-sprouting for the other optionstested. None of the methods was associated with an increase in seedling recruitment, nor with significant changes in the vegetation in the immediate vicinity of the controlled brooms.

  13. Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Peumus boldus e Baccharis genistelloides Pharmacology and toxicology of Peumus boldus and Baccharis genistelloides

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    Ana Lúcia T. G. Ruiz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um grande número de espécies com uso medicinal tradicional ainda continua sem comprovação da eficácia e da segurança de seu uso. Este artigo apresenta uma pequena revisão sobre os trabalhos publicados com boldo (Peumus boldus e carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides. Os estudos farmacológicos realizados com P. boldus e B. genistelloides comprovam várias das atividades atribuídas popularmente a esses chás, além de correlacionarem esses efeitos a compostos puros, isolados a partir desses extratos. Já os estudos toxicológicos sugerem que o chá de boldo deve ser consumido com moderação e cuidado, principalmente no primeiro trimestre da gravidez (indícios de teratogenia e no uso por tempo prolongado (indícios de hepatotoxicidade, enquanto o consumo do chá de carqueja deve ser proibido para gestantes (risco comprovado de aborto e para pacientes que utilizam drogas para tratamento de problemas pressóricos (ação hipotensora. Estes relatos reforçam a necessidade de um maior conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente, não apenas para a confirmação das atividades descritas pelo uso tradicional, mas também para que o uso seguro seja estabelecido.There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides. Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand, toxicological researches have pointed out that P. boldus tea should not be consumed during a long period (potential hepatotoxicity and by pregnant, especially during the first three months. Moreover, B. genistelloides tea must be prohibited for pregnant because of confirmed abortive

  14. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  15. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina Flavonoids and triterpenes from Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioactivity on Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Paula Madeira Moreira; Valmor Coutinho; Ana Beatriz Pimentel Montanher; Miguel Soriano Balparda Caro; Inês Maria Costa Brighente; Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti; Franco Delle Monache

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  16. Gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae: aspectos químicos, econômicos e biológicos The Baccharis genus (Asteraceae: chemical, economic and biological aspects

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    Luiz Gonzaga Verdi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.

  17. Experimental control of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum) invading natural grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Sanhueza; Sergio M. Zalba

    2012-01-01

    A group of legumes generically known as brooms are among the most successful shrubs invading grasslands in South America and otherregions. These species share a set of biological features that enhance their invasiveness, such as abundant and long-lasting seed banks,aggressive root systems and rapid growth, combined with their ability for re-sprouting after cutting or burning and for avoiding herbivores.They grow in dense stands that exclude native vegetation and are able to change ecological ...

  18. Intoxicação experimental por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae in cattle

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    Mary Suzan Varaschin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Treze terneiros receberam Baccharis coridifolia recém-colhida ou dessecada, em doses únicas que variaram entre 0,5 e 5g/kg. Um terneiro recebeu quatro administrações diárias de 0,5g/kg da planta dessecada. Dois terneiros não receberam a planta e serviram como controles. A planta foi colhida mensalmente de julho de 1991 a maio de 1992 e em março de 1993, e foi analisada para seu conteúdo em tricotecenos macrocíclicos. Quando em floração, as amostras dos espécimes macho e fêmea da planta foram analisadas e administradas aos terneiros separadamente. Os níveis de tricotecenos macrocíclicos e seus glicosídeos foram muito maiores nas plantas fêmeas em floração do que os níveis observados nas plantas não em floração e nas plantas machos em floração. Dez bovinos morreram espontaneamente ou foram sacrificados devido à toxicose. Dois terneiros que receberam a planta fêmea em floração, adoeceram e morreram, enquanto que três terneiros que receberam a planta macho em floração não adoeceram. Os sinais clínicos nos terneiros intoxicados foram anorexia, desidratação, atonia ruminal, tensão e dores abdominais, diarréia líquida, focinho seco, instabilidade dos membros posteriores e decúbito esternal. Os achados patológicos incluiram lesões necróticas no tubo gastrintestinal, particularmente nos pré-estômagos, e nos tecidos linfóides com exceção do timo. Esse último achado sugere um efeito sobre as células B do tecido linfóide. A distribuição das lesões nos sistemas digestivo e linfóide foi sistematicamente determinada. Conclui-se que os tricotecenos macrocíclicos presentes na planta são responsáveis pelas lesões observadas na toxicose e que a planta fêmea em floração é substâncialmente mais tóxica que a planta macho em floração ou das plantas que não estão em floração. Essa diferença em toxicidade é devida à diferença no conteúdo de tricotecenos macrocíclicos.Thirteen calves were fed

  19. Macro and microscopical identification of four species of Baccharis from trimera group

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    J.M. Budel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of Baccharis belonging to the Trimera group are commonly named as carqueja and employed for their digestive and diuretic properties. Since the members of this group are alike, this work has aimed to study the macro and microscopical characters of Baccharis articulata, B. cylindrica, B. gaudichaudiana and B. trimera, in order to contribute for the drug analysis and to complement taxonomic knowledge for the Trimera group. These species are shrubs and have three-winged stem, except for B. articulata which possesses two wings. B. gaudichaudiana axis reveals ribs, B. articulata has oval contour and B. cylindrica and B. trimera stem is circular. In B. cylindrica and B. trimera, included phloem has been observed in older basal regions. Calcium oxalate crystals are seen in the four species, being styloid in B. articulata and B. cylindrica and prismatic in B. gaudichaudiana and B. trimera. The other microscopical features observed are similar.

  20. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira; Coutinho Valmor; Montanher Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Caro Miguel Soriano Balparda; Brighente Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo; Monache Franco Delle

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  1. Phenolic Enriched Extract of Baccharis trimera Presents Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Simone C. B. Gnoatto; Jarbas R. de Oliveira; Grace Gosmann; Vanusa Manfredini; Carmen Regla Vargas; Lucimara N. Comunello; Amaral, Robson H.; Gabriela Lucas da Silva; Cristiane B. de Oliveira; Adroaldo Lunardelli; Pires, Melissa G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Baccharis trimera is a plant popularly used as a tea and to treat gastrointestinal diseases and inflammatory processes as well. The total phenolic content was determined and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six extracts (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, aqueous, saponin and phenolic) from B. trimera were evaluated. Using carrageenan-induced pleurisy as a model of acute inflammation, the phenolic extract at 15 mg/kg decreased significantly the analyzed parameters whe...

  2. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  3. Development of Abrasive Selection Model/Chart for Palm Frond Broom Peeling Machine Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankwojike; B. Nduka

    2014-01-01

    A model for predicting the friction required by a palm frond broom peeling machine for effective peeling of palm leaf to broom bristle and a chart for selecting the best abrasive material for this machine’s peeling operation were developed in this study using mechanistic modeling method. The model quantified the relationship between the coefficient of friction and other operational parameters of this machine while the abrasives selection chart constitutes a plot of this measured f...

  4. Estudo farmacobotânico de partes vegetativas aéreas de Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae Pharmacobotanical study of aerial vegetative parts of Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae

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    Jane M. Budel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Baccharis pertence à família Asteraceae e se destaca por incluir espécies medicinais. Baccharis anomala DC., conhecida como "uva-do-mato" e "cambará-de-cipó", é utilizada popularmente como diurético e estudos fitoquímicos constataram a presença de taninos e saponinas. Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule dessa espécie. O material foi submetido a microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. A lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada revestida por cutícula delgada e estriada. Estômatos anomocíticos ocorrem somente na face abaxial. Em ambas as faces aparecem dois tipos de tricomas tectores pluricelulares unisseriados, um com ápice agudo e outro com célula apical flageliforme. O mesofilo é isobilateral e a nervura central é plano-convexa, sendo percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral. O pecíolo mostra três feixes vasculares que se dispõem em arco aberto. O caule tem secção circular e epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas similares aos da folha. Colênquima angular e clorênquima alternam-se no córtex e fibras perivasculares apõem-se ao floema. Evidencia-se uma zona cambial, cujas células formam xilema no sentido centrípeto e floema, centrifugamente, e a medula compõe-se de células parenquimáticas. Dutos secretores acompanham o sistema vascular na folha e no caule.The genus Baccharis belongs to the family Asteraceae and includes medicinal species. Baccharis anomala DC., popularly known as "uva-do-mato" and "cambará-do-cipó" in Portuguese, is used as diuretic in folk medicine and phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of tannins and saponins. This work has aimed at studying the macro and microscopic aspects of the leaf and stem of this species. The botanical material was prepared according to standard light and scanning microtechniques. The leaf blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with a thin and striate cuticle. Anomocytic stomata are

  5. Estaquia de três espécies de Baccharis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bona Claudine Maria de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da carqueja é importante para o fornecimento de matéria prima de alta qualidade para a indústria de fitoterápicos, sendo necessária a definição de uma forma eficiente de produção de mudas. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes partes do ramo e substratos na estaquia de Baccharis articulata, Baccharis trimera e Baccharis stenocephala. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação sob condição de nebulização intermitente, testando: 1diferentes partes do ramo (estaca basal, estaca mediana e estaca apical com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições de 15 estacas por parcela; e 2diferentes substratos (solo, areia, vermiculita, casca de arroz carbonizada e Plantmax®, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, quatro repetições de 15 estacas por parcela. A posição da estaca de B. trimera não afetou a porcentagem de enraizamento, massa seca de raízes e número de raízes emitidas por estaca, ocorrendo apenas maior porcentagem de estacas brotadas das partes mediana e basal. Para B. articulata e B. stenocephala, houve tendência das estacas apicais e medianas apresentarem maior enraizamento e desenvolvimento das raízes. Os substratos testados não apresentaram diferenças significativas para as variáveis analisadas em B. trimera, mas para B. stenocephala e B. articulata a areia foi o pior substrato.

  6. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa de duas espécies de carqueja: Baccharis microcephala DC. e B. trimera (Less.) DC., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Manfron Budel; Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2009-01-01

    A identificação de espécies de Baccharis que são constituídas de cladódios, ou seja, caules alados, apresenta dificuldades até mesmo para especialistas em taxonomia vegetal. Baccharis microcephala e B. trimera pertencem ao grupo Trimera e são conhecidas vulgarmente como carquejas. Na medicina popular, é comum o uso de espécies aladas para a aplicação terapêutica como diurético, hepatoprotetor e digestivo. Baccharis trimera consta na F. Bras. IV e possui atividades antiinflamatória, analgésica...

  7. Comparação entre os metais presentes em Croton floribundus Spreng. e Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia A.Telles Macari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are very important in the vegetal fisiology, if so, it's necessary their quantification. In the soil the plants are acumulatives and detectors of metals. The medicinal plants Croton floribundus Spreng. and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. were collected in the Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA - Iperó - SP. The analysis method used the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  8. Recent findings in the chemistry of odorants from four Baccharis species and their impact as chemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Umpiérrez, Noelia; Xavier, Vanessa; Lucas, Aline; Mondin, Claudio; Fariña, Laura; Cassel, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Baccharis is a widespread genus belonging to the Asteraceae family that includes almost 400 species exclusively from the Americas. Even when studied in detail, the taxonomic classification among species from this genus is not yet fully defined. Within the framework of our study of the volatile composition of the Baccharis genus, four species (B. trimera, B. milleflora, B. tridentata, and B. uncinella) were collected from the 'Campos de Cima da Serra' highlands of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aerial parts were dried and extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) procedure. This is the first time that SDE has been applied to obtain and compare the volatile-extract composition in the Baccharis genus. Characterization of the volatile extracts allowed the identification of 180 peaks with many coeluting components; these latter being detailed for the first time for this genus. The multivariate statistical analyses allowed separating the volatile extracts of the four populations of Baccharis into two separate groups. The first one included the B. milleflora, B. trimera, and B. uncinella volatile extracts. The three species showed a high degree of similarity in their volatile composition, which was characterized by the presence of high contents of sesquiterpene compounds, in particular of spathulenol. The second group comprised the extract of B. tridentata, which contained α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, and (E)-β-ocimene in high amounts. PMID:26363878

  9. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. (carqueja against bacteria of medical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álan Alex Aleixo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. (Asteraceae, popularly know as "carqueja", is a species commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment or prevention of diseases. In this context, the purpose of this work was to study the antibacterial activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis trimera against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli EHEC ATCC 43895, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430 of clinical interest. Antibacterial susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following the CLSI (formerly the NCCLS guidelines. The extract from B. trimera showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and the most interesting result was obtained against S. epidermidis that presented Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of 250μg/mL. These results indicate that B. trimera have bacterisostatic potential against Gram-positive bacterial strains of medical interest and could serve as a base for further studies on the use of isolated compounds from this species as future antimicrobials.

  10. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma mortalidade de ovinos associada à intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia ("mio-mio". A intoxicação ocorreu no município de Caxias do Sul, RS, em novembro de 2004. De um lote de 212 ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, no município de Jaguarão, RS, morreram 35 ovinos em até 5 dias após serem liberadas para o pasto onde mio-mio era encontrado em abundância, apesar de terem sido removidos deste pasto 1 dia e meio após sua introdução. Ovinos que anteriormente estavam na propriedade não foram afetados. O quadro clínico iniciou-se 8 horas após a introdução dos animais na nova pastagem e incluiu anorexia, depressão, retração abdominal ou leve timpanismo, incoordenação de membros posteriores, fezes pastosas, corrimento nasal catarral, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, coma e morte com evolução clínica entre 5 e 48 horas. Os principais achados de necropsia foram no trato digestivo com edema de serosa e da parede dos pré-estômagos principalmente na região retículo-ruminal e do abomaso, avermelhamento e desprendimento da mucosa ruminal e do retículo e intensa hemorragia na submucosa. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose do epitélio do pré-estômago, com infiltrado polimorfonuclear, congestão, hemorragia e edema, e necrose do tecido linfóide de linfonodos, baço e trato digestivo.An outbreak of Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep is reported, which occurred in November 2004 in the county of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. From a herd of 212 sheep, coming from a Baccharis coridifolia free area, in the county of Jaguarão, RS, 35 sheep died until 5 days after the arrival in the new area where the plant was found with abundance. The clinical signs began 8 hours after introduction of the animals into the new pasture and included apathy, anorexia, abdominal retraction or mild distension, weakness of hind limbs

  11. Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

    2009-04-01

    human being. One of the most interesting techniques applied in contaminated aquifer by heavy metals is the PRBs (Troisi et al., 2002; Calvin et al., 2006), in particular broom fibers PRB (Troisi et al., 2008). The first results highlight an optimum removal capacity for contaminants underlined from following removal percentage: 98.01% (Cd), 99.95% (Cu), 97.35% (Pb) and 99.53% (Zn). A fundamental parameter for PRB design is the decay coefficient who indicates the removal capacity (degradation, transformation, adsorption/absorption, mass transport, etc.). This parameter has been determined for four heavy metals: Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) carrying out column tests. Besides, for real use of broom fibers PRB same tests have been performed, using flow cells, to estimate a relation between hydraulic conductivity of fiber and its density. References Chien C. C., H. I. Inyang and L.G. Everett (2006). Barrier Systems for Environmental Contaminant Containment and Treatment. Taylor and Francis Group eds. Troisi S., C. Fallico, S. Straface S. e L. Mazzuca. (2008). Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. CS2008A00018. Università della Calabria. Troisi S, E. Migliari and S. Straface (2002). Soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals in the industrial area of Crotone. Third International Conference Risk Analysis III. Sintra, Ed. by C.A. Brebbia. WIT Press.

  12. Macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manfron Budel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Baccharis usterii for quality control purposes. The plant was prepared for light and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The stem consisted of three-winged cladodes with small leaves. In the caulinar axis, these was a uniseriate epidermis, chlorenchyma alternating with angular collenchyma, perivascular fibre caps adjoining the phloem which was outside the xylem, and parenchymatic pith. The wings and the leaves were alike, presenting a uniseriate epidermis, palisade parenchyma next to the both sides of the epidermis and spongy parenchyma traversed by minor collateral vascular bundles in the central region. In the leaf midrib, a single collateral vascular bundle was embedded in the ground parenchyma. Secretory ducts and glandular trichomes occured in the stem and leaf.Caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de Baccharis usterii, com aplicação no controle de qualidade. O material botânico foi preparado de acordo com técnicas para microscopia óptica e de varredura. O caule consistiu de cladódios trialados, nos quais se inserem pequenas folhas. O eixo caulinar apresentou epiderme unisseriada, clorênquima em alternância com colênquima angular, calotas de fibras perivasculares apostas ao floema, o qual se forma externamente ao xilema, e medula parenquimática. As alas e as folhas mostraram-se semelhantes, apresentando epiderme unisseriada, parênquima paliçádico junto a ambas as faces epidérmicas e parênquima esponjoso na região central, atravessado por feixes vasculares de pequeno porte. Na nervura central da folha, um feixe vascular colateral encontrou-se mergulhado no parênquima fundamental. Dutos secretores e tricomas glandulares ocorreram no caule e na folha

  13. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  14. Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa Antiproliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle and Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae on the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Fachinetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies medicinais Baccharis trimera e Baccharis articulata, nativas no sul do Brasil, são muito utilizadas na medicina popular. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial efeito citotóxico destas infusões sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Ramos de duas populações de cada espécie coletados durante os estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo (floração foram usados para preparar infusões em duas concentrações: 15 mg mL-1 e 75 mg mL-1. Células das pontas de raízes Allium cepa são usadas como sistema teste in vivo. Foram preparadas lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. As células foram analisadas em todo o ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 4000 células para cada grupo de bulbos. O índice mitótico (IM foi calculado e realizado análise estatística através do teste Qui-quadrado (c² = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que as infusões de B. trimera nas duas populações causaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, mas não entre as concentrações, em ambos estádios utilizados. Os extratos de B. articulata também apresentaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, sendo que uma das populações apresentou diferença do IM entre as concentrações nos dois estádios, o que não ocorreu na outra população. Com relação à presença de células com aberrações cromossômicas, esta ocorreu em todas as populações estudadas. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos dessas espécies apresentaram efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico para as concentrações estudadas, não possuindo diferença nesses efeitos quanto ao estádio de desenvolvimento das plantas.The medicinal species Baccharis trimera and Baccharis articulata, which are native to the south of Brazil, are extensively used in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Branches of two populations of each species collected during the vegetative and reproductive

  15. Tannins in Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): effects of seasonality, water availability and plant sex Taninos em Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): efeitos da sazonalidade, disponibilidade de água e sexo da planta

    OpenAIRE

    Espírito-Santo, Mário M.; G. Wilson Fernandes; Luciana R Allain; Ticiana R. F Reis

    1999-01-01

    Several ecological, genetic, and environmental factors are known to influence tannin concentration in plant tissues. In this study, the effects of seasonality, water availability, and sex of the plant on tannin concentration in the dioecious shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia were assessed. The effects of water availability on plant shoot growth and its relationship to tannin concentration were also experimentally evaluated. Tannins occurred in B. dracunculifolia from November to May, peaking du...

  16. Spaceborne L-band Radiometers: Push-broom or Synthetic Aperture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    L-band radiometers can measure ocean salinity and soil moisture from space. A synthetic aperture radiometer system, SMOS, is under development by ESA for launch in 2007. A real aperture push-broom system, Aquarius, has been approved by NASA for launch in 2008. Pros et cons of the two fundamentally...

  17. Spaceborne L-band Radiometers: Push-broom or Synthetic Aperture?

    OpenAIRE

    Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    L-band radiometers can measure ocean salinity and soil moisture from space. A synthetic aperture radiometer system, SMOS, is under development by ESA for launch in 2007. A real aperture push-broom system, Aquarius, has been approved by NASA for launch in 2008. Pros et cons of the two fundamentally different imaging concepts behind the two missions are discussed.

  18. Mapping Broom Snakeweed Through Image Analysis of Color-infrared Photography and Digital Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted on a south Texas rangeland area to evaluate aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and CIR digital imagery combined with unsupervised image analysis techniques to map broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby]. Accuracy assessments performed on compute...

  19. Characterization of broom fibers for PRB in the remediation of aquifers contaminated by heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fallico

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present level of pollution, increasingly involving ground waters, constitutes a serious risk for the environment and also for human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils to remove the pollutant materials is required more and more frequently. In the present paper, the possibility of removing the specific pollutant typology constituted of heavy metals by permeable reactive barrier (PRB from the groundwater, carried out with natural fibers, specifically with broom fibers, is investigated.

    Once shown the economic benefits deriving from the use of this plant, a hydraulic characterization of the broom fiber mass was performed, determining the permeability and the porosity in correspondence to different levels of compactness of the fibers.

    Having verified the effectiveness of these fibers for some heavy metals, the results of some experiments, carried out in the laboratory for this purpose, are shown. These experiments were carried out utilizing broom fibers obtained in different ways and, limitedly to the considered pollutants, showed the high capability of these fibers to reduce their concentrations. The best results were obtained for the broom fibers extracted by a particular chemical-physical process.

    Moreover, the behaviour of this fiber with time was investigated, determining the kinetic constant of degradation.

  20. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  1. Antioxidant effects of crude extracts from Baccharis species: inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity, protection against lipid peroxidation, and action as oxidative species scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago O. Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show a comparison of the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Baccharis spicata (Lam. Baill. and Baccharis usterii Heering, Asteraceae, by several techniques covering a range of oxidant species and of biotargets. We have investigated the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical, action against lipid peroxidation of membranes including rat liver microsomes and soy bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes by ascorbyl radical and peroxynitrite. Hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was measured monitoring the deoxyribose oxidation. The hypochlorous acid scavenger activity was also evaluated by the prevention of protein carbonylation and finally the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity inhibition. The results obtained suggest that the Baccharis extracts studied present a significant antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals and protecting biomolecules from the oxidation. We can suggest that the supposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  2. Economic Issues in the Management of Plants Invading Natural Environments: Scotch Broom in Barrington Tops National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Odem, Doreen; Sinden, Jack A.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Griffith, Garry R.

    2003-01-01

    Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius, L.), is an exotic leguminous shrub, native to Europe, which invades pastoral and woodland ecosystems and adjoining river systems in cool, high rainfall regions of southeastern Australia. Broom has invaded 10,000 hectares of eucalypt woodland at Barrington Tops National Park in New South Wales, and is having a major impact on the natural ecology of the sub-alpine environment. It is extremely competitive with the native flora, retarding their growth and in many ...

  3. Short and Long-Term Effects of Baccharis articulata on Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H. Reginatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vivo effect of the crude extract and n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. on serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and liver and muscle glycogen content, as well as in vitro action on serum intestinal disaccharidase activity and albumin glycation were investigated. Oral administration of the extract and fractions reduced glycemia in hyperglycemic rats. Additionally, the n-butanol fraction, which has high flavonoids content, stimulated insulin secretion, exhibiting an insulinogenic index similar to that of glipizide. Also, the n-butanol fraction treatment significantly increased glycogen content in both liver and muscle tissue. In vitro incubation with the crude extract and n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. Thus, the results demonstrated that B. articulata exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic and insulin-secretagogue role. These effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for B. articulata indicate potential anti-diabetic properties.

  4. Genetic molecular diversity, production and resistance to witches’ broom in cacao clones

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    José Luis Pires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 32 cacao clones selected as being resistant following the witches’ broom epidemic and for having distinct productivitywere characterized according to their genetic diversity and were submitted to a new selection. These plants were assessed for eightyears at the Oceania Farm (FO in Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. The 13 microsatellite primers generated an average of 11.7 amplicons perlocus, and based on them it was demonstrated that the 32 clones distribute themselves in groups apart from the nine clones used ascontrols. The 32 materials displayed significant differences in relation to the characters assessed in the field. Two criteria were formedfrom the classification of the most productive and resistant plants, and then used to select plants within the clusters. The selected plantsdisplayed potential for the cacao improvement program, that they have a high production and high resistance to witches’ broom.

  5. Design of a Push-Broom Multi-Beam Radiometer for Future Ocean Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.;

    2015-01-01

    The design of a push-broom multi-beam radiometer for future ocean observations is described. The radiometer provides a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than a traditional conical scanning radiometer, and has the big advantage of being fully stationary relative to the satellite platform....... Thanks to a dense focal plane array and a dedicated optimization procedure, the instrument can accurately measure in C, X and Ku band and as close as 15 km to the coast line....

  6. Development of Abrasive Selection Model/Chart for Palm Frond Broom Peeling Machine Design

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    Nwankwojike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A model for predicting the friction required by a palm frond broom peeling machine for effective peeling of palm leaf to broom bristle and a chart for selecting the best abrasive material for this machine’s peeling operation were developed in this study using mechanistic modeling method. The model quantified the relationship between the coefficient of friction and other operational parameters of this machine while the abrasives selection chart constitutes a plot of this measured friction parameter against the abrasive materials used in palm frond broom peeling machine fabrication. The values of the coefficient of friction of palm leaf on different abrasive materials used in this plot were determined from experimental study of the effect of moisture content level of naturally withered palm leaves (uninfluenced by external forces on their coefficient of friction with the abrasives. Results revealed the average moisture content of palm leaf this machine can peel effectively as 6.96% and also that the roughest among the abrasives that approximate the coefficient of friction for a specific design of this peeling machine gives maximum peeling efficiency. Thus, the roughest among the abrasive materials that approximate the coefficient of friction for a specific design of this machine should be selected and used for its fabrication and operation.

  7. A digital architecture for striping noise compensation in push-broom hyperspectral cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Wladimir E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Meza, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    We present a striping noise compensation architecture for hyperspectral push-broom cameras, implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The circuit is fast, compact, low power, and is capable of eliminating the striping noise in-line during the image acquisition process. The architecture implements a multi dimensional neural network (MDNN) algorithm for striping noise compensation previously reported by our group. The algorithm relies on the assumption that the amount of light impinging at the neighboring photo-detectors is approximately the same in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Under this assumption, two striping noise parameters are estimated using spatial and spectral information from the raw data. We implemented the circuit on a Xilinx ZYNQ XC7Z2010 FPGA and tested it with images obtained from a NIR N17E push-broom camera, with a frame rate of 25fps and a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz. The setup consists of a loop of 320 samples of 320 spatial lines and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers, in laboratory condition, captured with a rigid push-broom controller. The noise compensation core can run at more than 100 MHZ and consumes less than 30mW of dynamic power, using less than 10% of the logic resources available on the chip. It also uses one of two ARM processors available on the FPGA for data acquisition and communication purposes.

  8. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE) CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO; Elsa Giovanna ÁVILA MARTÍNEZ; Francisco CORTÉS PÉREZ

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF) asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y sep...

  9. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. PMID:26741544

  10. Nerolidol, an antiulcer constituent from the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopell, Fernando Canani; Lemos, Marivane; Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Comunello, Eros; Maistro, Edson Luis; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the antiulcerogenic effect of essential oil from Baccharis dracunculifolia was evaluated using the model of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The ulcerative lesion index (ULI) was significantly reduced by oral administration of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia at doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg which reduced the lesions by 42.79, 45.70 and 61.61%, respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from B. dracunculifolia by GC showed that this was composed mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenes and the majority compound was nerolidol. Therefore, antiulcerogenic activity of nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was investigated using ethanol-, indomethacin- and stress-induced ulcer models in rat. In the stress-induced ulcer model, a significant reduction of the ULI in animals treated with nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was observed, compared to the control group (p omeprazol (positive control), respectively. In indomethacin-ulcer the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 34.69, 40.80, 51.02 and 46.93% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 100 mg/ kg of cimetidine (positive control), respectively. The results of this study show that nerolidol displays antiulcer activity, as it significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced in different animal models. However, further pharmacological and toxicological investigations, to delineate the mechanism(s) of action and the toxic effects, are required to allow the use of nerolidol for the treatment of gastric ulcer. PMID:17913068

  11. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae, popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t=1, there was no difference between products (P=0.602; that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t=2, there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P=0.674, so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test. It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care.

  12. The Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), a paradox in Denmark – an invasive plant or endangered native species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Lars; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2013-01-01

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, spreads rapidly in parts of Denmark and is considered an invasive species by some authors. However, the species has been present in the Danish flora for centuries and is therefore considered native to Denmark. In the present study we explore whether Danish Scotch...... broom consists of one or two gene pools with potential differences in phenotype and invasiveness. One plastid and five nuclear microsatellite markers were used to reveal potential substructuring of Danish Scotch broom. Nine populations were included representing populations exhibiting invasive behaviour...... and populations showing non-invasive behaviour. An Italian population was used as reference. Bayesian analysis based on genetic markers indicated that the sampled populations form two distinct gene pools, and this pattern was supported by neighbour-joining trees. Measurements of height and width of the analysed...

  13. Cooled Dyson long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer by re-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayin; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yang; Li, Chun; Sun, Qiang; Hu, Xinrong

    2016-05-01

    A cooled long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer with an F-number of 2 was designed based on the Dyson configuration. A three-mirror off-axis aspherical optical system that provided excellent slit-shaped images was selected as the fore telescope objective. The re-imaging method was applied to obtain a cold stop efficiency of 100%, and the corrector lens in traditional Dyson imaging spectrometers was replaced with re-imaging lenses to correct spherical aberrations. The designed imaging spectrometer provided a spectral resolution of 25 nm at a range of 8-12 μm and possessed a relatively small volume.

  14. Molecular identification of a new phytoplasma associated with alfalfa witches'-broom in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J; Botti, S; Al-Subhi, A M; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Bertaccini, A F

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants showing witches'-broom symptoms typical of phytoplasmas were observed from Al-Batinah, Al-Sharqiya, Al-Bureimi, and interior regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas were detected from all symptomatic samples by the specific amplification of their 16S-23S rRNA gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), utilizing phytoplasma-specific universal primer pairs, consistently amplified a product of expected lengths when DNA extract from symptomatic samples was used as template. Asymptomatic plant samples and the negative control yielded no amplification. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA of alfalfa using the P1/P7 primer pair identified phytoplasmas belonging to peanut witches'-broom group (16SrII or faba bean phyllody). Restriction enzyme profiles showed that the phytoplasmas detected in all 300 samples belonged to the same ribosomal group. Extensive comparative analyses on P1/P7 amplimers of 20 phytoplasmas with Tru9I, Tsp509I, HpaII, TaqI, and RsaI clearly indicated that this phytoplasma is different from all the other phytoplasmas employed belonging to subgroup 16SrII, except tomato big bud phytoplasma from Australia, and could be therefore classified in subgroup 16SrII-D. The alfalfa witches'-broom (AlfWB) phytoplasma P1/P7 PCR product was sequenced directly after cloning and yielded a 1,690-bp product. The homology search showed 99% similarity (1,667 of 1,690 base identity) with papaya yellow crinkle (PapayaYC) phytoplasma from New Zealand. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S plus spacer regions sequences of 35 phytoplasmas, mainly from the Southern Hemisphere, showed that AlfWB is a new phytoplasma species, with closest relationships to PapayaYC phytoplasmas from New Zealand and Chinese pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasmas from Taiwan but distinguishable from them considering the different associated plant hosts and the extreme geographical isolation. PMID:18944213

  15. Um marcador químico de fácil detecção para a própolis de Alecrim-do-Campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia An easily detectable chemical marker for the Baccharis dracunculifolia propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro A. Nascimento

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um marcador químico (MQ volátil, de fácil detecção por cromatografia gasosa, para a própolis do alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia. Trata-se do composto volátil mais abundante no extrato em diclorometano de própolis verdes dessa planta, mas que aparece, também, em diferentes concentrações, em extratos de diclorometano de própolis marrom, preta, vermelha e amarela, provenientes de regiões que contêm Baccharis dracunculifolia. O MQ está presente no extrato dos ápices vegetativos de alecrim em concentração significativa, mas sua concentração na folha de alecrim é baixa. Própolis de regiões sem alecrim não possuem o MQ. Este composto foi isolado recentemente e se trata do 3-prenilcinamato de alila. Amostras comerciais de extratos etanólicos de própolis verdes foram analisadas e a de primeira qualidade, tipo exportação, apresentou maior concentração de MQ. Tal descoberta facilita o rápido controle de qualidade de extratos etanólicos de própolis verdes.In the present work a volatile chemical marker (CM for the Baccharis dracunculifolia (Bd propolis is proposed, which is easily detectable by gas chromatography. It is the most abundant volatile compound in dichloromethane extracts of green propolis from this plant, but it appears also, in different concentrations, in dichloromethane extracts of brown, dark and red propolis from regions where Bd grows. The CM is present in significative concentration in the bud extract of Bd, in contrast to the leaf extract where its concentration is low. Propolis from regions without Bd does not contain the CM. This compound was recently isolated; it is the allyl 3-prenylcinnamate. Commercial samples of green propolis ethanol extract were analyzed and the first quality one (exportation standard presented the highest concentration on CM. This finding makes easier the quality control of green propolis extracts sold at the market.

  16. Comparative performance studies between tunable filter and push-broom chemical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Saari, Heikki; Kemeny, Gabor; Shi, Zhenqi; Anderson, Carl

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports instrument characterization measurements, which were recently arranged to provide comparative information on different hyperspectral chemical imaging systems. Three different instruments were studied covering both tunable filter and push-broom techniques: The first instrument MatrixNIRTM is based on a LCTF tunable filter and InGaAs camera and covers wavelengths from 1000 to 1700 nm. The second one SisuCHEMATM is based on push-broom technology and MCT camera operating from 1000 to 2500 nm. The third system is an instrument prototype from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland exploiting high speed Fabry-Perot interferometer and MCT camera, currently calibrated from 1260 to 2500 nm. The characterization procedure was designed to study instrumental noise, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity and spectral as well as spatial resolution. Finally, a pharmaceutical tablet sample was measured with each instrument to demonstrate speed of measurement in a typical application. In spite of differences in wavelength ranges and camera technologies used, the results provide interesting information on relative instrumental advantages and disadvantages, which may be useful for selecting appropriate instrumentation for defined applications. Further, an additional aim of this study is to compare the high speed Fabry-Perot imaging technology under development against the established chemical imaging techniques available on the market today.

  17. Reclamation of copper mine wastes with shrubs in the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Ludeke, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in Arizona to study seed germination, seedling establishment, and growth of five species of shrubs in copper mine wastes. Four soil materials associated with copper mining wastes were involved in the research: (1) desert soil, (2) overburden, (3) overburden plus tailings, and (4) tailings. A smooth, loose seedbed was prepared in each soil material using a sidewinder and a sheepfoot roller. Five species of shrubs were grown in each of the four soil materials: (1) fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt.), (2) quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) Wats.), (3) Australian saltbush (Atriplex semibaccata R. Br.), (4) creosote bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov.), and (5) desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray). Plant growth data indicated that desert soil had the highest fertility level, followed by overburden, overburden plus tailings, and tailings, in decreasing order. All species of shrubs produced taller plants, more vegetation, and more ground cover during their second year of growth than they did during the first year. The establishment of the five species of shrubs together provided the most desirable revegetation on the disturbed areas. The planting of a variety of adapted shrubs on copper mine wastes in the southwestern USA is believed to be the most effective way to revegetate these disturbed areas and blend them into the surrounding environment.

  18. In vitro antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of phenolics and triterpenoids from Baccharis dracunculifolia D. C. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Filho, A A; Resende, D O; Fukui, M J; Santos, F F; Pauletti, P M; Cunha, W R; Silva, M L A; Gregório, L E; Bastos, J K; Nanayakkara, N P D

    2009-12-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), the most important plant source of the Brazilian green propolis (GPE), displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani, with an IC(50) value of 45 microg/mL, while GPE presented an IC(50) value of 49 microg/mL. Among the isolated compounds of B. dracunculifolia, ursolic acid, and hautriwaic acid lactone showed IC(50) values of 3.7 microg/mL and 7.0 microg/mL, respectively. Uvaol, acacetin, and ermanin displayed moderate antileishmanial activity. Regarding the antiplasmodial assay against Plasmodium falciparum, BdE and GPE gave similar IC(50) values (about 20 microg/mL), while Hautriwaic acid lactone led to an IC(50) value of 0.8 microg/mL (D6 clone). PMID:19540316

  19. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  20. Impact of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography and olfactometry for the sex differentiation of Baccharis articulata by the analysis of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Umpiérrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Falcão, Manuel A; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    The Baccharis genus has more than 400 species of aromatic plants. However, only approximately 50 species have been studied in oil composition to date. From these studies, very few take into consideration differences between male and female plants, which is a significant and distinctive factor in Baccharis in the Asteraceae family. Baccharis articulata is a common shrub that grows wild in south Brazil, northern and central Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. It is considered to be a medicinal plant and is employed in traditional medicine. We report B. articulata male and female volatile composition obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction technique and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Also, an assessment of aromatic differences between volatile extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography with olfactometry. The results show a very similar chemical composition between male and female extracts, with a high proportion of terpene compounds of which β-pinene, limonene and germacrene D are the main components. Despite the chemical similarity, great differences in aromatic profile were found: male plant samples exhibited the strongest odorants in number and intensity of aromatic attributes. These differences explain field observations which indicate differences between male and female flower aroma, and might be of ecological significance in the attraction of pollinating insects. PMID:26140379

  1. Joint Sandia/NIOSH exercise on aerosol contamination using the BROOM tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Brown, Gary Stephen; Griffith, Richard O.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Knowlton, Robert G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    In February of 2005, a joint exercise involving Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was conducted in Albuquerque, NM. The SNL participants included the team developing the Building Restoration Operations and Optimization Model (BROOM), a software product developed to expedite sampling and data management activities applicable to facility restoration following a biological contamination event. Integrated data-collection, data-management, and visualization software improve the efficiency of cleanup, minimize facility downtime, and provide a transparent basis for reopening. The exercise was held at an SNL facility, the Coronado Club, a now-closed social club for Sandia employees located on Kirtland Air Force Base. Both NIOSH and SNL had specific objectives for the exercise, and all objectives were met.

  2. Broome virus, a new fusogenic Orthoreovirus species isolated from an Australian fruit bat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the discovery and characterization of a new fusogenic orthoreovirus, Broome virus (BroV), isolated from a little red flying-fox (Pteropus scapulatus). The BroV genome consists of 10 dsRNA segments, each having a 3' terminal pentanucleotide sequence conserved amongst all members of the genus Orthoreovirus, and a unique 5' terminal pentanucleotide sequence. The smallest genome segment is bicistronic and encodes two small nonstructural proteins, one of which is a novel fusion associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein responsible for syncytium formation, but no cell attachment protein. The low amino acid sequence identity between BroV proteins and those of other orthoreoviruses (13-50%), combined with phylogenetic analyses of structural and nonstructural proteins provide evidence to support the classification of BroV in a new sixth species group within the genus Orthoreovirus.

  3. Transgenic Paulownia Expressing shiva-1 Gene Has Increased Resistance to Paulownia Witches' Broom Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao DU; Yao WANG; Qin-Xue HU; Jie CHEN; Sheng LIU; Wen-Jin HUANG; Mu-Lan LIN

    2005-01-01

    Stem segments from diseased Paulownia tomentosa×P. fortunei and leaves from healthy control were transformed with the expression vector p438PRSI via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The p438PRSI vector contained shiva-1 gene, which encodes an antibacterial peptide under the control of a CaMV35S promoter. The regenerated plants from transformed explants were planted in a greenhouse and nursery. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that the shiva-1 gene was successfully integrated into the Paulownia genome. Transcription of the integrated shiva-1 gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. Bioassay in the green house and phytoplasma DNA-dot blotting demonstrated that resistance to Paulownia witch's broom disease (PWB) increased significantly in shiva-1-transgenic Paulownia. Further investigations indicated that higher Shiva-1 expression correlated with fewer phytoplasma and less symptoms in diseased transgenic Paulownia. Together, our findings strongly suggest that breeding shiva-1-Paulownia is an effective strategy to control PWB disease.

  4. Co-aligning aerial hyperspectral push-broom strips for change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringaby, Erik; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Wadströmer, Niclas; Forssén, Per-Erik

    2010-10-01

    We have performed a field trial with an airborne push-broom hyperspectral sensor, making several flights over the same area and with known changes (e.g., moved vehicles) between the flights. Each flight results in a sequence of scan lines forming an image strip, and in order to detect changes between two flights, the two resulting image strips must be geometrically aligned and radiometrically corrected. The focus of this paper is the geometrical alignment, and we propose an image- and gyro-based method for geometric co-alignment (registration) of two image strips. The method is particularly useful when the sensor is not stabilized, thus reducing the need for expensive mechanical stabilization. The method works in several steps, including gyro-based rectification, global alignment using SIFT matching, and a local alignment using KLT tracking. Experimental results are shown but not quantified, as ground truth is, by the nature of the trial, lacking.

  5. SIR2012-5282 Surficial Geology: Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and...

  6. Root reinforcement and slope bioengineering stabilization by Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giadrossich

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the root system's characteristics of Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L., a species whose capacity for adaptating and resisting to drought is worth investigating. In particular, the aims of the study were 1 to investigate the plant's bio-mechanical aspects and 2 to verify whether root reinforcement and the field rooting ability of stem cuttings enhance its potential for use in slope stabilization and soil bio-engineering techniques, particularly in the Mediterranean areas. Single root specimens were sampled and tested for tensile strength, obtaining classic tensile strength-diameter relationships. Analysis were performed on the root systems in order to assess root density distribution. The Root Area Ratio (RAR was analyzed by taking both direct and indirect measurements, the latter relying on image processing. The data obtained were used to analyze the stability of an artificial slope (landfill and the root reinforcement. The measurement and calculation of mean root number, mean root diameter, RAR, root cohesion and Factor of safety are presented in order to distinguish the effect of plant origin and propagation. Furthermore, tests were performed to assess the possibility of agamic propagation (survival rate of root-ball endowed plants, rooting from stem cuttings. These tests confirmed that agamic propagation is difficult, even though roots were produced from some buried stems, and for practical purposes it has been ruled out. Our results show that Spanish Broom has good bio-mechanical characteristics with regard to slope stabilization, even in critical pedoclimatic conditions and where inclinations are quite steep, and it is effective on soil depths up to about 50 cm, in agreement with other studies on Mediterranean species. It is effective in slope stabilization, but less suitable for soil bio-engineering or for triggering natural plant succession.

  7. Compared effects of competition by grasses (Graminoids) and broom (Cytisus scoparius) on growth and functional traits of beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica)

    OpenAIRE

    Provendier, Damien; Balandier, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The effect of two weeds (grasses and broom, Cytisus scoparius) competition on the growth and functional traits of European beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica) was investigated in an experimental plantation in the French Massif central. We hypothesized that grasses would have a much more harmful effect than broom on beech growth through strong competition for soil water and nitrogen. A randomized block design was used with three separate blocks, each possessing three types of vegetation; grasses ...

  8. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in horses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín L. de Alda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em equinos PSI. A intoxicação ocorreu em julho de 2008, em três de quatro animais que haviam sido transportados do estado do Paraná para uma propriedade no município de Aceguá, Rio Grande do Sul. A intoxicação ocorreu três dias após a entrada dos animais em uma área onde havia Baccharis coridifolia em brotação. A égua que não foi afetada não havia sido colocada no potreiro invadido pela planta. Os equinos estavam recebendo um terço da ração que normalmente consumiam para adaptação e permaneciam durante a noite na cocheira. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram inicialmente por desconforto abdominal, aumento da freqüência cardíaca e movimentos respiratórios, anorexia, hipermotilidade do intestino delgado e cólon, presença de gás no ceco e diarréia. A evolução da enfermidade variou de 18-36 horas, sendo que um dos animais afetados sobreviveu após tratamento sintomático. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizaram-se por congestão acentuada e hemorragias da mucosa glandular do estômago e presença de úlceras e edema acentuado da parede. Havia também, congestão, edema e hemorragias nas mucosas do íleo, ceco e cólon maior. Histologicamente observou-se degeneração e necrose do epitélio da porção aglandular do estômago, gastrite e enterite com necrose do epitélio de revestimento do estômago glandular, íleo, ceco e cólon observando-se acentuado infiltrado de células mononucleares e polimorfonucleares, edema da submucosa e dilatação de vasos linfáticos. Um equino intoxicado experimentalmente com 1g/kg de peso corporal de planta verde apresentou sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e histológicas similares aos casos espontâneos.An outbreak of spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in horses in July 2008 is reported from southern Brazil. The poisoning affected three mares out of four that were transported from the state

  9. Growth response of broom (Cytisus scoparius) growing with and without radiata pine (Pinus radiata) seedlings to different P levels in soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achmad Arivin Rivaie

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to test the effects of three rates of TSP (triple superphosphate) (0,50,and 100 mg·kg-1 P) on growth of broom with and without radiata pine seedlings and to determine the relationships between P concentrations in the broom shoot and dry matter yields with soil plant-available P (Bray-2 P).A bulk sample of soil was collected from Kaweka forest at soil depth of 0-10 cm,in New Zealand on March 11,2001.The forest area was not supplied with fertiliser at least 30 years.The results show that TSP application increased P availability in the soil.The P availability concentration in soil of broom with radiata pine seedlings was higher than that in soil of broom alone.Bray-2 P concentrations had a significant logarithmic relationship with P concentrations of broom shoot and an exponential relationship with dry matter weight of whole broom plant.

  10. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y septiembre-período seco del 2012. Para la cuantificación de bacterias heterótrofas cultivables y BSF se empleó el método de recuento en placa en los medios Agar Tripticasa de Soya y Pikovskaya (PVK respectivamente. La capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos de las cepas aisladas se estimó a partir del diámetro de los halos formados alrededor de las colonias en el medio de cultivo PVK después de 7 días de incubación a 28 °C. Los ensayos de inoculación en B. macrantha se realizaron con las BSF más eficientes. La inoculación de las BSF B. firmus y P. fluorescens de forma individual y como inoculante combinado mostro un efecto benéfico, incrementando significativamente el porcentaje de germinación de semillas, la altura de la plántula, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco de B. macrantha. La inoculación de BSF podría ser considerada una estrategia para mejorar el crecimiento y establecimiento de B. macrantha en pastizales abandonados.Growth Promotion of Baccharis macrantha (Asteraceae by Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizosphere Bacteria     The objectives of this research was to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria (BSF associated to the rhizosphere of Baccharis macrantha and Viburnum triphyllum, and to assess their ability to solubilize phosphate under conditions in vitro. Furthermore to determine the effect of inoculation of the strains BSF more efficient on the growth of B. macrantha. Rhizosphere soil samples of B

  11. Depth discrimination method based on a multirow linear array detector for push-broom Compton scatter imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depth discrimination method is devised based on a multirow linear array detector for push-broom Compton scatter imaging. Two or more rows of detector modules are placed at different positions towards a sample. An improved parallel-hole collimator is fixed in front of the modules to restrict their fields of view. The depth information could be indicated by comparing the signal differences. In addition, an available detector and several related simulations using GEANT4 are given to support the method well. - Highlights: • We devise a depth discrimination method for push-broom Compton scatter imaging. • Depth of sample is indicated by comparing signal proportions of different modules. • The depth discrimination is linked to different measurement geometries. • A multirow linear array detector based on XP1452 and LYSO was developed. • Simulation model is built using GEANT4 to support the method well

  12. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Carlos; De Marco Janice L

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of...

  13. Discovery of Genes Related to Witches Broom Disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo Assembled Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rongning; Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Xibing; Niu, Suyan

    2013-01-01

    In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches’ Broom (PaWB) disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current...

  14. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae: evaluation of antinutrients and effect on glycosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia P. de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to confirm the traditional use of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae, for the reduction of weight, plant extracts were evaluated on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL, an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet for its subsequent absorption. The aqueous and infused extracts did not show inhibitory activity on the PL, the ethanol inhibited 16% (66 ALI/g and methanol extract inhibited 78% (241 ALI/g. The methanol extract of B. trimera (MEB was subjected to a wash with decreasing solvent polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and only the methanol fraction inhibited the lipase by 72% (230 ALI/g. We evaluated the MEB and infused inhibitory activity on the enzymes α-amylase and α and β-glycosidases. The α-amylase was not inhibited by any of the extracts, the enzyme α-glucosidase was inhibited by both extracts in the same proportion (46.9±0.1 and β-glucosidase was inhibited by 73% by the methanol extract and 65% by the infused. We also evaluated the presence of anti-nutrients. We detected the presence of saponins, polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors in the two samples. Tests performed in vivo can assess at which therapeutic concentration the presence of these anti-nutrients can be harmful to health.

  15. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  16. Baccharis Salicifolia development in the presence of high concentrations of uranium in the arid environment of San Marcos, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna P, M. Y.; Alarcon H, M. T.; Silva S, M.; Renteria V, M; Rodriguez V, M. A.; Herrera P, E.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.m [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    In humid zones and marine environments the bio indicator contaminants by trace elements are well established. However, in arid zones it is more difficult to find these tools because there is less biodiversity. The objective of this paper was to analyze the behavior of the Baccharis salicifolia plant in areas with high uranium concentration in arid zones, to determine the characteristics of tolerance and possible use as a bio monitor for the presence of such contaminants. For this project a uraniferous zone was selected in San Marcos, located northwest of the City of Chihuahua. A total of 8 sampling points of the plant and soil were located here. Each sample was divided into the root and the stem and leaves to determine the specific activity of the uranium in both parts of the plant and its sediments. The determination of the specific activities of the total uranium in the samples was obtained by liquid scintillation with alpha-beta separation. The results indicate a tendency for the plant to accumulate the uranium in its different parts, and to trans locate it to its stem and leaves. The plant is resistant to high concentrations of uranium, not showing any specific changes in relation to non contaminated areas that might indicate the presence of the contaminant. Therefore, its use as a bio monitor species is limited. (Author)

  17. Baccharis Salicifolia development in the presence of high concentrations of uranium in the arid environment of San Marcos, Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humid zones and marine environments the bio indicator contaminants by trace elements are well established. However, in arid zones it is more difficult to find these tools because there is less biodiversity. The objective of this paper was to analyze the behavior of the Baccharis salicifolia plant in areas with high uranium concentration in arid zones, to determine the characteristics of tolerance and possible use as a bio monitor for the presence of such contaminants. For this project a uraniferous zone was selected in San Marcos, located northwest of the City of Chihuahua. A total of 8 sampling points of the plant and soil were located here. Each sample was divided into the root and the stem and leaves to determine the specific activity of the uranium in both parts of the plant and its sediments. The determination of the specific activities of the total uranium in the samples was obtained by liquid scintillation with alpha-beta separation. The results indicate a tendency for the plant to accumulate the uranium in its different parts, and to trans locate it to its stem and leaves. The plant is resistant to high concentrations of uranium, not showing any specific changes in relation to non contaminated areas that might indicate the presence of the contaminant. Therefore, its use as a bio monitor species is limited. (Author)

  18. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera: a quality control study of products commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Brazil) Autenticidade de Baccharis trimera baseada em CG-DIC: um estudo de controle de qualidade de produtos comercializados em Curitiba e Região Metropolitana (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Lia M. S. de Ferrante; Barbara Mayer; Eliane C. VASCONCELOS; Cíntia M. Ribas de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Baccharis trimera (carqueja) is a medicinal plant used for stomach pain, bad digestion, heart bum, kidney problems and constipation. The objective of the present work was a quality study of carqueja commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Paraná-Brazil) using gas chromatography techniques (GC/FID) for analyses of the essential oil, which was extracted through hydrodistillation using a Clevenger system. Macro and microscopic analyses were also done. Some samples were contaminated b...

  19. Identification of Genes Related to Paulownia Witches’ Broom by AFLP and MSAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L−1 MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB.

  20. Identification of Genes Related to Paulownia Witches’ Broom by AFLP and MSAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L−1 MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB. PMID:25196603

  1. Variabilidade sazonal do teor de saponinas de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja e isolamento de flavona Seasonal variability in the content of saponins from Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja and isolation of flavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Borella

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sazonalidade sobre o teor de saponinas e o isolamento e elucidação estrutural de constituinte químico (flavona de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja. O cultivo de indivíduos estaminados de B. trimera foi realizado no Campo Experimental da Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, em Ribeirão Preto, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1998 e foi conduzido em três blocos, sendo que cada um deles era constituído de 48 mudas. As amostras foram colhidas após seis meses do plantio (durante o inverno, três meses após a primeira colheita (durante a primavera e três meses após a segunda colheita (durante o verão. Após processo de secagem e moagem, as drogas foram submetidas ao ensaio para obtenção do índice de espuma. Os resultados mostraram que não há variabilidade neste índice em função da época de colheita. Parte da droga colhida no verão sofreu análise química para isolamento e elucidação estrutural de componente químico. O isolamento a partir do extrato metanólico de partes aéreas de B. trimera foi realizado através de métodos cromatográficos (CC e CLAE e a identificação estrutural da substância isolada, através de métodos espectrométricos (UV, RMN ¹H e 13C. Foi identificada a flavona denominada 5,6-diidroxi-7,3’,4’-trimetoxiflavona.The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effect on the foam index and the isolation and structural identification of a chemical constituent (flavone of Baccharis trimera. The culture staminate samples of B. trimera were realized in the experimental cultivation area of the Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil from January to December/1998 and were conduced in three blocks, which received 48 seedlings. The samples were harvested six months after installation (during the winter, three months after the first harvest (during the spring and three months after the second harvest

  2. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Borgo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  3. Comparative Studies of the (Anti Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Varanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenylphenyl}-2(E-propenoic acid, is the main compound of interest in the leaves. This study was undertaken to assess the mutagenic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE: 11.4–182.8 µg/plate and ArtC (0.69–10.99 µg/plate by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and to compare the protective effects of Bd-EAE and ArtC against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens such as 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminofluorene.The mutagenicity test showed that Bd-EAE and ArtC did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies indicating absence of mutagenic activity. ArtC showed a similar antimutagenic effect to that of Bd-EAE in some strains of S. typhimurium, demonstrating that the antimutagenic activity of Bd-EAE can be partially attributed to ArtC. The present results showed that the protective effect of whole plant extracts is due to the combined and synergistic effects of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, the total activity of which may result in health benefits.

  4. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa

  5. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa de duas espécies de carqueja: Baccharis microcephala DC. e B. trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manfron Budel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de espécies de Baccharis que são constituídas de cladódios, ou seja, caules alados, apresenta dificuldades até mesmo para especialistas em taxonomia vegetal. Baccharis microcephala e B. trimera pertencem ao grupo Trimera e são conhecidas vulgarmente como carquejas. Na medicina popular, é comum o uso de espécies aladas para a aplicação terapêutica como diurético, hepatoprotetor e digestivo. Baccharis trimera consta na F. Bras. IV e possui atividades antiinflamatória, analgésica, bacteriostática, bactericida e antidiabética. As espécies B. trimera e B. microcephala são freqüentemente confundidas e utilizadas pela população para as mesmas finalidades terapêuticas. Objetivou-se estudar a morfologia externa e a anatomia dos cladódios dessas espécies, com a finalidade de se obterem dados que auxiliem na diferenciação e conseqüentemente na identificação das mesmas, contribuindo para o controle de qualidade de fitoterápicos, além de auxiliar na caracterização do grupo taxonômico. O material botânico foi submetido às microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. As duas espécies são trialadas, sendo que em B. microcephala as alas são estreitas, praticamente contínuas em toda a extensão caulinar, enquanto que em B. trimera as alas são mais largas e interrompidas. As características morfológicas permitem a diferenciação dessas duas espécies, principalmente os tricomas tectores.The identification of Baccharis spp. which have cladodes, defined as winged stems, brings difficulties even for taxonomists. Baccharis microcephala and B. trimera belong to the Trimera group and are known as carquejas. In folk medicine, it is common the use of winged species for the same therapeutic indication, such as diuretic, hepatoprotective and digestive. The monograph of B. trimera is included in the F. Bras. IV and this species shows anti-inflammatory, analgesic, bacteriostatic, bactericidal and

  6. Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas in the pigeon pea witches'-broom group (16SrIX): an update based on multiple gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon pea witches’-broom phytoplasma group (16SrIX) consists of diverse phytoplasma strains that cause numerous diseases in leguminous trees and herbaceous crops, vegetables, a fruit, a nut tree, and a forest tree. At least 14 strains have been reported worldwide. Comparative phylogenetic analyses ...

  7. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera: a quality control study of products commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Brazil Autenticidade de Baccharis trimera baseada em CG-DIC: um estudo de controle de qualidade de produtos comercializados em Curitiba e Região Metropolitana (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia M. S. de Ferrante

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (carqueja is a medicinal plant used for stomach pain, bad digestion, heart bum, kidney problems and constipation. The objective of the present work was a quality study of carqueja commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Paraná-Brazil using gas chromatography techniques (GC/FID for analyses of the essential oil, which was extracted through hydrodistillation using a Clevenger system. Macro and microscopic analyses were also done. Some samples were contaminated by other species of plants, fungi and small insects, some of them could be identified. Among all samples, 21 showed similar chromatographic profile to the standard oil, and 7 had different profile in relation to the standard. The chromatogram analyses showed that most of the analyzed samples had the similar profile as the standard oil of Baccharis trimera. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera may be useful as a rapid tool to ensure quality control and safety monitoring of this kind of herbal pharmaceuticals.Baccharis trimera (carqueja é uma planta medicinal empregada popularmente para tratamentos de problemas dos sistemas digestório e renal. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de amostras de carqueja comercializadas em Curitiba e Região Metropolitana (Paraná-Brasil, por meio de análises de cromatografia a gás (CG/DIC do óleo essencial delas extraído por hidrodestilação usando aparelho de Clevenger. Análises macro e microscópicas foram também realizadas para as amostras, e os resultados demonstraram a ocorrência de contaminação de algumas delas por outras espécies de plantas, fungos e pequenos insetos. Das amostras analisadas, 21 apresentaram perfil cromatográfico semelhante ao encontrado para óleo essencial padrão da espécie, enquanto 7 diferenciaram-se em relação a este perfil. As análises dos cromatogramas obtidos para as amostras de óleo essencial extraídas de ervas comercializadas permitem

  8. Etnobotánica, anatomía y caracterización físico-química del aceite esencial de Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae) Ethnobotany, anatomy and physicochemical characterization of essential oil of Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad Molares; Silvia Beatriz González; Ana Ladio; María Agueda Castro

    2009-01-01

    Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. es una especie aromática conocida como "wautro", y forma parte destacada de la herbolaria Mapuche de la Patagonia Argentina. Los objetivos fueron investigar la etnobotánica, la anatomía del vástago, y caracterizar físicoquímicamente el aceite esencial presente en el mismo. Se realizaron entrevistas a pobladores de dos comunidades Mapuches del noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina, y se colectó material vegetal para su observación al microscopio óptico y de barrido...

  9. Composition of essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus from 'campos de altitude' of the atlantic forest of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus (B. dracunculifolia, B. microdonta, B. regnelli, B. schultzii, B. trimera, and B. uncinella), collected in the 'Campos de Altitude' of the Atlantic Forest (SP), were extracted using hydrodistillation procedures and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. There was a predominance of sesquiterpenes in all studied oils as β-elemene in B. dracunculifolia and B. regnelli, α-humulene in B. trimera, γ-gurjunene in B. schultzii, bicyclogermacrene in B. regnelli, δ-cadinene in B. regnelli and B. uncinella, spathulenol in B. schultzii, caryophyllene oxide in B. microdonta and guaiol in B. uncinella. However, a high amount of monoterpenes was also observed in B. uncinella (α-pinene), B. regnelli (δ-car-3-ene) and B. schultzii (limonene). The chemical compounds of the essential oils of B. schultzii, B. regnelli and B. microdonta are described for the first time in this work. (author)

  10. Atividade bacteriostática e bactericida do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C., Compositae, carqueja, como desinfetante ou anti-séptico

    OpenAIRE

    Avancini C.A.M.; Wiest J.M.; Mundstock E.

    2000-01-01

    Verificou-se a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C., Compositae, (carqueja) por meio de testes-padrão internacionais utilizados para avaliar desinfetantes e anti-sépticos. Determinaram-se a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração bactericida mínima do decocto frente a várias diluições de inóculos. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de se utilizar o decocto de B. trimera como desinfetante e anti-séptico em determinadas situações-problema em p...

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and antigenotoxicity/antimutagenicity induced by propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia, by in vitro study with HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Matsumoto, Sílvia Tamie; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of propolis, especially the Brazilian green type, is widely and mainly used for therapeutic purposes despite the lack of knowledge about its effects and its cellular mode of action. This type of propolis, derived from Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo), has been extensively commercialized and the consumers use it to enhance health. This work aimed to assess the genotoxic/mutagenic and antigenotoxic/antimutagenic potentials of the ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and of B. dracunculifolia, on mammalian cells. It was not observed genotoxic and mutagenic effects by both extracts. After evaluate the exposure of the cells to each extract with a recognized mutagen, simultaneously, the results showed a significant reduction on DNA damage. The experiment carried out with a pre-incubation period was more effective than without incubation test, showing that the tested extracts were able to inactivate the mutagen before it could react with the DNA. PMID:26891814

  12. Establishment and Optimization of Rigorous Geometric Model of Push-broom Camera Using TDI CCD Arranged in an Alternating Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Weican

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Push-broom cameras using TDI CCD arranged in an alternating pattern are widely carried by typical high-resolution optical satellites in order to obtain high space resolution and enough strip width. For this kind of cameras, several TDI CCD are arranged in an alternating pattern in two lines on the focal plane and push-broom imaging mode is always adopted. Imaging principle and characteristic of this kind of camera is introduced. Exterior parameters of TDI CCD are modeled together based on their same values in any instant of time and an integrated geometric model is finally established. Error compensation methods are designed to remove exterior error and interior error based on this integrated geometric model. A series of tests are designed to verify models and methods proposed in this paper using original image of TH-1 Satellite HR Camera whose detectors are divided into 8 modules arranged in an alternating pattern. As the results, the imaging geometry of this kind of camera can be rigorously described by this integral geometrical model. The positioning accuracy can be obviously improved by our exterior error compensation method, however, different residual error would be remained for different TDI CCD. The positioning accuracy will not be obviously improved while systematic errors of different TDI CCD can be effectively removed by the interior error compensation method. 2 m positioning accuracy in X, Y and Z directions can be achieved and different systematic errors can be removed when both exterior and interior error were compensated. The same accuracy can be achieved in the other scenes when the calculated inner distortion parameters are adopted.

  13. Comparison of volatile and polyphenolic compounds in Brazilian green propolis and its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia Comparação de volatilidade e compostos polifenólicos na própolis verde brasileira e sua origem botânica Baccharis dracunculifolia

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    Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts and essential oils from Green Propolis from southeastern Brazil and leaf buds from its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC, Reversed Phase High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (RP-HPTLC and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. Both ethanolic extracts and essential oils showed similar chromatographic profiles. Thirteen flavonoids were identified by RP-HPLC and RP-HPTLC analyses in both samples. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses. Seventeen were present in both essential oils. The major flavonoid compound in both extracts was artepillin C. The major volatile compound in both essential oils was nerolidol. The major compounds identified in this work could be used as chemical markers in order to classify and identify botanical origins of propolis.Extratos etanólicos e óleos essenciais de própolis verde do sudeste brasileiro e gemas de sua origem botânica (Baccharis dracunculifolia foram analisados por CLAE-FR (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência em Fase Reversa, CCDAE (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada de Alta Eficiência e CG-EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidro destilação. Extratos etanólicos e óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e de própolis mostraram perfis cromatográficos similares entre si. Treze flavonóides foram identificados por CLAE-FR e CCDAE em ambas as amostras. Vinte e três compostos voláteis foram identificados por CG EM, sendo dezessete deles presentes em ambos os óleos essenciais. Artepillin C foi o flavonóide encontrado em maiores concentrações em ambas as amostras, enquanto nerolidol foi o volátil majoritário em ambos os óleos essenciais. Os compostos majoritários identificados neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como

  14. Atividade bacteriostática e bactericida do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C., Compositae, carqueja, como desinfetante ou anti-séptico Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of the Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C. - Compositae decocto, as disinfectant or antisseptic

    OpenAIRE

    C.A.M. Avancini; J.M. Wiest; E. Mundstock

    2000-01-01

    Verificou-se a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C., Compositae, (carqueja) por meio de testes-padrão internacionais utilizados para avaliar desinfetantes e anti-sépticos. Determinaram-se a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração bactericida mínima do decocto frente a várias diluições de inóculos. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de se utilizar o decocto de B. trimera como desinfetante e anti-séptico em determinadas situações-problema em p...

  15. Analysis of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS Análise de uma própolis verde brasileira da Baccharis dracunculifolia por CLAE-ICPA-EM e CG-EM

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    Roberto Chang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS, respectively. The HPLC-APCI-MS technique, at the positive mode, furnished a complete and unequivocal chemical composition of the green propolis sample. It serves as fingerprint for different propolis samples. The composition of the ethanol extract consisted mainly of cinnamic acid and derivatives, flavonoids, benzoic acid and a few benzoates, non-hydroxylated aromatics, and aliphatic acids and esters, which are normally not reported in the literature because they do not absorb UV light. The main constituents of the dichloromethane extract were prenylated compounds, alkanes and terpenoids.Os extratos em etanol e diclorometano de uma própolis verde de Baccharis dracunculifolia foram analisados por CLAE-ICPA-EM e CG-EM, respectivamente. A técnica de CLAE-EM-ICPA, no modo positivo, forneceu uma completa e inequívoca composição química da amostra de própolis verde. Ela serve como impressão digital para amostras diferentes de própolis. A composição do extrato em etanol consistiu fundamentalmente de ácido cinâmico e derivados, flavonóides, ácido benzóico e alguns benzoatos, aromáticos não hidroxilados, e ácidos e ésteres alifáticos, os quais são normalmente ignorados na literatura porque não absorvem luz UV. Os constituintes principais do extrato em diclorometano foram compostos prenilados, alcanos e terpenóides.

  16. Avaliação da qualidade das amostras comercias de Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja vendidas no Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050 Quality Evaluation of Commercial Samples of Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja sold in Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050

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    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da qualidade de 12 amostras comerciais de ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. que são empregadas na medicina tradicional como estomáquicas e diuréticas e são vendidas em estabelecimentos comerciais farmacêuticos no Estado do Paraná, visando ao preparo de chás. Foram avaliados parâmetros de qualidade preconizados na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica: características dos rótulos e bulas, análise sensorial, autenticidade das amostras, material estranho e doseamento de marcadores químicos. Todos os produtos avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessária maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 12 samples prepared with ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. used in traditional medicine as stomachic and diuretic medicines, and sold in commercial pharmacies in Paraná State. The analyses used parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. The methodology consisted in evaluating the product labels and instructions of the samples to verify their accordance to the specific legislation, sensorial analysis, authenticity of the samples, purity and dosage of chemical markers. All products showed some type of mistake or irregularity according to the official codes. These results showed that is necessary to intensify the inspection of medicinal plants in Brazil.

  17. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  18. Morphological changes of Paulownia seedlings infected phytoplasmas reveal the genes associated with witches' broom through AFLP and MSAP.

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    Xibing Cao

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB caused by phytoplasma might result in devastating damage to the growth and wood production of Paulownia. To study the effect of phytoplasma on DNA sequence and to discover the genes related to PaWB occurrence, DNA polymorphisms and DNA methylation levels and patterns in PaWB seedlings, the ones treated with various concentration of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS and healthy seedlings were investigated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP. Our results indicated that PaWB seedlings recovered a normal morphology, similar to healthy seedlings, after treatment with more than 20 mg · L-1 MMS; Phytoplasma infection did not change the Paulownia genomic DNA sequence at AFLP level, but changed the global DNA methylation levels and patterns; Genes related to PaWB were discovered through MSAP and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results implied that changes of DNA methylation levels and patterns were closely related to the morphological changes of seedlings infected with phytoplasmas.

  19. Evaluation of anti-phytoplasma properties of surfactin and tetracycline towards lime witches' broom disease using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Najmeh; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Mousivand, Maryam; Foroutan, A; Hagh Nazari, Ali; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Soheilivand, Saeed; Mardi, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-phytoplasma activities of surfactin (derived from Iranian native Bacillus subtilis isolates) and tetracycline towards Candidatus "Phytoplasma aurantifolia", the agent of lime Witches' broom disease, were investigated. HPLC was used to quantify the surfactin production in four previously characterized native surfactin-producing strains, and the one producing the highest amount of surfactin (about 1,500 mg/l) was selected and cultivated following optimized production and extraction protocols. Different combinations of purified surfactin and commercial tetracycline were injected into artificially phytoplasmainfected Mexican lime seedlings using a syringe injection system. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR system was developed to monitor the phytoplasma population shifts in the lime phloem during 3 months following the injections. The results revealed that the injections of surfactin or tetracycline had a significant inhibitory effect on Candidatus "P. aurantifolia". However, the combined treatment with both surfactin and tetracycline (1:1) resulted in the highest inhibition due to a synergic effect, which suppressed the phytoplasma population from about 2×10(5) to less than 10 phytoplasma units/g plant tissue. PMID:21301196

  20. Discovery of genes related to witches broom disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongning; Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Xibing; Niu, Suyan

    2013-01-01

    In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches' Broom (PaWB) disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current study, we performed the de novo assembly of a transcriptome on P. tomentosa × P. fortunei using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina). 203,664 unigenes with a mean length of 1,328 bp was obtained. Of these unigenes, 32,976 (30% of all unigenes) containing complete structures were chosen. Eukaryotic clusters of orthologous groups, gene orthology, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations were performed of these unigenes. Genes related to PaWB disease resistance were analyzed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Paulownia. This transcriptome provides a quick way to understanding Paulownia, increases the number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies and provides clues to the identification of potential PaWB disease resistance genes. This study has provided a comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different states, which facilitates the study of each gene's roles in the developmental process and in PaWB disease resistance. PMID:24278262

  1. Discovery of genes related to witches broom disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo assembled transcriptome.

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    Rongning Liu

    Full Text Available In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches' Broom (PaWB disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current study, we performed the de novo assembly of a transcriptome on P. tomentosa × P. fortunei using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina. 203,664 unigenes with a mean length of 1,328 bp was obtained. Of these unigenes, 32,976 (30% of all unigenes containing complete structures were chosen. Eukaryotic clusters of orthologous groups, gene orthology, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations were performed of these unigenes. Genes related to PaWB disease resistance were analyzed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Paulownia. This transcriptome provides a quick way to understanding Paulownia, increases the number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies and provides clues to the identification of potential PaWB disease resistance genes. This study has provided a comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different states, which facilitates the study of each gene's roles in the developmental process and in PaWB disease resistance.

  2. THE MAKING OF BROOMS AS A HANDICRAFT UNIQUE TO EDİRNE AND THE TERMS USED IN THE MAKING OF BROOMS EDİRNE’YE HAS BİR EL SANATI OLARAK SÜPÜRGECİLİK VE SÜPÜRGECİLİKTE KULLANILAN TERİMLER

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    Rifat GÜRGENDERELİ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Edirne hand-made broom, which was formerly used in the Edirne daily life as an important cleaning tool, has presently lost its function due to the technological advances, and has become a handicraft and a souvenir advertising Edirne culture. This article argues the verb “to sweep” in the historical process and the noun “a broom/besom” in terms of its word structure, and expresses them within the concept of vernacular language. Besides, the broom terms used in making brooms in Edirne have been classified and studied according to their production and utilization fields. Önceleri günlük hayatta önemli bir temizlik aracı olarak kullanılan Edirne el yapımı süpürgeleri, bugün teknolojinin ilerlemesiyle gerçek işlevini kaybederek Edirne kültürünü tanıtan bir el sanatı ve hediyelik ürün haline gelmiştir.Çalışmada; tarihi süreç içinde süpürmek fiili ve süpürge kelimesinin yapısı ele alınmış ve halk dili bağlamında ifade edilmiştir. Edirne süpürgeciliğinde kullanılan süpürgecilik terimleri, üretim ve kullanım alanlarına göre sınıflandırılmış ve incelenmiştir.

  3. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-01-01

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided. PMID:25781249

  4. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

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    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  5. Óleo essencial de Baccharis tridentata Vahl: composição química, atividade antioxidante e fungitóxica, e caracterização morfológica das estruturas secretoras por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Baccharis tridentata Vahl essential oil: chemical composition, and antioxidant and fungitoxic activities and morphological characterization of secretory structures by scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Souza; M.G. Cardoso; de Souza, P. E.; L.G.L Guimarães; Andrade, J; A.C.T. Mallet; Nelson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial de Baccharis tridentata Vahl, as atividades antioxidante e fungitóxica, e estudar a morfologia das estruturas secretoras do óleo essencial presentes na superfície foliar por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação, as análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram executadas por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de...

  6. Interferência de extratos da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre a atividade de antibióticos usados na clínica Interference from extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, on the activity of antibiotics used in the clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilde Canton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência da fração polar e apolar, bem como do óleo essencial da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica médica. Os ensaios foram realizados com vinte e nove antibióticos em associação com os dois extratos [uma fração polar (HA 50% e uma da fração apolar (EA 25%] e com o óleo essencial. O método utilizado foi o método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando os discos de antibióticos, adquiridos comercialmente. Os resultados mostraram interferência na ação esperada do antibiótico quando associado aos extratos e ao óleo essencial da B. dracunculifolia. Em alguns casos não houve alteração da ação do antibiótico, no entanto, na maioria dos casos houve interferência sinérgica ou antagônica da ação do antibiótico. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The objective of this study was to investigate the interference of the polar and apolar fraction as well the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, about the antibiotics effects used in the medic clinic. The essays were accomplished with twenty nine antibiotics in association with two extracts [one polar fraction (HA 50% and one of apolar fraction (EA 25%] and with essential oil. The method used was the diffusion one in solid mean using the antibiotic discs, which were acquired commercially. The results showed interference in the hoped action of the antibiotic when associated to the extract and to the B. dracunculifolia essential oil. In some cases there was no alteration of the antibiotic action, however, in most of the cases there was either a synergic or an antagonic interference of the antibiotic action. These outcomes have showed that the use of derived products or plants can interfere on the effectiveness of

  7. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  8. Habitat suitability modelling reveals a strong niche overlap between two poorly known species, the broom hare and the Pyrenean grey partridge, in the north of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Alzaga, Vanesa; Cassinello, Jorge; Gortázar, Christian

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we derive a habitat suitability model of the broom hare and the Pyrenean grey partridge in the Cantabrian Mountains by using the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. Both species are endemic to the northern of Iberian mountains, and because of the vulnerability of the hare to endangerment or extinction and because of the great interest in the partridge, this habitat requires specific conservation measures. Literature on these animals' biology and ecology is practically nonexistent. Habitat suitability analyses show that the hare and partridge occupy very similar ecological niches, characterized by a high percentage of broom and heather scrublands, high altitude and slope, and limited human accessibility. We have identified differences in habitat selection between the Pyrenean grey partridge and other subspecies of partridge present in central-northern Europe. Our results indicate a probable metapopulation structure for both the hare and partridge; however, according to our predictive maps, there is a high connectivity between suitable habitats. Current decline of traditional rural activities, such as mountain livestock, are affecting the mosaic landscape. This, in turn, enhances biodiversity in the area and, particularly, the viability of these valuable animal populations.

  9. Composition of essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus from 'campos de altitude' of the atlantic forest of Sao Paulo; Composicao quimica dos oleos essenciais das folhas de seis especies do genero Baccharis de 'campos de altitude' da Mata Atlantica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Romoff, Paulete; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@mackenzie.com.br; Soares, Marisi G.; Baraldi, Patricia T.; Correa, Arlene G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Fatima O. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Curadoria do Herbario

    2008-07-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus (B. dracunculifolia, B. microdonta, B. regnelli, B. schultzii, B. trimera, and B. uncinella), collected in the 'Campos de Altitude' of the Atlantic Forest (SP), were extracted using hydrodistillation procedures and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. There was a predominance of sesquiterpenes in all studied oils as {beta}-elemene in B. dracunculifolia and B. regnelli, {alpha}-humulene in B. trimera, {gamma}-gurjunene in B. schultzii, bicyclogermacrene in B. regnelli, {delta}-cadinene in B. regnelli and B. uncinella, spathulenol in B. schultzii, caryophyllene oxide in B. microdonta and guaiol in B. uncinella. However, a high amount of monoterpenes was also observed in B. uncinella ({alpha}-pinene), B. regnelli ({delta}-car-3-ene) and B. schultzii (limonene). The chemical compounds of the essential oils of B. schultzii, B. regnelli and B. microdonta are described for the first time in this work. (author)

  10. BROOME COUNTY, NEW YORK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. Broome on reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    McHugh, Conor; Way, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Among the many important contributions of John Broome’s Rationality Through Reasoning is an account of what reasoning is and what makes reasoning correct. In this paper we raise some problems for both of these accounts and recommend an alternative approach.

  12. Production of hydrolytic enzymes by Trichoderma isolates with antagonistic activity against Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Janice Lisboa De

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two isolates of Trichoderma, which reduce the incidence of witches'broom disease caused in cocoa by Crinipellis perniciosa, were evaluated for their potential to produce hydrolases in liquid medium. Very low or no hydrolytic activity was produced in the absence of any substrate. The activities of chitinase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-1,3-glucanase, total cellulase, endoglucanase, aryl- beta-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, protease and amylase increased dramatically within 72-120 h of growth in the presence of specific substrates. Except for N-acetylglucosaminidase and beta-glucosidase Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 produced the largest amounts of hydrolases. The possible involvement of these enzymes in the antagonistic interaction between Trichoderma and C. perniciosa is discussed.

  13. Etnobotánica, anatomía y caracterización físico-química del aceite esencial de Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae Ethnobotany, anatomy and physicochemical characterization of essential oil of Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Molares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. es una especie aromática conocida como "wautro", y forma parte destacada de la herbolaria Mapuche de la Patagonia Argentina. Los objetivos fueron investigar la etnobotánica, la anatomía del vástago, y caracterizar físicoquímicamente el aceite esencial presente en el mismo. Se realizaron entrevistas a pobladores de dos comunidades Mapuches del noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina, y se colectó material vegetal para su observación al microscopio óptico y de barrido ambiental, como así también, para la hidrodestilación del aceite esencial. Los informantes indicaron que la planta es utilizada en forma consensuada para el tratamiento de alopecia, caspa, diversas dermatitis, y cefaleas. Las principales características de la hoja son: mesofilo isobilateral, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas glandulares pluricelulares, y cavidades esquizógenas secretoras de aceites esenciales. El tallo primario presenta tricomas y cavidades secretoras semejantes a los de las hojas, colénquima en las costillas, clorénquima en los valles interrumpido por espacios de aire, cilindro vascular continuo, endodermis uniseriada y por sectores biseriada, esclerénquima discontinuo, y cristales aciculares en células periféricas de médula. Las determinaciones físico-químicas que se aportan son rendimiento medio anual, tiempo óptimo de destilación, densidad relativa, rotación específica e índice de refracción. B. obovata es una especie cosmecéutica de interés, este trabajo contribuye a su conocimiento general, aportando información para futuras tareas de control de calidad y para su conservación biocultural.Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. is an aromatic species known as "wautro", and is an important part of the Mapuche herbolarium of Patagonia Argentina. The objectives were to investigate its ethnobotany and shoot anatomy, as well as to characterize physically and chemically its essential oil. Rural informant-interviews were

  14. LISK-BROOM: Clearing near-Earth space debris in 4 years using a 20-kW, 530-nm repetitively pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Michaelis, M.M. [Natal Univ., Pietermaritzburg (South Africa). Faculty of Science

    1994-10-01

    When space debris forced a change of plan for a recent US Space Shuttle mission, it finally reached the point of broad awareness. Almost a million pieces of debris have been generated by 35 years of spaceflight, and now threaten some long-term space missions. This problem can best a be solved by causing space debris items to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory. Illumination of the objects by a repetitively-pulsed laser will easily produce a laser-ablation jet providing the impulse to de-orbit the object. For reasons we will discuss, we propose the use of a ground-based laser system, atmospheric-turbulence compensating beam director, computer and high resolution detection system to solve this problem. A laser of just 2OkW average power and state-of-the-art detection capabilities could clear near-Earth space below 1100km altitude of all space debris larger than 1 cm but less massive than 100kg in about 4 years. The LISK-BROOM laser would be located near the Equator above 5km elevation [e.g., the Uhuru site on Kilimanjarol, minimizing turbulence correction and absorption of the 530-nm wavelength laser beam. LISK-BROOM is a special case of Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP), by which objects are propelled in space by the ablation jet due to a distant laser. We will also discuss active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and the object detection system which are necessary.

  15. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsottini, M.; Zaparoli, G.; Garcia, O.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J.F.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Dias, S.M.G. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow and infiltration from the Susquehanna River to a shallow aquifer at Kirkwood and Conklin, Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A four-layer finite difference model was developed to simulate groundwater flow and induced infiltration to an aquifer underlying the Susquehanna River in the Towns of Kirkwood and Conklin in Broome County, NY. The aquifer consists of sand and gravel deposited in an ancestral river valley during the recession of glacial ice and is in hydraulic connection with the Susquehanna River. In 1984, he aquifer supplied 1.2 million gal/day to well fields in Kirkwood and Conklin. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand and gravel in the calibrated model ranges from 50 to 10,000 ft/day. Vertical hydraulic conductivity ranges from 1.0 to 80 ft/day. The riverbed thickness was estimated from results of piezometer tests to be 2 ft; the hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed was estimated to be 0.2 ft/day. Root-mean-square differences between computed drawdowns and drawdowns measured in observation wells and piezometers during aquifer tests at the Kirkwood well field ranged from 17% to 24%. The sizes of the well field catchment areas were estimated from a model generated flow net showing the direction and rate of groundwater flow. The Kirkwood catchment area was estimated to be 250 acres, and the Conklin catchment area was 51 acres. Groundwater budgets computed by steady-state simulations showed that 58% of the groundwater withdrawn by the Kirkwood well field is derived from the Susquehanna River during the periods of low river stage and low recharge. The factor to which induced-infiltration rate and size of well field catchment areas are most sensitive, is riverbed hydraulic conductivity. (Author 's abstract)

  17. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique. PMID:24492256

  18. Óleo essencial de Baccharis tridentata Vahl: composição química, atividade antioxidante e fungitóxica, e caracterização morfológica das estruturas secretoras por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Baccharis tridentata Vahl essential oil: chemical composition, and antioxidant and fungitoxic activities and morphological characterization of secretory structures by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial de Baccharis tridentata Vahl, as atividades antioxidante e fungitóxica, e estudar a morfologia das estruturas secretoras do óleo essencial presentes na superfície foliar por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação, as análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram executadas por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de chamas (FID e acoplada à espectrometria de massas, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada empregando-se os métodos de redução do radical estável DPPH e o ensaio de oxidação do sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. As atividades fungitóxicas foram avaliadas utilizando o teste bioanalítico in vitro, sobre a inibição do crescimento micelial dos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Rhizoctonia solani. A composição química revelou a presença de 28 compostos, sendo o α-tujeno (22,93% o constituinte majoritário; não foi observada atividade antioxidante por meio dos ensaios utilizados, no entanto, observou-se atividade fungitóxica sobre o crescimento micelial dos fitopatógenos estudados. Já os estudos da superfície foliar por MEV revelaram a presença de tricomas glandulares em ambas as superfícies abaxial e adaxial.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant and fungitoxic activities of Baccharis tridentata essential oil, as well as to study the morphology of its secretory structures present on the leaf surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation; the quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed on a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID and coupled to a mass spectrometer, respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined by the methods of reduction of the

  19. Marcadores microssatélites relacionados com a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro Microsatellite markers related to resistance of cocoa tree against witches'-broom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Mercês Ferreira Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa de plantas de cacau originadas do cruzamento entre TSH 1188 e CCN 51 (população segregante, por meio de dois métodos de inoculação em condições de campo, e identificar marcadores microssatélites específicos para grupos de plantas resistentes e suscetíveis. As plantas-controle avaliadas pelos métodos de inoculação natural e inoculação artificial em campo produziram os mesmos padrões de sintomas. As plantas da população segregante também coincidiram os padrões de sintomas em 90%, por esses dois métodos. O método de inoculação artificial em campo permite detectar falso-resistentes. Dos 18 pares de primers microssatélites amplificados, 15 foram polimórficos entre os genitores, e seis entre os grupos de plantas segregantes contrastantes quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa. Foram confirmadas três marcas previamente associadas a QTL (locos para características quantitativas relacionados com a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa, comuns a outras populações. Também foram identificados três novos QTL para esta característica, típicos desta população, o que comprova sua utilidade para o melhoramento genético do cacaueiro.The objectives of this work were to evaluate cocoa tree resistance against witches'-broom, in plants originated from the crossing between TSH 1188 and CCN 51 (segregating population, by means of two methods of inoculation in field conditions, and to identify microsatellite markers specific for resistant and susceptible plants. The control plants bore identical symptoms as the plants of the segregating population in 90% of the cases under the two methods. The method of artificial inoculation in the field allows the detection of false resistance to the disease. Of the 18 pairs of microsatellite primers amplified, 15 were polymorphic between genitors and six were polymorphic between the two groups of plants evaluated

  20. Trading on A New Broom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having served in several senior gov- ernment positions,Chen Deming is the new face behind the"Made-in-China"shove.The recently appointed vice min- ister of commerce is currently entrust- ed to oversee China’s trade affairs, both internal and external.This came about"after former Minister of Commerce Bo Xilai was appointed as Party chief of Chongqing,the country’s largest municipality,in early December.

  1. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Nolberto Arismendi S; Nancy Andrade S; Ricardo Riegel Sch; Roberto Carrillo Ll.

    2010-01-01

    Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer) are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identif...

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity on a sample of cocoa accessions resistant to witches' broom disease based on RAPD and pedigree data Avaliação da diversidade genética em uma amostra de acessos de cacau resistentes à doença vassoura-de-bruxa, com base em dados de RAPD e pedigree

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Carvalho dos Santos; José Luís Pires; Uilson Vanderley Lopes; Karina Peres G. Gramacho; Acassi Batista Flores; Rita de Cássia S. Bahia; Helaine C. Cristine Ramos; Ronan Xavier Corrêa; Dario Ahnert

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has been assessed based on morphological and molecular markers for germplasm management and breeding purposes. Pedigree data is available in cocoa but it has not been used for assessing genetic relatedness. The geneitic diversity of 30 clonal cocoa accessions resistant to witche´ broom disease, from the CEPEC series, were studied on the basis of RAPD data and pedigree information. Twenty of these accessions descend from the TSA-644 clone, ...

  3. Potencial ornamental de Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentatacomo folhagem de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon; Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO: A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas amplia a oferta de produtos para o mercado da floricultura. Entretanto, antes de uma espécie ser indicada como ornamental, suas características estéticas devem ser avaliadas pelo público consumidor. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi prospectar novas plantas para uso como folhagem de corte e avaliar o seu potencial ornamental. O potencial ornamental das espécies prospectadas foi avaliado por 10 profissionais esp...

  4. New Broom To Sweep Clean At ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) has a new president. The last non- publicly traded state-owned lender in China announced on July 6 that Xiang Junbo, former Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China, or the central bank, had beenappointed to take o

  5. Método para preservação da viabilidade e atividade antagônica de Trichoderma stromaticum , agente de biocontrole da vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro Method for preservation of viability and antagonic activity of Trichoderma stromaticum, biocontrol agent of witches´broom disease of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Novais Bastos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a viabilidade da massa esporógena de Trichoderma stromaticum, através do crescimento micelial em meio de cultivo e a atividade antagônica (parasitária em vassouras secas de cacaueiro, após a preservação de quatro isolados (Ts1606, Ts3107, Ts0108, Ts2705 do antagonista por quatro anos em fragmentos de vassoura secas, acondicionados em tubos de ensaio e mantidos em refrigerador com temperatura aproximada de 5 °C. Todos os isolados preservados apresentaram-se viáveis, com crescimento e esporulação normais e continuavam antagônicos a Crinipellis perniciosa. Os resultados obtidos indicam a eficiência do método, que é capaz de manter os isolados de T. stromaticum viáveis por longos períodos de tempo, preservando características morfológicas, fisiológicas e antagônicas.After four years of preservation by using dried cocoa brooms in fridge at 5 °C, the viability of four isolates (Ts1606, Ts3107, Ts0108, Ts2705 of Trichoderma stromaticum was evaluated based on germination of conidia, mycelium growth in a culture medium and antagonistic activity on dry cocoa brooms. All the isolates preserved maintained viability, showing normal growth, sporulation and antagonistic activity against Crinipellis perniciosa.. These results indicate the efficience of the method for the long term preservation of T. stromaticum, maintaining their morphological, physiological, and antagonistic characteristics.

  6. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita;

    2012-01-01

    spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted...

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity on a sample of cocoa accessions resistant to witches' broom disease based on RAPD and pedigree data Avaliação da diversidade genética em uma amostra de acessos de cacau resistentes à doença vassoura-de-bruxa, com base em dados de RAPD e pedigree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Carvalho dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. has been assessed based on morphological and molecular markers for germplasm management and breeding purposes. Pedigree data is available in cocoa but it has not been used for assessing genetic relatedness. The geneitic diversity of 30 clonal cocoa accessions resistant to witche´ broom disease, from the CEPEC series, were studied on the basis of RAPD data and pedigree information. Twenty of these accessions descend from the TSA-644 clone, originated from a cross between the Upper Amazon germplasm called Scavina-6, the main source of resistance to witches' broom disease, and IMC-67. The ten remaining clones come from different sources including Amazon and Trinitario germplasm. RAPD data was collected using 16 primers and pedigree information was obtained from the International Cocoa Germplasm Database. Genetic similarities, genetic distances and coefficient of parentage were calculated using available software. Relatively low genetic diversity was observed in this germplasm set, probably because of great genetic relatedness amongst accessions studied and the poor representation of the germplasm. The TSA-644 descendants were more diverse than the other accessions used in the study. This might be due to the origin of the TSA clone, which was derived from highly divergent genotypes. Association between genetic similarities based on RAPD data and coefficient of parentage, based on pedigree data, was very low, probably due to the homogeneity of the breeding stocks and poor pedigree information. These findings are useful to cocoa breeders in planning crosses for the development of hybrid and clonal cultivars.A diversidade genética em cacau (Theobroma cacao L., embasada em dados morfológicos e em marcadores moleculares, tem sido avaliada com fins de manejo de germoplasma e uso no melhoramento genético. Dados de genealogia de cacau, embora disponíveis, não têm sido utilizados. Foi analisada a

  8. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  9. LISK-BROOM: A laser concept for clearing space junk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model predicts the economical effectiveness of using powerful laser beams for cleaning space junk. The propelling force comes from the ablation caused by repetitive laser pulses. Lasers will use Earth-based power to de-orbit waste objects in cooperation with observatory telescopes. (AIP) copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  10. Aksenoks proves true to "new broom" theory / Aaron Eglitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eglitis, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Riia linnapea Aivars Aksenoks tühistas linnas hasartmängukeelu, väites, et see oli eelmise linnapea Gundars Bojarsi valimiseelne kampaania. Aksenoks tegi riigi korruptsioonivastase võitluse büroole ettepaneku uurida eelmise Riia linnapea ja välireklaamifirma Clear Channel Latvia vahelist tehingut

  11. Evolução da vassoura-de-bruxa e avaliação da resistência em progênies de cupuaçuzeiro Evolution of the witch's broom disease and evaluation of resistance in cupuassu progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moysés Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a evolução da doença vassoura-de-bruxa, a taxa de segregação e estimar parâmetros genéticos, foi conduzido um experimento com 21 progênies de irmãos completos de cupuaçuzeiro, instalado em Belém, Pará. As progênies foram obtidas pelo cruzamento controlado de clones resistentes com clones resistentes, clones resistentes com clones suscetíveis e, clones suscetíveis com clones suscetíveis. Foram avaliadas também três progênies de meios-irmãos como testemunhas. Os experimentos foram avaliados ao nível de indivíduos, e as análises foram conduzidas via metodologia de modelos lineares mistos (procedimento REMl/BlUP, como delineamento em blocos incompletos desbalanceados, com tratamentos comuns entre dois experimentos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem de plantas resistentes ao ataque da doença no ramo, inflorescência, fruto imaturo e maduro, no período de 2002 a 2007. Os resultados mostraram que a emissão de vassoura vegetativa é especialmente importante entre julho e setembro. A evolução da doença evidencia que as podas fitossanitárias devem ser realizadas no final da safra, nos meses de maio/junho, e repassadas em setembro/outubro. A população estudada oferece excelente possibilidade de seleção e ganho genético, respaldada pelos elevados índices de variabilidade genética e herdabilidade dos caracteres de resistência. As progênies segregaram tanto para os sintomas de vassoura nos ramos, nas inflorescências, como nos frutos imaturos e maduros. Para o controle integrado desta doença, os resultados mostram a importância da associação de materiais genéticos resistentes ou moderadamente resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa com as podas fitossanitárias.This paper aimed to study the evolution and individual segregation of the witch's broom disease and estimate the genetic parameters in trials with 21 full sib families of Cupuaçú established in Belém, Pará. The progenies were

  12. No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Angelica M.; Carruthers, Raymond I.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2011-03-01

    Some invasive plants perform better in their area of introduction than in their native region. This may be a consequence of rapid evolutionary change due to different selection pressures encountered in introduced regions. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis (EICA) suggests that release from natural enemies results in selection of more vigorous plant genotypes as a result of plants allocating resources away from costly herbivore-resistance traits and toward increased growth. We tested the prediction that introduced plant genotypes of Genista monspessulana (Fabaceae) are less resistant to herbivory by a specialist psyllid, Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by measuring and comparing A. hakani performance on plants from native (southern France) and introduced (California, U.S.) populations. A. hakani performed equally well on plants from the native and introduced regions; there were no significant differences in psyllid egg and nymphal development, nymphal survival rates, female longevity or fecundity between the test plants. Egg survival rates were significantly higher on native populations, but the difference was minimal. These results provide preliminary evidence that native and introduced G. monspessulana populations are equally resistant to A. hakani and do not support the EICA hypothesis prediction of reduced investment in defense in introduced plant populations. Possible explanations for the lack of effects found in this study include the type of parameters measured and the feeding ecology of the herbivore used to test EICA, and finally, that evolutionary changes in plant defense in introduced G. monspessulana populations may not have occurred.

  13. 3D surface scan of biological samples with a Push-broom Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-08-01

    The food industry is always on the lookout for sensing technologies for rapid and nondestructive inspection of food products. Hyperspectral imaging technology integrates both imaging and spectroscopy into unique imaging sensors. Its application for food safety and quality inspection has made significant progress in recent years. Specifically, hyperspectral imaging has shown its potential for surface contamination detection in many food related applications. Most existing hyperspectral imaging systems use pushbroom scanning which is generally used for flat surface inspection. In some applications it is desirable to be able to acquire hyperspectral images on circular objects such as corn ears, apples, and cucumbers. Past research describes inspection systems that examine all surfaces of individual objects. Most of these systems did not employ hyperspectral imaging. These systems typically utilized a roller to rotate an object, such as an apple. During apple rotation, the camera took multiple images in order to cover the complete surface of the apple. The acquired image data lacked the spectral component present in a hyperspectral image. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for a 3-D surface scan of biological samples. The new instrument is based on a pushbroom hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the sample. The system is suitable for whole surface hyperspectral imaging of circular objects. In addition to its value to the food industry, the system could be useful for other applications involving 3-D surface inspection.

  14. UNIFORM FARM OPERATIONS (UFO ON HEMP BROOM RAPE SEED GERMINATION BY BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are a constant problem in agronomy and they not only compete with crops for water, nutrients, sunlight, andspace but also harbor insect and disease pests; clog irrigation and drainage systems; undermine crop quality; anddeposit weed seeds into crop harvests. In order to the microbial herbicide (Orocide influence on seed germinationin Orobancheramosa L., this experiment was conducted in 2011 at Islamic Azad University Shahr-e-Qods Branch inTehran by a completely randomized design with four replications. The factor studied included use of Orocide(0(T1, 2(T2, 4(T3 and 6(T4 percentage. The results showed that the effect of microbial herbicide (Orocide wassignificant on germination percentage of Orobancheramosa. Mean comparison showed that the highest germinationpercentage (79% was achieved by non-application of Orocide and lowest germination percentage (8% wasachieved by application of 4% Orocide.The results of this experiment showed that the use of Orocide can decreasedthe germination in Orobancheramosa L. that is uniform farm operations (UFO very important for weed biologicalcontrol management at Iran.

  15. A new broom? The space agency faces a shake-up

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The results of a recent report have pointed a grim picture of the agency's mismanagement of the ISS. The newly appointed administrator of NASA is likely to implement some combination of mission cancellations and staff lay-offs to cut costs (1/2 page)

  16. Evaluation of positioning error-induced pixel shifts on satellite linear push-broom imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangjun; Li, Yang; Wei, Hong; Jia, Guimin; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Georeferencing is one of the major tasks of satellite-borne remote sensing. Compared to traditional indirect methods, direct georeferencing through a Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system requires fewer and simpler steps to obtain exterior orientation parameters of remotely sensed images. However, the pixel shift caused by geographic positioning error, which is generally derived from boresight angle as well as terrain topography variation, can have a great impact on the precisi...

  17. UNIFORM FARM OPERATIONS (UFO) ON HEMP BROOM RAPE SEED GERMINATION BY BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad SANI; Jodaian, Vida

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a constant problem in agronomy and they not only compete with crops for water, nutrients, sunlight, andspace but also harbor insect and disease pests; clog irrigation and drainage systems; undermine crop quality; anddeposit weed seeds into crop harvests. In order to the microbial herbicide (Orocide) influence on seed germinationin Orobancheramosa L., this experiment was conducted in 2011 at Islamic Azad University Shahr-e-Qods Branch inTehran by a completely randomized design with f...

  18. Introduced Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) invades the genome of native populations in vulnerable heathland habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostgaard Nielsen, Lene; Brandes, Ursula; Dahl Kjaer, Erik; Fjellheim, Siri

    2016-06-01

    Cytisus scoparius is a global invasive species that affects local flora and fauna at the intercontinental level. Its natural distribution spans across Europe, but seeds have also been moved among countries, mixing plants of native and non-native genetic origins. Hybridization between the introduced and native gene pool is likely to threaten both the native gene pool and the local flora. In this study, we address the potential threat of invasive C. scoparius to local gene pools in vulnerable heathlands. We used nuclear single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers together with plastid SSR and indel markers to investigate the level and direction of gene flow between invasive and native heathland C. scoparius. Analyses of population structures confirmed the presence of two gene pools: one native and the other invasive. The nuclear genome of the native types was highly introgressed with the invasive genome, and we observed advanced-generation hybrids, suggesting that hybridization has been occurring for several generations. There is asymmetrical gene flow from the invasive to the native gene pool, which can be attributed to higher fecundity in the invasive individuals, measured by the number of flowers and seed pods. Strong spatial genetic structure in plastid markers and weaker structure in nuclear markers suggest that seeds spread over relatively short distances and that gene flow over longer distances is mainly facilitated by pollen dispersal. We further show that the growth habits of heathland plants become more vigorous with increased introgression from the invaders. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to future management of invading C. scoparius. PMID:27105397

  19. Vegetation Structure and Function along Ephemeral Streams in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, J. C.; Katz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Despite being the most prevalent stream type in the American Southwest, far less is known about riparian ecosystems associated with ephemeral streams than with perennial streams. Patterns of plant composition and structure reflect complex environmental gradients, including water availability and flood intensity, which in turn are related to position in the stream network. A survey of washes in the Sonoran Desert near Tucson, Arizona showed species composition of small ephemeral washes to be comprised largely of upland species, including large seeded shrubs such as Acacia spp. and Larrea tridentata. Small seeded disturbance adapted xerophytic shrubs, such as Baccharis sarothroides, Hymenoclea monogyra and Isocoma tenuisecta, were common lower in the stream network on the larger streams that have greater scouring forces. Because ephemeral streams have multiple water sources, including deep (sometimes perched) water tables and seasonally variable rain and flood pulses, multiple plant functional types co-exist within a stream segment. Deep-rooted phreatophytes, including Tamarix and nitrogen-fixing Prosopis, are common on many washes. Such plants are able to access not only water, but also pools of nutrients, several meters below ground thereby affecting nutrient levels and soil moisture content in various soil strata. In addition to the perennial plants, many opportunistic and shallow-rooted annual species establish during the bimodal wet seasons. Collectively, wash vegetation serves to stabilize channel substrates and promote accumulation of fine sediments and organic matter. In addition to the many streams that are ephemeral over their length, ephemeral reaches also occupy extensive sections of interrupted perennial rivers. The differences in hydrologic conditions that occur over the length of interrupted perennial rivers influence plant species diversity and variability through time. In one study of three interrupted perennial rivers, patterns of herbaceous species

  20. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  1. Multibeam collection for FK150324: Multibeam data collected aboard Falkor from 2015-03-24 to 2015-04-06, departing from Broome, Australia and returning to Broome, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Genetic structure and population differentiation of the Mediterranean pioneer spiny broom Calicotome villosa across the Strait of Gibraltar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arroyo, Juan; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albadalejo, Rafael G.;

    2008-01-01

    The region around the Strait of Gibraltar is considered to be one of the most relevant ‘hot spots’ of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin due to its historical, biogeographical, and ecological features. Prominent among these is its role as a land bridge for the migration and differentiation of...... species during the Pleistocene, as a consequence of the lowering of sea level and climate changes associated with the Ice Ages. In the present study, we report a multilevel hierarchical investigation of the genetic diversity of Calicotome villosa, a common pioneer legume shrub, at the regional scale. The...

  3. Phytoplasma associated with witches´-broom disease of Ulmus minor in the Czech Republic. Electron microscopy and molecular characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Válová, P.; Fránová, Jana; Šimková, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 37-42. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Ulmus minor * Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi * PCR * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  4. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  5. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana O. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the cloning, sequence and expression analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the most important pathogen of cocoa in Brazil. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single copy of the GAPDH gene in the M. perniciosa genome (MpGAPDH. The complete MpGAPDH coding sequence contained 1,461 bp with eight introns that were conserved in the GAPDH genes of other basidiomycete species. The cis-elements in the promoter region of the MpGAPDH gene were similar to those of other basidiomycetes. Likewise, the MpGAPDH gene encoded a putative 339 amino acid protein that shared significant sequence similarity with other GAPDH proteins in fungi, plants, and metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the MPGAPDH protein with other homobasidiomycete fungi of the family Tricholomataceae. Expression analysis of the MpGAPDH gene by real-time PCR showed that this gene was more expressed (~1.3X in the saprotrophic stage of this hemibiotrophic plant pathogen than in the biotrophic stage when grown in cacao extracts.

  6. Aplicación del bioensayo de Artemia salina en el análisis general de plantas medicinales brasileñas

    OpenAIRE

    Montanher, Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2002-01-01

    Extractos de once especies de la flora brasileña fueron estudiados para evaluar la actividad citotóxica por el test de Artemia salina. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Baccharis pseudotenuifolia, Baccharis ligustrina, Baccharis platypoda, Baccharis coridifolia, Polygala paniculata, Polygala sabulosa, Croton celtidifolius, Cyathea phalerata, Trichilia catigua, Eugenia uniflora y Schinus molle. Los resultados obtenidos para los extractos crudos de B. pseudotenuifolia, B. ligustrina, B. c...

  7. Plasticidade fenotípica de Baccharis genistelloides subsp. crispa (Spreng. Joch. Müll. (2006 - Asteraceae - sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho, relacionado a produção orgânica, utilizou preparados homeopáticos visando incremento na biomassa e no teor de flavonóides em plantas dióicas de carqueja. Os tratamentos foram: controle com água, controle com álcool 70%, Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH, e a combinação destas homeopatias. Variações fenotípicas foram registradas a partir da análise de crescimento, realizada quinzenalmente durante 60 dias e dos caracteres morfológicos, tais como: como altura, número de ramificações, comprimento do ramo principal, diâmetro do caule e ala caulinar mediana. Na colheita foram medidos: a fitomassa fresca/seca e o volume de raiz. Posteriormente, foi quantificado o teor de flavonóides totais conforme as análises prescritas pela Farmacopéia Brasileira. O experimento foi avaliado em delineamento de blocos casualizados (2x5x2, sendo suas médias avaliadas pelo teste Tukey e o coeficiente de variação ambiental para estimar a plasticidade. Quanto ao estudo do crescimento da planta ao longo do tempo, verificou-se aumento linear simples para a maioria das variáveis nos dois sexos. Foram detectadas respostas plásticas na maioria dos caracteres avaliados. De acordo com os resultados, em ambos os sexos, 60 dias de cultivo são suficientes para obtenção de matéria prima com teor aceitável de flavonóides, bem como para verificação dos efeitos de patogenesia e similitude na aplicação de preparados homeopáticos Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH e sua combinação Phosphorus 12CH + Sulphur 6CH. A fitomassa e o teor de flavonóides totais foram semelhantes entre plantas dióicas durante o período de estudo.

  8. Comportamento germinativo de duas espécies de canga ferrífera: Baccharis retusa DC. (Asteraceae e Tibouchina multiflora Cogn. (Melastomataceae Germinative behavior of two species from "canga ferrífera": Baccharis retusa DC. (Asteraceae and Tibouchina multiflora Cogn. (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Couto Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o comportamento germinativo de Bacccharis retusa e Tibouchina multiflora, espécies que ocorrem na vegetação de canga no Quadrilátero Ferrífero de Minas Gerais. Diásporos coletados no município de Barão de Cocais foram colocados para germinar nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25 e 30 ºC na presença de luz contínua ou no escuro. As sementes mantidas inicialmente no escuro foram posteriormente transferidas para a presença de luz, mantendo-se as mesmas temperaturas. Os diásporos das duas espécies apresentaram comportamento fotoblástico positivo, com germinação inexpressiva no escuro em todas as temperaturas testadas. Na presença de luz contínua as sementes de T. multiflora não apresentaram diferenças na porcentagem final de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, mas B. retusa apresentou menor porcentagem final de germinação a 30 ºC. Os diásporos das duas espécies mantidos inicialmente no escuro, germinaram rapidamente após serem transferidos para luz branca contínua. Entretanto, não foi verificado efeito significativo do tempo de permanência no escuro nos valores finais de porcentagem de germinação alcançados a cada temperatura. Esses resultados sugerem que essas duas espécies de canga apresentam potencial para a formação de banco de sementes no solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the germinative behavior of Bacccharis retusa and Tibouchina multiflora, species that occur in the "canga" vegetation of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais. Diaspores collected in the county Barão de Cocais were placed to germinate under the temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC at continuous light or in darkness condition. The diaspores initially remained under darkness were later transferred to light presence maintaining the same temperatures. Diaspores of both species presented a positive photoblastic behavior, with inexpressive germination under darkness in all tested temperatures. In presence of continuous light, seeds of T. multiflora showed no difference in the percentage of germination in all temperatures, while B. retusa showed lower germination at 30 ºC. Diaspores initially maintained under darkness germinated rapidly after transferred to continuous light. However, no indication of significant effect of the dark period was observed in values of the final germination percentage in each temperature tested. These results suggest that these two "canga" species may have potential to constitute the soil seed bank.

  9. Public health assessment for tri-cities Barrel Company, Inc. , Fenton, Broome County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980509285. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    The Tri-Cities Barrel Company, Inc., facility was included on the original New York State Registry of Hazardous Waste Sites in June 1980 when it was discovered that hazardous waste had been discharged to ground surface and to unlined lagoons. This site was later placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). Four monitoring wells were drilled and sampled during a preliminary site investigation. The on-site contamination of groundwater was documented by sampling of monitoring wells in 1986. One private well near the site showed low levels of ethylbenzene, meta-xylene and ortho-xylene; it is not clear, however, if this was related to the site. A second sample was taken from this well in 1990 and did not detect any contaminants. Since the preliminary report, additional waste lagoons have been identified and the site was expanded to include the entire 13 acres owned by the Tri-Cities Barrel Company. A remedial investigation is currently ongoing. Based on information reviewed, this site is an indeterminate public health hazard because the extent of contamination in groundwater has not been defined and contamination in areas north of I-88 has not been confirmed or defined. The primary health concern associated with exposure to chemicals at the site comes from their potential to cause cancer in humans or animals.

  10. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  11. Protein extraction for proteome analysis from cacao leaves and meristems, organs infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of the witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Carvalho, Heliana Argôlo Santos; Machado, Regina Cele Reboucas; Gomes, Dayane Santos; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de Mattos; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Micheli, Fabienne

    2008-06-01

    Preparation of high-quality proteins from cacao vegetative organs is difficult due to very high endogenous levels of polysaccharides and polyphenols. In order to establish a routine procedure for the application of proteomic and biochemical analysis to cacao tissues, three new protocols were developed; one for apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) extraction, and two for protein extraction--under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The first described method allows a quick and easy collection of AWF--using infiltration-centrifugation procedure--that is representative of its composition in intact leaves according to the smaller symplastic contamination detected by the use of the hexose phosphate isomerase marker. Protein extraction under denaturing conditions for 2-DE was remarkably improved by the combination of chemically and physically modified processes including phenol, SDS dense buffer and sonication steps. With this protocol, high-quality proteins from cacao leaves and meristems were isolated, and for the first time well-resolved 1-DE and 2-DE protein patterns of cacao vegetative organs are shown. It also appears that sonication associated with polysaccharide precipitation using tert-butanol was a crucial step for the nondenaturing protein extraction and subsequent enzymatic activity detection. It is expected that the protocols described here could help to develop high-level proteomic and biochemical studies in cacao also being applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues. PMID:18435495

  12. First report of witches’-broom disease in a Cannabis species and its association with a phytoplasma of elm yellows group (16SrV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp fiber plants (Cannabis spp.) spread naturally in almost every climate zone in China and have a long history of cultivation in the country. While hemp stalks provide high quality fibers for making ropes, clothes, and paper products, hemp seeds are a rich source of edible oil. In summer 2004, a...

  13. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  14. Spaceborne Mine Waste Mineralogy Monitoring in South Africa, Applications for Modern Push-Broom Missions: Hyperion/OLI and EnMAP/Sentinel-2

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Mielke; Nina Kristine Boesche; Christian Rogass; Hermann Kaufmann; Christoph Gauert; Maarten de Wit

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing analysis is a crucial tool for monitoring the extent of mine waste surfaces and their mineralogy in countries with a long mining history, such as South Africa, where gold and platinum have been produced for over 90 years. These mine waste sites have the potential to contain problematic trace element species (e.g., U, Pb, Cr). In our research, we aim to combine the mapping and monitoring capacities of multispectral and hyperspectral spaceborne sensors. This is done to assess the...

  15. Spaceborne Mine Waste Mineralogy Monitoring in South Africa, Applications for Modern Push-Broom Missions: Hyperion/OLI and EnMAP/Sentinel-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mielke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing analysis is a crucial tool for monitoring the extent of mine waste surfaces and their mineralogy in countries with a long mining history, such as South Africa, where gold and platinum have been produced for over 90 years. These mine waste sites have the potential to contain problematic trace element species (e.g., U, Pb, Cr. In our research, we aim to combine the mapping and monitoring capacities of multispectral and hyperspectral spaceborne sensors. This is done to assess the potential of existing multispectral and hyperspectral spaceborne sensors (OLI and Hyperion and future missions, such as Sentinel-2 and EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program, for mapping the spatial extent of these mine waste surfaces. For this task we propose a new index, termed the iron feature depth (IFD, derived from Landsat-8 OLI data to map the 900-nm absorption feature as a potential proxy for monitoring the spatial extent of mine waste. OLI was chosen, because it represents the most suitable sensor to map the IFD over large areas in a multi-temporal manner due to its spectral band layout; its (183 km × 170 km scene size and its revisiting time of 16 days. The IFD is in good agreement with primary and secondary iron-bearing minerals mapped by the Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA from EO-1 Hyperion data and illustrates that a combination of hyperspectral data (EnMAP for mineral identification with multispectral data (Sentinel-2 for repetitive area-wide mapping and monitoring of the IFD as mine waste proxy is a promising application for future spaceborne sensors. A maximum, absolute model error is used to assess the ability of existing and future multispectral sensors to characterize mine waste via its 900-nm iron absorption feature. The following sensor-signal similarity ranking can be established for spectra from gold mining material: EnMAP 100% similarity to the reference, ALI 97.5%, Sentinel-2 97%, OLI and ASTER 95% and ETM+ 91% similarity.

  16. Estaquia, calagem e sombreamento de carqueja

    OpenAIRE

    Bona, Claudine Maria de

    2012-01-01

    A Baccharis spp, conhecida como carqueja. é uma espécie nativa, alvo .de extrativismo devido ao efeito medicinal e a demanda pela indústria de fitoterápicos, Esta forma de coleta ocasiona a mistura de espécies, sem garantia de eficácia, qualidade e regularidade de oferta. Foram realizados experimentos de estaquia, com diferentes substratos e aplicação de auxinas nas espécies Baccharis trimera (Less) A. P. de Candolle, Baccharis articulata (Lam) Pers, e Baccharis stenocephala Baker, objetivand...

  17. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... plant species: Encinitas baccharis (Baccharis vanessae; threatened), Otay mesa mint (Pogogyne nudiuscula... November 26, 2003 (68 FR 66478). The Service and Water Authority held a public scoping meeting on December... Authority NCCP/HCP, and draft IA in the Federal Register (75 FR 9921). Public meetings were held on March...

  18. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Ipameri - GO Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Ipameri City - Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zucchi

    2013-01-01

    of these plants; and to diagnose the gender profile and the age and wage ranges of users. Thus, structured interviews were conducted with 200 families in the city and plants were collected for their correct identification. The material was herborized, identified and deposited in the Herbarium of "Universidade Estadual de Goiás" (HUEG. Of the 200 families interviewed, 75 said they did not make use of plants for medicinal purposes (37.5%, while 125 said they do use them (62.5%. The latter group reported the 35 most used species: "hortelã-rasteira" (Mentha x villosa L., "boldo-sete-dores" (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., "quebra-pedra" (Phyllanthus niruri L., chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., wormwood (Artemisia canphorata Vill., balm (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., broom (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., aloe (Aloe vera L. and mallow (Althaea officinalis L.. All consumer families (100% stated to prefer plants grown organically, to select the plants based on their good appearance (68% families and to eat them in natura (unprocessed, 100%. The use of medicinal plants in Ipameri is independent of gender (54% womem and 46% men and extends to several age and socioeconomic ranges, configuring thus a good consumer market.

  19. Una Escoba para Ana, Cien Oficios para Juan. Quinto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (A Broom for Anna, A Hundred Jobs for John. Fifth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the stereotyped work roles assigned to men and women. The guide examines educational materials that perpetuate these roles and presents teaching alternatives which reinforce students' self esteem and confidence. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of…

  20. 离体条件下进行治疗枣疯病药物筛选的可行性研究%Selecting remedial drugs for witches' broom disease via tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锦; 代丽; 薛陈心; 刘孟军

    2006-01-01

    以婆枣带枣疯病组培苗为试材,在培养基中添加不同浓度及不同次数的盐酸-四环素(Tetracycline,Tc)和盐酸-土霉素(Oxytetracycline,Ox)药物,培养40 d后,观察其对病苗生长情况的影响,并对转健苗进行植原体特异PCR检测,结果表明,25 μg/mL的药物浓度处理一次可使枣疯病症状消失,并完全杀灭枣疯病病原,达到理想效果;同时本研究中田间和组培条件下相同药物治疗效果的一致性进一步说明了利用组织培养技术进行药物筛选的可行性.

  1. Multibeam collection for FK150410: Multibeam data collected aboard Falkor from 2015-04-10 to 2015-05-04, departing from Broome, Australia and returning to Darwin, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Le sacrum de Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q ( Australopithecus africanus): nouvelles données sur la croissance et sur l'âge osseux du spécimen (hommage à R. Broom et J.T. Robinson) . The sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q (Australopithecus africanus): new data on the growth and on the osseus age of the specimen (homage to R. Broom and J.T. Robinson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Christine; Gommery, Dominique

    1999-08-01

    The fossil sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14Q ( Australopithecus africanus) was compared with 96 human sacrums of known age so as to reveal its growth stage. Robinson (1972) noticed the presence of an immature trait (unfused intervertebral disc between S1 and S2) in this individual which in other respects is supposed to be a fully matured adult. Our study brings us to define a "sub-adult" category corresponding to a class between the ages of 16 to 25 years in modern humans. Sts 14Q had the same state of maturation, which corresponds to a post-pubertal individual which had not finished its growth concerning the sacral breadth, and probably the pelvic breadth.

  3. Isolation and identification of the constituents from Ruscus aculeatus L. and their in vitro activity

    OpenAIRE

    Barbic, Matej

    2011-01-01

    Ruscus aculeatus L., also known as Butcher’s Broom, Kneeholy, Jew's Myrtle or Sweet Broom, belongs to the family Ruscaceae and is sometimes also classified in the families of Liliaceae, Asparagaceae or Convallariaceae. Main constituents of the underground parts of R. aculeatus are steroidal saponins, where both spirostanols and furostanols occur. Traditionally, rhizomes of Butcher's Broom were used for the treatment of inflammations, as a diuretic laxative and for the treatment of hemorrhoids...

  4. Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, V; Boudourova-Krasteva, G; Sforcin, J M; Frete, X; Kujumgiev, A; Maimoni-Rodella, R; Popov, S

    1999-01-01

    Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in São Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate. PMID:10431391

  5. fRNAdb Summary: FR111223 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR111223 AB076404,AF024639,AF024640,AF024641,AF025426,AF025427,AF025428,AF026076,AF026077,AF0288 ... lasma I-P,Periwinkle little leaf phytoplasma,Cocky apple ... witches'-broom phytoplasma,Erigeron witches'-broom ... escence phytoplasma,Barley deformation phytoplasma,Apple ... sessile leaf phytoplasma,Columbia Basin potato pur ...

  6. fRNAdb Summary: FR020328 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR020328 AB026155,AF035361,AF035362,AF056094,AF056095,AF090169,AF173558,AF175304,AF190223,AF1902 ... ane yellows phytoplasma type I,Phytoplasma sp. Gph,Black ... locust witches'-broom phytoplasma,Poinsettia branc ... ytoplasma,Phytoplasma sp. pathovar mosaic-inducing,Black ... raspberry witches'-broom phytoplasma,Blueberry pro ...

  7. Killer yeasts inhibit the growth of the phytopathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' Broom disease Leveduras micocinogênicas inibem o crescimento do fitopatógeno Moniliophthora perniciosa, o agente causador da doença Vassoura-de-bruxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Cabral

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and soil yeasts isolated from the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforests and an organic farm were screened for killer activity against yeasts. Killer yeasts were then tested against the phytopathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa (syn. Crinipellis perniciosa and a Dipodascus capitatus strain and a Candida sp strain inhibited its growth.Leveduras de frutas e de solo isoladas da Floresta Amazônica, Mata Atlântica e de uma fazenda orgânica foram selecionadas em uma triagem para atividade micocinogênica. As estirpes micocinogênicas foram posteriormente testadas frente a Moniliophthora perniciosa (syn. Crinipellis perniciosa. Uma estirpe de Dipodascus capitatus e outra de Candida sp.inibiram o crescimento deste fitopatógeno.

  8. Efeito de nutrientes combinados com indutores de resistência na proteção contra a vassoura-de-bruxa no cacaueiro Effect of nutrients combined with inducers of resistance on the protection of cocoa seedlings against witches' broom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Lettiere do Socorro Santos da Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Na busca por novos indutores de resistência contra a vassoura-de-bruxa no cacaueiro avaliou-se o efeito de vários nutrientes, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM e a combinação desses nutrientes com ASM. Os produtos e as misturas foram pulverizados 30 dias antes da inoculação nas mudas do clone SIC-23. Foram utilizados os produtos comerciais Supa-potássio®(silicato de potássio, Hortifós® PK (fosfito de potássio e Broadacre® Mn (sulfato de manganês, testados nas dosagens 2,5 mL; 5,0 mL; 10 mL/L de água, isoladamente ou combinados com ASM (0,2g/L. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições de doze plantas/parcela. A incidência da doença foi avaliada 60 dias após a inoculação. Somente o ASM promoveu controle significativo da vassoura-de-bruxa. Os nutrientes aplicados isoladamente não apresentaram efeito na severidade da doença. Por outro lado, o efeito protetor do ASM desapareceu quando este foi misturado ao Supa-potássio®, na dose de 5 ou 10 mL/L.Aiming at improving the level of induction of resistance in cocoa, various nutrients, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM and their combination were tested on cocoa seedlings, clone SIC-23, 30 days before inoculation. The commercial products Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate, Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite and Broadacre® Mn (manganese sulfate were sprayed at doses of 2.5, 5.0 mL and 10.0 mL per liter of water, combined or not, with ASM® (0.2 g/L. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with four replicates of twelve plants each. Disease incidence was assessed 60 days after inoculation. Only ASM promoted significant control of the disease. Nutrients alone had no effect on disease incidence. On the other hand, the protective effect of ASM disappeared when this product was mixed to Supa-potássio at 5 or 10 mL/L.

  9. Tualatin River - Bump/Brenner Riparian Forest Pre-Restoration Invasive Plant Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project seeks to intensively treat a 38–acre subunit of the refuge heavily infested with red hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius),...

  10. Reframing Teacher Education for Democratic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahley, Lisa; D'Arpino, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a partnership between teacher education students at SUNY Broome and students at a local elementary school that led to all participants gaining a stronger sense of themselves as civic change agents in their communities.

  11. Links to Literature: A Different Angle for Integrating Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacquelin

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of "Jumping the Broom," a children's book, to integrate mathematics and social studies. Discusses the use of problem solving, finding patterns, and making conjectures by studying the quilt pattern used in the story. (MKR)

  12. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Near Real Time Data for v3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This collection contains Near Real Time Data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument(OMI).The OMI instrument employs hyperspectral imaging in a push-broom mode to...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02501-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 38 0.006 12 ( FG289263 ) 1108793295629 New World Scre...FG290297 ) 1108793315558 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 9.4 1 ( FE7256

  14. Characterization of uptake and translocation of radioactive herbicides in a parasitic-host system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and translocation of [14C]-propyzamide applied to the sunflower seed by coating or soaking, of [14C]-imazapyr and [14C]-glyphosate both applied at post emergence, were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) parasitising or not by nodding broom rape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). Sunflower seed absorbed 9.8 and 3.4% of [14C]-propyzamide applied by coating or soaking, respectively, and less than 1% was translocated to the nodding broom rape. In sunflower plants infested and not infested with nodding broom rape, nearly 90% of [14C]-imazapyr was absorbed and 26% was translocated to the parasitic weed. Uptake of [14C]-glyphosate was similar (50%) for infested or not infested sunflower plants and only the 6% was translocated to the nodding broom rape

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15133-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 0.005 FJ154849_3( FJ154849 |pid:none) Jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma ... 44 0.005 AY332656_3( AY332656 |pid:none) Peach...rotein S3; &AP006627_156(... 34 4.2 EF193383_2( EF193383 |pid:none) Pigeon pea witches'-broom phytopla... 34...oroplas... 44 0.004 EU651838_3( EU651838 |pid:none) Jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma ... 44 0.005 ( P46772 ...) RecName: Full=30S ribosomal protein S3; &AE000512_1467... 44 0.005 FJ154855_3( FJ154855 |pid:none) Jujube witches...'-broom phytoplasma ... 44 0.005 FJ154857_3( FJ154857 |pid:none) Jujube witches

  16. Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to ride on, things to eat, things for dessert, fruits, things to play with. Create silly pictures ... broom). "It is cold, sweet, and good for dessert. I like strawberry" (ice cream). Work on forming ...

  17. Soil nutrients trump intraspecific effects on understory plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Carter, Benjamin E; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the links between intraspecific genetic variation and patterns of diversity in associated communities has been the primary focus of community genetics or 'genes-to-ecosystem' research in ecology. While other ecological factors, such as the abiotic environment, have well-documented influences on communities, the relative contributions of genetic variation versus the environment to species interactions remains poorly explored. In this study, we use a common garden experiment to study a coastal dune plant community dominated by the shrub, Baccharis pilularis, which displays a morphological dimorphism in plant architecture. We found the differences in the understory plant community between erect and prostrate morphs of Baccharis to be statistically significant, but small relative to the impacts of nutrient additions (NPK and C additions), for the richness, cover, and biomass of the understory plant community. There were no significant interactions between Baccharis morphology and nutrient-addition treatments, suggesting the influence of nutrient addition was consistent between erect and prostrate morphs. Moreover, we found no difference in overall plant community composition between Baccharis morphs, while NPK additions led to shifts in understory community composition compared to unfertilized shrubs. In sum, our results indicate that nutrients are the more important factor governing understory plant community structure in a coastal dunes ecosystem followed by intraspecific variation in dominant shrub architecture. Our results address a growing call to understand the extended consequences of intraspecific variation across heterogeneous environments in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:23851987

  18. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Maria de França; José Vargas de Oliveira; Alberto Belo Esteves Filho; Cynara Moura de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco), lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush), pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.), rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus) oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of three major plants from the Chihuahuan desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verástegui, M A; Sánchez, C A; Heredia, N L; García-Alvarado, J S

    1996-07-01

    Dilution methods were employed to determine the effect of ethanolic extracts of Agave lecheguilla Torr. (Agavaceae), Baccharis glutinosa Pers. (Compositae) and Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov. (Zygophyllaceae) on growth of yeasts, molds and bacteria. The three extracts analyzed showed good antimicrobial activity against more than one organism. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also determined. PMID:8771460

  20. Supercritical extraction of carqueja essential oil: experiments and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. F. Vargas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera is a native Brazilian plant which has medicinal properties. In this work a method of supercritical extraction was studied to obtain the popularly essential oil from Baccharis trimera, known as carqueja. The aim was to obtain experimental data and to compare two mathematical models used in the simulation of carqueja (Baccharis trimera oil extraction by supercritical CO2. The two mathematical models are based on mass transfer. One of the models, proposed by Reverchon, is solved numerically and requires two adjustable parameters from the experimental data. The other model chosen is the one proposed by Sovová. This model is solved analytically and requires four adjustable parameters. Numerical results are presented and discussed for the adjusted parameters. The experimental results are obtained in a temperature range of 313.15 K to 343.15 K at 90 bar. The extraction yield of carqueja essential oil using supercritical carbon dioxide ranged between 1.72 % (w/w at 323.15 K and 2.34 % (w/w at 343.15 K, 90 bar with a CO2 flow rate of 3.34.10-8 m³/s for a 0.0015 kg sample of Baccharis trimera.

  1. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  2. Limitantes físicos y bióticos de la regeneración arbórea en matorrales sucesionales de la Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile Physical and biotic constraints on tree regeneration in secondary shrublands of Chiloé Island, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA F DÍAZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los matorrales sucesionales establecidos después de la corta y quema de bosques son frecuentes en Chiloé y territorios continentales vecinos. Estos sitios son dominados por arbustos de Baccharis patagonica, musgos en cojín del género Sphagnum, plantas palustres y helechos. En estos sitios hemos registrado escasa o nula colonización arbórea (Successional shrublands created by clearcutting and burning of forests are frequent in Chiloé Island and surrounding mainland in southern Chile. These areas are characterized by seasonally waterlogged soils, and vegetation dominated by sedges, ferns and shrubs, such as Baccharis patagonica, with thick carpets of Sphagnum moss occupying the spaces between shrubs. Tree regeneration in these sites was shown to be sparse or completely lacking (< 0.3 seedlings m-2 compared with 7.2 seedlings m-2 in adjacent forests. Colonization of shade-intolerant, pioneer trees may be reduced underneath Baccharis due to crown shading and on top of Sphagnum cushions, because of unfavorable conditions for tree establishment, including low pH and soil water saturation. We evaluated differences in germination rates among pioneer tree species grown in an experimental soil moisture gradient. Seed germination percentage was low for Drimys winteri and Nothofagus nitida unrelated to humidity conditions but differed between substrates (moss vs. soil. Embothrium had higher germination and survivorship when growing on Sphagnum cushions. We also monitored seedling survival of two pioneer tree species (Embothrium coccineum and Drimys winteri transplanted directly under Baccharis shrubs, in open areas, or on moss patches. Even though survivorship of Embothrium and Drimys under Baccharis was < 40 %, in one of the study sites, there were no differences between treatments. Waterlogged soils would constraint tree regeneration on successional shrublands due to a lack of elevated substrates. However, the presence of Sphagnum cushions favors

  3. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. Enriz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5’-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1, aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2 and 5’-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3. The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 µg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 µg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 µg/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii.

  4. On Geometric Correction Method of BJ-1 Panchromatic Image Covering Kingdom of Lesotho

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunxi; LIU; Zhongwu; WANG; Wei; HAO; Rongbin; WANG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to find a suitable geometric correction method of BJ-1 panchromatic image covering Kingdom of Lesotho.The methods are carrying out two geo-correction experiments based on the push-broom model and the projective transform model for BJ-1 small satellite real panchromatic covering flat and mountain area of Lesotho.Results show that the projective transform model has equal or higher accuracy compared to the push-broom model.Conclusion is the projective transform model can be used in producing land use image map.

  5. Secondary Metabolites from Bolivian Plants- Isolation and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nature has been recognized as a rich source of potentially useful chemicals. Throughout the years, phytochemical studies have led to the discovery of an enormous number of natural products, their chemical diversity is unique and many of them possess various biological activities. As a contribution, this thesis presents the results obtained from the phytochemical study of four Bolivian plants. Senecio clivicolus, Prumnopitys exigua, Baccharis polycephala and Podocarpus parlatorei, which all ar...

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY KINETICS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST CINÉTICA DA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA IN VITRO DE EXTRATOS NATURAIS FRENTE A MICRORGANISMOS RELACIONADOS À MASTITE BOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia De Toni; Luciana Souza Prestes; Helen Silveira Coimbra; José Maria Wiest; Luiz Filipe Dame Schuch; Juliana dos Santos Lemos

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C., Compositae (Asteracea), Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn.), Compositae (Asteracea) plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA) or decoction (DEC). S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinf...

  7. Actividad antifungica de extractos de plantas usadas en medicina popular en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Davicino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos pueden causar enfermedades en humanos, especialmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. En este estudio, extractos de 10 plantas utilizadas en medicina popular en Argentina fueron ensayadas para estudiar la actividad antifúngica in vitro contra 4 cepas de hongos. De todas las plantas testeadas, solo 4 mostraron actividad antifúngica: Larrea divaricata Cav, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum D.C, Baccharis trimera Less y Schinus terebenthifolius.

  8. Actividad antifungica de extractos de plantas usadas en medicina popular en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Davicino; María Aída Mattar; Yolanda Angelina Casali; Silvia Graciela Correa; Elisa Margarita Pettenati; Blas Micalizzi

    2013-01-01

    Los hongos pueden causar enfermedades en humanos, especialmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. En este estudio, extractos de 10 plantas utilizadas en medicina popular en Argentina fueron ensayadas para estudiar la actividad antifúngica in vitro contra 4 cepas de hongos. De todas las plantas testeadas, solo 4 mostraron actividad antifúngica: Larrea divaricata Cav, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum D.C, Baccharis trimera Less y Schinus terebenthifolius.

  9. Analisis de la microbiota en suelos cultivados del Altiplano central

    OpenAIRE

    Sivila, R.; Hervé, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    Se estudio la poblacion microbina en una rotacion de cultivos con descanso, comun en el Altiplano Central boliviano. Se determino la presencia y densidad de cuatro grupos taxonomicos de microorganismos: bacterias; hongos, actinomicetos y esporas de las micorrizas arbusculares en el suelo rizosferico de cuatro cultivos de la rotacion (papa, quinua, cebada y avena); en las principales especies silvestres perennes (#Stipa ichu, Festuca dolichophylla, Baccharis incarum$) que colonizan las parcela...

  10. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    OpenAIRE

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho; Ary Vieira de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves prev...

  11. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. F. Vargas; Régis R. Guidobono; Henriques, João A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract ...

  12. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa; Juliana Garlet; Maína Roman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) (cambará), Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira), Acca selowiana (Berg) Burret (goiaba-da-serra), Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá), Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo), Micanea c...

  13. ONLINE MULTITASKING LINE-SCAN IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR SIMULTANEOUS SAFETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF APPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lab developed a push-broom, line-scan imaging system capable of simultaneous measurements of reflectance and fluorescence. The system allows multitasking inspections for quality and safety attributes of apples due to its dynamic capabilities in simultaneously capturing fluorescence and reflectan...

  14. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  15. 78 FR 49752 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations and Terminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ....: 018392F. Name: Broom U.S.A., Inc. dba Transcontinental Logistics Neutral 3PL. Address: 2293 NW 82th Avenue....: 018461F. Name: Select Aircargo Services, Inc. dba PAC International Logistics Company. Address: 12801... No.: 019608N. Name: United Logistics (LAX) Inc. Address: 13079 Artesia Blvd., Suite B-110,...

  16. 77 FR 64755 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ..., 2012, except that the correction to instruction 8.NN (77 FR 54149) is effective October 23, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Travis Broome, (214) 767-4450. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2012-21050 of September 4, 2012 (77 FR 53968), the final rule entitled ``Medicare and...

  17. First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of little leaf, witches’-broom, and abnormally small and deformed potatoes, suggestive of possible phytoplasmal infection, were observed in diseased potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Hannibal arba Kestrel) in the Vilnius region of Lithuania. DNA extracted from symptomatic leaves and shoots we...

  18. Formalizing WAC in the Curriculum: Writing-Emphasis Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Patricia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing-intensive courses developed at Broome Community College, Rockland Community College, and Kapiolani Community College as graduation requirements to incorporate writing permanently into the curriculum. Reviews the problems experienced at each campus in gaining faculty and student support. (DMM)

  19. fRNAdb Summary: FR017764 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR017764 AF305198,AF305240,AY072722,AY576685 transfer RNA (tRNA), GAT (Ile/I) Isoleucine tRNA Ca ... s Phytoplasma ziziphi,Virginia creeper phytoplasma,Paper ... mulberry witches'-broom phytoplasma RF00005 Rfam v ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2_092 Ceratonia siliqua flowers cDNA... 44 4.7 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB,... 4.7 1 ( DR393671 ) USDA-FP_153604 Adult Alate Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 44 4.7 1 ( FD381772 ) CeSi_F3_T7_C1

  1. Postimehe fotograaf võitis konkursi "Eesti foto 2004" / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumi ja fotoajakirja "Cheese" fotokonkursil osales 67 fotograafi. Grand prix' võitis Ove Maidla broomõlitehnikas fotodega, millel kujutatakse maastikke, aega ja inimesi. Järgnesid Kristo Rihm, Anu Vahtra ja Märten Kross. Parim noor fotograaf oli Laura Nõmmik

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

  3. Development of Cytisus scoparius L. at stand and individual level in a mid-elevation mountain of the French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévosto, Bernard; Robert, Audrey; Coquillard, Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Cytisus scoparius (L.) is a common native species of the Chaîne des Puys, a mid-elevation volcanic mountain range of the French Massif Central. Widely used in the former traditional agricultural system, broom has now become an invasive species colonising open areas after grazing abandonment. This study quantifies variation in size as a function of age and local competition at both stand and individual level. Eleven monospecific stands free of grazing were sampled according to an age gradient from young and recently established to old senescent populations. Density, age, mean dimensions and individual biomasses were measured. Intraspecific competition was assessed for 4-year-old broom plants by recording the number and size of neighboring broom within a fixed competitive radius. Age at which senescence occurred was also quantified. Results showed that the age distribution exhibited a clear peak in all stages, whereas diameter distribution shifted from a reversed J shape at the young stage to a broad range distribution at the terminal stage. Density decreased exponentially with time, while stand mean dimensions increased linearly for height, or followed a power model for stem diameter and crown width. On the individual scale, biomass was accurately predicted by stem diameter. Biomass, stem diameter and crown width increased with age without any asymptote, whereas height followed a sigmoid relation. However, at a given age, broom plant main dimensions were significantly reduced by competition that was quantified as the sum of the neighboring broom stem sections. The senescent terminal stage was characterized by a low density of individuals, a lack of seedling recruitment and age at senescence followed a normal distribution. Lastly, we replaced the above aerial development patterns by distinguishing three main stages of stand dynamics: stand initiation, stem exclusion and senescent stages.

  4. Shrub encroachment control by browsing: Targeting the right demographic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Jarry, Marc; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2012-11-01

    Exploring key demographic parameters for establishment and growth of shrub populations enables us to identify the life stages or plant organs that browsers need to consume to effectively influence shrub population dynamics. However, there is a lack of concrete knowledge on how browsing can efficiently meet this goal. We therefore tested the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on a key demographic parameter (survival of juveniles) of a major colonizing shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius) in order to control population growth, and designed a browsing management strategy focused on this target stage. Three browsing intensities, representing pertinent management practices, were simulated on juveniles (2 years old) in a broom population. Juvenile broom plants were either left untouched (control treatment; n = 126) or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed for "light-intensity browsing" (n = 127) and "high-intensity browsing" (n = 77) treatments, respectively. Survival and fecundity data were collected over 6 years. Standard matrix modeling was used to analyze the impact of browsing on changes in population growth rate (λ), and the results were 6.34 (control), 2.26 (light browsing) and 0.85 (heavy browsing). Therefore, the natural expansion of broom populations may be slowed by light browsing or even reversed by heavy browsing (λ < 1). This multi-year survey confirms that focusing browsing on juveniles is an efficient strategy for controlling broom dominance. Shrub control strategies should therefore target early-growth-stage populations and repeat the browsing strategy at the same intensity over several years to achieve cumulative effects.

  5. Estudios sobre plantas andinas, x

    OpenAIRE

    Cuatrecasas, José

    2012-01-01

    Durante la preparación del género Baccharis para Prima Flora Colombiana tuve que estudiar gran número de especies andinas, tropicales y extratropicales de fuera de Colombia; el objeto principal de tales estudios fue el de tipificar las especies íntimamente relacionadas con las colombianas y establecer su diferenciación taxonómica. La consulta de los tipos específicos y la identificación de gran número de colecciones procedentes de las regiones andinas hasta el sur del continente americano per...

  6. Evaluación de extractos y fracciones de plantas colombianas en modelos de inflamación aguda, subcrónica y crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, María Cristina; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Calle, Jairo; Rincon, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antiinflamatoria de extractos y fracciones de Acnistus arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Myrcianthes leucoxila, Physalis peruviana y Salvia rubescens en los modelos in vivo de inflamación edema tópico en oreja de ratón, edema plantar por carragenina en rata y bolsa de aire en ratón, con profundización en modelo de artritis por adyuvante en rata. Inicialmente se realizó el screening de un total de 34 fracciones en el modelo de edema auricular en ratón, de los cuales se s...

  7. Análisis polínico de mieles de cultivos orgánicos y convencionales de café en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

    OpenAIRE

    León-Bonilla, Daniela Andrea

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo se divide en dos partes. En la primera se realizaron análisis palinológicos con el fin de determinar el origen botánico de mieles provenientes de cafetales de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Los tipos polínicos más importantes fueron Inga sp. (guamo), Coffea arabica (café), Baccharis sp, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium, Adenaria floribunda y Clibadium surinamense. Se evidencia un alto potencial en la región para la producción de mieles monoflorales, que son las más apetecidas comerc...

  8. Extratos de Moringa oleifera e Vernonia sp. sobre Candida albicans e Microsporum canis isolados de cães e gatos e análise da toxicidade em Artemia sp. Moringa oleifera and Vernonia sp. extracts against Candida albicans and Microsporum canis isolates from dogs and cats and analysis of toxicity to Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha; Franscisco Léo Nascimento de Aguiar; Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante; Rossana Aguiar Cordeiro; Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro Teixeira; Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco; Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva; João Paulo Otaviano Zeferino; Jair Mafezoli; Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Francisco Geraldo Barbosa; José Júlio Costa Sidrim

    2011-01-01

    O aumento da incidência das infecções fúngicas, bem como o registro crescente de resistência e falha terapêutica, têm impulsionado a realização de estudos de prospecção de fitoquímicos com propriedades antifúngicas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo investigou o potencial antifúngico de extratos de Baccharis ligustrina, B. schultzii, Croton jacobinensis, Licania rigida, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia sp. e V. brasiliana, e de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba (Quimiotipos 1, 2, 3 e 4) e Ocimum g...

  9. Cambios en la vegetacion de un campo abandonado despues de un cultivo de trigo Vegetation changes in a field abandoned after a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Irene Boccanelli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación prístina de los campos altos del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina son distintos tipos de flechillares caracterizados por la abundancia de varias especies del género Stipa. Cuando un campo agrícola se abandona suele revertir a las comunidades prístinas. El objeto de este trabajo es analizar los diez primeros años de la sucesión secundaria de un campo sometido a agricultura durante largo tiempo que se abandonó después de un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum. En el primer año aparece trigo acompañado de malezas anuales (Chenopodium album y Portulaca oleracea; después del primer año una parcela fue colonizada por Baccharis salicifolia y las otras por Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. Los últimos años constituyen una etapa en la que disminuye la diversidad y se establece una fuerte dominancia de Baccharis salicifolia o Carduus acanthoides. El Sorgo de Alepo (Sorghum halepense aparece en las etapas tempranas y perdura durante todo el período con valores altos de abundancia. Aún, prácticamente no han aparecido especies de los flechillares, por lo tanto se concluye que no ha transcurrido suficiente tiempo para que se regenere el flechillar, o porque sus especies no se encuentran en los bancos de semillas o en las proximidades.The natural vegetation of well drained fields of Southern Santa Fe (Argentina are a different kind of communities characterized by the abundance of several species of Stipa. When agricultural lands are abandoned, they are often recolonized by the original vegetation. The object of this paper is to analize the first ten years of secondary succession on a field under a long time of agriculture abandoned after a wheat crop. On the first year, wheat with annual weeds (Chenopodium album and Portulaca oleracea appeared. After the first year, one plot was colonized by Baccharis salicifolia and the others by Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. The last years

  10. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  11. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from shrub species in Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Regueira, L; Proupín-Castiñeiras, J; Rodríguez-Añón, J A

    2004-01-01

    In this study we present an alternative for the management of the excess of shrub species that nowadays take up around 800000 ha in Galicia (NW Spain). This alternative is based on the exploitation of the energetic resources contained in the excess of shrubs by their combustion in specially designed plants for production of electric energy. The different species were sorted into three groups: Ulex europaeus L. (furze), Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Link (broom) and Erica sp. (heaths). Their LHV were calculated through measurements of the corresponding HHV and resulted 7600, 7300 and 7200 kJ kg(-1) respectively. Biomass productions (T ha(-1)) were also calculated resulting 20 T ha(-1) (furze), 30 T ha(-1) (broom), and 15 T ha(-1) (heaths). Analyses of all these values make these species very valuable for their energy exploitation. Samples were collected over one year in different zones to study the effect of the environmental conditions on the calorific values. PMID:14592753

  12. The genus Alwisia (Myxomycetes) revalidated, with two species new to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, Dmitry V; Schnittler, Martin; Moreno, Gabriel; Stephenson, Steven L; Mitchell, David W; Rojas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Based on morphological investigations and a phylogeny constructed with partial sequences of the SSU rDNA gene, we revalidate the genus Alwisia and propose the combination Alwisia bombarda Berk. & Broome to be used against Tubifera bombarda (Berk. & Broome) G.W. Martin. Two new species, Alwisia morula and A. repens, are described based on material collected respectively in Costa Rica and Australia. Both new species lack a capillitium and possess individually stalked subspherical sporothecae. Alwisia repens differs from A. morula by its procumbent stalks and iridescent peridium. A comparison of 83 sequences of species in the genera Lycogala, Reticularia and Tubifera with a recent two-gene phylogeny of the bright-spored myxomycetes resulted in a similar topology of both Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and placed A. bombarda, A. morula and A. repens in one well delimited clade within Reticulariaceae. PMID:24987129

  13. AcEST: DK958956 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes...KPTLMIEKC 403 >sp|Q2NJF5|DNLJ_AYWBP DNA ligase OS=Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma (strain AYWB) GN=ligA PE=3 SV=1 Length...id Q6YQD6 Definition sp|Q6YQD6|DNLJ_ONYPE DNA ligase OS=Onion yellows phytoplasma Align length 51 Score (bit) 29.3 E-val...ue sp|Q6YQD6|DNLJ_ONYPE DNA ligase OS=Onion yellows phytoplasma GN=... 29 7.0 sp|Q2NJF5|DNLJ_AYWBP DNA ligase OS=Aste...r yellows witches'-broom ... 29 7.0 >sp|Q6YQD6|DNLJ_ONYPE DNA ligase OS=Onion yellows phytop

  14. A seleção do sorgo vassoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Viégas

    1941-01-01

    Full Text Available The State of São Paulo imports straw of Sorghum for its broom industry when this material could be satisfactorily produced in the State. The principal hereditary defects of the broom-corn which could be eliminated to a certain extent by selection are goose neck panicles, twisted panicles and stemmy panicles. Various introduced varieties were subjected to comparative field tests along with a local variety which came years ago from Argentine. This variety superseeded all the others when subjected to selection. All the lineages derived from it when tested with the primitive and recently introduced stock revealed far superior in many respects. Seeds of these lineages were turned over to the competent Department of the Instituto Agronómico to be increased in guantity and then distributed to farmers. In this work the X² test is recommend for analysis and interpretation of the results.

  15. Partial removal of correlated noise in thermal imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlated noise occurs in many imaging systems such as scanners and push-broom imagers. The sources of correlated noise can be from the detectors, pre-amplifiers and sampling circuits. Correlated noise appears as streaking along the scan direction of a scanner or in the along track direction of a push-broom imager. We have developed algorithms to simulate correlated noise and pre-filter to reduce the amount of streaking while not destroying the scene content. The pre- filter in the Fourier domain consists of the product of two filters. One filter models the correlated noise spectrum, the other is a windowing function e.g. Gaussian or Hanning window with variable width to block high frequency noise away from the origin of the Fourier Transform of the image data. We have optimized the filter parameters for various scenes and find improvements of the RMS error of the original minus the pre-filtered noisy image

  16. New records of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil Novos registros de Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota em Mata Atlântica no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-poroid Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota in areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil are reported. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr. Fr. and Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome Donk are new records to Northeast Brazil.Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota não poróides foram registrados em áreas de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste brasileiro. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr. Fr. e Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome Donk são novas ocorrências para o Nordeste do Brasil.

  17. One or two species? A morphometric comparison between robust australopithecines from Kromdraai and Swartkrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Cofran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The type specimen of Paranthropus robustus (TM 1517, including a partial cranium was discovered at Kromdraai near Sterkfontein in 1938 and described by Robert Broom as a new species. Subsequently, more robust australopithecines were discovered at the nearby site of Swartkrans. These Swartkrans hominins were described by Broom as  Paranthropus crassidens. Many palaeoanthropologists currently regard the robust australopithecines from Kromdraai and Swartkrans as one species, but consensus has not been reached on this issue. A morphometric analysis has been undertaken to assess the probability that specimens attributed to P. crassidens represent the same species as that which is represented by TM 1517, the holotype of P. robustus. Our results failed to reject the null hypothesis that both sites sample the same, single species of robust australopithecine.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06088-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 100 5e-20 AY327624_1( AY327624 |pid:none) Peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma ... 100 5e-20 (A1AXM9) RecName: ...tus Phytoplasma mali O-sial... 91 3e-17 AY327622_1( AY327622 |pid:none) Ipomoea obscura witches'-broom phy...... 115 1e-24 CP001227_293( CP001227 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic......1) RecName: Full=Probable O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidas... 99 9e-20 CU928173_305( CU928173 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces...abase: 650,044,009 Effective search space: 52653564729 Effective search space used: 52653564729 Neighboring words thres

  19. Endophytic Bacillus Spp. of Theobroma cacao: Ecology and potential for biological control of cacao diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, Rachel L

    2010-01-01

    In South America, there are three key diseases that affect the yield of Theobroma cacao: black pod, caused by Phytophthora spp.; frosty pod, caused by Moniliophthora roreri; and witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. Although chemical control options exist, farmers typically only use cultural disease management such as phytosanitary pruning. Agrochemical use can be problematic in the developing countries where cacao is grown due to large risks to human health and the environment...

  20. A case study of one individual???s life in the context of their unemployment and their engagement in a ???work ready??? occupational therapy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Ireland is in the midst of a recession, with the unemployment rate at 14.7% (CSO 2012). The negative health implications of unemployment are well documented and wide ranging such as high levels of chronic disease, impaired mental health and less purposeful use of time (Scanlan 2011; Waddell and Burton 2006; Broom et al 2006). Occupational therapy values participation in meaningful activities which can play a key role in alleviating these effects (Scanlan 2011; Douthwaite ...

  1. Stabile isotoper indikerer intra- og interspecifik variation i diæten hos tropiske ålelarver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Christensen, Jens Tang; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Deibel, Don

    2011-01-01

    gelatinøst plankton spiller en væsentlig rolle i fødeindtaget. Under Galathea 3 togtets transekt nord for Broome i Vest-Australien blev 277 ålelarver fra 8 familier af tropiske ål indsamlet ved hjælp af et 2 m diameter MIK net. Disse blev oparbejdet med henblik på visuel identifikation af maveindhold...

  2. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  3. Characterization of the phenolic constituents and the antioxidant activity of Cytisus multiflorus

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olívia R.; Maria, Domingues; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2009-01-01

    The specific interest in naturally occurring antioxidants has lead to an exponential investigation of many traditional medicinal plants, as they are potential candidates for finding new therapeutic and supplementary health products. Cytisus multiflorus, also known as White Spanish Broom, is a leguminous shrub native from Iberian Peninsula that is u sed in folk medicine mainly due to its diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Still, despite its common usage for centuries, this plant has be...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02210-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available truncatula clone mth2-49j14, WORKING DRA... 38 7.1 6 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma ...abase: 630,428,194 Effective search space: 156346192112 Effective search space used: 156346192112 Neighborin...tketffdsssreqpkftntsmcsskc*nmnnidclel *iifllllshlilvelngpndkackllfnindnsivstfniiykspsiklv*li*nkevf kyyw*gfll...*lvlmfisflkeiglvpkeiietgfsaydti*qkc*tf kciimiwiniidlgktikesiptwyh*lks**ylkklrlrsssalqilntdnlktltith knh*tiis...g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) X2: 38 (14.

  5. Inverted Pendulum Swing Up Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, David; Conlon, James

    2011-01-01

    The inverted pendulum is a classic control problem. The system is open – loop unstable and continuously wants to reach equilibrium by falling over. The system must be stabilised by means of feedback. The developed inverted pendulum system is shown in Figure 1. In order to balance the pendulum in the inverted position the pivot must be moved continuously to correct the falling pendulum. This is similar to trying to vertically balance a broom on your hand. This interesting control problem is...

  6. Novel multi-beam radiometers for accurate ocean surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.;

    2014-01-01

    Novel antenna architectures for real aperture multi-beam radiometers providing high resolution and high sensitivity for accurate sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements are investigated. On the basis of the radiometer requirements set for future SST/OVW missions, co......, conical scanners and push-broom antennas are compared. The comparison will cover reflector optics and focal plane array configuration....

  7. Protein profile and protein interaction network of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiospores

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, Joise Hander; Gramacho, Karina Peres; dos Santos, Everton Cruz; Santiago, André da Silva; Silva, Edson Mário de Andrade; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2016-01-01

    Background Witches’ broom, a disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, is considered to be the most important disease of the cocoa crop in Bahia, an area in the Brazilian Amazon, and also in the other countries where it is found. M. perniciosa germ tubes may penetrate into the host through intact or natural openings in the cuticle surface, in epidermis cell junctions, at the base of trichomes, or through the stomata. Despite its relevance to the fungal life cycle, basidio...

  8. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  9. Automatic Descriptor-Based Co-Registration of Frame Hyperspectral Data

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vakalopoulou; Konstantinos Karantzalos

    2014-01-01

    Frame hyperspectral sensors, in contrast to push-broom or line-scanning ones, produce hyperspectral datasets with, in general, better geometry but with unregistered spectral bands. Being acquired at different instances and due to platform motion and movements (UAVs, aircrafts, etc.), every spectral band is displaced and acquired with a different geometry. The automatic and accurate registration of hyperspectral datasets from frame sensors remains a challenge. Powerful local feature descriptor...

  10. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have abundantinvertebrate food to offer. To answer the question whyand how so many birds are able to make a living in themud of Roebuck Bay, about a quarter of the intertidalarea was quantitatively sam...

  11. Electoral turnover has very little effect on the spending habits of Western democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Derek A.; Lovett, John; Frank R. Baumgartner

    2014-01-01

    Do new electoral brooms sweep clean the economic policies of the parties that went before? In new research that examines how incoming Western governments set their spending priorities, Derek A. Epp, John Lovett, and Frank R. Baumgartner find that budgets tend to be set with little regard to a government’s ideology, be it left or right. They argue that when setting budgets, incoming policymakers are constrained by social, economic and international realities that are largely beyond their contr...

  12. Socioware a jeho aplikace

    OpenAIRE

    Hlubuček, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the topic of socioware and how to create a good-quality and successful advertising campaign based on the pay per click payment model. In case an advertisement does not fulfil the aim we expected, I imply steps which should be implemented for better effectiveness of the advertising campaign. I also attempted to put together research which aims at the problem of cyberbullying and case studies on the topic of cyber brooming and stalking. To these case studies,...

  13. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikokavoura EA; Johnston KL; Broom J; Wrieden WL; Roll; Ç

    2015-01-01

    Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandroge...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10902-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lsitrmrdlls rnstttiphipdrfnkfeeahlknsninrndlvefrsillny*tfqsnxn**NINK--- ---riqlenf*ipllrkinnlfqeli... sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ic*i*ksnlh*ssclpqefidlghsalhnkisentasklsitklsqliqsqvafensfgq keelvdrlkqilrdykvevflnemvqnahdagstevkli......................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ355316 ) Dictyosteli...'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 38 2e-05 23 >( BJ355316 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:dda56m10, 3' end, single read. Leng...,4575,5121 Translated Amino Acid sequence ic*i*ksnlh*ssclpqefidlghsalhnkisentasklsitklsqliqsqvafensfgq keelv

  15. Transcriptome, microRNA, and degradome analyses of the gene expression of Paulownia with phytoplamsa

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guoqiang; Cao, Xibing; Niu, Suyan; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) is a fatal disease of Paulownia caused by a phytoplasma. In previous studies, we found that plants with PaWB symptoms would revert to a healthy morphology after methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) treatment. To completely understand the gene expression profiles of the Paulownia-phytoplasma interaction, three high-throughput sequencing technologies were used to investigate changes of gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy Paulownia tomentosa pla...

  16. Snowpack, fire, and forest disturbance: interactions affect montane invasions by non-native shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Latimer, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    Montane regions worldwide have experienced relatively low plant invasion rates, a trend attributed to increased climatic severity, low rates of disturbance, and reduced propagule pressure relative to lowlands. Manipulative experiments at elevations above the invasive range of non-native species can clarify the relative contributions of these mechanisms to montane invasion resistance, yet such experiments are rare. Furthermore, global climate change and land use changes are expected to cause decreases in snowpack and increases in disturbance by fire and forest thinning in montane forests. We examined the importance of these factors in limiting montane invasions using a field transplant experiment above the invasive range of two non-native lowland shrubs, Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) and Spanish broom (Spartium junceum), in the rain-snow transition zone of the Sierra Nevada of California. We tested the effects of canopy closure, prescribed fire, and winter snow depth on demographic transitions of each species. Establishment of both species was most likely at intermediate levels of canopy disturbance, but at this intermediate canopy level, snow depth had negative effects on winter survival of seedlings. We used matrix population models to show that an 86% reduction in winter snowfall would cause a 2.8-fold increase in population growth rates in Scotch broom and a 3.5-fold increase in Spanish broom. Fall prescribed fire increased germination rates, but decreased overall population growth rates by reducing plant survival. However, at longer fire return intervals, population recovery between fires is likely to keep growth rates high, especially under low snowpack conditions. Many treatment combinations had positive growth rates despite being above the current invasive range, indicating that propagule pressure, disturbance, and climate can all strongly affect plant invasions in montane regions. We conclude that projected reductions in winter snowpack and increases in

  17. Advance and recommendations for the control of illnesses in cocoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the diverse problems phyto sanitary that affect the production of cocoa in Colombia the moniliasis they stand out (Moniliophthora roreri) and witch's broom (pernicious Crinipellis). It is considered that for these illnesses the country loses but of 40 percent of the production, equivalent to some 16.000 tons of commercial grain per year. The ICA and their investigation program in cocoa have come developing in the CRI Tulenapa, Uraba, basic investigations and applied on the biology and dynamics of these pathogens, the physiology of the cultivation and the development of control programs, works that have allowed to define a handling system that consists on establishing defined times of removal of sick material for monilia and witch's broom through the year. With ends of technical and economic evaluation of this system, in 1981 they settled down in Tulenapa a demonstrative parcel of 1 there is of cocoa. The results of the rehearsal showed that the application of this system reduced the incidence of monilia of 65 percent in 1981 to 10 percent in 1985; equally, the brooms/tree/year index lowered of but of 100 at 19 in the same period. The yields that were of 280 kg/ha, increased to 422,942 and 657 kg/ha, respectively, between 1982 and 1985. Of the results of the study it comes off that this control system can be considered like model for the Uraba area some recommendations they are formulated to apply it in other regions, in accordance with its ecological conditions

  18. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  19. Efeito da concentração de sais e fitorreguladores na indução de calos em carqueja Callus induction in "carqueja" as affected by salt concentrations and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Guimarães Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar condições nutricionais e hormonais para maximizar a produção de calos friáveis de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC]. Foi verificado que a iniciação de calo é dependente de fitorreguladores e da concentração do meio. A melhor indução de calo ocorreu em meio MS contendo 50% da concentração de sais, inositol e vitaminas, suplementado com 15,0 mM ANA. Proliferação de brotos foi obtida pelo uso de TDZ.The influence of various growth regulators and medium concentrations, in different quantities, on the in vitro callus induction of carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.] was evaluated. It was found that the callus initiation was dependent on both, the growth regulator and medium concentration. The highest callus induction and development were obtained by using 15.0 mM 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA as growth regulators and half strength of salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol of Murashige and Skoog medium. In vitro shoot proliferation was obtained by using thidiazuron.

  20. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  1. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread

  2. Survey of plants popularly used for pain relief in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline D. Stolz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil; we had access to nineteen studies.To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of ethnobotanical studies that focus on pain relief carried out in RS. The species native to RS cited in at least nine (about 50% of these studies were selected. The search retrieved 28 native species cited as used to alleviate painful conditions, which are distributed in eighteen botanical families, being Asteraceae the most mentioned. The species more frequently cited for pain relief were Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis articulata, Baccharis crispa, Lepidium didymum, Eugenia uniflora and Maytenus ilicifolia. The only species not reported in any pre-clinical study associated with pain relief was B. articulata. Among the six species cited, no studies on clinical efficacy were found. In conclusion, the folk use of native plants with therapeutic purposes is widespread in RS State (Brazil, being pain relief an important property.

  3. Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, D E; Lee, I M; Rehner, S A; Davis, R E; Kingsbury, D T

    1994-09-01

    A global phylogenetic analysis using parsimony of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 46 mollicutes, 19 mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) (new trivial name, phytoplasmas), and several related bacteria placed the MLOs definitively among the members of the class Mollicutes and revealed that MLOs form a large discrete monophyletic clade, paraphyletic to the Acholeplasma species, within the Anaeroplasma clade. Within the MLO clade resolved in the global mollicutes phylogeny and a comprehensive MLO phylogeny derived by parsimony analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 30 diverse MLOs representative of nearly all known distinct MLO groups, five major phylogenetic groups with a total of 11 distinct subclades (monophyletic groups or taxa) could be recognized. These MLO subclades (roman numerals) and designated type strains were as follows: i, Maryland aster yellows AY1; ii, apple proliferation AP-A; iii, peanut witches'-broom PnWB; iv, Canada peach X CX; v, rice yellow dwarf RYD; vi, pigeon pea witches'-broom PPWB; vii, palm lethal yellowing LY; viii, ash yellows AshY; ix, clover proliferation CP; x, elm yellows EY; and xi, loofah witches'-broom LfWB. The designations of subclades and their phylogenetic positions within the MLO clade were supported by a congruent phylogeny derived by parsimony analyses of ribosomal protein L22 gene sequences from most representative MLOs. On the basis of the phylogenies inferred in the present study, we propose that MLOs should be represented taxonomically at the minimal level of genus and that each phylogenetically distinct MLO subclade identified should represent at least a distinct species under this new genus. PMID:8071198

  4. Effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of vegetal species on seed germination of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf/ Ação de extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies vegetais na germinação de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal species on seed germination of B. decumbens. The experimental design was completely randomized with 19 treatments (9 aquous extracts, 9 ethanolic extracts and a check was deionized water with 4 replicates. The species and organs used to obtain the extracts were Baccharis trimera (shoot, Baccharis articulata (shoot, Canna denudata (leaves, Cymbopogom citratus (leaves, Eucalyptus citriodora (leaves, Lippia alba (leaves and branches, Momordica charantia (leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, branches and flowers e Ruta graveolens (leaves and branches. The extracts were obtained by aquous and ethanolic infusions in 10% and 1% concentration respectively. The seeds were treated with extracts for one hour and after this time sowed in plastic boxes. They were maintained in germination chamber (BOD with 16 hours of dark/20ºC and 8 hours of light/35ºC. The evaluation were made at 7Th and 21st days after seeding (DAS. The extraction methods affected seed germination. The use of aquous extract showed greater germination percentage than the ethanolic one at 7Th and 21st days. The evaluated extracts did not affect the seeds’ germination.O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies medicinais sobre germinação de sementes de B. decumbens. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos (9 extratos aquosos, 9 extratos etanólicos e 1 testemunha com água deionizada com quatro repetições. As espécies e as partes das plantas utilizadas para a obtenção dos extratos foram Baccharis trimera (caule, Baccharis articulata (caule, Canna denudata (folhas, Cymbopogom citratus (folhas, Eucalyptus citriodora (folhas, Lippia alba (folhas e ramos, Momordica charantia (folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes, Ocimum gratissimum (folhas, ramos e flores e

  5. Interspecific competition influences the organization of a diverse sessile insect community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Tatiana; de Carvalho Guimarães, Carla Daniele; Rodrigues Viana, João Paulo; Silva, Bárbara

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition has played a major role in determining the effects of species interactions in terrestrial communities and the perception of its role on shaping population dynamics and community structure has changed throughout the years. In this study, we evaluated the existence of interspecific competition in the herbivore community of the dioecious plant Baccharis pseudomyriocephala (Asteraceae), which holds a diverse community of gall-forming insects. Sixty plants were studied and gall richness and abundance among plants were evaluated. To address whether a plant already occupied by a gall species is preferred or avoided by another gall species, null models were used for all 60 plants combined and for male and female plants separately. Our results have shown that the 11 species of gall-formers found on B. pseudomyriocephala co-occur less than expected by chance alone, indicating that interspecific competition might be an important force structuring the insect community in this tropical host plant, regardless of plant gender.

  6. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects. PMID:17583499

  7. Búsqueda de actividad inhibitoria de tripsina y elastasa en extractos de vegetales autóctonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Macció Betancurt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la capacidad inhibitoria para tripsina y elastasa de extractos de vegetales autóctonos: flores de Achyrocline satureioidehojas (marcela, hojas de Baccharis trimera (carqueja, frutos de Eugenia uniflora (pitanga y frutos Schinus molle (anacahuita. Los extractos, que presentaron diferentes propiedades, se obtuvieron utilizando agua o etanol como solventes en distintas condiciones de tiempo y temperatura. La acción inhibitoria para elastasa fue baja (< 30% o casi nula en los extractos ensayados. Para la tripsina, todos los extractos presentaron acción inhibitoria, observándose para un mismo material vegetal importantes diferencias según el solvente utilizado, independientemente de la temperatura de extracción. Los extractos de S. molle fueron los de mayor actividad inhibitoria para tripsina. Al extracto acuoso de este vegetal, obtenido a 100 °C, se le determinó IC50 y tipo de inhibición. 

  8. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies. PMID:23460431

  9. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  10. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  11. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

  12. Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Two Special Acyclic Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study two inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs of constructing two special acyclic matrices. The first problem involves the reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a path, from given information on one eigenvector of the required matrix and one eigenvalue of each of its leading principal submatrices. The second problem involves reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a broom, the eigen data being the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of each of the leading principal submatrices of the required matrix. In order to solve the problems, we use the recurrence relations among leading principal minors and the property of simplicity of the extremal eigenvalues of acyclic matrices.

  13. Dynamic Isotope Power System: technology verification phase. Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system jet condenser orifice performance. 79-DIPS-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test procedure provides a description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Jet Condenser to verify adequate orifice thermal and hydraulic performance. The test objectives were to: verify on Dowtherm the results of water testing for nozzle selection, targeting and liquid jet brooming per TP-414A; characterize the condensing rate performance at varying lengths, velocities, and states for possible orifice configurations; and determine the sensitivity of the jet condenser to non-condensable gases

  14. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Helen M; Filip, Gregory M; Gruelke, Nancy E; Oblinger, Brent W; Margolis, Ellis; Chadwick, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without significantly affecting tree vitality and by inference, longevity. Immediate and longterm pruning effects on mistletoe infection severity were assessed by comparing pruned trees (n = 173) to unpruned trees (n = 55) with respect to: (1) percentage of trees with no visible infections 14 years post-pruning, (2) Broom Volume Rating (BVR), and (3) rate of BVR increase 14 years postpruning. Vitality/longevity (compared with unpruned trees) was assessed using six indicators: (1) tree survival, (2) the development of severe infections, (3) the development of dead tops, (4) tree-ring width indices, (5) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery, and (6) live-crown ratio (LCR) and increment. Twenty-four percent of the pruned trees remained free of mistletoe 14 years post-pruning. Pruning is most likely to successfully eradicate mistletoe in lightly infected trees (BVR 1 or 2) without infected neighbors. Pruning significantly decreased mean BVR in the pruned versus the unpruned trees. However, the subsequent average rate of intensification (1.3–1.5 BVR per decade) was not affected, implying that a single pruning provides ~14 years respite in the progression of infection levels. Post-pruning infection intensification was slower on dominant and co-dominants than on intermediate or suppressed trees. The success of mistletoe eradication via pruning and need for follow-up pruning should be evaluated no sooner than 14 years after pruning to allow for the development of detectable brooms. Based on six indicators, foliage from witches brooms contribute little to long-term tree vitality since removal appears to have

  15. Effect of 7 botany species of plants on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Valdés Herrera; Edilberto Pozo Velázquez; Anay Moya Alonso; Marlen Cardenas Morales.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of several plant in the control of weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) was evaluated. The plant were caisimón of anisette, apasote, bitter broom, sage, sassafras, garlic leek and nim were used. In the experiment they were carried out 2 variants, one to see the effect on a female of the insect and another to observe the behavior in group of Z. subfasciatus. The effects of the same ones were evaluated in the ovoposición and in the time of permanenc...

  16. Thin, applied surfacing for improving skid resistance of concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholer, C. F.

    1980-12-01

    The use of select aggregate in a thin wearing surface of portland cement mortar to prolone or restore a concrete pavement's ability to develop high friction was accomplished. Two fine aggregates, blast furnace slag and lightweight expanded shale were found to exhibit skid resistance greater than the other aggregates evaluated. The British polishing wheel was used in the laboratory evaluation of aggregate to simulate wear. The need for a method of restoring friction to a worn, but otherwise sound concrete pavement led to a field evaluation of several different techniques for placing a very thin overlay. The successful method was a broomed, very thin layer of mortar, 3 mm thick.

  17. On RPC Model of Satellite Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo; YUAN Xiuxiao

    2006-01-01

    The RPC model has recently raised considerable interest in the photogrammetry and remote sensing community. The RPC is a generalized sensor model that is capable of achieving high approximation accuracy. Unfortunately, the computation of the parameters of RPC model is subject to the initial of the parameter in all available literature. An algorithm for computation of parameters of RPC model without initial value is presented and tested on SPOT-5, CBERS-2, ERS-1 imageries. RPC model is suitable for both push-broom and SAR imagery.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04747-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) X2: 38 (14.6 bits) X3: 64 (24.7...a spiralis chromosome UNK clone TS195-3... 34 8.2 7 ( BA000021 ) Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of ...01-1... 34 8.6 2 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 40 8.7 11 ( EJ795270 ) 10...o Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: hkikngi**rrfwtfkywin**y*s*s**npnctiyski***...ikkikii*i knnkkriekmv*rivnlkliiyiqeenisnvlmn*ii*khwln*krnkiimmil*iqrld visn*inlik*ln*llmlkthyn*rmv*ptnlkiqi*fsf*hnhytlkinllnqefnind

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09319-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) X2: 38 (14.6 bits) X3: 64 (24.7 bits)...lete genome. 38 7e-05 22 ( BA000021 ) Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of Glossi... 38 8e-05 15 ( AC1...IN PR... 34 0.016 15 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 36 0.016 16 ( AC21309...LSTNGN GDNLKQPAYNSYGQLEYQDFQIGTLYELTLFVDTT--- ---nhhhhwnfpxn*yiyitffh*klmgskrnaydplnwin...virus, complete g... 36 3e-04 15 ( AE017308 ) Mycoplasma mobile 163K complete genome. 50 4e-04 17 ( AP006628 ) Onion yellows

  20. A General Epipolar-Line Model between Optical and SAR Images and Used in Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Xing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The search space and strategy are important for optical and SAR image matching. In this paper a general epipolar-line model has been proposed between linear array push-broom optical and SAR images. Then a dynamic approximate epipolar-line constraint model (DAELCM has been constructed and used to construct a new image matching algorithm with Harris operator and CRA. Experimental results have shown that the general epipolar-line model is valid and successfully used in optical and SAR image matching, and effectively limits the search space and decreased computation.

  1. New records of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil Novos registros de Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) em Mata Atlântica no Nordeste brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni; Leif Ryvarden; Maria Auxiliadora de Queiroz Cavalcanti

    2004-01-01

    Non-poroid Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) in areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil are reported. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd) Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr. and Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome) Donk are new records to Northeast Brazil.Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) não poróides foram registrados em áreas de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste brasileiro...

  2. Purification, characterization and structural determination of chitinases produced by Moniliophthora perniciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela S. Galante; Taranto, Alex G; Maria G.B. Koblitz; Aristóteles Góes-Neto; Pirovani, Carlos P.; Cascardo, Júlio C. M.; Sandra H. Cruz; Pereira, Gonçalo A. G.; Assis, Sandra A

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme chitinase from Moniliophthora perniciosa the causative agent of the witches' broom disease in Theobroma cacao, was partially purified with ammonium sulfate and filtration by Sephacryl S-200 using sodium phosphate as an extraction buffer. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum pH and temperature conditions. Four different isoenzymes were obtained: ChitMp I, ChitMp II, ChitMp III and ChitMp IV. ChitMp I had an optimum temperature at 44-73ºC and an optimu...

  3. Effect and response of some grain sorghum varieties to irradiation and chemical mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L) is the fifth major cereal crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize and barley. It is cultivated on about 44 million ha world of wide which produce a total of 58 million ton of grain (FAO, 1991). Asia, and Central america. It is grown in USA, Australia and other developed countries for animal feed. Other uses in various countries include construction, alcoholic beverages, fuel, brooms and molasses. In Egypt, the total sorghum acreage was about 400,000 feddans. The total yield was about 4 to 5 million ardabs with average of 11 ardabs/feddan. Thus area is mainly concentrated at a upper Egypt governorate

  4. Plant–Pathogen Interaction-Related MicroRNAs and Their Targets Provide Indicators of Phytoplasma Infection in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guoqiang; Niu, Suyan; Xu, Tong; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Wang, Yuanlong; Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) caused by a phytoplasma, has caused extensive losses in the yields of paulownia timber and resulted in significant economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms in Paulownia that underlie the phytoplasma stress are poorly characterized. In this study, we use an Illumina platform to sequence four small RNA libraries and four degradome sequencing libraries derived from healthy, PaWB-infected, and PaWB-infected 15 mg·L−1 and 30 mg·L−1 methyl methane sulfonate...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06999-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complete... 43 0.004 CP001228_13( CP001228 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic ... 43 0.005 CP001099...idium botulinum A2 str. K... 37 0.29 CP000061_17( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phyt... 3...ca 224 ||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 206 caggaattccaattaacca 224 Score = 63.9 bits (32), Expect = 2e-10 Identities...2 effective length of database: 5,564,391 effective search space: 2793324282 effective search spac...|||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 178 gatagctatattatagaagtagaaataccagg 209 Score = 50.1 bits (25), Expect(4) = 3e-85 Identities

  6. Robotic Agents Representing, Reasoning, and Executing Wiping Tasks for Daily Household Chores

    OpenAIRE

    Leidner, Daniel; Bejjani, Wissam; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Beetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Universal robotic agents are envisaged to perform a wide range of manipulation tasks in everyday environments. A common action observed in many household chores is wiping, such as the absorption of spilled water with a sponge, skimming breadcrumbs off the dining table, or collecting shards of a broken mug using a broom. To cope with this versatility, the agents have to represent the tasks on a high level of abstraction. In this work, we propose to represent the medium in wiping tasks (e.g. wa...

  7. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L. amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Shima Luize

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, and Tanacetum vulgare showed significant effects against one or both parasites, with a percentage of growth inhibition between 49.5 and 99%. The extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on sheep erythrocytes. These medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that are clinically active against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi.Este estudo descreve a triagem de extratos obtidos de 19 espécies de plantas usadas na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças. Os extratos foram testados contra formas amastigota axênica e promastigota de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, e formas epimastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro na concentração de 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, e Tanacetum vulgare apresentaram efeito significante contra um ou ambos parasitas, com a porcentagem de inibição de crescimento entre 49,5 e 99%. Os extratos não mostraram efeito citotóxico em hemácias de carneiro. Essas plantas medicinais podem ser fontes alternativas de novos compostos clinicamente ativos contra L. amazonensis e T. cruzi.

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  9. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from shrub species in Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Rodriguez-Anon, J.A. [University of Santiago (Spain). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2004-01-01

    In this study we present an alternative for the management of the excess of shrub species that nowadays take up around 800,000 ha in Galicia (NW Spain). This alternative is based on the exploitation of the energetic resources contained in the excess of shrubs by their combustion in specially designed plants for production of electric energy. The different species were sorted into three groups: Ulex europaeus L. (furze), Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Link (broom) and Erica sp. (heaths). Their LHV were calculated through measurements of the corresponding HHV and resulted 7600, 7300 and 7200 kJ kg{sup -1} respectively. Biomass productions (T ha{sup -1}) were also calculated resulting 20 T ha{sup -1} (furze), 30 T ha{sup -1} (broom), and 15 T ha{sup -1} (heaths). Analyses of all these values make these species very valuable for their energy exploitation. Samples were collected over one year in different zones to study the effect of the environmental conditions on the calorific values. (Author)

  10. Effect of 7 botany species of plants on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Valdés Herrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of several plant in the control of weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae was evaluated. The plant were caisimón of anisette, apasote, bitter broom, sage, sassafras, garlic leek and nim were used. In the experiment they were carried out 2 variants, one to see the effect on a female of the insect and another to observe the behavior in group of Z. subfasciatus. The effects of the same ones were evaluated in the ovoposición and in the time of permanency of the insect on each plant residual. the death to Z. subfasciatus. The residuals of the molinaje of bitter broom, I age leek, caisimón of anisette and sage those that bigger repelencia effect had were, as much in the permanency as in the number of eggs ovopositados for the female of Z. subfasciatus. Correlation didn’t exist among the time of permanency of the insect in the different treatments and the number of on eggs. The biggest quantity in eggs was ovopositados it has more than enough sassafras.

  11. Imaging spectrometer concepts for next-generation planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M.; Juergens, D. W.; Kupferman, P. N.; Vane, G.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the imaging spectrometer concept, in which imaging is accomplished in multiple, contiguous spectral bands at typical intervals of 5 to 20 nm. There are two implementations of this concept under consideration for upcoming planetary missions. One is the scanning, or 'whisk-broom' approach, in which each picture element (pixel) of the scene is spectrally dispersed onto a linear array of detectors; the spatial information is provided by a scan mirror in combination with the vehicle motion. The second approach is the 'push-broom' imager, in which a line of pixels from the scene is spectrally dispersed onto a two-dimensional (area-array) detector. In this approach, the scan mirror is eliminated, but the optics and focal plane are more complex. This paper discusses the application of these emerging instrument concepts to the planetary program. Key issues are the trade-off between the two types of imaging spectrometer, the available data rate from a typical planetary mission, and the focal-plane cooling requirements. Specific straw-man conceptual designs for the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) and the Mariner Mark II Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) missions are discussed.

  12. A Two-Phase Space Resection Model for Accurate Topographic Reconstruction from Lunar Imagery with PushbroomScanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuemiao; Zhang, Huaidong; Han, Guoqiang; Kwan, Kin Chung; Pang, Wai-Man; Fang, Jiaming; Zhao, Gansen

    2016-01-01

    Exterior orientation parameters' (EOP) estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs) for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases. Firstly, we estimate the angular rotations based on the reliable geographic data using our proposed mathematical model. Then, with the accurate angular rotations, the collinear equations for space resection are simplified into a linear problem, and the global optimal solution for the spatial position of EOPs can always be achieved. Moreover, a certainty term is integrated to penalize the unreliable altitude data for increasing the error tolerance. Experimental results evidence that our model can obtain more accurate EOPs and topographic maps not only for the simulated data, but also for the real data from Chang'E-1, compared to the existing space resection model. PMID:27077855

  13. A qualitative phytochemical analysis and a comparative study of the antibactrial activity of Retama stalks (raetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed mainly to investigate and compare the antibacterial activities of methanolic, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts of retama on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureu using well difusion method.The results of study showed a significant effect on all bacterial species except Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary test of retama constituents revealed the presence of active material : Resins, Volatil oils, Coumarins, Terpenes, Phenols, Tannins, Alkaloids, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides, and Flavons. The highest Inhibition rate of Salmonella is 16 mm at the concentration 100 mg/ml, while the lowest inhibition rate was 8 mm for Escherichia coli at concentration 1 mg/ ml in methanolic extract. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the retama stalks (broom broom can be used in treating deseases caused by the tested organisms. Further chemical and pharmacological investigations may be carried out to isolate and identify the chemical constituents in the selected plants responsible for the antimicrobial activity.

  14. Modelling of the bending behaviour of double floor systems for different contact surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila PUSKAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the practice of prefabricated concrete structures considerable surfaces of intermediate floors are constructed using double floor systems with prefabricated bottom layer and upper layer. This second layer is cast on site. The quality of the prefabricated concrete is often of superior class with respect to the monolithic layer. In the service state of the double floor system, important compressive stresses appear in the upper concrete layer. On the other hand, the bond quality between the concrete layers cast in successive stages raises questions especially in the case of hollow core floor units with no connecting reinforcement in-between. The paper presents results of the numerical models prepared for double floor elements having different thicknesses for the top and bottom layers, subjected to bending. Three situations have been studied: stepped top surface of the prefabricated slab with no connecting reinforcement, broom swept tracks on the prefabricated slab with no connecting reinforcement and broom swept tracks on the prefabricated slab with stirrups connecting the concrete layers. For each situation two different ratios of the thicknesses of the layers have been considered. The results are emphasizing the critical regions of the elements, the differences in crack development and in the behaviour resulting from surface preparation and use of connecting reinforcements.

  15. Imaging spectrometer - An advanced multispectral imaging concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kupferman, P. N.; Salazar, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of an imaging spectrometer, which is being studied as a potential Space Shuttle experiment, is evaluated as a 'push-broom' imager that includes a spectrometer to disperse each line of imaging information into its spectral components. Using this instrument, the dispersed energy falls upon a two-dimensional focal plane array that detects both spatial and spectral information. As the line field of view is advanced over the earth by the motion of the spacecraft, the focal plane is read out constantly, which produces 'push-broom' images at multiple wavelengths. Ground instantaneous fields of view of 10 m in the visual and 20 m in the infrared are provided by the system, at a spectral resolution of 20 nm over the range from 0.4-2.5 microns. The system utilizes a triple-pass Schmidt optical system with a mosaic focal plane. A subset of the data stream is selected and encoded for transmission by the use of onboard processing.

  16. A Two-Phase Space Resection Model for Accurate Topographic Reconstruction from Lunar Imagery with PushbroomScanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemiao Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Exterior orientation parameters’ (EOP estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases. Firstly, we estimate the angular rotations based on the reliable geographic data using our proposed mathematical model. Then, with the accurate angular rotations, the collinear equations for space resection are simplified into a linear problem, and the global optimal solution for the spatial position of EOPs can always be achieved. Moreover, a certainty term is integrated to penalize the unreliable altitude data for increasing the error tolerance. Experimental results evidence that our model can obtain more accurate EOPs and topographic maps not only for the simulated data, but also for the real data from Chang’E-1, compared to the existing space resection model.

  17. Sources of resistance to Crinipellis perniciosa in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the Brazilian Amazon Fontes de resitência a Crinipellis perniciosa em progênies de cacaueiros coletados na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rodrigues Lavigne de Mello Paim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The witches' broom disease caused by the fungus Crinipellis perniciosa is the main phytossanitary constraint for cacao production in Brazil. The integrated management of the disease involves resistance as one of the components. The breeding program conducted by the Brazilian Institution, CEPLAC is directed toward the pyramidation of resistance genes from different sources to achieve a more durable resistance. This study aimed to identify sources of resistance in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the basins of ten Amazonian rivers and compared to progenies from the Peruvian clones 'Scavina 6' and 'Sacavina 12'. Progenies from 40 Amazonian accessions and 'Scavina' were evaluated in the field for six years for witches' broom resistance through multivariate and repeated measurement analyses evaluating the effect of progeny, area, block, year, and their interactions. There were differences in the mean number of vegetative brooms on some Amazonian progenies and 'Scavina' descendants. There was an increase in the number of vegetative brooms in the last year for 'Scavina' progenies, but that was not observed for the Amazonian progenies 64, 66, 156, 194, 195, 269 and 274. There were different gene/alleles for resistance in the Amazonian progenies in comparison to the traditional 'Scavina' accessions. These new sources of resistance will be important for pyramiding resistance genes and consequently increasing the stability and durability of the resistance to witches' broom.A doença vassoura-de-bruxa, causada pelo fungo Crinipellis perniciosa, é o principal problema fitossanitário para o cultivo do cacaueiro no Brasil. O manejo integrado da doença envolve a resistência como um dos componentes. O programa de melhoramento genético do cacaueiro conduzido pela Instituição brasileira CEPLAC é direcionado para acumular genes de resistência de diferentes fontes visando à obtenção de uma resistência mais durável. O objetivo deste estudo foi

  18. Biodiversidad de la flora del flanco oriental del Cordón del Plata (Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. Catálogo florístico Biodiversity of the flora of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata (Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La biodiversidad de la flora de la vertiente oriental del Cordón del Plata, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina se analizó a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal, entre los 1200 y 4500 m s.n.m. Para ello se utilizó la lista florística de las especies de 89 comunidades vegetales distribuidas en 14 unidades de vegetación, 5 pisos de vegetación y 3 unidades fitogeográficas. Para cada especie se consideró su distribución en los grupos de comunidades vegetales, ubicación fitogeográfica, formas de vida, origen y registro de colección. La flora examinada contiene 667 especies vegetales que se corresponden con 338 géneros y 82 familias. Las familias están representadas por 8 Pteridophyta, 1 Gymnospermae y 73 Angiospermae, con 12 Monocotyledoneae y 61 Dicotyledoneae. Las familias mejor representadas son Asteraceae y Poaceae que tienen en conjunto 110 géneros y 249 especies. Los géneros Senecio, Baccharis y Adesmia son los más ricos en especies. Aproximadamente el 20 % de las especies son endémicas de Argentina. La flora del área se la compara con la del país, la provincia y la de otras áreas.Floristic catalogue. The floristic biodiversity of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina, was studied along an altitudinal gradient, between 1200 and 4500 m a.s.l. For this we used a floristic list of 89 plant communities, distributed in 14 vegetation types, 5 vegetation belts and 3 phytogeographic units. For each of the species, its distribution in the groups of plant communities, phytogeographic position, life form, biogeographical origin, and registration of each collection was considered. The studied flora has 667 species, corresponding to 338 genera and 82 families. There are 8 Pteridophyta, 1 Gymnospermae, and 73 Angiospermae, of which 12 are Monocotyledons and 61 Dicotyledons. The most represented families are Asteraceae and Poaceae, which in total have 110 genera and 249 species. The most species

  19. Gall inducing arthropods from a seasonally dry tropical forest in Serra do Cipó, Brazil Artrópodes indutores de galhas em Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca da Serra do Cipó, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Serra Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly diverse forms of galling arthropods can be identified in much of southeastern Brazil's vegetation. Three fragments of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF located in the southern range of the Espinhaço Mountains were selected for study in the first survey of galling organisms in such tropical vegetation. Investigators found 92 distinct gall morphotypes on several organs of 51 host plant species of 19 families. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most prolific gall-inducing species, responsible for the largest proportion of galls (77% observed. Leaves were the most frequently galled plant organ (63%, while the most common gall morphotype was of a spherical shape (30%. The two plant species, Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae and Celtis brasiliensis (Cannabaceae, presented the highest number of gall morphtypes, displaying an average of 5 gall morphotypes each. This is the first study of gall-inducing arthropods and their host plant species ever undertaken in a Brazilian SDTF ecosystem. Given the intense human pressure on SDTFs, the high richness of galling arthropods, and implied floral host diversity found in this study indicates the need for an increased effort to catalogue the corresponding flora and fauna, observe their intricate associations and further understand the implications of such rich diversity in these stressed and vulnerable ecosystems.Artrópodes indutores de galhas são muito ricos em espécies nas formações vegetais no sudeste do Brasil. Três fragmentos de Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca (FSTS foram selecionados nas montanhas do sudeste da cadeia do Espinhaço para a primeira pesquisa de organismos indutores de galhas nesse tipo de vegetação. Encontramos 92 morfotipos distintos de galhas em vários órgãos de 51 espécies de plantas hospedeiras pertencentes à 19 famílias. A maioria das galhas (77% foi induzida pela família Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. A folha foi o órgão mais atacado (63%, enquanto o morfotipo mais

  20. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento da flora com potencial apícola nos municípios de Ubiratã e Nova Aurora-PR, por meio da coleta de plantas e análises polínicas em amostras de mel coletadas mensalmente. Foram registradas 208 espécies de plantas, distribuídas em 66 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza de tipos polínicos foram Asteraceae, Myrtaceae e Solanaceae. Aproximadamente 80 tipos polínicos foram encontrados nas amostras de mel e, na maioria, foram caracterizados como heteroflorais. Plantas cultivadas, como Glycine max (soja e Eucalyptus spp. foram representativas em alguns meses do ano. Espécies exóticas, tais como Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach também foram frequentes. No entanto, mais de 50% dos tipos polínicos pertencem a espécies nativas da região, tais como Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp., Alchornea triplinervea, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp

  1. Primeros resultados de la caracterización botánica de mieles producidas por Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae en Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina First results of botanical characterization of honeys produced by Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae in Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis melisopalinológico de diez muestras de miel de Tetragonisca angustula Latreille criadas en la localidad Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; O 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. Se reconoció un total de 49 tipos polínicos. En las mieles monoflorales, los tipos dominantes correspondieron a: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., Myrtaceae nativas y un tipo indeterminado (tipo 6. Las restantes muestras fueron multiflorales. El 62 % de los tipos polínicos corresponde a representantes de la Selva Montana de Yungas; tipos como Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, tipo Myrsine y un conjunto de Myrtaceae nativas que constituyen la primera cita como plantas nectaríferas para T. angustula. También se identificó polen proveniente de plantas típicas de ambientes antropizados como Carica papaya, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Leonurus sibiricus, entre otros. Estos resultados constituyen una primera aproximación al conocimiento de la flora utilizada por T. angustula y al origen geográfico de sus mieles, estableciendo el primer registro para Selva Montana de Yungas.The melissopalynological analysis was performed on ten honeys samples of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille breeding in the locality Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; W 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. We found a whole of 49 pollen types. In the honey monofloral, the dominant types corresponded to: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., native Myrtaceae and a type undetermined (type 6. The remaining samples were multifloral. 62% of pollen types corresponding to representatives of the Yungas mountain forest; types like Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, type Myrsine and a set of native Myrtaceae, which constitute the first appointment as nectar sources for T. angustula. Also identified pollen

  2. Vegetação campestre de areais do Sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul sob pastejo e com exclusão do pastejo Grassland vegetation of sandy patches of Rio Grande do Sul under grazing and exclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Pereira Trindade

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os efeitos de dois manejos do pastejo, sobre a vegetação natural do entorno de areais, da região Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram estudadas 41 parcelas de comunidades de 4,5x9 m: 30 sob pastejo e 11 em areais excluídos do pastejo. A composição da vegetação foi analisada por meio de inventário das espécies de plantas vasculares, presentes nas parcelas, e por meio de estimativa da abundância/cobertura de cada espécie e substrato exposto. Foram identificadas 53 espécies, distribuídas em 43 gêneros e 16 famílias. Apareceram em mais de 50% das comunidades estudadas: Axonopus pressus, Elionurus sp., Schizachyrium microstachyum, Bulbostylis sp., Senecio sp., Baccharis coridifolia, Psidium sp., Cardionema ramosissima e Borreria verticillata. Andropogon lateralis esteve restrita ao município de Alegrete, próximo ao rio Ibicuí. A exclusão do pastejo aumenta a cobertura vegetal e a diversidade em comparação a comunidades pastejadas. Vegetação natural sob pastejo é mais suscetível ao processo de arenização. Areais manejados sob pastejo apresentam mais substrato exposto e Elionurus sp., Axonopus pressus e Cardionema ramosissima.The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of two grazing management on the natural vegetation, in the edge of sandy patches of Southwest of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Forty-one community areas of 4.5x9 m, were evaluated: 30 under grazing, and 11 under grazing exclusion. The vegetation composition in each community area was described by visually estimated cover-abundances of vascular plant species and bare-ground. Fifty-three 53 different taxa were identified from 43 genera and 16 families. Axonopus pressus, Elionurus sp., Schizachyrium microstachyum, Bulbostylis sp., Senecio sp., Baccharis coridifolia, Psidium sp., Cardionema ramosissima and Borreria verticillata were present in more than 50% of the communities. Andropogon lateralis was

  3. Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.3206 Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.3206

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Sangalli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residents use different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of the medicines. These women are responsible to cultivate the plants in the backyards and around their houses. The botanical families which presented higher number of species were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Leguminosae. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Mentha piperita L. and Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. were the most used plants by the interviewees, which were prepared in form of tea or plasters.The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residents use different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of

  4. Fish in Aquariums for Aesthetically Enhancing Public Spaces (AAEPS): An incipient welfare issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Pamela; Todd, Peter Alan

    2009-01-01

    In Disney/Pixar's phenomenally popular animated film Finding Nemo (Stanton, 2003), one of the central themes of fish welfare was highlighted when the moorish idol, Gill, commented, "Fish aren't meant to be kept in a box, kid. It does things to you." The notion that fish might have the capacity to suffer in captivity (Chandroo, Duncan, & Moccia, 2004a, 2004b) links to the larger question of sentiency, which remains a fundamental tenet when justifying concerns for nonhuman animal welfare (Dawkins, 2006; Huntingford et al., 2006). Although terrestrial nonhuman-animal welfare has been discussed and explored for many years, the development of aquatic animal welfare concepts and approaches remains relatively new and beyond public awareness (Braastad, Damsgård, & Juell, 2006; Broom, 2007; Farmed Animal Welfare Council, 1996; Fisheries Society of the British Isles, 2002; Håstein, Scarfe, & Lund, 2005; Iwama, 2007; Schreck, 1981). PMID:20183479

  5. Advances and perspectives in bathymetry by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Chenxi; Li, Mingyan; Wang, Yuefeng; Ye, Siqi; Han, Caiyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the history of the airborne lidar and the development stages of the technology are reviewed. The basic principle of airborne lidar and the method of processing point-cloud data were discussed. At present, single point laser scanning method is widely used in bathymetric survey. Although the method has high ranging accuracy, the data processing and hardware system is too much complicated and expensive. For this reason, this paper present a kind of improved dual-frequency method for bathymetric and sea surface survey, in this method 176 units of 1064nm wavelength laser has been used by push-broom scanning and due to the airborne power limits still use 532nm wavelength single point for bathymetric survey by zigzag scanning. We establish a spatial coordinates for obtaining the WGS-84 of point cloud by using airborne POS system.

  6. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.;

    2011-01-01

    technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly......Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites of plants and insects and cause significant crop yield losses worldwide. A number of microarray gene expression studies have been performed to understand better the effects of phytoplasma infection on plant physiology. However, little effort has been made for the...... expressed in the plant or insect hosts. In silico operon prediction corroborated the experimental data. Our findings suggest that the delta delta Ct method can be used to study the physiology of this pathogen...

  7. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495

  8. A feasibility study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Martin, T. Z.; Warren, J.

    1983-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service completed a feasibility study that examined the potential uses of advanced technology in forest fires mapping and detection. The current and future (1990's) information needs in forest fire management were determined through interviews. Analysis shows that integrated information gathering and processing is needed. The emerging technologies that were surveyed and identified as possible candidates for use in an end to end system include ""push broom'' sensor arrays, automatic georeferencing, satellite communication links, near real or real time image processing, and data integration. Matching the user requirements and the technologies yielded a ""strawman'' system configuration. The feasibility study recommends and outlines the implementation of the next phase for this project, a two year, conceptual design phase to define a system that warrants continued development.

  9. Phytoplasma adapt to the diverse environments of their plant and insect hosts by altering gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    role in host adaptation. 74 genes were up-regulated in insects and included genes involved in stress response, phospholipid synthesis, malate and pyruvate metabolism, hemolysin and transporter genes, multiple copies of thymidylate kinase, sigma factor and Zn-proteases genes. In plants, 34 genes......Phytoplasmas are intracellular insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria with small genomes. To understand how Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) adapts to their hosts, we performed qRT-PCR analysis of 179 in silico functionally annotated AY-WB genes that are likely to have a...... encoding an immune dominant membrane protein, membrane-associated proteins, and multidrug resistance ABC-type transporters, were up-regulated. Differential regulation of gene expression thus appears to play an important role in host adaptation of phytoplasmas....

  10. Comparisons of remotely sensed and model-simulated soil moisture over a heterogenous watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil moisture estimates from a distributed hydrologic model and two microwave airborne sensors (Push Broom Microwave Radiometer and Synthetic Aperture Radar) are compared with ground measurements on two different scales, using data collected during afield experiment over a 7.4-km 2 heterogeneous watershed located in central Pennsylvania. It is found that both microwave sensors and the hydrologic model successfully reflect the temporal variation of soil moisture. Watershed-averaged soil moistures estimated by the microwave sensors are in good agreement with ground measurements. The hydrologic model initialized by stream flow records yields estimates that are wetter than observations. The preliminary test of utilizing remotely sensed information as a feedback to correct the initial state of the hydrologic model shows promising results. (author)

  11. Development, Cultural Maintenance and Traditional Owners: The LNG Development Proposal at James Price Point in the Kimberley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ruiz Wall

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep divisions have surfaced amongst Indigenous communities over the proposal to establish a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG precinct in the Kimberley, 60 km north of Broome. While ‘cultural survival’ underpins the argument put forward by both Indigenous supporters and critics of this development proposal, they appear to have opted for very different paths. A key question is: how do Indigenous people negotiate agreements with the State and mining companies in such a way as to maintain their distinct cultural understandings of themselves and accumulate adequate financial resources to safeguard their cultural survival? This paper examines the experiences of more recent native title settlements to see how they relate to the Kimberley LNG development discourses; interprets sample texts in relation to cultural maintenance within the prevailing dominant Western economic social system; and finally, raise questions about the challenges ahead for traditional owners.

  12. Genomic analyses and expression evaluation of thaumatin-like gene family in the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sulamita de Freitas; Baroni, Renata Moro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Reis, Osvaldo; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2015-10-30

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are found in diverse eukaryotes. Plant TLPs, known as Pathogenicity Related Protein (PR-5), are considered fungal inhibitors. However, genes encoding TLPs are frequently found in fungal genomes. In this work, we have identified that Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete pathogen that causes the Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao, presents thirteen putative TLPs from which four are expressed during WBD progression. One of them is similar to small TLPs, which are present in phytopathogenic basidiomycete, such as wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis. Fungi genomes annotation and phylogenetic data revealed a larger number of TLPs in basidiomycetes when comparing with ascomycetes, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in specific traits of mushroom-forming species. Based on the present data, we discuss the contribution of TLPs in the combat against fungal competitors and hypothesize a role of these proteins in M. perniciosa pathogenicity. PMID:26367180

  13. Criteria for Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Different Guidelines, Appraising their Suitability in the Omani Arab Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rasadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Familial hypercholesterolemia are at increased risk for cardiac events such as premature myocardial infarction and early death from coronary heart disease, especially in patients with severe forms of the disease if left unattended. Therefore, there is an ardent need for the early diagnosis followed by aggressive therapeutic intervention and lifestyle modification. Three groups have developed clinical diagnostic tools for Familial hypercholesterolemia: the US MedPed Program, the Simon Broome Register Group in the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network. In this article, the individual criteria are reviewed with particular emphasis on their advantage(s and disadvantage(s, and in turn assess their suitability in diagnosing Familial hypercholesterolemia in the Omani Arab population. A brief insight into the process of "Cascade Screening" is also provided, this is a procedure that we are in the process of establishing in Oman.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04814-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ae EST, clone AGAF784TR. 36 0.36 2 ( CR535093 ) Anopheles gambiae EST, clone AGAF074TR. 36 0.36 2 ( DQ158856 ) Bigelowiell...cus, pa... 48 0.60 1 ( AE017244 ) Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 7448, complete genome. 36 0.61 17 ( CP000049 ) Borrelia turi...ngue viru... 34 1.1 3 ( D31785 ) Pichia canadensis mitochondrial genomic DNA, comple... 32 1.1 6 ( AC151305 ) Xenopus (Silur...me... 40 1.3 4 ( U37541 ) Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrion, complete gen... 42 1.3 4 ( AC202545 ) Trichinell....6 10 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 34 1.7 16 ( AC112145 ) Mus musculus

  15. EKSPLORASI SPASIAL CENDAWAN TANAH PADA SEKITAR RHIZOSFER TANAMAN JAMBU METE (Anacardium occidentale L. DI KARANGASEM DAN BULELENG-BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Meita Pratiwi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut is one of an important plant to fulfil human’s life needed. This study wasconducted to determine the benefits of coconut plant parts. The study was conducted in someareas of Denpasar and Badung from 27 January until 4 February, 2012. The method used in thisstudy is exploratory survey method by using a questionnaire and interviews. The results showedthat the mostly used parts of the plant are fruit part of 53% (35% bungkak water, bungkak meat12.9%, 4.7% shell root 2.3%, 22 % stems, and leaves as many as 23%. The coconut tree is usedas an upakara (31%, drugs (24%, construction (14%, consumer (13%, crafts (2%, fuel (8%,roofs (2%, broom (2%, and household items (4%.Keywords: Cocos nucifera L. etnobotany, exploration survey

  16. Bonneville Power Administration, Lower Columbia Region: Noxious Weed Management, 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR; Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program

    1996-01-01

    During the 1996 season ODA executed the contract between BPA and ODA. Execution of this contract included the following activities: Survey for target noxious weeds, such as Gorse; collection and redistribution of biological control agents, for example, Apion seed weevils for Scotch broom, bioagents for diffuse and spotted knapweed, Gorse spider mite, and gall fly releases for control of Canada thistle and bull thistle; and control of isolated infestations of Gorse on BPA rights-of-way. Training was provided for line crews at the Chemawa, Alevy and North Bend districts. The purpose of the program is to assist BPA in the integrated prevention and control of noxious weed species on BPA transmission line maintenance right-of-ways.

  17. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  18. Self-catalytic synthesis of soluble polyaniline/tellurium nanocomposite and its nonlinear optical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Xiaomei; Ke, Rui; Zhang, Shengyi; Mao, Changjie; Niu, Helin; Song, Jiming; Li, Shengli; Tian, Yupeng

    2016-05-01

    A novel polyaniline/tellurium (PANI/Te) nanocomposite was synthesized via the redox reaction between aniline and H2TeO3. Interestingly, this redox reaction had to be initiated by hydrazine hydrate, and then was catalyzed by self-generated elemental Te. In addition, the remainder H2TeO3 molecules were adsorbed on the PANI chains, which made the nanocomposite soluble. The characterization results indicate that the PANI/Te nanocomposite is made up of broom-shaped particles with hierarchical structures in which hexagonal Te fibers are wrapped by PANI films. Significantly, the PANI/Te nanocomposite showed improved nonlinear optical (NLO) properties compared to pristine PANI and Te.

  19. A rare case of chronic suppurative otitis media with foreign body in external auditory canal and mastoid antrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayendra Simha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in External Auditory Canal (EAC are common in both adults and children. Removal of foreign body requires skill but usually successfully performed in the ENT department. A 40 year old female patient presented with right ear discharge with decreased hearing. On examination, a pale, scanty, mucopurulent discharge, foul smelling with blood tinge, persisting even after medications. After aural toileting, tympanic membrane was perforated with granulation tissue in middle ear. Multiple broom sticks were found in the external auditory canal, mastoid antrum was removed via post auricular approach with excision of polyp with radical mastoid exploration. Removal of foreign body from EAC is an essential skill for ENT surgeon. Careful removal can prevent further trauma and complications. An aural polyp with ear discharge, never attempt to pull/avulsion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1030-1031

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11056-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available search space used: 374608907761 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bi... |pid:none) Malaysian periwinkle yellows phyto... 57 2e-06 AM260525_1821( AM260525 |pid:none) Bartonella tri...e) Zea mays full-length cDNA clone ZM... 62 7e-08 CP000061_182( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-b...( DQ111953 |pid:none) Phytoplasma sp. CPh FliA (fliA) ge... 60 4e-07 CP000061_223( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows wi...3( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 53 4e-05 AM260525_376( AM260525 |pid:none) Barton

  1. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    information at any given frequency. The radiometer system will very often be configured as an imaging system on a spacecraft for example. This normally implies scanning the antenna. Then there are certain relationships (or even conflicts) between achievable radiometric sensitivity/ ground resolution....../antenna size, and the problem: scanning antenna/space- craft stability. In many cases good compromises have been reached, as evident recalling the many successful missions throughout the recent 30 years. But in some cases the situation calls for special solutions, like the push-broom system or the synthetic...... of the sea from space, the intervening atmosphere will disturb the process, and corrections might be required. Also, at some frequencies and for some applications, the Faraday rotation in the Ionosphere must be taken into account....

  2. Pointing and spectral assignemnt design and control for MERTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, I.; Säuberlich, T.; Lieder, M.; Rataj, M.; Driescher, H.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2013-09-01

    The development of MERTIS, a miniaturized thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury has been completed. Qualification of the design is followed by the calibration of the instrument showing up first results of the technology used. Based on subsequent viewing of different targets including on-board calibration sources the push-broom instrument will use a 2-dimensional bolometer detector to provide spatial and spectral information. Here repetition accuracy of pointing and spectral assignment is supported by the design of instrument components under the restriction of limited resources. Additionally a concept of verification after launch and cruise phase of the mission was developed. The article describes how this has been implemented and what the results under environment testing are.

  3. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines and the like formed of continuous carbon fibers throughout the valve's stem and head is disclosed. The valve includes braided carbon fiber material over axially aligned unidirectional carbon fibers forming a valve stem; the braided and unidirectional carbon fibers being broomed out at one end of the valve stem forming the shape of the valve head; the valve-shaped structure being densified and rigidized with a matrix of carbon containing discontinuous carbon fibers: and the finished valve being treated to resist oxidation. Also disclosed is a carbon matrix plug containing continuous and discontinuous carbon fibers and forming a net-shape valve head acting as a mandrel over which the unidirectional and braided carbon fibers are formed according to textile processes. Also disclosed are various preform valves and processes for making finished and preform carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valves.

  4. Drop weight impact measurements of HE sensitivity: modified detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High explosives small-scale sensitivity testing has been a hallmark of safety screening since WWII. Sensitivity testing was once crude and simple; broom sticks were used to scrape explosives on the floor while experimenters would look, listen, and smell for signs of a reaction. Since then, a wide variety of testing apparatus have been developed to explore the effects of different stimuli on explosives. In concert with the development of the machines themselves, the reaction detection methods have also evolved. This paper's focus is on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) drop weight impact machine and reaction detection methods. A critical evaluation of results is presented with cautionary examples of false positives that can occur with non-explosive materials.

  5. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265

  6. Study of root and leaf rachis of Spathelia excelsa: phytochemistry and activity against fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa associated with cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum); Estudo em raiz e raquis foliar de Spathelia excelsa: fitoquimica e atividade frente ao fungo Moniliophthora perniciosa associado ao cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Loretta Ennes de; Lima, Maria da Paz; Maximo, Ariane da Costa; Pereira, Elaine Cristina da Silva; Moreira, Wagner Alan dos Santos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Tecnologia e Inovacao; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Veras, Solange de Mello [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias; Souza, Maria Geralda de, E-mail: mdapaz@inpa.gov.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of Spathelia excelsa (Krause) R. S. Cowan and Brizicky was investigated and the limonoids harrisonin (1) and deacetylspathelin (2), alkaloids folinin and casimiroin mixture (3a,b), plus a further casimiroin (3b) were identified in methanol extract from root. The CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} extract from the rachis yielded protolimonoid 3{beta}-angeloyl-21,24-epoxy-7{alpha},21{alpha},23{alpha},25-tetrahydroxy-4{alpha},4{beta},8{beta},10{beta}-tetramethyl -25-dimethyl-14,18-cyclo-5{alpha},13{alpha},14{alpha},17{alpha}-cholestane (4), and methanol extract, the limonoids limonin diosphenol (5) and perforatin (6), as well as the chromone biflorin (7). Harrisonin and biflorin were isolated for the first time in this genus. On the antifungal assay against witches' broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa) compound 3b was found to be active. (author)

  7. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Noor-Khairul; Zam, Zarifah; Mdnoor, Siti-Suraya; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis. PMID:22606491

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12763-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 33( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 134 2e-30 CP001205_584( CP001205 |pid:none) Borr...4 3e-30 J03896_1( J03896 |pid:none) E.coli ATP-dependent protease La (lon)... 134 3e-30 CU928161_413( CU928161 |pid:none) Escherich...rooxidans A... 126 7e-28 CP001227_62( CP001227 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic,... 126 7e-28 AF1...sg4m11_pDNRf_532416 Myzus persicae, tobacc... 38 0.27 2 ( AL713886 ) Mus musculus chromosome 11 region in the...903_4205( CP000903 |pid:none) Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBA... 144 4e-33 AE017333_2827( AE017333 |pid:none) Bacillus liche

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09745-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 117 9e-25 BT059393_1( BT05...7 CP001227_275( CP001227 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic... 94 2e-17 CP000766_378( CP000766 |pid...7 Hydra magnipapil... 58 3e-15 4 ( EC853656 ) HDE00002651 Hyperamoeba dachnaya No...e-05 2 ( ES800909 ) UFL_446_20 Cotton fiber 0-10 day post anthesis Go... 60 1e-04 2 ( EH693143 ) CCIM5191.b1_M02.ab1 CCI(LMS) ch...|pid:none) Caligus clemensi clone ccle-evs-50... 271 e-117 EU442569_1( EU442569 |pid:none) Sus scrofa branched chain keto ac

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12028-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CP001147_1169( CP001147 |pid:none) Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstoni... 299 2e-79 CP001357_2213( CP001357 |pid:none) Brach...1.4) (Leucine--tRNA liga... 297 9e-79 CP001227_683( CP001227 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic... ...id:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 252 4e-65 (Q3APY5) RecName: Full=Leucyl-tRNA synthetase; EC=6.1... 60 4e-08 3 ( EJ647082 ) 1092344026867 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 48 6e-08 4 ( CU329670 ) Schizosaccharomyces pombe ch...|||| Sbjct: 1147 atcaagttgcaaaacaacaaaatttaaaattattaccagttttaggtattgaaagagag 1205 Score = 1193 bits (602), Expect = 0.0 Identities

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03321-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CP001227 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic... 46 5e-04 ( P59078 ) RecName: Full=Methionyl-tRNA synthe...r K84 c... 44 0.001 CP000061_489( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 44 0.001 AK068726_... 1e-04 CP001029_4603( CP001029 |pid:none) Methylobacterium populi BJ001, ... 47 2e-04 AE017333_40( AE017333 |pid:none) Bacillus liche...lorophenolicus A... 45 8e-04 AM999887_117( AM999887 |pid:none) Wolbach...SD... 37 0.28 (Q1LJN4) RecName: Full=Methionyl-tRNA synthetase; EC=6.... 37 0.28 FM872308_33( FM872308 |pid:none) Chlamydia trach

  12. Infrared detectors for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

  13. Metals in pond sediments as archives of anthropogenic activities: a study in response to health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental geochemistry approach was applied in response to health concerns about present day and past exposure to pollutants within Broome County, New York by determining historical records of anthropogenic activities as preserved in sediment cores. Sediment was collected from a stormwater retention pond adjacent to a warehouse complex in the urban community of Hillcrest as well as from 3 other ponds in rural locations in Broome County. Metal concentrations and decay products of 210Pb and 137Cs were measured to determine the timing of source specific differences in the distribution of metals in the sediment cores. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd and As were elevated in the retention pond sediments when compared to sediment from other locations. Topography influenced atmospheric transport and deposition of pollutants within incised river valleys and enhanced runoff from impervious surfaces within an urban watershed contributed to the elevated metal concentrations at Hillcrest. Temporal changes in Pb deposition within retention pond sediment mimic the rise and fall in use of leaded gasoline. Arsenic concentrations decreased following placement of emission controls on nearby coal-fired power plant sources. Superimposed over the temporal trends of Pb and As are co-varying Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Cd concentrations; a suite of metals commonly used in metal plating processes by local industries. Analysis of sediment in stormwater retention ponds in other urban areas may provide opportunities for detailed records of pollution history to be obtained in many communities. Residents in urban communities located in incised river valley locations similar to Hillcrest may be particularly prone to enhanced exposure to metals from anthropogenic sources

  14. Shrub control by browsing: Targeting adult plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling the well known benefits of shrubs for forage with environmental goals, whilst preventing their dominance, is a major challenge in rangeland management. Browsing may be an economical solution for shrubby rangelands as herbivore browsing has been shown to control juvenile shrub growth. Less convincing results have been obtained for adult plants, and long-term experiments are required to investigate the cumulative effects on adult plants. We therefore assessed the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on key demographic parameters for a major dominant shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius), focusing on adult plants. We assigned individual broom plants to one of three age classes: 3-5 years (young adults); 5-7 years (adults); and 7-9 years (mature adults). These plants were then left untouched or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed in simulated low-intensity and high-intensity browsing treatments, respectively. Morphological, survival and fecundity data were collected over a period of four years. Browsing affected the morphology of individual plants, promoting changes in subsequent regrowth, and decreasing seed production. The heavily browsed plants were 17% shorter, 32% narrower, and their twigs were 28% shorter. Light browsing seemed to control the growth of young adult plants more effectively than that of older plants. Reproductive output was considerably lower than for control plants after light browsing, and almost 100% lower after heavy browsing. High-intensity browsing had a major effect on survival causing high levels of plant mortality. We conclude that suitable browsing practices could be used to modify adult shrub demography in the management of shrub dominance and forage value.

  15. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  16. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches’ broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  17. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coastal vegetation species appearing in the ERTS-1 images taken of Delaware Bay have been correlated with ground truth vegetation maps and imagery obtained from high altitude overflights. Multispectral analysis of the high altitude photographs indicated that four major vegetation communities could be clearly discriminated from 60,000 feet altitude including: (1) salt marsh cord grass; (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass; (3) reed grass; and (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle. In addition, human impact can be detected in the form of fresh water impoundments built to attract water fowl, dredge-fill operations and other alterations of the coastal environment. Overlay maps matching the USGS topographic map size of 1:24,000 have been prepared showing the four wetland vegetation communities, fresh water impoundments, and alteration of wetlands by mosquito control ditching and dredge-fill operations. Using these maps, ERTS-1 images were examined by human interpreters and automated multispectral analyzers. Major plant communities of (1) Spartina alterniflora, (2) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata, and (3) Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia can be distinguished from each other and from surrounding uplands in ERTS-1 scanner bands 6 and 7.

  18. [Effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium poae moulds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tequida-Meneses, Martín; Cortez-Rocha, Mario; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; López-Sandoval, Susana; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo

    2002-06-01

    Fungicidal activity of wild plants Larrea tridentata, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus globulus, Ambrosia ambrosioides, Nicotiana glauca, Ambrosia confertiflora, Datura discolor, Baccharis glutinosa, Proboscidea parviflora, Solanum rostratum, Jatropha cinerea, Salpianthus macrodonthus y Sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium poae y Fusarium moniliforme moulds species. Alcoholic extracts 6% (w/v) were prepared using six grams of dried plant powders (leaves and stems) and alcohol (70% ethanol or 70% methanol). A spore suspension (1x10(6); ufc/ml) of each mould was prepared by adding saline solution (0.85%) and 0.1% tween 80. The extracts were mixed with Czapeck yeast agar (CYA) at 45-50 degrees C in 1:10 relation on Petri dishes. Triplicate Petri dishes of each treatment and for each mould were centrally inoculated and three Petri dishes were used without treatment as controls. The inoculated dishes and controls were incubated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C for eight days. The incubated dishes were examined each 48 h and after the colony diameter (radial growth) was measured. Two mould species were controlled by L. tridentata, B. glutinosa and P. parviflora. Extracts of L. tridentata in methanol or ethanol at 41.5-100% inhibited all six species of moulds. PMID:12828509

  19. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts - "guaco" (Mikania glomerata, guava (Psidium guajava, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, garlic (Allium sativum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera, and mint (Mentha piperita - against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA, and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  20. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Eupatorium tremulum (Asteraceae em bovinos Spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium tr tremulum emulum (Asteraceae in cattle cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Lucioli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a intoxicação natural e experimental por Eupatorium tremulum em bovinos. Um surto de intoxicação espontânea por esta planta foi diagnosticado no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Em um lote de 19 bovinos, três morreram após a transferência para uma invernada aonde havia grande quantidade de E. tremulum. Os animais foram encontrados mortos, e dois foram necropsiados e coletado amostras de vísceras para exame histológico. Experimentalmente, folhas verdes de E. tremulum foram administradas a cinco bovinos, em doses únicas de 23 a 32g/kg de peso animal. Destes, três adoeceram e dois morreram. Os principais sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, apatia, atonia ruminal, micção freqüente e em pequenos jatos, fezes pastosas e ventre flácido. As lesões macroscópicas restringiram-se aos pré-estômagos e foram idênticas, tanto para intoxicação natural como para a experimental. O rúmen e retículo externamente mostravam tonalidade levemente avermelhada, a camada córnea da mucosa estava frouxamente aderida e a mucosa tinha coloração vermelha acentuada. Ao exame histológico observou-se no rúmen e retículo, tanto na intoxicação espontânea, como experimental, necrose do epitélio da mucosa com formações de pequenas vesículas e em alguns segmentos, desprendimento da camada epitelial e leve infiltrado de neutrófilos. A intoxicação por E. tremulum tem curso clínico, lesões macro e microscópicas muito semelhantes àquelas produzidas pela intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium, Baccharis coridifolia (mio-mio e Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii (mio-mio do banhado. O diagnóstico diferencial entre essas quatro intoxicações deve ser feito pela presença da planta e pelos dados epidemiológicos. O diagnóstico dos casos espontâneos foram confirmados pelos dados epidemiológicos e reprodução experimental das lesões macro e microscópicas.The spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium

  1. Micro-spatial variation of soil metal pollution and plant recruitment near a copper smelter in Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil chemical changes produced by metal smelters have mainly been studied on a large scale. In terms of plant survival, determination of small scale variability may be more important because less toxic microhabitats may represent safe sites for successful recruitment and thus for plant survival. Three dominant microhabitats (open spaces and areas below the canopy of Sphaeralcea obtusiloba and Baccharis linearis shrubs) were defined in a heavily polluted area near a copper smelter and characterised in terms of microclimate, general soil chemistry, total and extractable metal concentrations in the soil profile (A0 horizon, 0-5 and 15-20 cm depth), and seedling densities. Results indicated a strong variability in microclimate and soil chemistry not only in the soil profile but also among microhabitats. Air/soil temperatures, radiation and wind speed were much lower under the canopy of shrubs, particularly during the plant growth season. Soil acidification was detected on top layers (0-5 cm depth) of all microhabitats while higher concentrations of N, Cu and Cd were detected on litter and top soil layers below shrubs when compared to open spaces; however, high organic matter content below shrubs decreased bioavailability of metals. Plant recruitment was concentrated under shrub canopies; this may be explained as a result of the nursery effect exerted by shrubs in terms of providing a more favourable microclimate, along with better soil conditions in terms of macronutrients and metal bioavailability. - Metal availability was different under shrub canopies than in open spaces

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  3. The Effect of Essential Oils and Bioactive Fractions on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Biofilms: A Confocal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EO and bioactive fractions (BF from Aloysia gratissima, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Cyperus articulatus, and Lippia sidoides were proven to have strong antimicrobial activity on planktonic microorganisms; however, little is known about their effects on the morphology or viability of oral biofilms. Previously, we determined the EO/fractions with the best antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. In this report, we used a confocal analysis to investigate the effect of these EO and BF on the morphology of S. mutans biofilms (thickness, biovolume, and architecture and on the metabolic viability of C. albicans biofilms. The analysis of intact treated S. mutans biofilms showed no statistical difference for thickness in all groups compared to the control. However, a significant reduction in the biovolume of extracellular polysaccharides and bacteria was observed for A. gratissima and L. sidoides groups, indicating that these BF disrupt biofilm integrity and may have created porosity in the biofilm. This phenomenon could potentially result in a weakened structure and affect biofilm dynamics. Finally, C. sativum EO drastically affected C. albicans viability when compared to the control. These results highlight the promising antimicrobial activity of these plant species and support future translational research on the treatment of dental caries and oral candidiasis.

  4. Structure and floristic composition of the vegetation of the biological corridor between national parks Purace and cave Guacharos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floristic composition and structure of disturbed and non disturbed vegetation at the biological corridor located among the National Natural Parks Purace, Cueva de los Guacharos was studied based on 16 plots in three localities of the Huila Department, Colombia, between 1950 and 2450 m. A total of 1.5 ha was sampled. The Cyatheo - Cecropion angustifoliae alliance was defined. It includes the associations Ladenbergio macrocarpae - Elaeagietum myrianthae and Guettardo hirsutae - Hedyosmetum translucidi. At the less disturbed areas the communities Helicostylis tovarensis - Alfaroa williamsii, Quercus humboldtii - Wettinia fascicularis and Weinmannia pubescens - Clusia dixonii were found. The community Baccharis nitida and Saurauia pulchra was found in the most disturbed areas. The basal area value per species was similar for all the associations. The community Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis showed the highest basal area value, 7.3 and 4.6 m2. Regarding forest tall, an average of 11 m was found in the associations, with values from 10 to 15 m. An average of 13 m was found in the communities, with variations from 7 to 17 m. The dominant stratum in both cases was the arboreal inferior. The importance indexes show an equal representativeness of the species inside each unit, with the exception of the Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis community. The best represented families regarding their species number are Lauraceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataceae

  5. Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Giraldo, Juan C; Henao-Zuluaga, Kelly; Gallardo, Cecilia; Atehortúa, Lucia; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). B. antioquensis and P. pulchella extracts showed the best results over a broad spectrum UVA-UVB with antioxidant capacity in vitro. However, B. antioquensis extracts presented the highest absorption coefficient in UVB-UVA range among plants under study. Furthermore, the gel formulation containing the crude extract of B. antioquensis showed significant values of UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength (λc ) and SPF (3, 0.78 380 nm and 4.73 ± 0.26; respectively), indicating interesting photostability and antiradical capacities. All of these properties could be improve in order to satisfy the requirements for broad-spectrum UVB/UVA protection. Finally, P. pulchella and B. antioquensis extracts could be a potential source of a new natural sunscreen compounds with photostable and antiradical properties. PMID:26481216

  6. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

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    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

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    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  8. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betoni, Joyce Elaine Cristina; Mantovani, Rebeca Passarelli; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Fernandes Junior, Ary

    2006-06-01

    Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts--"guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava (Psidium guajava), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera), and mint (Mentha piperita)--against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA), and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity. PMID:16951808

  9. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem. PMID:20411737

  10. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

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    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  11. Naturalistic Engineering for risk prevention in two slopes in southern Quito

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    Anita Argüello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/11/01 - Accepted: 2013/12/12Naturalistic engineering is a technical-scientific modern science cobining civil, environmental and geotechnical engineerings. It studies and uses building materials, plants, organic and synthetic materials for holding slopes. San Luis de Chillogallo and El Recreo are located in the South of Quito, where two projects for erosion control, containment and environmental recovery, have been implemented. These are pilot interventions that allow applying strategies and capabilities of estimation and reduction of risks from disasters. To implement the works, the ground was shifted, the organic and inorganic matter was wiped out, and unstable parts of the slope were removed, reshaping the slope through land exclusion and relocation. Subsequently, depending on the shape of each slope, specific techniques where designed and implemented. Double Wall Crib and Latin Triangular Branching techniques were used in San Luis de Chillogallo. Live Grating and Latino Triangular Branching techniques were used in El Recreo. Plants such as: Alder, Alnus glutinosa; paper tree, Polylepis sp.; chilca, Baccharis latifolia; lechero Euphorbia lactiflua and Tilo, Tilia platyphyllos; have been used in these projects. These plants are fast growing species and they have adapted successfully on the two slopes intervened.

  12. Evaluation of Street Sweeping as a Stormwater-Quality-Management Tool in Three Residential Basins in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent technological improvements have increased the ability of street sweepers to remove sediment and other debris from street surfaces; the effect of these technological advancements on stormwater quality is largely unknown. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Madison and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, evaluated three street-sweeper technologies from 2002 through 2006. Regenerative-air, vacuum-assist, and mechanical-broom street sweepers were operated on a frequency of once per week (high frequency) in separate residential basins in Madison, Wis., to measure each sweeper's ability to not only reduce street-dirt yield but also improve the quality of stormwater runoff. A second mechanical-broom sweeper operating on a frequency of once per month (low frequency) was also evaluated to measure reductions in street-dirt yield only. A paired-basin study design was used to compare street-dirt and stormwater-quality samples during a calibration (no sweeping) and a treatment period (weekly sweeping). The basis of this paired-basin approach is that the relation between paired street-dirt and stormwater-quality loads for the control and tests basins is constant until a major change is made at one of the basins. At that time, a new relation will develop. Changes in either street-dirt and/or stormwater quality as a result of street sweeping could then be quantified by use of statistical tests. Street-dirt samples collected weekly during the calibration period and twice per week during the treatment period, once before and once after sweeping, were dried and separated into seven particle-size fractions ranging from less than 63 micrometers to greater than 2 millimeters. Street-dirt yield evaluation was based on a computed mass per unit length of pounds per curb-mile. An analysis of covariance was used to measure the significance of the effect of street sweeping at the end of the treatment period and to quantify any reduction in street

  13. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

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    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus

  14. Intoxicações por plantas e micotoxinas associadas a plantas em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul: 461 casos Plant and plant-associated mycotoxins poisoning in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 461 cases

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    Daniel R. Rissi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento nos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM e revisados os laudos de necropsias de bovinos realizadas entre 1990 e 2005. Foram revisados 2.912 casos referentes a necropsias realizadas por membros do LPV ou a materiais de necropsias realizadas por veterinários de campo que enviaram amostras para avaliação histológica no LPV. Em 461 (15,83% das necropsias, a causa da morte foi atribuída à ingestão de plantas tóxicas. Em ordem decrescente de freqüência, intoxicações pelas seguintes plantas foram diagnosticadas: Senecio spp (56,14%, Pteridium aquilinum (12,06%, Ateleia glazioviana (10,31%, Solanum fastigiatum (5,04%, Baccharis coridifolia (3,29%, Xanthium cavanillesii (3,07%, Senna occidentalis (2,63%, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens (2,41%, Amaranthus spp (2,19%, Vicia villosa (1,54%, Ipomoea batatas, Prunus sellowii e polpa cítrica (0,44% cada, Cestrum parqui, Claviceps paspali, Claviceps purpurea, Brachiaria spp e Lantana sp (0.22% cada. Em um determinado surto o número de bovinos afetados era substancialmente maior que o número de necropsias realizadas. São discutidos os aspectos relacionados à distribuição geográfica, fatores que induziram a ingestão, índices de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade, sinais clínicos, achados de necropsia e histopatológicos para cada intoxicação. Quando conhecidos, foram incluídos na discussão aspectos relacionados ao princípio ativo e a patogenia da intoxicação.From 1990 to 2005, tissues from 2,912 cattle necropsies were examined at the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology (LPV of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM, Brazil. These tissues came from necropsies performed by faculty members of the LPV or were mailed-in samples from necropsy performed by veterinarian practitioners. In 461 (15.83% of these necropsies the cause of death was attributed to the ingestion of poisonous plants. In

  15. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY KINETICS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST CINÉTICA DA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA IN VITRO DE EXTRATOS NATURAIS FRENTE A MICRORGANISMOS RELACIONADOS À MASTITE BOVINA

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    Letícia De Toni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteracea, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteracea plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA or decoction (DEC. S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinfectant was mixed with bacterial suspension containing 105 CFU.mL-1, by 30 seconds, two, 10 ant 30 minutes, with and without 20% of integral milk. Viable bacteria were evaluated by directed plating of neutralized aliquots. The worked included chlorhexidine 0,18% by control and it was executed in duplicate. EHA Eucalytpus spp and EHA T. minuta were as effective as control chlorhexidine against S. aureus. This solutions plus EHA B. trimera, were as effective as control against S. agalactiae. DEC Eucalyptus and DEC B. trimera also inactivated S. agalactiae in more prolongated time. Chlorhexidine was the best against P. multocida in milk absence, although the EHA were effective at ten or thirty minutes. All solutions, inclusive control, it was sensibility to organic load. The observations from the in vitro studies presented here need to be substantiated by in vivo studies by to confirm the potentiality use of plants medicinal extracts as disinfectants/antisepsis in livestock health. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a cinética da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas medicinais frente a bactérias relacionadas com mastite bovina. Para tal, foram produzidas soluções desinfetantes a partir de folhas e talos de Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteraceae, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteraceae, através de extração hidroalcoólica (EHA e decocto (DEC. Os microrganismos utilizados foram S. aureus, S

  17. Diferentes métodos de controle de plantas indesejáveis em pastagem nativa Different methods for controlling undesirable plants in native pasture

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    Luiz Giovani de Pellegrini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em área de pastagem nativa representativa da transição entre a Serra do Sudeste e a Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, onde as espécies indesejáveis foram representadas especialmente por carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., caraguatá (Eryngium horridum (Spreng. Less. e alecrim (Vernonia nudiflora Less.. Foram avaliados os efeitos iniciais de dois métodos de controle de espécies indesejáveis (até 60 dias após aplicação sobre a produção de forragem, a dinâmica da vegetação e a eficiência de controle: sem-controle; controle mecânico; e controle químico (herbicida comercial à base de Picloram [64 g/L] + 2,4-D [240 g/L], na dosagem de 5 L do produto comercial/ha. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A massa gramíneas verdes secas e a massa total de MS não diferiram entre os métodos de controle. Foram obtidos valores de 587,9; 472,0 e 0 kg de MS com o controle mecânico, o controle químico e sem-controle, respectivamente, o que comprova influência do método de controle sobre a massa de forragem de leguminosas. A eficiência de controle das espécies indesejáveis, em comparação à ausência de controle, foi de 76,2% para o controle químico e 27,9% para o controle mecânico. A eficiência de controle de espécies, sob aspectos de freqüência dos componentes da pastagem, evidenciou que o controle mecânico não foi eficiente aos 60 dias após aplicação no controle de plantas de alecrim no segundo toque (-27,7% e plantas de caraguatá no primeiro toque (-30,0%.The study was conducted in a representative native pasture area in the transition between the Serra do Sudeste and Depressão Central of RS. The main undesirable species were represented by: carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., caraguatá (Eryngium horridum (Spreng. Less. and alecrim (Vernonia nudiflora Less. It was evaluated the initial effect (until 60 days after

  18. Dessecação do campo nativo para semeadura direta da cultura da soja Native pasture desiccation for no-till soybeans seeding

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    Miguel Vicente Weiss Ferri

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar doses do herbicida glyphosate, isolado ou misturado com 2,4-D, na dessecação do campo nativo para semeadura direta de soja, foi conduzido um experimento no compus da UFSM. Os tratamentos foram: glyphosate a 360, 720 e 1080g ha-1 de equivalente ácido, isolado ou em mistura com 200g ha-1 de 2,4-D éster, aspergidos em dois volumes de calda (50 e 200l ha-1, além de testemunha sem controle. A aspersão dos herbicidas ocorreu em 30/10/95 e a semeadura da soja em 27/12/95. Das 57 espécies presentes no campo nativo, as principais foram: Paspalum notatum var. notatum biótipos "C" e "D", Vernonia polyanthes, Vernonia nudiflora, Eryngium horridum e Baccharis trimera. Os resultados mostram que o uso de 2,4-D e a redução do volume de calda de 200 para 50l ha-1 não melhoraram a eficácia de controle do glyphosate, que mostrou controle geral de 48, 73 e 90% para as doses de 360, 720 e 1080g ha-1. O glyphosate mostrou controle ineficiente de V. polyanthes, V. nudiflora e E. horridum, independente da dose ou mistura com 2,4-D, sendo eficiente para B. trimera à 720 e 1080g ha-1. Houve controle do Paspalum de 54, 79 e 93% para o glyphosate à 360, 720 e 1080g ha-1 . O rendimento médio de grãos de soja foi de 1762, 2502, 2690 e 2793 kg ha-1, para testemunha e glyphosate a 360, 720 e 1080g ha-1. Conclui-se que, para semeadura direta de soja sobre campo nativo, a dose de 1080g ha-1 de glyphosate é adequada.The objective of this study was to evaluate rates of glyphosate herbicide applyed alone or in mixture with 2,4-D ester herbicide, to control nativo pasture before planting soybeans in a no-till system. The following treatments were tested: glyphosate at 360, 720, and 1080g ha-1 of acid equivalent, alone or in mixture with 200g ha-1 of 2,4-D, sprayed at two volumes (50 and 200l ha-1, and unsprayed control. Herbicides were sprayed in 10/30/95 and soybean was seeded in 12/27/95 in study carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria

  19. Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil Seed rain of woody species in mosaics of Araucaria forest and grasslands in Southern Brazil

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    Melina Marchesini Grassotti dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mecanismos de dispersão de diásporos e recrutamento de plântulas evitam a competição intra-específica e possibilitam a colonização de novos ambientes. Em áreas de transição entre florestas e vegetação campestre esses processos não são aleatórios, e sim associados muitas vezes a indivíduos lenhosos isolados em tais áreas de campo ou a formações arbustivas. No sul do Brasil, as Florestas com Araucária formam mosaicos com áreas campestres e observa-se o avanço da floresta sobre os campos. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais associadas a áreas de ecótonos de Floresta com Araucária e campos e a indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Os estudos foram realizados no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata PUCRS, em São Francisco de Paula, RS, em vegetação campestre excluída de fogo e de pastejo há 16 anos, circundada por florestas. A chuva de sementes foi avaliada mensalmente por um período de oito meses com o uso de coletores que foram posicionados em ecótonos de floresta e campos com diferentes fisionomias e sob indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Tais ambientes foram comparados através de análise de variância univariada e multivariada para verificar padrões de chuva de sementes. Os resultados indicaram que a dispersão de sementes em áreas campestres ocorre preferencialmente associada a indivíduos isolados de Araucaria angustifolia e a formações arbustivas de Baccharis uncinella e que tais ambientes funcionariam como extensões de condições mais semelhantes à floresta na matriz campestre.Mechanisms of seed dispersal and recruitment avoid intraspecific competition and allow plants to colonize new habitats. In transition areas between forest and grassland, these processes are not spatially random, but are often associated with isolated woody individuals in the grassland or with areas of continuous shrub cover. In

  20. Fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares em rizosferas de plantas em dunas do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo, Brasil: (1 Taxonomia Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from rhizospheres of dunes plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo State, Brazil (1: taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. B Trufem

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available De março/1988 a março/1989, mensalmente, foram coletadas o total de 450 amostras de solo de rizosferas de plantas de dunas do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Estado de Sáo Paulo, com a finalidade de se verificar a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA. As plantas mais constantemente investigadas foram: Baccharis trimera DC. (Compositae, Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hü. Mears (Amaranthaceae, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub. (Legurninosae, Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. (Umbelliferae,Ipomoeapes-caprae (L.Sweet(Convolvulaceae, Polygaid cyparisseas St. Hül & Moq. (Polygalaceae, além de gramíneas, ciperáceas e outras, que foram coletadas mais esporadicamente. O solo foi tratado pela técnica de decantação e peneiramento em via úmida. Foram verificados 14 taxons de fungos MVA: Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Acaulospora tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Cigaspora gigantea (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, Glomus globiferum Koske & Walker, Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe, Sclerocystis sinuosa Gerd. & Bakshi, Scutellospora calospora (Nicol & Gerd Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora coralloidea (Trappe, Gerd. & Ho (Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora gilmorei (Trappe & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora gregaria (Schenck & Nicol. Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora pérsica (Koske & Walker Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora verrucosa Koske & Walker Walker & Sanders e Scutellospora sp. São apresentadas descrições taxonómicas, comentarios e murônimos dos taxons verificados.Monthly, from March/1988 to March/1989 were collected the total of 450 soil samples from rhizospheres of plants from dunes of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo State, Brazil, to report the occurrence of VANÍ fungus. The investigated plants were: Baccharis trímera DC. (Compositae, Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hil. Mears (Amaranthaceae, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub

  1. Antifungal activity and ultrastructural alterations in Pseudocercospora griseola treated with essential oils Atividade antifúngica e alterações ultraestruturais em Pseudocercospora griseola tratado com óleos essenciais

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    Julián Mauricio Ágredo Hoyos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora griseola, the etiologic agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, is an important disease in all bean-producing regions worldwide and may cause extremely high yield losses. The control of this disease is made more difficult by the pathogen's genetic variability and the inefficiency of fungicides. In this study, of 26 essential oils tested at different concentrations, 25 demonstrated efficiency in affecting the germination of strains 63-31 and 63-63 of the pathogen, reaching inhibition levels of between 80% and 100%. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon martinii inhibited conidia germination at all concentrations; Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum sp., Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Cordia verbenacea, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon nardus, at 0.1 and 0.5%; and Zingiber officinale, Mentha arvensis, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Pimpinella anisum, Ocimum selloi, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Laurus nobilis, Citrus sinensis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus, at 0.5%. The main constituents identified were cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum sp.; eugenol in E. caryophyllata; trans-β-farnesene in M. recutita; pulegone in C. verbenacea; thymol in T. vulgaris; geranial and neral in C. citratus, and geraniol in C. martini. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it was verified that C. citratus, C. martini and E. caryophyllata presented direct fungitoxic action on P. griseola, causing severe damage to the cellular ultrastructure of the conidia, invalidating germination. These results indicated that essential oils are a promising alternative strategy for the control of angular leaf spot in bean, representing less risk to human health and the environment.Pseudocercospora griseola, agente etiológico da mancha angular do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, é uma doença importante nas regiões produtoras de feijão em todo o mundo e pode causar perdas de produtividade

  2. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation; Levantamento da entomofauna de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares e desinfestacao pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fabricio Caldeira

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  3. Ação antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil Antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil

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    Selene M. de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes são compostos que atuam inibindo e/ou diminuindo os efeitos desencadeados pelos radicais livres e compostos oxidantes. Os chás são bebidas populares e fontes significativas de compostos fenólicos, sendo considerados importantes integrantes das dietas devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antioxidante de uma variedade de chás e condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil. Os chás analisados foram das plantas: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia sinensis (L O. Kuntze (fermentado, Camelia sinensis (não-fermentado, Lippia alba N.E. Brown,Mentha arvensis L., e Pyrus malus L. Os condimentos analisados foram: Eugenia aromatica Baill, Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume, Laurus nobilis L. e Origanum vulgare L. O método utilizado para avaliar a ação antioxidante foi o da atividade seqüestradora de radicais livres DPPH em solução metanólica. Todas as amostras analisadas demonstraram atividade em suas diferentes concentrações. Camelia sinensis (não-fermentada foi a mais ativa com CI50= 0,14 mg/mL, cujos principais compostos antioxidantes são epigalocatequinas. Os condimentos mais ativos foram Cinnamonum zeylanicum (CI50 = 0,37 mg/mL, Eugenia aromatica Baill (CI50 = 0,46 mg/mL e Laurus nobilis (CI50 = 0,76 mg/mL, cujo principal antioxidante relatado foi o eugenol.Antioxidants are compounds that remove free-radicals or minimize their availability to generate oxidative stress. Teas are popular beverages providing a significant source of phenolic compounds, important components of the human diet due to their antioxidant properties. The present work had the objective of evaluate the antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil. The analysed teas were from the plants: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia

  4. Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State = Levantamento etnobotânico em Ponta Porá, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Zefa Valdivina Pereira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residentsuse different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of the medicines. These women are responsible to cultivate the plants in the backyards and around their houses. The botanical families whichpresented higher number of species were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Leguminosae. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Mentha piperita L. and Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. were the most used plants by the interviewees, which were prepared in form of tea or plasters.O interesse acadêmico a respeito do conhecimento que as populações detêm sobre plantas e seus usos têm crescido. Visando conhecer melhor esse conhecimento, o presente trabalho objetivou: levantar o perfil dos usuários de plantas medicinais, caracterizar o conhecimento acercado uso de plantas medicinais, detectar as partes da planta mais empregadas no preparo e aplicação medicinal pela comunidade de moradores do Bairro Jardim Aeroporto em Ponta Porã, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram entrevistados 200 moradores, no período de julho a outubro de 2006. As entrevistas foram feitas pelo método da “listagem livre”. A cidade faz divisa com Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguai, onde muitas pessoas recebem as espécies medicinais. Os moradores fazem uso de grupo diversificado de

  5. Diversification of Fijian halictine bees: insights into a recent island radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Scott V C; Stevens, Mark I; Schwarz, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    Although bees form a key pollinator suite for flowering plants, very few studies have examined the evolutionary radiation of non-domesticated bees over human time-scales. This is surprising given the importance of bees for crop pollination and the effect of humans in transforming ecosystems via agriculture. In the Pacific, where the bee fauna appears depauperate, their importance as pollinators is not clear, particularly in Fiji where species diversity is even lower than neighbouring archipelagos. Here we explore the radiation of halictine bees in Fiji using phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA COI sequence data. Our analyses indicate the existence of several 'deep' clades whose divergences are close to the crown node, along with a highly derived 'broom' clade showing very high haplotype diversity, and mostly limited to low-lying agricultural regions. This derived clade is very abundant, whereas the more basal clades were relatively rare. Although nearly all haplotype diversity in Fijian Homalictus comprises synonymous substitutions, a small number of amino acid changes are associated with the major clades, including the hyper-diverse clade. Analyses of haplotype lineage accumulation show a steep increase in selectively neutral COI haplotypes corresponding to the emergence of this 'broom' clade. We explore three possible scenarios for this dramatic increase: (i) a key change in adaptedness to the environment, (ii) a large-scale extinction event, or (iii) a dramatic increase in suitable habitats leading to rapid population expansion. Using estimated mutation rates of mitochondrial DNA in other invertebrates, we argue that Homalictus first colonised the Fijian archipelago in the middle-late Pleistocene, and the rapid accumulation of haplotypes in the hyper-diverse clade occurred in the Holocene, but prior to recorded human presence in the Fijian region. Our results indicate that bees have not been important pollinators of Fijian ecosystems until very recent times. Post

  6. 星载激光测高技术发展现状%Progress and Current State of Space-Borne Laser Altimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于真真; 侯霞; 周翠芸

    2013-01-01

    As an important tool of space-based remote sensing system, space-borne laser altimeter has a lot of advantages, such as high accuracy, high resolution and ability of vertical resolution. So it has unique advantages and bright prospect in topographic mapping, deep-space exploration, global alert and monitoring and so on. The development of space-borne laser altimetry is briefly introduced, and the working principles of space-borne laser altimeter and push-broom laser altimeter using multiple beams are given respectively. For the latter, key technologies are analyzed, such as the transmission technology of multiple laser beams, the laser technology, the array detecting and receiving technology of multiplexing signals and so on. The application of space-borne laser altimetry is also described. Finally, the prospect of space-borne push-broom laser altimetry based on multiple beams is predicted and the development of space-borne laser altimetry in China is presented.%作为天基系统的重要遥感遥测手段,星载激光高度计具有高精度、高分辨率、垂直分辨等优点,在地形地貌测绘、深空探测、全球预警和监测等方面具有独特的优势,发展前景十分广阔.对星载激光测高技术的发展过程进行了介绍,分别阐述了星载激光高度计及多光束推帚式激光高度计的工作原理,分析了多光束推帚式探测技术中多束激光并行发射、激光器技术和激光回波的阵列探测等关键技术,并介绍了星载激光测高技术的应用情况,最后对空间多光束激光探测技术的发展前景及我国星载激光测高技术的发展进行展望.

  7. UrtheCast: The System of Systems for Dynamic EO Monitoring Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UrtheCast is a multinational industrial initiative that tasks, downloads, processes and commercially exploits a medium resolution multispectral sensor and high-resolution wide area motion colorful video camera. UrtheCast's Earth Observation imaging system includes a pair of multispectral color cameras installed on the ISS. The High-Resolution Camera (HRC-Iris) is mounted on a pointing platform and captures 1 m-class high-definition (HD), full color motion imagery of areas measuring approximately 5.5x3.6 km2. The nadir pointing, push-broom Medium- Resolution Camera (MRC-Theia) produces a continuous ribbon of 4-channel, multispectral 6 m-class imagery. The acquired data are downlinked to a global network of antennas and backhauled to the UrtheCast cloud-based processing system and dissemination services. The resulting imagery and video are streamed in near-real time to the UrtheCast web platform or delivered to customers as special order products. UrtheCast daily MRC collection capability is ∼29 million km2 while the HRC capacity is envisaged to generate approximately 2.5 terabytes of data per day, the equivalent of about 270 full resolution ∼90 second movies. The UrtheCast new Generation cameras include a dual Optical sensor (video and pushbroom focal planes) and dual-band (X and L) Synthetic Aperture Radar payload. Video will be of half-metre colour (0.40 m after super-imposition) and push-broom will be 1 m of 6-band multispectral. SAR payload will simultaneously record in both L and X bands, with the L-band in full quad pole (HH, HV, VH, VV, at 5 m) and the X-band in single pole (HH or VV, at 1.5 m or at <1 m in spotlight mode). The new system will be installed at NASA's Node 3 segment in late 2016. ISS is flying at 400 km, orbiting the earth 15 times/day and covering areas fallen into a geographic zone from 51.5 degrees north to 51.5 degrees south. (author)

  8. ESTUDO CRÍTICO SOBRE UTILIZAÇÃO DE FITOTERÁPICOS POR PRATICANTES DE EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO EM ACADEMIAS DE MUSCULAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Esteves Conde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a crescente demanda da utilização de fitoterápicos em academias de musculação, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar a forma de obtenção de informações sobre os fitoterápicos e os riscos causados por tais usos em academias de musculação. Aplicaram-se formulários estruturados à praticantes de atividades físicas de duas academias de ginástica de Juiz de Fora/MG. Realizou-se pesquisa em literatura científica sobre as espécies utilizadas. O principal objetivo para o uso de fitoterápicos ergogênicos foi o emagrecimento e a principal alegação para o uso foi melhoria no desempenho para a realização da atividade física praticada. Encontrou-se que Camellia sinensis, Baccharis trimera, Paullinia cupana, Phaseoulus vulgaris e Gymnema sylvestre vem sendo usados de maneira consonante com a literatura científica. Citrus aurantium apresentou atividade comprovada, porém vários artigos discutem sua toxicidade. Tribulus terrestris apresentou-se contraditório, uma vez que alguns artigos comprovam sua eficácia e outros comprovam sua incapacidade de exercer efeitos significativos. Não foram encontrados artigos que discutem a atividade citada para Oenothera biennis e Cynara scolymus. Nota-se que mesmo a legislação estando de acordo com a realidade dos profissionais de saúde, esta não é eficiente em garantir o uso respaldado por médicos, nutricionistas e farmacêuticos no âmbito de academias de musculação.

  9. Vulnerability to xylem cavitation and the distribution of Sonoran Desert vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockman, W T; Sperry, J S

    2000-09-01

    We studied 15 riparian and upland Sonoran desert species to evaluate how the limitation of xylem pressure (Ψ(x)) by cavitation corresponded with plant distribution along a moisture gradient. Riparian species were obligate riparian trees (Fraxinus velutina, Populus fremontii, and Salix gooddingii), native shrubs (Baccharis spp.), and an exotic shrub (Tamarix ramosissima). Upland species were evergreen (Juniperus monosperma, Larrea tridentata), drought-deciduous (Ambrosia dumosa, Encelia farinosa, Fouquieria splendens, Cercidium microphyllum), and winter-deciduous (Acacia spp., Prosopis velutina) trees and shrubs. For each species, we measured the "vulnerability curve" of stem xylem, which shows the decrease in hydraulic conductance from cavitation as a function of Ψ(x) and the Ψ(crit) representing the pressure at complete loss of transport. We also measured minimum in situ Ψ(x)(Ψ(xmin)) during the summer drought. Species in desert upland sites were uniformly less vulnerable to cavitation and exhibited lower Ψ(xmin) than riparian species. Values of Ψ(crit) were correlated with minimum Ψ(x). Safety margins (Ψ(xmin)-Ψ(crit)) tended to increase with decreasing Ψ(xmin) and were small enough that the relatively vulnerable riparian species could not have conducted water at the Ψ(x) experienced in upland habitats (-4 to -10 MPa). Maintenance of positive safety margins in riparian and upland habitats was associated with minimal to no increase in stem cavitation during the summer drought. The absence of less vulnerable species from the riparian zone may have resulted in part from a weak but significant trade-off between decreasing vulnerability to cavitation and conducting efficiency. These data suggest that cavitation vulnerability limits plant distribution by defining maximum drought tolerance across habitats and influencing competitive ability of drought tolerant species in mesic habitats. PMID:10991900

  10. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  11. Crayfish impact desert river ecosystem function and litter-dwelling invertebrate communities through association with novel detrital resources.

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    Eric K Moody

    Full Text Available Shifts in plant species distributions due to global change are increasing the availability of novel resources in a variety of ecosystems worldwide. In semiarid riparian areas, hydric pioneer tree species are being replaced by drought-tolerant plant species as water availability decreases. Additionally, introduced omnivorous crayfish, which feed upon primary producers, allochthonous detritus, and benthic invertebrates, can impact communities at multiple levels through both direct and indirect effects mediated by drought-tolerant plants. We tested the impact of both virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis and litter type on benthic invertebrates and the effect of crayfish on detrital resources across a gradient of riparian vegetation drought-tolerance using field cages with leaf litter bags in the San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona. Virile crayfish increased breakdown rate of novel drought-tolerant saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, but did not impact breakdown of drought-tolerant seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia or hydric Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Gooding's willow (Salix goodingii. Effects on invertebrate diversity were observed at the litter bag scale, but no effects were found at the cage scale. Crayfish decreased alpha diversity of colonizing macroinvertebrates, but did not affect beta diversity. In contrast, the drought-tolerant litter treatment decreased beta diversity relative to hydric litter. As drought-tolerant species become more abundant in riparian zones, their litter will become a larger component of the organic matter budget of desert streams which may serve to homogenize the litter-dwelling community and support elevated populations of virile crayfish. Through impacts at multiple trophic levels, crayfish have a significant effect on desert stream ecosystems.

  12. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

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    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  13. Ethnobotany and natural products: the search for new molecules, new treatments of old diseases or a better understanding of indigenous cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Results of various projects on Mexican Indian ethnobotany and some of the subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical studies are summarised focusing both on chemical-pharmacological as well as anthropological (ethnopharmacological) aspects of our research. We have identified taste and smell properties of medicinal (vs. non-medicinal) plants as important indigenous selection criteria. There exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture, which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. This field research has also formed a basis for studies on bioactive natural products from selected species. The bark of Guazuma ulmifolia showed antisecretory activity (cholera toxin-induced chloride secretion in rabbit distal colon in an USSING chamber). Active constituents are procyanidins with a polymerisation degree of eight or higher. Byrsonima crassifolia yielded proanthocyanidins with (+) epicatechin units and Baccharis conferta showed a dose-dependent antispasmodic effect with the effect being particularly strong in flavonoid-rich fractions. Our ethnopharmacological research led to the identification of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) like parthenolide as potent and relatively specific inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, an important mediator of the inflammatory process. The inhibitory effect of SLs is very strongly enhanced by the presence of such groups as the isoprenoid ring system, a lactone ring containing a conjugated exomethylene group (alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone) and an alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone or a conjugated ester moieties. Our work also elucidated the NF-kappaB inhibiting activity of the photosensitiser phaeophorbide A from Solanum diflorum (Solanaceae) in PMA induced HeLa cells. Hyptis verticillata yielded a series of lignans as well as sideritoflavone, rosmarinic acid and (R)-5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one and is rich in essential oil (rich in alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and thymol). Other species investigated include Begonia

  14. Levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria-RS, Brasil

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    Quadros Fernando Luiz Ferreira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de se obter um levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria, a qual foi subdividida, para este objetivo, em quatro localidades: Dilermando de Aguiar, Pains, Santa Flora e São Martinho. O levantamento utilizou estimativas visuais da freqüência de espécies através do método BOTANAL e permitiu a identificação de 61 espécies, dentre as quais 45 apresentaram contribuição significativa para a biomassa aérea da vegetação. No distrito de Pains, encontrou-se maior freqüência das espécies Axonopus affinis, Eragrostis plana, Desmodium barbatum e Aristida spp.. Em Dilermando de Aguiar, houve maior contribuição de Calamagrostis viridiflavescens, Schizachyrium microstachyum e Paspalum notatum a qual foi, também, uma espécie abundante em Santa Flora, assim como Desmodium incanum. As espécies mais freqüentes em São Martinho foram: Baccharis trimera, Paspalum plicatulum e Erianthus angustifolius. O teste de aleatorização mostrou que, em todas as localidades, ocorreu diferença significativa na sua composição florística (P= 0,0058, evidenciando a inexistência de associação entre os tipos fisionômico-florísticos e os tipos de solo. A partir disto, este levantamento permite que se estabeleçam prioridades quanto à pesquisa e manejo das pastagens naturais dos diferentes grupos fisionômico-florísticos da região.

  15. The impact of an invasive exotic bush on the stopover ecology of migrant passerines

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    Arizaga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is highly energy-demanding and birds often need to accumulate large fuel loads during this period. However, original habitat at stopover sites could be affected by invasive exotic plants outcompeting native vegetation. The impact of exotic plants on the stopover behavior of migrant bird species is poorly understood. As a general hypothesis, it can be supposed that habitat change due to the presence of exotic plants will affect migrants, having a negative impact on bird abundance, on avian community assemblage, and/or on fuel deposition rate. To test these predictions, we used data obtained in August 2011 at a ringing station in a coastal wetland in northern Iberia which contained both unaltered reedbeds (Phragmites spp. and areas where the reedbeds had been largely replaced by the invasive saltbush (Baccharis halimifolia. Passerines associated with reedbeds during the migration period were used as model species, with a particular focus on sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. The saltbush promoted a noticeable change on bird assemblage, which became enriched by species typical of woodland habitats. Sedge warblers departed with a higher fuel load, showed a higher fuel deposition rate, and stayed for longer in the control zone than in the invaded zone. Invasive plants, such as saltbush, can impose radical changes on habitat, having a direct effect on the stopover strategies of migrants. The substitution of reedbeds by saltbushes in several coastal marshes in Atlantic Europe should be regarded as a problem with potential negative cons equences for the conservation of migrant bird species associated with this habitat.

  16. Flora de importância polinífera para Apis mellifera (L. na região de Viçosa, MG

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    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se conhecer a flora de importância polinífera para Apis mellifera (L. na região de Viçosa, MG, em período de entressafra de mel, entre agosto e dezembro de 2005. O experimento foi realizado em dois apiários distintos, cada um com cinco colmeias. As cargas retidas nos coletores de pólen instalados nas colmeias foram analisadas quanto à origem botânica. As plantas em floração no entorno dos apiários foram coletadas e identificadas. A maioria das plantas de importância polinífera para abelhas na região de Viçosa era nativa, localizada em jardins e com hábito arbóreo. Pela análise palinológica, verificou-se que espécies como Anadenanthera colubrina, Arecaceae sp., Baccharis dracunculifolia, B. melastomaefolia, Coffea spp., Emilia sagittata, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania cordifolia, M. hirsutissima, Myrcia fallax, Psidium guajava, Vernonia condensata, V. diffusa, V. lanuginosa e V. mariana são potenciais recursos poliníferos a serem utilizados no período de entressafra do mel. Os resultados indicaram a importância de plantas localizadas em áreas abertas para o forrageamento de pólen por A. mellifera e confirmaram o potencial polinífero da região estudada, durante o período de entressafra do mel.

  17. High Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Imaging with a Small Uav Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Eck, Christoph; Zgraggen, Carlo; Kaňuk, Ján; Dvorný, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    The capabilities of unmanned airborne systems (UAS) have become diverse with the recent development of lightweight remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate our custom integration of the state-of-the-art technologies within an unmanned aerial platform capable of high-resolution and high-accuracy laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and photographic imaging. The technological solution comprises the latest development of a completely autonomous, unmanned helicopter by Aeroscout, the Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. The helicopter is powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine and it allows for integrating 18 kg of a customized payload unit. The whole system is modular providing flexibility of payload options, which comprises the main advantage of the UAS. The UAS integrates two kinds of payloads which can be altered. Both payloads integrate a GPS/IMU with a dual GPS antenna configuration provided by OXTS for accurate navigation and position measurements during the data acquisition. The first payload comprises a VUX-1 laser scanner by RIEGL and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload for hyperspectral scanning integrates a push-broom imager AISA KESTREL 10 by SPECIM. The UAS was designed for research of various aspects of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or phenology) in high spectral and spatial resolution.

  18. Common handling procedures conducted in preclinical safety studies result in minimal hepatic gene expression changes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Yudong D He

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling is a tool to gain mechanistic understanding of adverse effects in response to compound exposure. However, little is known about how the common handling procedures of experimental animals during a preclinical study alter baseline gene expression. We report gene expression changes in the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following common handling procedures. Baseline gene expression changes identified in this study provide insight on how these changes may affect interpretation of gene expression profiles following compound exposure. Rats were divided into three groups. One group was not subjected to handling procedures and served as controls for both handled groups. Animals in the other two groups were weighed, subjected to restraint in Broome restrainers, and administered water via oral gavage daily for 1 or 4 days with tail vein blood collections at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours postdose on days 1 and 4. Significantly altered genes were identified in livers of animals following 1 or 4 days of handling when compared to the unhandled animals. Gene changes in animals handled for 4 days were similar to those handled for 1 day, suggesting a lack of habituation. The altered genes were primarily immune function related genes. These findings, along with a correlating increase in corticosterone levels suggest that common handling procedures may cause a minor immune system perturbance.

  19. Determination of technical readiness for an atmospheric carbon imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilia, Joseph; Kumer, John B.; Palmer, Alice; Sawyer, Kevin; Mao, Yalan; Katz, Noah; Mix, Jack; Nast, Ted; Clark, Charles S.; Vanbezooijen, Roel; Magoncelli, Antonio; Baraze, Ronald A.; Chenette, David L.

    2013-09-01

    The geoCARB sensor uses a 4-channel push broom slit-scan infrared imaging grating spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of sunlight reflected from the ground in narrow wavelength regions. The instrument is designed for flight at geostationary orbit to provide mapping of greenhouse gases over continental scales, several times per day, with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. The sensor provides multiple daily maps of column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2, CH4, and CO over the regions of interest, which enables flux determination at unprecedented time, space, and accuracy scales. The geoCARB sensor development is based on our experience in successful implementation of advanced space deployed optical instruments for remote sensing. A few recent examples include the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the geostationary Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS GEO-1) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), along with sensors under development, the Near Infared camera (NIRCam) for James Webb (JWST), and the Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI) for the GOES-R series. The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS), developed in part through the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), provides an important part of the strong technological foundation for geoCARB. The paper discusses subsystem heritage and technology readiness levels for these subsystems. The system level flight technology readiness and methods used to determine this level are presented along with plans to enhance the level.

  20. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

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    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  1. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes. PMID:26295964

  2. Infrared pushbroom camera breadboard using off-the-shelf 2D array of detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Joel; Plainchamp, Patrick; Bardon, Dominique

    1994-09-01

    Performances for nowadays optronic systems require focal plane arrays (FPA) with an increasing number of detectors. The `push- broom' technic is well adapted to earth observation in the visible range with the availability of long linear CCD'S offering thousands of pixels. In the infrared, line scan systems are preferred at the present time because technological difficulties have to be overcome in order to get long linear arrays. Among the most important, are: (1) Difficulties to have a large cold focal plane with a temperature uniformity of a few degrees. (2) Difficulties to get good detection material over large surface. Mechanical or optical butting technology can be used there but with dead pixels and/or side effects. (3) Very low cold shield efficiency due to the geometry of the long linear array. (4) Very high development costs. MATRA DEFENSE UAO has made the design of a new infrared FPA concept which has the advantage to overcome all drawbacks listed previously (patented design). The idea consists to transform the pixel arrangement geometry of a 2D array which is available off the shelf into a long linear FPA using a coherent infrared fiber optic reformatter. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this new FPA concept, a camera breadboard has been built. This task has been supported by the French MOD (STTE). This paper describes this breadboard and gives main technical performances.

  3. TRAUMATIC HIP DISLOCATION IN CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN 3 YEARS : A SERIES OF 3 CASES

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    Navin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal anatomy of children is qui te different from that of adults. The capsule, periosteum and other soft tissues surrounding the joints is very pliable and dislocations can occur even following trivial injuries . However dislocation occurring in a child population is a rare entity. There are a few case reports of hip dislocations in children < 3 years. We present here a series of 3 cases of paediatric hip dislocations which presented to us for management. The age of the children were between 24 - 27 months. Incidentally all 3 patients were b oys and all 3 were right sided dislocations. None of them had any associated fractures. Two of them had a fall from height and one child fell off a slide. All 3 patients presented within 5 hours following injury. Closed reduction under anaesthesia was perf ormed and post reduction the children were immobilized in a broom - stick plaster for 6 weeks. All children were followed up with serial x - rays and a MRI done immediately following reduction then at 6 and 18 months. There was no evidence of chondrolysis or a vascular necrosis in any of the children at the last follow - up. They all had full range of movements with no limitation of function. We conclude that with early recognition and early reduction of the hip within the golden period (6 hours the occurrence of complications can be prevented.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA and RNA polymerases from a Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid reveals probable lateral gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, B S; Góes-Neto, A

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic basidiomycete that causes witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Many fungal mitochondrial plasmids are DNA and RNA polymerase-encoding invertrons with terminal inverted repeats and 5'-linked proteins. The aim of this study was to carry out comparative and phylogenetic analyses of DNA and RNA polymerases for all known linear mitochondrial plasmids in fungi. We performed these analyses at both gene and protein levels and assessed differences between fungal and viral polymerases in order to test the lateral gene transfer (LGT) hypothesis. We analyzed all mitochondrial plasmids of the invertron type within the fungal clade, including five from Ascomycota, seven from Basidiomycota, and one from Chytridiomycota. All phylogenetic analyses generated similar tree topologies regardless of the methods and datasets used. It is likely that DNA and RNA polymerase genes were inserted into the mitochondrial genomes of the 13 fungal species examined in our study as a result of different LGT events. These findings are important for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between fungal mitochondrial plasmids. PMID:26535725

  5. Enhancement of phototropic response to a range of light doses in Triticum aestivum coleoptiles in clinostat-simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Bircher, B. W.; Brown, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The phototropic dose-response relationship has been determined for Triticum aestivum cv. Broom coleoptiles growing on a purpose-built clinostat apparatus providing gravity compensation by rotation about a horizontal axis at 2 rev min-1. These data are compared with data sets obtained with the clinostat axis vertical and stationary, as a 1 g control, and rotating vertically to examine clinostat effects other than gravity compensation. Triticum at 1 g follows the well-established pattern of other cereal coleoptiles with a first positive curvature at low doses, followed by an indifferent response region, and a second positive response at progressively increasing doses. However, these response regions lie at higher dose levels than reported for Avena. There is no significant difference between the responses observed with the clinostat axis vertical in the rotating and stationary modes, but gravity compensation by horizontal rotation increases the magnitude of first and second positive curvatures some threefold at 100 min after stimulation. The indifferent response is replaced by a significant curvature towards the light source, but remains apparent as a reduced curvature response at these dose levels.

  6. Development of a compressive sampling hyperspectral imager prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a new technology that investigates the chance to sample signals at a lower rate than the traditional sampling theory. The main advantage of CS is that compression takes place during the sampling phase, making possible significant savings in terms of the ADC, data storage memory, down-link bandwidth, and electrical power absorption. The CS technology could have primary importance for spaceborne missions and technology, paving the way to noteworthy reductions of payload mass, volume, and cost. On the contrary, the main CS disadvantage is made by the intensive off-line data processing necessary to obtain the desired source estimation. In this paper we summarize the CS architecture and its possible implementations for Earth observation, giving evidence of possible bottlenecks hindering this technology. CS necessarily employs a multiplexing scheme, which should produce some SNR disadvantage. Moreover, this approach would necessitate optical light modulators and 2-dim detector arrays of high frame rate. This paper describes the development of a sensor prototype at laboratory level that will be utilized for the experimental assessment of CS performance and the related reconstruction errors. The experimental test-bed adopts a push-broom imaging spectrometer, a liquid crystal plate, a standard CCD camera and a Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) matrix. The prototype is being developed within the framework of the ESA ITI-B Project titled "Hyperspectral Passive Satellite Imaging via Compressive Sensing".

  7. Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Steve K.; Flug, Eric; Edwards, Timothy C.; Krapels, Keith A.; Scarbrough, John

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes research on the determination of the fifty-percent probability of identification cycle criterion (N50) for two sets of handheld objects. The first set consists of 12 objects which are commonly held in a single hand. The second set consists of 10 objects commonly held in both hands. These sets consist of not only typical civilian handheld objects but also objects that are potentially lethal. A pistol, a cell phone, a rocket propelled grenade (RPG) launcher, and a broom are examples of the objects in these sets. The discrimination of these objects is an inherent part of homeland security, force protection, and also general population security. Objects were imaged from each set in the visible and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. Various levels of blur are then applied to these images. These blurred images were then used in a forced choice perception experiment. Results were analyzed as a function of blur level and target size to give identification probability as a function of resolvable cycles on target. These results are applicable to handheld object target acquisition estimates for visible imaging systems and MWIR systems. This research provides guidance in the design and analysis of electro-optical systems and forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems for use in homeland security, force protection, and also general population security.

  8. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

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    Guarrera Paolo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  9. Terrain mapping camera for Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Kiran Kumar; A Roy Chowdhury

    2005-12-01

    The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)on India ’s first satellite for lunar exploration,Chandrayaan-1, is for generating high-resolution 3-dimensional maps of the Moon.With this instrument,a complete topographic map of the Moon with 5 m spatial resolution and 10-bit quantization will be available for scienti fic studies.The TMC will image within the panchromatic spectral band of 0.4 to 0.9 m with a stereo view in the fore,nadir and aft directions of the spacecraft movement and have a B/H ratio of 1.The swath coverage will be 20 km.The camera is configured for imaging in the push broom-mode with three linear detectors in the image plane.The camera will have four gain settings to cover the varying illumination conditions of the Moon.Additionally,a provision of imaging with reduced resolution,for improving Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)in polar regions,which have poor illumination conditions throughout,has been made.SNR of better than 100 is expected in the ± 60° latitude region for mature mare soil,which is one of the darkest regions on the lunar surface. This paper presents a brief description of the TMC instrument.

  10. Isolation of a Novel Fusogenic Orthoreovirus from Eucampsipoda africana Bat Flies in South Africa

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    Petrus Jansen van Vuren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the isolation of a novel fusogenic orthoreovirus from bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana associated with Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus collected in South Africa. Complete sequences of the ten dsRNA genome segments of the virus, tentatively named Mahlapitsi virus (MAHLV, were determined. Phylogenetic analysis places this virus into a distinct clade with Baboon orthoreovirus, Bush viper reovirus and the bat-associated Broome virus. All genome segments of MAHLV contain a 5' terminal sequence (5'-GGUCA that is unique to all currently described viruses of the genus. The smallest genome segment is bicistronic encoding for a 14 kDa protein similar to p14 membrane fusion protein of Bush viper reovirus and an 18 kDa protein similar to p16 non-structural protein of Baboon orthoreovirus. This is the first report on isolation of an orthoreovirus from an arthropod host associated with bats, and phylogenetic and sequence data suggests that MAHLV constitutes a new species within the Orthoreovirus genus.

  11. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa. PMID:18943730

  12. ETHNOBOTANY OF THARUS OF DUDHWA NATIONAL PARK, INDIA

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    Bharati K Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tharus are inhabited on southern foothills of the Himalayas along Indo-Nepal border. They have been using many plant species to meet their day-to-day needs. The aim of this study was to collect information on the traditional uses of different plants and to document the potential economic use of these plants. Fieldwork was conducted over a period of two years in Dudhwa National Park, utilizing the “transect walk” method of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA. The data was analyzed using the following techniques: frequency of citation and informant consensus factor (Fic. The present communication gives information on 86 species belonging to 38 families of plants used by Tharu tribes of Dudhwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh. The frequency of citation was very high for Alstonia scholaris (fire-wood, Antidesma acidum, Artocarpus lakoocha (edible, Bauhinia vahlii, Butea monosperma (food plate, Dendrocalamus strictus (hut preparation, Hibiscus cannabinus (rope, Oryza rufipogon (food, Phoenix acaulis (edible and Tamarix dioica (broom.

  13. Contrasting groundwater quality in areas with and without gas production by hydraulic fracturing near the PA/NY border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, M.; Yan, B.; Ross, J. M.; Chillrud, S. N.; Saberi, P.; Panettieri, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Shale gas development, including drilling and hydraulic fracturing, is rapidly increasing throughout the United States and, indeed, the rest of the world. Systematic surveys of water quality both pre- and post drilling/production are sparse. To examine the impacts of shale gas production on water quality, pilot studies are being conducted in adjacent counties of western NY (Chemung, Tioga, Broome, and Delaware) and northern PA (Bradford, Susquehanna, and Tioga). These 7 counties along the border of NY and PA share similar geology and demographic compositions and have been identified as a key area to develop shale gas with the key difference that active fracking is occurring in PA but there is no fracking yet in NY due to the current moratorium in that state. Measurements include a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), major and trace elements, methane and its stable isotopes, noble gases and tritium for dating purposes, and the primary radioactive elements of potential concern, radon and radium. We found elevated methane levels on both sides of the border, and some wells show elemental fingerprints characteristic for shale fluids. Field observations at several wells near drill sites in PA suggested elevated levels of organics, possibly from hydraulic fracturing activities. The full suite of lab analyses is currently ongoing and can be used to further characterize sources of these organics.

  14. Automatic Descriptor-Based Co-Registration of Frame Hyperspectral Data

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    Maria Vakalopoulou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Frame hyperspectral sensors, in contrast to push-broom or line-scanning ones, produce hyperspectral datasets with, in general, better geometry but with unregistered spectral bands. Being acquired at different instances and due to platform motion and movements (UAVs, aircrafts, etc., every spectral band is displaced and acquired with a different geometry. The automatic and accurate registration of hyperspectral datasets from frame sensors remains a challenge. Powerful local feature descriptors when computed over the spectrum fail to extract enough correspondences and successfully complete the registration procedure. To this end, we propose a generic and automated framework which decomposes the problem and enables the efficient computation of a sufficient amount of accurate correspondences over the given spectrum, without using any ancillary data (e.g., from GPS/IMU. First, the spectral bands are divided in spectral groups according to their wavelength. The spectral borders of each group are not strict and their formulation allows certain overlaps. The spectral variance and proximity determine the applicability of every spectral band to act as a reference during the registration procedure. The proposed decomposition allows the descriptor and the robust estimation process to deliver numerous inliers. The search space of possible solutions has been effectively narrowed by sorting and selecting the optimal spectral bands which under an unsupervised manner can quickly recover hypercube’s geometry. The developed approach has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated with six different datasets obtained by frame sensors onboard aerial platforms and UAVs. Experimental results appear promising.

  15. Development in nursery of different clones of cupuaçu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild. Ex Spreng. Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franciskievicz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to present the results of initial development in nursery of 4 genetic materials of cupuaçu trees, being one a material without selection (control and three clones of cupuaçu tree resistant to the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom. The seeds from Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Belém - PA were put in seed bed for germination. After 25 days of seedling emergence these were transplanted in to plastic bags, arranged in a shade house (60%, and containing agricultural substrate and forest humus (1: 3. At the end of 130 days after sowing were compared the patterns of development of girth, height and relation height / girth in a randomized block design consisting of 4 treatments and 4 replicates, each replicate consisting of 16 seedlings. Results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the averages compared by Tukey (5%. The values ​​obtained to girth not differ, presented as overall mean 5.08 mm, however in relation to height cultivar 215 (31cm excelled on the cultivar 174 (25 cm and control (23 cm, however their average not differ of material 186 (27 cm. As regards the height / girth the values ​​obtained for the control and cultivars 175, 186 and 215, were respectively, 4.6, 5.2, 5.1 and 5.9 cm / mm, being cultivar 215 different to control.

  16. Plant-Pathogen Interaction-Related MicroRNAs and Their Targets Provide Indicators of Phytoplasma Infection in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Fan

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB caused by a phytoplasma, has caused extensive losses in the yields of paulownia timber and resulted in significant economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms in Paulownia that underlie the phytoplasma stress are poorly characterized. In this study, we use an Illumina platform to sequence four small RNA libraries and four degradome sequencing libraries derived from healthy, PaWB-infected, and PaWB-infected 15 mg·L-1 and 30 mg·L-1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS-treated plants. In total, 125 conserved and 118 novel microRNAs (miRNAs were identified and 33 miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease were discovered. Furthermore, 166 target genes for 18 PaWB disease-related miRNAs were obtained, and found to be involved in plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction metabolic pathways. Eleven miRNAs and target genes responsive to PaWB disease were examined by a quantitative real-time PCR approach. Our findings will contribute to studies on miRNAs and their targets in Paulownia, and provide new insights to further understand plant-phytoplasma interactions.

  17. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  18. Analysis of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway cloning, molecular characterization and phylogeny of lanosterol 14 α-demethylase (ERG11) gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ceita, Geruza; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antônio; Castilho, Marcelo Santos; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Ramos, Pablo Ivan Pereira; Barbosa, Luciana Veiga; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Philips-Mora, causal agent of witches’ broom disease of cocoa, causes countless damage to cocoa production in Brazil. Molecular studies have attempted to identify genes that play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. In this study, sequences deposited in the M. perniciosa Genome Sequencing Project database were analyzed to identify potential biological targets. For the first time, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in M. perniciosa was studied and the lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene (ERG11) that encodes the main enzyme of this pathway and is a target for fungicides was cloned, characterized molecularly and its phylogeny analyzed. ERG11 genomic DNA and cDNA were characterized and sequence analysis of the ERG11 protein identified highly conserved domains typical of this enzyme, such as SRS1, SRS4, EXXR and the heme-binding region (HBR). Comparison of the protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M. perniciosa enzyme was most closely related to that of Coprinopsis cinerea. PMID:25505843

  19. 利用平腹小蜂防治荔枝蝽技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝鑫; 黄萍; 李敦松

    2007-01-01

    荔枝蝽(Tessaratoma papillosa Drury)是荔枝、龙眼的主要害虫,若虫和成虫以口针刺吸荔枝的嫩梢、花穗及幼果,造成受害的部位枯死、脱落。一般年份荔枝、龙眼受害减产20%~30%,严重的可达60%以上。荔枝蝽还是龙眼鬼帚病(Longan witches broom Virus)的传毒虫媒。荔枝、龙眼树冠高大、枝叶茂密、喷药困难,加上荔枝蝽迁飞能力强,且成虫可多次产卵,若虫分批孵化,给化学防治带来较大困难。此外花期用药影响蜜蜂授粉,对荔枝结实不利。

  20. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  1. Research work on mutation breeding in Egypt during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work carried out on mutation breeding in Egypt during the 1980s is summarized. Several mutations have been developed in bread wheat, maize, rice and barley. A higher yield, tolerance to salinity, shorter types and earliness were obtained after use of different mutagens and growth regulators. Great attention has been paid to the fababean and chickpea, particularly in improving their quality and quantity of protein, and their resistance to insect weevils such as Callosobruchus sp. Tolerance or resistance to broom rape has also been reported. Various grain legumes such as lentil, pea, cowpea, bean, fenugreek and lupin received some attention. Mutation work on fibre crops such as cotton, kenaf and flax has led to some promising results. Zero type, glandless and early maturing mutants were obtained in cotton, and early flowering, high yielding (fibre or oil) mutants in flax. Some attention has been given to oil crops such as sesame, rapeseed, peanuts, castorbean, sunflower and safflower, and several characters in sesame, including yield, earliness, the number of capsules per leaf axil and tolerance to some fungi, were obtained. Promising smooth mutations with different flower colours have been developed in safflower, and nodulation and tolerance to salinity have received some attention in peanuts and sunflower. High seed getting and earliness mutants were obtained in Egyptian clover. The results on sugarcane and sugarbeet still need to be confirmed, as well as those on tomato, potato, onion, Portulaca, citrus and medicinal plants. (author). 2 refs

  2. Special Software for Planetary Image Processing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Kozlova, N. A.; Brusnikin, E. S.; Karachevtseva, I. P.

    2016-06-01

    The special modules of photogrammetric processing of remote sensing data that provide the opportunity to effectively organize and optimize the planetary studies were developed. As basic application the commercial software package PHOTOMOD™ is used. Special modules were created to perform various types of data processing: calculation of preliminary navigation parameters, calculation of shape parameters of celestial body, global view image orthorectification, estimation of Sun illumination and Earth visibilities from planetary surface. For photogrammetric processing the different types of data have been used, including images of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Phobos, Galilean satellites and Enceladus obtained by frame or push-broom cameras. We used modern planetary data and images that were taken over the years, shooting from orbit flight path with various illumination and resolution as well as obtained by planetary rovers from surface. Planetary data image processing is a complex task, and as usual it can take from few months to years. We present our efficient pipeline procedure that provides the possibilities to obtain different data products and supports a long way from planetary images to celestial body maps. The obtained data - new three-dimensional control point networks, elevation models, orthomosaics - provided accurate maps production: a new Phobos atlas (Karachevtseva et al., 2015) and various thematic maps that derived from studies of planetary surface (Karachevtseva et al., 2016a).

  3. Identifying areas of Australia at risk of H5N1 avian influenza infection from exposure to migratory birds: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain J. East

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI due to H5N1 virus has been reported from both domestic poultry and wild birds in 60 countries resulting in the direct death or slaughter of over 250,000,000 birds. The potential exists for HPAI to spread to Australia via migratory shorebirds returning from Asia with the most likely pathway of introduction into commercial poultry flocks involving the transfer of HPAI from migrating shorebirds to native waterfowl species that subsequently interact with poultry on low security poultry farms. Surveillance programmes provide an important early-warning for Australia’s estimated 2,000 commercial poultry farms but, to be efficient, they should be risk-based and target resources at those areas and sectors of the industry at higher risk of exposure. This study compared the distributions of migratory shorebirds and native waterfowl to identify six regions where the likelihood of exotic HPAI incursion and establishment in native waterfowl is highest. Analysis of bird banding records showed that native waterfowl did not move further than 10 km during the spring breeding season when migratory shorebirds arrived in Australia. Therefore, poultry farms within 10 km of significant shorebird habitat in these six regions of highest comparative risk were identified. The final analysis showed that the estimated risk to Australia is low with only two poultry farms, one at Broome and one at Carnarvon, located in the regions of highest risk.

  4. Fractographic analysis of tensile failures of aerospace grade composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Suresh Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes fractographic features observed in aerospace composites failed under tensile loads. Unidirectional Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (UD CFRP and Unidirectional Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (UD GFRP composite specimens were fabricated and tested in tension. The morphology of fractured surfaces was studied at various locations to identify failure mechanism and characteristic fractographic features. CFRP composites displayed transverse crack propagation and the fracture surface showed three distinct regions, viz., crack origin, propagation and final failure. Significant variations in the fractographic features were noticed in crack propagation and final failure regions. Crack propagation region exhibited brittle fracture with chevron lines emanating from the crack origin. The entire crack propagation region exhibited radial marks on the individual fibre broken ends. On the other hand, the final fracture region revealed longitudinal matrix splitting and radial marks in majority of locations, and chop marks at some locations. The change in fracture mode in the final fracture was attributed to superimposition of bending loads. GFRP composites exhibited broom like fracture with extensive longitudinal splitting with radial marks present on individual fibre broken ends. Transverse fracture was observed at a few locations. These fracture features were analyzed and correlated with the loading conditions.

  5. Hybrid Synthetic/Real Aperture Antenna for High Resolution Microwave Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Terence A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of key hydrological parameters at the spatial and temporal scales required in the post-2002 era face significant technological challenges. These measurements are based on relatively low frequency thermal microwave emission (at 1.4 GHz for soil moisture and salinity, 10 GHz and up for precipitation, and 19 and 37 GHz for snow). The long wavelengths at these frequencies coupled with the high spatial and radiometric resolutions required by the various global hydrology missions necessitate the use of very large apertures. Two-dimensional Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometry (2-D STAR), though promising in the long term, has many technical challenges in the areas of power, and sensitivity for very large apertures (i.e. greater than 300 wavelengths). This paper will discuss an alternative approach to the pure 2-D STAR, which uses an offset parabolic cylinder reflector fed by multiple elements to form a 1-D STAR. In essence a single STAR element is composed of a feedhorn and parabolic cylinder reflector. The elements are sparsely arrayed and thus can share a single reflector. This antenna would have no moving parts once deployed, have much higher sensitivity than a Y-shaped 2-D STAR of equivalent size, many fewer receivers than that 2-D STAR, and the reflector could be made of a thin film and lightweight deployment system for high packing density. The instrument using this approach would be a cross track push broom imager. An overview of the design parameters, potential deployment mechanisms and applications will be presented.

  6. LED characterization for development of on-board calibration unit of CCD-based advanced wide-field sensor camera of Resourcesat-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Verma, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    The Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) camera caters to high temporal resolution requirement of Resourcesat-2A mission with repeativity of 5 days. The AWiFS camera consists of four spectral bands, three in the visible and near IR and one in the short wave infrared. The imaging concept in VNIR bands is based on push broom scanning that uses linear array silicon charge coupled device (CCD) based Focal Plane Array (FPA). On-Board Calibration unit for these CCD based FPAs is used to monitor any degradation in FPA during entire mission life. Four LEDs are operated in constant current mode and 16 different light intensity levels are generated by electronically changing exposure of CCD throughout the calibration cycle. This paper describes experimental setup and characterization results of various flight model visible LEDs (λP=650nm) for development of On-Board Calibration unit of Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) camera of RESOURCESAT-2A. Various LED configurations have been studied to meet dynamic range coverage of 6000 pixels silicon CCD based focal plane array from 20% to 60% of saturation during night pass of the satellite to identify degradation of detector elements. The paper also explains comparison of simulation and experimental results of CCD output profile at different LED combinations in constant current mode.

  7. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-10-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  8. Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern Kashmir Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Mir RA. 2012. Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wild Life Sancturary. Biodiversitas 13: 65-71. The Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary that extends over an area of 114 km2 lies in the Pir Panjal range at a distance of 70 km in south-west of summer capital Srinagar. It is rich in biodiversity including macrofungal diversity. The Sanctuary has been subjected to high ecological and anthropogenic disturbance due to the construction of Mughal road which is major threat for its biodiversity. Since there is hardly any report of documentation of macrofungi from this sanctuary. In this back drop a survey was carried out during the year 2010 and 2011 to explore and invetorise macrofungal diversity of the sanctuary. During the survey a no of macrofungi were documented, among which Amanita and Russula were dominant genus represented by 7 species each. All the 14 species viz. Amanita ceciliae (Berk. & Broome Bas. Amanita flavoconia G.F. Atk., Amanita muscaria var. formosa Pers., Amanita pantherina (Fr. Krombh., Amanita phalloides (Fr. Link., Amanita vaginata (Bull. ex Fr. Vitt., Amanita virosa (Fr. Bertillon, Russula aeruginea Fr., Russula atropurpurea (Krombh. Britz., Russula aurea Pers., Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff. Fr., Russula delica Fr. Russula emetica (Schaeff. ex Fr. Gray. and Russula nobilis Velen. are ectomycorrhizal in nature and among them Russula aeruginea Fr. is reported first time from the Kashmir.

  9. Effectiveness of long-term (twelve months nonsurgical weight loss interventions for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Nicholson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiona Nicholson1, Catherine Rolland1, John Broom1, John Love21Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland; 2School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health and Social Care, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects 2%–26% of women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by obesity. Modest weight loss reduces health risks and ameliorates effects of the syndrome. Weight loss interventions are mainly of short duration and have limited success. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess the efficacy of long-term (12 months, nonsurgical weight loss interventions for women with PCOS. Fifteen databases were searched, resulting in eight papers that met the search criteria. Comparison of results and meta-analysis was difficult due to heterogeneity of studies. Behavioral components of interventions were poorly described, and compliance was difficult to ascertain. The results suggested that the inclusion of a lifestyle component improves outcomes, but protocols must be clearly described to maintain study validity and to identify successful behavioral strategies.Keywords: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss 

  10. Vegetation classification and quatification by satellite image processing. A case study in north Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, J.T. [Dept. Florestal, UTAD, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Viana, H.F. [Instituto Politecnico de Viseu, Escola Superior Agraria, Viseu (Portugal); Rodrigues, R. [Bioflag - Consulting - Santo Tirso (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The expected increase in Forest Biomass demand for energy production leads to derive expeditious and non-expensive techniques in order to classify vegetal land cover and evaluate the available biomass like to be harvested. Satellite image processing and classification, combined to field work, is a suitable tool to achieve these aims. A vegetation index (NDVI) was created by means of a Landsat TM image, from 2006, manipulation, in order to create a general vegetation map. Then, the same image was submitted to a supervised classification process in order to produce a land cover map (overall accuracy of 85%). In a second stage, they were collected NDVI values for each sampling plot, in order to update the database previous developed with data collected within forestry stands and shrubland. This data merging enabled to transform general vegetation map into available biomass within forestry stands and shrubland. The results showed a range of values from 0.25 up to 6.00 dry ton./ha for recent and former burnt areas recovered by Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) young trees and from 2.00 up to 9.00 dry ton./ha for recent and former burnt areas recovered by shrubs (e.g. genista or broom).

  11. Coded-aperture Raman imaging for standoff explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Scott T.; Guenther, B. D.; Brady, David J.; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the design of a deep-UV Raman imaging spectrometer operating with an excitation wavelength of 228 nm. The designed system will provide the ability to detect explosives (both traditional military explosives and home-made explosives) from standoff distances of 1-10 meters with an interrogation area of 1 mm x 1 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm. This excitation wavelength provides resonant enhancement of many common explosives, no background fluorescence, and an enhanced cross-section due to the inverse wavelength scaling of Raman scattering. A coded-aperture spectrograph combined with compressive imaging algorithms will allow for wide-area interrogation with fast acquisition rates. Coded-aperture spectral imaging exploits the compressibility of hyperspectral data-cubes to greatly reduce the amount of acquired data needed to interrogate an area. The resultant systems are able to cover wider areas much faster than traditional push-broom and tunable filter systems. The full system design will be presented along with initial data from the instrument. Estimates for area scanning rates and chemical sensitivity will be presented. The system components include a solid-state deep-UV laser operating at 228 nm, a spectrograph consisting of well-corrected refractive imaging optics and a reflective grating, an intensified solar-blind CCD camera, and a high-efficiency collection optic.

  12. Requirement sensitivity studies for a future Landsat sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaoyu; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Schott, John R.; Markham, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Landsat program has collected imagery of the Earth for the past 40 years. Although both Landsat 7 and 8 are currently operating on-orbit, the next generation Landsat mission is already being planned. Concept studies for this mission include reproducing the Landsat 8 design (mainly push-broom imaging architecture). The definition of science requirements is an important step towards the development of instrument specifications. At this early stage, a re-evaluation of the Landsat requirements is beneficial since they might be flexible enough to relax in some areas to possibly save on manufacturing costs or may need to be tightened in other areas to produce better science products. The investigations presented here focused on spatial aliasing and spectral banding effects. The specifications of these two key performance requirements were taken from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor as a starting point for the analyses. They were then adjusted to determine their effects on the final image products through the use of standard radiometry equations and synthetic Earth scene data. The results of the modeling efforts for these two requirements concepts are presented here and could be used as a template for future instrument studies.

  13. STRIPING NOISE REMOVAL OF IMAGES ACQUIRED BY CBERS 2 CCD CAMERA SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amraei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CCD Camera is a multi-spectral sensor that is carried by CBERS 2 satellite. Imaging technique in this sensor is push broom. In images acquired by the CCD Camera, some vertical striping noise can be seen. This is due to the detectors mismatch, inter detector variability, improper calibration of detectors and low signal-to-noise ratio. These noises are more profound in images acquired from the homogeneous surfaces, which are processed at level 2. However, the existence of these noises render the interpretation of the data and extracting information from these images difficult. In this work, spatial moment matching method is proposed to modify these images. In this method, the statistical moments such as mean and standard deviation of columns in each band are used to balance the statistical specifications of the detector array to those of reference values. After the removal of the noise, some periodic diagonal stripes remain in the image where their removal by using the aforementioned method seems impossible. Therefore, to omit them, frequency domain Butterworth notch filter was applied. Finally to evaluate the results, the image statistical moments such as the mean and standard deviation were deployed. The study proves the effectiveness of the method in noise removal.

  14. Plant–Pathogen Interaction-Related MicroRNAs and Their Targets Provide Indicators of Phytoplasma Infection in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoqiang; Niu, Suyan; Xu, Tong; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Wang, Yuanlong; Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) caused by a phytoplasma, has caused extensive losses in the yields of paulownia timber and resulted in significant economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms in Paulownia that underlie the phytoplasma stress are poorly characterized. In this study, we use an Illumina platform to sequence four small RNA libraries and four degradome sequencing libraries derived from healthy, PaWB-infected, and PaWB-infected 15 mg·L−1 and 30 mg·L−1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-treated plants. In total, 125 conserved and 118 novel microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified and 33 miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease were discovered. Furthermore, 166 target genes for 18 PaWB disease-related miRNAs were obtained, and found to be involved in plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction metabolic pathways. Eleven miRNAs and target genes responsive to PaWB disease were examined by a quantitative real-time PCR approach. Our findings will contribute to studies on miRNAs and their targets in Paulownia, and provide new insights to further understand plant-phytoplasma interactions. PMID:26484670

  15. Plant-Pathogen Interaction-Related MicroRNAs and Their Targets Provide Indicators of Phytoplasma Infection in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoqiang; Niu, Suyan; Xu, Tong; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Wang, Yuanlong; Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by a phytoplasma, has caused extensive losses in the yields of paulownia timber and resulted in significant economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms in Paulownia that underlie the phytoplasma stress are poorly characterized. In this study, we use an Illumina platform to sequence four small RNA libraries and four degradome sequencing libraries derived from healthy, PaWB-infected, and PaWB-infected 15 mg·L-1 and 30 mg·L-1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-treated plants. In total, 125 conserved and 118 novel microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified and 33 miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease were discovered. Furthermore, 166 target genes for 18 PaWB disease-related miRNAs were obtained, and found to be involved in plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction metabolic pathways. Eleven miRNAs and target genes responsive to PaWB disease were examined by a quantitative real-time PCR approach. Our findings will contribute to studies on miRNAs and their targets in Paulownia, and provide new insights to further understand plant-phytoplasma interactions. PMID:26484670

  16. Design and development of the Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument and satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorvalli, Vincent; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Bursch, Stefan; Welsch, Mario; Sontag, Heinz; Martimort, Philippe; Del Bello, Umberto; Sy, Omar; Laberinti, Paolo; Spoto, François

    2010-10-01

    2A and Sentinel-2B satellites currently under development will ensure systematic global acquisition of all land and coastal waters in the visible and short-wave infrared spectral domain with a 5 day revisit time at the equator. The Multi Spectral Instrument is a push-broom imager providing imagery in 13 spectral channels with spatial resolutions ranging from 10 m to 60 m and a swath width of 290 Km, larger than SPOT and Landsat. The instrument features a full field of view calibration device, a silicon carbide Three Mirror Anastigmat telescope with mirror dimensions up to 600 mm, specific filter stripe assemblies, newly developed Si-CMOS and HgCDTe detectors and a low noise wavelet compression video electronics. The 1.4 Tbits/s raw image date rate is reduced down to 490 Mbits/s at the output of the instrument to cope with the overall system transmission capability. The Sentinel-2 program has entered in the CD phase in 2009. Launch of Sentinel-2A satellite is scheduled for 2013.

  17. Isolation of a Novel Fusogenic Orthoreovirus from Eucampsipoda africana Bat Flies in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Wiley, Michael; Palacios, Gustavo; Storm, Nadia; McCulloch, Stewart; Markotter, Wanda; Birkhead, Monica; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T

    2016-01-01

    We report on the isolation of a novel fusogenic orthoreovirus from bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) associated with Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) collected in South Africa. Complete sequences of the ten dsRNA genome segments of the virus, tentatively named Mahlapitsi virus (MAHLV), were determined. Phylogenetic analysis places this virus into a distinct clade with Baboon orthoreovirus, Bush viper reovirus and the bat-associated Broome virus. All genome segments of MAHLV contain a 5' terminal sequence (5'-GGUCA) that is unique to all currently described viruses of the genus. The smallest genome segment is bicistronic encoding for a 14 kDa protein similar to p14 membrane fusion protein of Bush viper reovirus and an 18 kDa protein similar to p16 non-structural protein of Baboon orthoreovirus. This is the first report on isolation of an orthoreovirus from an arthropod host associated with bats, and phylogenetic and sequence data suggests that MAHLV constitutes a new species within the Orthoreovirus genus. PMID:27011199

  18. Multiplex-PCR for Identification of Two Species in Genus Hishimonus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Jujube Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shaodong; Wang, He; Tao, Wanqiang; Wang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qiuling; Zhang, Minzhao; Guo, Li; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-10-01

    The insect family Cicadellidae includes economically important vectors of plant pathogens. Hishimonus sellatus (Uhler) transmits jujube witches'-broom (JWB). Currently, H. sellatus and Hishimonus lamellatus Cai et Kuoh are observed to co-occur at the same locality on jujube. H. lamellatus is now suspected to be a JWB vector. As such, correct identification of Hishimonus species present in vineyards is essential for epidemiological surveys. However, traditional identification of Hishimonus by morphology is limited to the adult male. We provide a comprehensive description of morphological and molecular tools for discriminating between H. sellatus and H. lamellatus, for use in identification and monitoring of the two Hishimonus species and studies of their plant hosts. A rapid and inexpensive method is introduced to identify H. sellatus and H. lamellatus occurring in jujube orchards. This method is based on amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, using PCR with multiplexed, species-specific primers. The reliability of this new method has been tested on different populations from different sites in Beijing region of China. PMID:26453733

  19. Biodiversidad del complejo de artrópodos asociados al follaje de la vegetación del norte de Chile, II región Biodiversity of the canopy arthropods associated to vegetation of the north of Chile, II region

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    FRANCISCO SAIZ

    2000-12-01

    establece el siguiente gradiente decreciente: DL, TM, TA y DI, concordante con la riqueza de especies vegetales. Como grupo, Homoptera es el que se distribuye sobre una mayor diversidad de especies vegetales en las zonas analizadas. Secundariamente puede considerarse a Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Psocoptera y Thysanoptera. Dentro del contexto total de especies vegetales muestreadas, destacan por la riqueza específica de artrópodos: Nolana divaricata, Baccharis petiolata, Heliotropium taltalense, Nicotiana solanifolia, Atriplex atacamensis, Fabiana densa, Baccharis incarum, Nolana crassulifolia, Haplopappus rigidus, Cortaderia atacamensis, Eremocharis fruticosa, Atriplex leuca. En cuanto a daño por fitofagia se encontró un total de 25 especies afectadas por defoliación, minado o formación de cecidias, siendo la más relevante esta última. La fitofagia por succión, la más importante del conjunto se infirió por la alta presencia y abundancia de insectos que funcionalmente corresponden a esta categoría (Homoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, los que están presentes en todas las zonas ecológicas y en especial en DL y TMThe complex formed by phytophagous insects, their host plants and their predators is one of the most important component of ecosystems biodiversity. In this work the role of this complex on the biodiversity of the arid region of Chile was studied. It is postulated that a higher biodiversiyty of phytophagous insects would be associated to more favorable climatic conditions, higher host plant diversity, and higher nitrogen, ash and water content of the vegetation. Also, a higher biodiversity of predators and parasitoids will be sustained by a higher phytophagous insect biodiversity. The study was conducted in the II Region of Chile through an altitudinal transect crossing the following bioclimatic zones from the coast (0 m of altitude to the Andes (4,000 m of altitude: Coastal Desert (or Desierto Litoral, DL, Continental Desert (or Desierto Interior, DI, Pre

  20. Plantas medicinais abortivas utilizadas por mulheres de UBS: etnofarmacologia e análises cromatográficas por CCD e CLAE

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    N.C.V. Souza Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas medicinais refere-se a uma prática milenar, seja na medicina alternativa para cura de diversas doenças, ou como método abortivo. No entanto, a população em geral desconhece os grandes riscos que a cometem. Neste sentido este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o índice de consumo de plantas medicinais por mulheres de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS, na tentativa de identificar quais as espécies mais frequentemente ingeridas inclusive em período gestacional. Através de um questionário de caráter explorativo com 48 mulheres observou-se que a maioria das entrevistadas tinha filhos e as plantas medicinais mais citadas foram "boldo" (Peumus boldus, "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera e "sene" (Cassia angustifolia, as quais eram empregadas principalmente em dores estomacais ou como digestivos (53%, para resfriados (23%, cólicas menstruais (4% ou para menstruar (2%. Outra parte do trabalho constituiu a análise visual e química de espécies de plantas medicinais citadas pelo público feminino entrevistado, bem como, outras utilizadas popularmente com propriedades abortivas. Análises visuais comparativas de amostras de plantas medicinais de quatro estabelecimentos comerciais diferentes denominadas Grupo A-C, mostraram a ausência de controle de qualidade com relação às especificações nas embalagens, e separação do material vegetal a ser consumido. Através de análises dos perfis químicos destas amostras por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE indicaram que aquelas pertencentes ao Grupo C diferiram significativamente em relação àquelas de mesma identificação, exceto no que se refere ao boldo do Chile, cujas amostras apresentaram-se bastante similares com relação à constituição química.

  1. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Fire History of the California Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. C.; Hardiman, M.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, R.

    2013-12-01

    Charcoal has been recovered from a range of late Pleistocene and Holocene sites on Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island, both islands part of California's Northern Channel Islands, U.S.A. Sediments have been dated using radiocarbon measurements based on wood charcoal, fungal sclerotia, glassy carbon and fecal pellets and are given as calendar years BP. This charcoal has been used to interpret the fire history of the Islands. Charcoal assemblages from samples dating from 24,690 to 12,900 years are dominated by coniferous wood charcoal. Little angiosperm charcoal was recovered in any of the samples. Fungal sclerotia are frequent in a number of samples from a range of ages both on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. Fecal pellets are common in most samples and abundant in others. Some of the fecal pellets have hexagonal sides and are likely to represent termite frass. The sediments are fluvial in origin and the distribution of charcoal is irregular making interpretation of fire return intervals and fire frequency difficult. The charcoal indicates a significant record of fire before the earliest documented human arrival on the islands. Charcoal reflectance data shows the occurrence of predominantly low temperature charcoals suggesting common surface fires in the coniferous forest. Soledad Pond sediments from Santa Rosa Island (Anderson et al., 2010) dating from 11,800 cal years BP show a distinctively different vegetation dominated by angiosperms and showing a very different fire history. Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub dominated by Baccharis sp. and grassland replaced the conifer forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150 cal yr BP. By ca. 6900 cal yr BP grasslands recovered. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the Soledad Pond record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general

  2. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

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    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by primary economic sectors: agriculture, cattle farming, plant extraction and mineral exploration. Structured interviews were applied to 227 persons chosen because of their prestige in the communities in relation to the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, identifying the therapeutic purpose, parts of the plant used and methods of preparation. The species were taxonomically identified. The ethnobotanic knowledge (inferred by the number of uses of medicinal plants per person was correlated with the Brazilian region of origin, age, and gender of the interviewees. According to the collected data, 34 botanical families and 53 native species were identified. Of the 53 species, only 7 occur exclusively in the Amazon Forest: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. K. Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. The most common disorders treated with the plants were kidney problems, influenza, generalized infections and inflammations, malaria and high blood pressure. Leaves were the most used parts in preparations. Barks, fruits, roots, flowers, stems, seeds, oils, buds, tubercles, and rhizomes were also mentioned. Thirteen forms of preparations were recorded, and infusion and decoction were the most used. Syrups, juices, flour, sap, oil and parts of the plant blended with milk, honey and coffee or flamed, macerated and

  3. Plantas medicinales empleadas por pacientes diabéticos en Paraguay

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    Mabel MAIDANA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Un gran porcentaje de la población mundial, utiliza plantas medicinales para hacer frente a sus necesidades de salud. En Paraguay se utiliza un gran número de especies vegetales con fines medicinales, para diferentes afecciones, entre ellas la diabetes. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las plantas medicinales empleadas por pacientes que consultan el Programa Nacional de Diabetes, Centro de Salud Nº 9, de Asunción, que forma parte de un programa de Atención Farmacéutica, desarrollado dentro del marco de la Tesis Doctoral: “Evaluación de un programa de Atención Farmacéutica en paceintes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2”. Se realizaron encuestas a 61 pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que consultaron en el mencionado programa, entre octubre y diciembre del año 2011. De los 61 pacientes entrevistados, 17 eran hombres y 44 mujeres, la edad promedio fue de 55 años ± 10,6 años, el 45,9% vive en Asunción y 54,1% en diferentes ciudades del Departamento Central. El 78,1% utiliza plantas medicinales sin prescripción médica, el 18,8% no las utiliza y el 3,1% no contestó la pregunta. Los pacientes mencionaron 33 especies vegetales empleadas con fines medicinales. Las mismas se encuentran distribuidas en 25 familias, siendo la Asteraceae la familia mayormente representada con el 21,6%; la parte más utilizada es la hoja, (48,5%, la forma de empleo más reportada fue el tereré, bebida tradicional de Paraguay semejante al mate (infusión de yerba mate, pero frío; con el 51,5%. Las 5 especies más reportadas fueron: Moringa oleífera (Fabaceae; Artemisia absinthium, Tithonia diversifolia, Baccharis trimera y Stevia rebaudiana todas de la familia Asteraceae. Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que emplean plantas medicinales, lo hacen de forma concomitante con medicamentos de síntesis, de los cuales el 47% son para el sistema cardiovascular, el 26% son antidiabéticos y el 17% para el sistema nervioso.

  4. Bosques montanos-relictos en Kañaris (Lambayeque, Perú

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    Santos Llatas-Quiroz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En Kañaris (Lambayeque se encuentran grandes bosques relictos, probablemente los mayores de la vertiente occidental de los Andes peruanos. Actualmente están muy bien conservados, pero al mismo tiempo es la zona botánicamente menos estudiada de todos los bosques relictos de la zona. Estos bosques se ubican en las alturas de Upaypiteq y adyacentes a los flancos de la cordillera occidental de los Andes en la vertiente del Atlántico: Shin Shin, San Lorenzo, Huacapampa, Pandachí, Gramalote, Walte, Mollepampa; entre los 1500 a 3000 m sobre el nivel del mar, en el distrito de Kañaris (2300 m y los bosques de Chiñama y Luto en la vertiente del Pacífico. La presente investigación se emprendió con el objeto de estudiar científicamente, mediante muestreos florísticos, la vida y estructura de los componentes de los bosques de Upaypiteq. Las muestras conducen a un avance de la investigación, determinando que los principales componentes arbóreos corresponden a las Lauráceas: Persea, Ocotea y Nectandra, Cunoniáceas: Weinmannia, Podocarpáceas: Podocarpus, Cecropiáceas: Cecropia, Mirtáceas: Myrcianthes, Moráceas: Ficus, Rubiáceas: Cinchona, Bignoniáceas: Tabebuia, Arecáceas: Ceroxylon y, helechos arborescentes del género Nephelea. Circundantes a la masa boscosa se encuentran varias especies de arbustos, de los géneros Miconia, Munnozia, Baccharis, Senna, Colignonia, Gaiadendron, Oreopanax, etc.; también en la estructura es muy frecuente las epífitas y lianas ascendentes: Bromeliáceas, Orquídeas, Heliconias, Aráceas, musgos. Los helechos herbáceos, hongos, líquenes gelatinosos, hepáticas, Balanoforáceas y Begonias, tapizan por completo el piso boscoso. La composición florística es similar al bosque de Cutervo y los bosques de la Vertiente Oriental de los Andes, que a los demás bosques relictos en la Vertiente Occidental. La presencia de estos bosques se debe preservar, por su importancia en los procesos ecológicos para la

  5. Variación espacio-temporal de la lluvia de semillas en la reserva natural Ibanasca (Ibagué-Tolima-Colombia

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    Vargas Ríos Jesús Orlando

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La dispersión de semillas es uno de los rasgos de historia de vida más importantes y más útiles como mecanismo
    de regeneración de ecosistemas. En el presente trabajo se analizó la dinámica de la lluvia de semillas en dos áreas potrerizadas con diferente altitud y con una historia de transformación de la vegetación adyacente. El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural Ibanasca, ubicada en la zona de amortiguación del parque nacional natural Los Nevados, municipio de Ibagué, departamento del Tolima, Colombia. Se establecieron los patrones de variación de la lluvia de semillas en el tiempo y en el espacio, así como los patrones de abundancia de los grupos de especies más representativos. Se evaluaron los síndromes de dispersión de anemocoria y ornitocoria y se determinó su importancia relativa de acuerdo a la cobertura vegetal que rodea la zona de potrero. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre los dos sitios muestreados en cuanto a diversidad y riqueza, además los porcentajes de similitud en cada uno de los muestreos fueron considerablemente bajos (18,24-36%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre los síndromes y entre los sitios; entre los síndromes en cada uno de los tiempos; así como en la interacción sitio*síndrome. La especie anemócora más dispersada es: Baccharis trinervis y las especies zoocoras pertenecen al género Miconia. Este trabajo diagnóstico hace parte de una propuesta general de restauración ecológica planteada
    como parte del plan de manejo de la reserva.

  6. Potencial de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais no controle de fitopatógenos

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    M.C.M. FONSECA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Além do valor como recurso terapêutico, plantas medicinais também possuem potencial para serem utilizadas como fonte de princípios ativos contra fitopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo, Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeirinha e Porophyllum ruderale (arnica-brasileira sobre o crescimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop, F. solani f. sp. phaseoli (Fsp, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss, S. minor (Sm, Rhizoctonia solani (Rs, Sclerotium rolfsii (Sr e Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp. Avaliou-se em placas de Petri o crescimento radial desses fungos em meio batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA com cinco concentrações (0, 250, 500, 1000 e 3000 mg L-1 dos óleos essenciais. Discos de micélio (5 mm de diâmetro de cada fungo em crescimento foram transferidos para placas de Petri que foram mantidas a 23°C no escuro por 48 horas. O óleo essencial de alecrim-do-campo foi o mais eficiente na redução do crescimento micelial de todos os fungos, com inibição completa quando se utilizou a concentração de 3000 mg L-1. A redução de crescimento variou de 29% (Fs a 80% (Rs a 250 mg L-1 do óleo essencial de alecrim-do-campo; a 500 mg L-1, variou de 29% (Fs a 98% (Sr; e a 1000 mg L-1, de 41% (Fs a 100% (Sr. A redução do crescimento dos fungos pelo óleo de aroeirinha na concentração de 3000 mg L-1 variou de 27% (Fsp a 74% (Rs. Nessa concentração, o óleo de arnica-brasileira reduziu o crecimento micelial de Ss em 72%, o de Rs em 80% e o de Mp em 82%, sem efeitos significativos sobre o crescimento micelial de Fsp e Fop. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de alecrim-do-campo, aroeirinha e arnica-brasileira possuem potencial para o controle dos fungos fitopatogênicos estudados, com destaque para o óleo de alecrim-do-campo.

  7. Ocorrência do uso de plantas medicinais por moradores de um bairro do município de Marília-SP

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    A. F. Macedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As plantas medicinais continuam ocupando lugar de destaque no arsenal terapêutico e muitas vezes, é o único recurso de muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi pesquisar a ocorrência do uso de plantas medicinais em residências de um bairro do município de Marília-SP. Foram entrevistados moradores de 150 residências do Jardim Lavínia, no período de março a julho de 2006. Foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados para o levantamento dos dados. Os resultados mostraram que 19,34% das residências, possuíam plantas e destas, 41,37% de Melissa officinalis, 31,03% de Matricaria chamomilla, 13,79% de Camellia sinensis, Mentha piperita e Foeniculum vulgare, 6,89% de Valeriana officinalis, Baccharis triptera, Peumus boldus e 27,52% outros. A indicação do uso foi de 55,17% por amigos/parentes, 13,79% por TV/Rádio, 13,79% por cultura/crenças, 6,89% não responderam e apenas 10,34% por prescrição médica. Das plantas medicinais encontradas, 31,25% eram utilizados de modo contrário à sua finalidade. Dos moradores entrevistados, 41,37% apresentavam idade acima de 46 anos e 31,03% possuíam ensino superior completo. Estes dados permitem concluir que mesmo o consumo sendo amplo no Brasil, ainda existe escassez de informação e a falta desta se dá também em indivíduos de nível superior, podendo gerar uso incorreto. Os meios de comunicação já não são mais os grandes vilões do estímulo do uso das plantas medicinais, a cultura popular faz com que as indicações sejam transmitidas de pessoa para pessoa, atingindo também a população mais favorecida economicamente. Palavras-chave: etnobotânica; plantas medicinais; farmacoterapia; fitoterápicos.

  8. Mixobiota do Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, SE, Brasil: Physarales Myxobiota of Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe State, Brazil: Physarales

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    Maria de Fátima de Andrade Bezerra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando contribuir com informações sobre a diversidade de Myxomycetes em florestas úmidas e savanas Neotropicais, foram inventariadas as espécies de Physarales associadas a diferentes microhabitats no Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil (10º40'52"S e 37º25'15"W, 180-670 m, 7966 ha. Durante 20 meses consecutivos foram efetuadas coletas de esporocarpos e de amostras de vários tipos de substratos a serem utilizados na preparação de 590 câmaras-úmidas. Coleções representativas do material estudado foram depositadas no Herbário UFP, com duplicatas no herbário MA - Fungi. A abundância e a constância de cada espécie foram determinadas. Apresenta-se uma lista comentada das sete espécies de Didymiaceae e 24 espécies de Physaraceae identificadas e sua distribuição no Brasil. As Physarales estão presentes em todos os microhabitats analisados, esporulando na estiagem e na estação chuvosa; fimícolas e suculentícolas foram registradas apenas em câmara-úmida. As espécies mais abundantes foram Physarum viride (Bull. Pers., P. stellatum (Massee G.W. Martin e P. cinereum (Batsch Pers. Exceto Diachea silvaepluvialis M.L. Farr, P. cinereume Physarum roseumBerk. & Broome, todos os táxons constituem primeira referência para Sergipe. Diderma rugosum (Rex T. Macbr., Didymium dubium Rostaf. e Physarum pulcherrimum Berk. & Ravenel estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o Brasil.The aims of this study were to obtain data on Myxomycete diversity in Neotropical forests and savannas and to determine the composition of the Physarales species assemblage associated with different microhabitats in Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe (10º 40'52"S; 37º 25'15"W, 180-670m alt., 7966 ha. During 20 months, sporocarps were collected and samples of substrata obtained for use in 590 moist-chamber cultures. Collections are deposited in the Herbaria UFP and MA - Fungi. The abundance and constancy of each species are given

  9. Occurrence situation and control countermeasures of bamboo diseases in Nanjing%南京地区竹类病害发生状况及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 吉静; 叶建仁

    2011-01-01

    To study the occurrence and prevalence of bamboo disease in Nanjing, this research carried out investigations on kinds of disease, damaged status on scattered and mixed bamboo by the way of field route reconnaissance and sample plot investigation from May 2007 to March 2009, as well as analyzed the main factors of the occurrence and prevalence of bamboo diseases. A total of 18 generas including 107 kinds of bamboo species had been investigated. The results showed that there were 15 kinds of bamboc diseases, among them, 13 kinds were fungal diseases, one kind was mite disease and one kind was non-infectious disease. Some bamboo diseases, such as bamboo witches' broom disease (Aciculosporium take), leaf withered type witches broom disease(Phaeosphaeria bambusae), bamboo stalk brown rot( Fusarium spp. ),Bamboo leaf rust(Puccinia spp. , Uredo ignava) and bamboo leaf rust brown spot(Schizotetranychus nanjingensis) were relatively serious. These diseases had great impact on bamboo production. The occurrence epidemic of bamboo diseases were closely related to bamboo species, environmental conditions and operational management. Based on this study, we proposed that the countermeasures, such as pay attention to matching tree species with site, proper management and bamboo diseases research as well as strengthen the plant quarantine, scientifically cultivate bamboo and intensify research efforts, should be exerted to improve the bamboo productivity.%为查清南京地区竹类病害发生流行状况,笔者通过野外路线踏查和标准地调查相结合,于2007年5月至2009年3月对该地区主要散、混生竹种系统开展了病害发生种类和危害状况调查,并对竹类病害发生流行的主导因子进行了分析.共调查竹种18属107种(含种下等级),发现竹类病害15种,其中真菌性病害13种、非侵染性病害1种和螨害1种.发生较严重的病害为竹丛枝病(Aciculosporium take)、竹叶枯型丛枝病(Phaeosphaeria bambusae

  10. 'There's the record, closed and final': Rough for Theatre II as Psychiatric Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Jonathan; Broome, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    A co-authored collaboration between a theatre practitioner and a clinical psychiatrist, this paper will examine Rough for Theatre II (RFTII) and Beckett's demonstration of the way records are used to understand the human subject. Using Beckett's play to explore interdisciplinary issues of embodiment and diagnosis, the authors will present a dialogue that makes use of the 'best sources' in precisely the same manner as the play's protagonists. One of those sources will be Beckett himself, as Heron will locate the play in its theatrical context through reflections upon his own practice (with Fail Better Productions, UK) as well as recent studies such as Beckett, Technology and the Body (Maude 2009) and Performing Embodiment in Samuel Beckett's Drama (McMullan 2010); another source will be the philosopher Wilhelm Windleband, whose 1901 History of Philosophy was read and noted upon by Beckett in the 1930s, as Broome will introduce a philosophical and psychiatric context to the exchange. Windelband is now a neglected figure in philosophy; but as one of the key figures of Neo-Kantianism in the late 19(th) century, his work was an important impetus to that of Rickert, Weber and Heidegger. Specifically, Windelband gives us the distinction between idiographic and nomothetic understanding of individuals, an approach that is of relevance to the psychiatric encounter. This academic dialogue will consider tensions between subjectivity and objectivity in clinical and performance practice, while examining Beckett's analysis of the use of case notes and relating them back to Windelband's ideas on the understanding of others. The dialogue took place in 2011 at the University of Warwick, and has since been edited by the authors. PMID:26892329

  11. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Micheli, Fabienne; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively. PMID:26949967

  12. Mid and thermal infrared remote sensing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.

    2016-05-01

    The mid and thermal infrared (MTIR) for the Earth surface is defined between 3 and 14µm. In the outer solar system, objects are colder and their Planck response shifts towards longer wavelengths. Hence for these objects (e.g. icy moons, polar caps, comets, Europa), the thermal IR definition usually stretches out to 50µm and beyond. Spectroscopy has been a key part of this scientific exploration because of its ability to remotely determine elemental and mineralogical composition. Many key gas species such as methane, ammonia, sulfur, etc. also have vibrational bands which show up in the thermal infrared spectrum above the background response. Over the past few decades, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been building up a portfolio of technology to capture the MTIR for various scientific applications. Three recent sensors are briefly reviewed: The airborne Hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer (HyTES), the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS)/DIVINER. Each of these sensors utilize a different technology to provide a remote sensing product based on MTIR science. For example, HyTES is a push-brooming hyperspectral imager which utilizes a large format quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The goal is to transition this to a new complementary barrier infrared photodetector (CBIRD) with a similar long wave cut-off and increased sensitivity. ECOSTRESS is a push-whisk Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) based high speed, multi-band, imager which will eventually observe and characterize plant/vegetation functionality and stress index from the International Space Station (ISS) across the contiguous United States (CONUS). MCS/DIVINER utilizes thermopile technology to capture the thermal emission from the polar caps and shadow regions of the moon. Each sensor utilizes specific JPL technology to capture unique science.

  13. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  14. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID

  15. Slav beliefs on changelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Ljubinko R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs and legends that certain mythological creatures - fairies, witches, the devil, (vile, veštice, đavo, boginka, mamuna, baenik, domovoj, leshi etc. can take away the child from the mother and exchange it for its own in the image of the abducted child, are widespread with the West and East Slavs, while with the South Slavs they are found only in the northern parts, in Pannonia. Such demonic child is most often called: podmeče (with the Serbs, podvršće (with the Croats, podmenek (with the Slovenians, odmienjec (with the Poles, odminok (with the Ukrainians, obmen (with the Russians, etc. According to the folk beliefs, a changeling differs from the other children by its sluggish growth, voraciousness, and persistent desire to harm or spite other members of the household. Slav legends mention the ways of stealing the human and planting the demonic child (a, recognizing the demonic child (b, and disposing of it and restoring the rightful child (c. In order to prevent the demon from exchanging her child, the mother must observe certain rules of conduct during pregnancy and in the 40 days following the childbirth. Certain measures of magical protection are also undertaken, as: placing sharp iron objects near the nursing woman, then brooms, leaving the candle to burn all night, burning frankincense in her presence, sprinkling her with holy water, etc. The legends on changelings were most probably adopted by the Slavs from the neighboring western peoples (Germans, and included in the already present beliefs that the birth of a child is a gift from the other world, and that the mother must take great care of the gift and be grateful for it. Otherwise, the one bestowing the gift may take it away as well.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging system for UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Yuquan

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is proposed under airborne remote sensing application background. By the application of Offner convex spherical grating spectral imaging system and using large area array detector push-broom imaging, hyperspectral imaging system with the indicators of 0.4μm to 1.0μm spectral range, 120 spectral bands, 5nm spectral resolution and 1m ground sampling interval (flight altitude 5km) is developed and completed. The Offner convex grating spectral imaging system is selected to achieve non-spectral line bending and colorless distortion design results. The diffraction efficiency is 15%-30% in the range of 0.4μm to 1.0μm wavelength. The system performances are tested by taking spectral and radiometric calibration methods in the laboratory. Based on monochromatic collimated light method for spectral performance parameters calibration of hyperspectral optical remote sensor, the analysis results of spectral calibration data show that the calibration test repeatability is less than 0.2 nm within one hour. The spectral scaling results show that the average spectral resolution of hyperspectral optical remote sensor is 4.94 nm, and the spatial dimension of the high-spectral optical remote sensor spectral resolution is less than 5 nm, the average of the typical spectral bandwidth is about 6 nm, the system average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is up to 43dB under typical operating conditions. Finally the system functionalities and performance indicators are verified by the aviation flight tests, which it's equipped on UAV. The actual image quality is good, and the spectral position is stable.

  17. Novel miniaturized hyperspectral sensor for UAV and space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Heikki; Aallos, Ville-Veikko; Akujärvi, Altti; Antila, Tapani; Holmlund, Christer; Kantojärvi, Uula; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ollila, Jyrki

    2009-09-01

    In many hyperspectral applications it is beneficial to produce 2D spatial images with a single exposure at a few selected wavelength bands instead of 1D spatial and all spectral band images like in push-broom instruments. VTT has developed a new concept based on the Piezo actuated Fabry-Perot Interferometer to enable recording of 2D spatial images at the selected wavelength bands simultaneously. The sensor size is compatible with light weight UAV platforms. In our spectrometer the multiple orders of the Fabry-Perot Interferometer are used at the same time matched to the sensitivities of a multispectral RGB-type image sensor channels. We have built prototypes of the new spectrograph fitting inside of a 40 mm x 40 mm x 20 mm envelope and with a mass less than 50 g. The operational wavelength range of built prototypes can be tuned in the range 400 - 1100 nm and the spectral resolution is in the range 5 - 10 nm @ FWHM. Presently the spatial resolution is 480 x 750 pixels but it can be increased simply by changing the image sensor. The hyperspectral imager records simultaneously a 2D image of the scenery at three narrow wavelength bands determined by the selected three orders of the Fabry-Perot Interferometer which depend on the air gap between the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot Cavity. The new sensor can be applied on UAV, aircraft, and other platforms requiring small volume, mass and power consumption. The new low cost hyperspectral imager can be used also in many industrial and medical applications.

  18. Programmable matched filter and Hadamard transform hyperspectral imagers based on micro-mirror arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), in which each pixel contains a high-resolution spectrum, is a powerful technique that can remotely detect, identify, and quantify a multitude of materials and chemicals. The advent of addressable micro-mirror arrays (MMAs) makes possible a new class of programmable hyperspectral imagers that can perform key spectral processing functions directly in the optical hardware, thus alleviating some of HSI's high computational overhead, as well as offering improved signal-to-noise in certain important regimes (e.g. when using uncooled infrared detectors). We have built and demonstrated a prototype UV-Visible micro-mirror hyperspectral imager that is capable not only of matched-filter imaging, but also of full hyperspectral imagery via the Hadamard transform technique. With this instrument, one can upload a chemical-specific spectral matched filter directly to the MMA, producing an image showing the location of that chemical without further processing. Target chemicals are changeable nearly instantaneously simply by uploading new matched-filter patterns to the MMA. Alternatively, the MMA can implement Hadamard mask functions, yielding a full-spectrum hyperspectral image upon inverting the transform. In either case, the instrument can produce the 2D spatial image either by an internal scan, using the MMA itself, or with a traditional external push-broom scan. The various modes of operation are selectable simply by varying the software driving the MMA. Here the design and performance of the prototype is discussed, along with experimental results confirming the signal-to-noise improvement produced by the Hadamard technique in the noisy-detector regime.

  19. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, EVOH-Piassava, for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 μm, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  20. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante por feixe de eletrons na incorporacao de fibra de Piacava (Attalea funifera Mart.) no copolimero de etileno e alcool vinilico (EVOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Beatriz Ribeiro

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, {sup E}VOH-Piassava{sup ,} for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 {mu}m, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  1. Darwin’s legacy in South African evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Johnson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the two decades after publication of the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin facilitated the publication of numerous scientific papers by settler naturalists in South Africa. This helped to establish the strong tradition of natural history which has characterised evolutionary research in South African museums, herbaria and universities. Significant developments in the early 20th century included the hominid fossil discoveries of Raymond Dart, Robert Broom, and others, but there was otherwise very little South African involvement in the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. Evolutionary biology developed into a distinct discipline in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s when it was dominated by mammalian palaeontology and a vigorous debate around species concepts. In the post-apartheid era, the main focus of evolutionary biology has been the construction of phylogenies for African plants and animals using molecular data, and the use of these phylogenies to answer questions about taxonomic classification and trait evolution. South African biologists have also recently contributed important evidence for some of Darwin’s ideas about plant–animal coevolution, sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in speciation. A bibliographic analysis shows that South African authors produce 2–3% of the world’s publications in the field of evolutionary biology, which is much higher than the value of about 0.5% for publications in all sciences. With its extraordinary biodiversity and well-developed research infrastructure, South Africa is an ideal laboratory from which to advance evolutionary research.

  2. Concept and integration of an on-line quasi-operational airborne hyperspectral remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Hendrik; Lenz, Andreas; Gross, Wolfgang; Perpeet, Dominik; Wuttke, Sebastian; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Modern mission characteristics require the use of advanced imaging sensors in reconnaissance. In particular, high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging provides promising data for many tasks such as classification and detecting objects of military relevance, such as camouflaged units or improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Especially in asymmetric warfare with highly mobile forces, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) needs to be available close to real-time. This demands the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in combination with downlink capability. The system described in this contribution is integrated in a wing pod for ease of installation and calibration. It is designed for the real-time acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. The main component is a Specim AISA Eagle II hyperspectral sensor, covering the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range with a spectral resolution up to 1.2 nm and 1024 pixel across track, leading to a ground sampling distance below 1 m at typical altitudes. The push broom characteristic of the hyperspectral sensor demands an inertial navigation system (INS) for rectification and georeferencing of the image data. Additional sensors are a high resolution RGB (HR-RGB) frame camera and a thermal imaging camera. For on-line application, the data is preselected, compressed and transmitted to the ground control station (GCS) by an existing system in a second wing pod. The final result after data processing in the GCS is a hyperspectral orthorectified GeoTIFF, which is filed in the ERDAS APOLLO geographical information system. APOLLO allows remote access to the data and offers web-based analysis tools. The system is quasi-operational and was successfully tested in May 2013 in Bremerhaven, Germany.

  3. Determining Spectral Reflectance Coefficients from Hyperspectral Images Obtained from Low Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Orych, A.; Siok, K.

    2016-06-01

    Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based), object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor mounted on an

  4. The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basedow, R.; Silverglate, P.; Rappoport, W.; Rockwell, R.; Rosenberg, D.; Shu, K.; Whittlesey, R.; Zalewski, E.

    The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or spectral noise, is a key driver behind the difficult combination of performance requirements laid out for HYDICE. Most of these involve the sensor optics and detector. This paper presents an optimized approach to those requirements, one that comprises push broom scanning, a single, mechanically cooled focal plane, a double-pass prism spectrometer, and an easily fabricated yet wide-field telescope. Central to the approach is a detector array that covers the entire spectrum from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. Among the major benefits conferred by such a design are optical and mechanical simplicity, low polarization sensitivity, and coverage of the entire spectrum without suffering the spectral gaps caused by beam splitters. The overall system minimizes interfaces to the C-141 aircraft on which it will be flown, can be calibrated on the ground and in flight to accuracies better than those required, and is designed for simple, push-button operation. Only unprocessed data are recorded during flight. A ground data processing station provides quick-look, calibration correction, and archiving capabilities, with a throughput better than the requirements. Overall performance of the system is expected to provide the solid database required to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral imagery in a wide variety of applications. HYDICE can be regarded as a test bed for future planetary instruments. The ability to spectrally image a wide field of view over multiple spectral octaves offers obvious advantages and is expected to maximize science return for the required cost and

  5. Measured performance of a low-cost thermal infrared pushbroom camera based on uncooled microbolometer FPA for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffray, Herve; Guerin, Francois

    2001-12-01

    The FUEGO system is a remote sensing satellite constellation aimed at providing early fire alarms throughout the forest fire risk area of Europe and other temperate areas. An excellent revisit time (<16 min.) can be achieved from a low earth orbit constellation of 12 mini-satellites. Each mini-satellite carries infrared sensors in MIR, TIR, and VIS/NIR bands operating in push-broom mode and a depointing mirror to cover a large swath. This can ensure early detection of fire outbreaks with a 2500 km swath. This paper presents the thermal infrared (TIR) camera characteristics. The main purposes of the TIR channels are the discrimination of clouds and detection of forest fire false alarms during low light or night operation. The main requirements for the TIR camera are: spectral range 8 - 12 micrometers ; FOV equals +/- 7.2 degree(s) (177 km on ground); ground resolution 369 m; NETD < 0.4 K 300 K (blackbody temperature); large dynamic range of radiance (equivalent blackbody temperature 240 K to 380 K). The TIR pushbroom camera is built around an off-the- shelf SOFRADIR microbolometer FPA of 320 X 240 elements with a pitch of 45 micrometers . The focal plane is uncooled and operates at T equals 303 K. The paper details the tests performed on the engineering model of the camera. More particularly, radiometric characterization and MTF measurement are described. The demonstrated camera performance together with the low cost and complexity of the camera offer a large field of opportunities for future space applications.

  6. Design of the Focal Plane for the Pleiades HR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Gérard; Le Goff, Roland; Deswarte, David

    This paper presents the design of the focal plane of the future French observation satellite PLEIADES. The purpose of this focal plane is to analyse images in panchromatic (Pa) as far as multi- spectral (Xs) bands in push-broom mode. The size of the observed image is close to 400 mm and it shall be analysed in 30.000 samples in Pa and 7.500 in Xs, resulting in an on- ground resolution lower than 1 meter in Pa. Compared to the previous French SPOT instrument series, the optical architecture is largely simplified : the Xs images are separated in the field of view and detected by four parallel CCD lines integrated in the same package. The spectral selection is made by means of strip filters placed very close in front of the Xs detector. Pa and Xs images are shifted in the field of view. Folding mirrors are used to cope with both constraints : the CCD package size and the required limitation of the distance Pa-Xs. The detection in Pa is made thanks to a Time Delay Integration (TDI) CCD in order to improve the radiometric performances. Five TDI CCD providing each 6000 pixels are optically butted to form a continuous line. The thermo-mechanical concept makes use of the characteristics of the SiC structure. It allows to evacuate the CCDs and their close electronics power towards a radiator while maintaining stable the detection lines geometry. The development is presently in phase B ; the phase C/D will start in 2002.

  7. Soil moisture estimation under a vegetation cover: combined active passive microwave remote sensing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data gathered during the NASA sponsored Multisensor Aircraft Campaign Hydrology (MACHYDRO) experiment in central Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) in July, 1990 have been analysed to study the combined use of active and passive microwave sensors for estimating soil moisture from vegetated areas. These data sets were obtained during an eleven-day period with NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over an instrumented watershed, which included agricultural fields with a number of different crop covers. Simultaneous ground truth measurements were also made in order to characterize the state of vegetation and soil moisture under a variety of meteorological conditions. Various multi-sensor techniques are currently under investigation to improve the accuracy of remote sensing estimates of the soil moisture in the presence of vegetation and surface roughness conditions using these data sets. One such algorithm involving combination of active and passive microwave sensors is presented here, and is applied to representative corn fields in the Mahantango watershed that was the focus of study during the MACHYDRO experiment. In this algorithm, a simple emission model is inverted to obtain Fresnel reflectivity in terms of ground and vegetation parameters. Since Fresnel reflectivity depends on soil dielectric constant, soil moisture is determined from reflectivity using dielectric-soil moisture relations. The algorithm requires brightness temperature, vegetation and ground parameters as the input parameters. The former is measured by a passive microwave technique and the later two are estimated by using active microwave techniques. The soil moisture estimates obtained by this combined use of active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques, show an excellent agreement with the in situ soil moisture measurements made during the MACHYDRO experiment. (author)

  8. Methodology for Determining Optimal Exposure Parameters of a Hyperspectral Scanning Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczykowski, P.; Siok, K.; Jenerowicz, A.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the presented research was to establish a methodology that would allow the registration of hyperspectral images with a defined spatial resolution on a horizontal plane. The results obtained within this research could then be used to establish the optimum sensor and flight parameters for collecting aerial imagery data using an UAV or other aerial system. The methodology is based on an user-selected optimal camera exposure parameters (i.e. time, gain value) and flight parameters (i.e. altitude, velocity). A push-broom hyperspectral imager- the Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR was used to conduct this research. The measurement station consisted of the following equipment: a hyperspectral camera MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR, a personal computer with HyperSpec III software, a slider system which guaranteed the stable motion of the sensor system, a white reference panel and a Siemens star, which was used to evaluate the spatial resolution. Hyperspectral images were recorded at different distances between the sensor and the target- from 5m to 100m. During the registration process of each acquired image, many exposure parameters were changed, such as: the aperture value, exposure time and speed of the camera's movement on the slider. Based on all of the registered hyperspectral images, some dependencies between chosen parameters had been developed: - the Ground Sampling Distance - GSD and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the speed of the camera and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the exposure time and the gain value, - the Density Number and the gain value. The developed methodology allowed us to determine the speed and the altitude of an unmanned aerial vehicle on which the sensor would be mounted, ensuring that the registered hyperspectral images have the required spatial resolution.

  9. Rugged: an operational, open-source solution for Sentinel-2 mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonobe, Luc; Seyral, Jean; Prat, Guylaine; Guinet, Jonathan; Espesset, Aude

    2015-10-01

    When you map the entire Earth every 5 days with the aim of generating high-quality time series over land, there is no room for geometrical error: the algorithms have to be stable, reliable, and precise. Rugged, a new open-source library for pixel geolocation, is at the geometrical heart of the operational processing for Sentinel-2. Rugged performs sensor-to-terrain mapping taking into account ground Digital Elevation Models, Earth rotation with all its small irregularities, on-board sensor pixel individual lines-of-sight, spacecraft motion and attitude, and all significant physical effects. It provides direct and inverse location, i.e. it allows the accurate computation of which ground point is viewed from a specific pixel in a spacecraft instrument, and conversely which pixel will view a specified ground point. Direct and inverse location can be used to perform full ortho-rectification of images and correlation between sensors observing the same area. Implemented as an add-on for Orekit (Orbits Extrapolation KIT; a low-level space dynamics library), Rugged also offers the possibility of simulating satellite motion and attitude auxiliary data using Orekit's full orbit propagation capability. This is a considerable advantage for test data generation and mission simulation activities. Together with the Orfeo ToolBox (OTB) image processing library, Rugged provides the algorithmic core of Sentinel-2 Instrument Processing Facilities. The S2 complex viewing model - with 12 staggered push-broom detectors and 13 spectral bands - is built using Rugged objects, enabling the computation of rectification grids for mapping between cartographic and focal plane coordinates. These grids are passed to the OTB library for further image resampling, thus completing the ortho-rectification chain. Sentinel-2 stringent operational requirements to process several terabytes of data per week represented a tough challenge, though one that was well met by Rugged in terms of the robustness and

  10. Multiple Human Papilloma Virus 16 Infection Presenting as Various Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-06-01

    The 53-year-old woman admitted with multiple persistent, progressive, slightly raised, red, and crusted plague form masses that suddenly occurred on left thumb, both upper and lower extremity about 10 years ago. There was no induration in the lesion or in its surrounding skin. There was no unusual opinion on a radiologic test and family history. And she had no history of working in the business related to any chemical product such as arsenic or tar which was carcinogen. The patient has had total hysterectomy to treat uterine myoma 10 years ago. The wide excision and split thickness skin graft of 2 × 1.5 cm was performed around mass in the size of 1.5 × 1.2 cm on the left thumb and wide excision and local advancement flap was done on the other sites. As a result of biopsy, masses were diagnosed as Bowen disease, actinic keratosis, and Seborrheic keratosis. These specimens were obtained during surgery: broom-type cell sampling devices were used to collect samples from the specimens, and they were placed into PreservCyt solution (Cytyc Corp, Boxborough, MA). Then, the collected samples underwent the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ) that allows for the simultaneous identification of human papilloma virus (HPV) types from liquid-based cell preparations. On histopathological examination of the surgical specimen, atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The entire tumor was confined to the epidermis and did not invade into the dermis. The cells were often highly atypical. That were the irregular shape which the resection margin of masses had a negative tumor component. And HPV 16 genotyping test was positive although vaginal examination of HPV 16 genotyping was negative. PMID:27192658

  11. Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14

  12. Application Research on Laser Imaging Fuze in Air-to-air Missiles%激光成像引信在空空导弹中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董康生; 曹林平; 韩统; 黄汉桥; 蔡佳

    2013-01-01

    Laser imaging fuse has a strong anti-stealth and anti-electromagnetic interference capacity. In the application of laser imaging fuse to air-to-air missile the design problems of fuse front rake and fuse detection range have to be solved. Based on analyzing the principle of the push-broom method laser imaging fuse, the measurement model of laser footprint size and the mathematic model of fuse front rake and fuse detection range are established. The design criterion of fuse front rake and fuse detection range and their relationship to fuse-warhead match by simulation in variety conditions are acquired, which provide a reference in theory to the application of laser imaging fuse in air-to-air missile.%针对激光成像引信在空空导弹中的应用要解决引信前倾角和引信探测距离的设计问题,在分析激光成像引信推扫成像原理的基础上,建立了激光引信脚印尺寸模型和引信前倾角与探测距离模型,通过仿真得到了最佳引信前倾角和探测距离的设计指标:最佳引信前倾角为15°~40°,相应最佳引信探测距离为70~24 m.

  13. Atividade de enzimas associadas ao estado de indução em mudas de cacaueiro expostas a dois actinomicetos residentes de filoplano Activity of enzymes associates of induced resistance on cocoa seedlings exposed of two actinomycetes phylloplane residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Macagnan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dois antagonistas selecionados para o biocontrole da vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro foram avaliados quanto à capacidade em ativar mecanismos de defesa de plantas contra patógenos. Para tanto, mudas seminais de cacaueiro "comum" foram cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação por 30 dias e expostas aos antagonistas aplicados a mudas de cacaueiro por atomização, individualmente e em associação. O primeiro par de folhas das mudas dos diferentes tratamentos foi coletado aos dois, quatro, 12 e 24 dias após a exposição aos antagonistas. Foi quantificada a atividade de peroxidases, polifenoloxidases, quitinases e beta-1,3-glucanases no material coletado. Observou-se um aumento na atividade de peroxidases e polifenoloxidases nos primeiros dias após a exposição das mudas, especialmente ao isolado Ac26. Não foi observado efeito aditivo ou sinergístico nas mudas expostas aos dois isolados simultaneamente.Two antagonists selected for the biocontrol of cocoa witches' broom were investigated for their ability in triggering increases in the activity of enzymes associated to induced resistance. In a greenhouse, thirty days old cocoa seedlings were exposed t antagonists by spraying a propagule suspension of every antagonist or a mixture of them. At two, four 12 and 24 days exposing plants to the antagonists, the first leaf pair of every plant was excised and used for quantifying the activity of peroxidases, poly-phenol-oxidases, chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases. There were increases in activity of peroxidases, poly-phenol-oxidases, mainly in the case of isolate Ac26. Additive or synergistic effects were not observed as a consequence of exposing plants to both antagonists together.

  14. A custom hardware classifier for bruised apple detection in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Javier; Figueroa, Miguel; Pezoa, Jorge E.

    2015-09-01

    We present a custom digital architecture for bruised apple classification using hyperspectral images in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The algorithm classifies each pixel in an image into one of three classes: bruised, non-bruised, and background. We extract two 5-element feature vectors for each pixel using only 10 out of the 236 spectral bands provided by the hyperspectral camera, thereby greatly reducing both the requirements of the imager and the computational complexity of the algorithm. We then use two linear-kernel support vector machine (SVM) to classify each pixel. Each SVM was trained with 504 windows of size 17×17-pixel taken from 14 hyperspectral images of 320×320 pixels each, for each class. The architecture then computes the percentage of bruised pixels in each apple in order to adequately classify the fruit. We implemented the architecture on a Xilinx Zynq Z-7010 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and tested it on images from a NIR N17E push-broom camera with a frame rate of 25 fps, a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz, and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers in laboratory conditions. Using 28-bit fixed-point arithmetic, the circuit accurately discriminates 95.2% of the pixels corresponding to an apple, 81% of the pixels corresponding to a bruised apple, and 96.4% of the background. With the default threshold settings, the highest false positive (FP) for a bruised apple is 18.7%. The circuit operates at the native frame rate of the camera, consumes 67 mW of dynamic power, and uses less than 10% of the logic resources on the FPGA.

  15. Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas todiverse environments of their insect and plant hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Ewing, Adam; Miller, Sally A.; Radek, Agnes; Shevchenko, Dimitriy; Tsukerman, Kiryl; Walunas, Theresa; Lapidus, Alla; Campbell, John W.; Hogenhout Saskia A.

    2006-02-17

    Phytoplasmas (Candidatus Phytoplasma, Class Mollicutes) cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants, and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafhoppers and psyllids. The 706,569-bp chromosome and four plasmids of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches broom (AY-WB) were sequenced and compared to the onion yellows phytoplasma strain M (OY-M) genome. The phytoplasmas have small repeat-rich genomes. The repeated DNAs are organized into large clusters, potential mobile units (PMUs), which contain tra5 insertion sequences (ISs), and specialized sigma factors and membrane proteins. So far, PMUs are unique to phytoplasmas. Compared to mycoplasmas, phytoplasmas lack several recombination and DNA modification functions, and therefore phytoplasmas probably use different mechanisms of recombination, likely involving PMUs, for the creation of variability, allowing phytoplasmas to adjust to the diverse environments of plants and insects. The irregular GC skews and presence of ISs and large repeated sequences in the AY-WB and OY-M genomes are indicative of high genomic plasticity. Nevertheless, segments of {approx}250 kb, located between genes lplA and glnQ are syntenic between the two phytoplasmas, contain the majority of the metabolic genes and no ISs. AY-WB is further along in the reductive evolution process than OY-M. The AY-WB genome is {approx}154 kb smaller than the OY-M genome, primarily as a result of fewer multicopy sequences, including PMUs. Further, AY-WB lacks genes that are truncated and are part of incomplete pathways in OY-M. This is the first comparative phytoplasma genome analysis and report of the existence of PMUs in phytoplasma genomes.

  16. A multidimensional approach for striping noise compensation in hyperspectral imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Pablo; Parra, Francisca; Torres, Sergio N.; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Coelho, Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Algorithms for striping noise compensation (SNC) for push-broom hyperspectral cameras (PBHCs) are primarily based on image processing techniques. These algorithms rely on the spatial and temporal information available at the readout data; however, they disregard the large amount of spectral information also available at the data. In this paper such flaw has been tackled and a multidimensional approach for SNC is proposed. The main assumption of the proposed approach is the short-term stationary behavior of the spatial, spectral, and temporal input information. This assumption is justified after analyzing the optoelectronic sampling mechanism carried out by PBHCs. Namely, when the wavelength-resolution of hyperspectral cameras is high enough with respect to the target application, the spectral information at neighboring photodetectors in adjacent spectral bands can be regarded as a stationary input. Moreover, when the temporal scanning of hyperspectral information is fast enough, consecutive temporal and spectral data samples can also be regarded as a stationary input at a single photodetector. The strength and applicability of the multidimensional approach presented here is illustrated by compensating for stripping noise real hyperspectral images. To this end, a laboratory prototype, based on a Photonfocus Hurricane hyperspectral camera, has been implemented to acquire data in the range of 400-1000 [nm], at a wavelength resolution of 1.04 [nm]. A mobile platform has been also constructed to simulate and synchronize the scanning procedure of the camera. Finally, an image-processing-based SNC algorithm has been extended yielding an approach that employs all the multidimensional information collected by the camera.

  17. ETHNOBOTANICAL USES OF LANTANA TRIFOLIA L. AND SIDA CUNEIFOLIA ROXB. IN MUKUNGWE AND WABINYONYI SUB-COUNTIES OF CENTRAL UGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nalubega

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This was an ethnobotanical study that was carried out to establish the traditional uses of Lantana trifolia L. and Sida cuneifolia Roxb. plants in selected parts of Central Uganda. Methods: The ethnobotanical study was done in August and September, 2012 in Mukungwe and Wabinyonyi sub-counties in Masaka and Nakasongola Districts respectively located in Central Uganda. Study sites and respondents were purposefully selected and information was obtained through semi-structured interview guides, key informant interview guides as well as observations. Eighty respondents were considered for semi-structured interviews and 15 for key informant interviews. Results: Seven ethnobotanical uses for Lantana trifolia were cited by respondents and majority (46.25% of them used it as a herbal remedy. As a herbal remedy, Lantana trifolia managed 13 human disease conditions and mainly used in the management of cough and common colds by 22.5% of the respondents. Four ethnobotanical uses were cited for Sida cuneifolia and majority of the respondents (62.5% used it as a herbal remedy as well as sweeping brooms. As a herbal remedy, Sida cuneifolia was reported to be useful in management of 12 disease conditions, fractures and sprains (bone setting being mentioned by the majority of the of respondents (36.25 %. Conclusion: In conclusion, Lantana trifolia and Sida cuneifolia were culturally important ethnomedicines. Scientific validation of traditional claims as well as conservation of these plants should be encouraged in order to preserve and promote their use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 155-164

  18. Effects of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae on the central nervous system in experimental animals

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    Al-Tubuly Rida A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘raetam’ or ‘broom bush’, is a desert shrub that grows abundantly in North-African countries, Palestine and Syria. Traditionally, this plant has been used as an abortifacient, a purgative and a vermifuge. In the present study, the effect of the methanol (MeOH extract of the aerial parts of R. raetam on the central nervous system (CNS has been evaluated using a mice model. In the photoelectrical cell test, the extract of R. raetam (ERR at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight did not exhibit any effect on the spontaneous motor activity in mice. At a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, ERR increased ambulatory movement, but had no effect on the non-ambulatory movement, while a dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased both ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. The effect of ERR on the anxiety levels and behaviors of mice was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. At doses of 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg body weight, ERR decreased anxiety levels without showing an effect on the total activity; it did not affect anxiety levels but increased the total activity; it increased anxiety levels and decreased the total activity, respectively. In the diazepam-induced sleep test, ERR increased the onset of sleep without affecting the duration of sleep at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. The dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased the onset of sleep while increasing the duration of sleep. ERR did not exhibit any effect on the diazepam-induced sleep in the presence of flumazenil or picrotoxin.

  19. The natural endocast of Taung (Australopithecus africanus): insights from the unpublished papers of Raymond Arthur Dart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Dart's 1925 announcement of Australopithecus africanus (Dart: Nature 115 [1925] 195-199) was highly controversial, partly because of an interpretation of the Taung natural endocast that rested on an erroneous identification of the lambdoid suture as the lunate sulcus. Unpublished materials from the University of Witwatersrand Archives (Dart, unpublished material) reveal that Dart reacted to the controversy by: 1) describing and illustrating the entire sulcal pattern on the Taung endocast, in contrast to just two sulcal identifications in 1925, 2) identifying a hypothetical part of the lambdoid suture and revising his description of the lunate sulcus, and 3) bolstering his argument that Taung's brain was advanced by detailing expansions in three significant cortical association areas. Four unpublished illustrations of Dart's identifications for sulci and sutures on the Taung endocast are compared here with those published by Keith (Keith: New discoveries relating to the antiquity of man (1931)), Schepers (Schepers: The endocranial casts of the South African ape-men. In: Broom R, Schepers GWH, editors. The South African fossil ape-men; the Australopithecinae [1946] p 155-272), and Falk (Falk: Am J Phys Anthropol 53 [1980] 525-539), and the thorny issue of the location of the lunate sulcus is revisited in light of new information. Archival materials reveal that Dart believed that Taung's brain was reorganized globally rather than in a mosaic manner, and that the shapes of certain cortical association areas showed that Australopithecus was closer to Pithecanthropus than to the living apes. Although a few of Dart's hitherto-unpublished sulcal identifications, including his revision for the lunate sulcus, were questionable, his claim that the Taung endocast reproduced a shape that was advanced toward a human condition in its prefrontal cortex and caudally protruded occipital lobe was correct. PMID:19890860

  20. Space technology developments in Malaysia:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirin, A.

    The venture of space is, by nature, a costly one. However, exploring space is not just an activity reserved for international superpowers. Smaller and emerging space nations, some with burgeoning space programs of their own, can play a role in space technology development and interplanetary exploration, sometimes simply by just being there. Over the past four decades, the range of services delivered by space technologies in Malaysia has grown enormously. For many business and public services, space based technologies have become the primary means of delivery of such services. Space technology development in Malaysia started with Malaysia's first microsatellite, TiungSAT-1. TiungSAT-1 has been successfully launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on the 26th of September 2000 on a Russian-Ukrainian Dnepr rocket. There have been wide imaging applications and information extraction using data from TiungSAT-1. Various techniques have been applied to the data for different applications in environmental assessment and monitoring as well as resource management. As a step forward, Malaysia has also initiated another space technology programme, RAZAKSAT. RAZAKSAT is a 180kg class satellite designed to provide 2.5meter ground sampling distance resolution imagery on a near equatorial orbit. Its mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a medium high resolution remote sensing camera using a cost effective small satellite platform and a multi-channel linear push-broom electro-optical instrument. Realizing the immense benefits of space technology and its significant role in promoting sustainable development, Malaysia is committed to the continuous development and advancement of space technology within the scope of peaceful use of outer space and boosting its national economic growth through space related activities.

  1. Abundance of red-listed species in infrastructure habitats – ”responsibility species” as a priority-setting tool for transportation agencies´ conservation action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Olof Helldin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road and railroad verges may contribute to nature conservation by providing habitat for many species, but due to limited resources, there is a need to select the most important road and railroad stretches for adapted management. We explore the responsibility species concept as a tool for the Swedish Transport Administration to make this selection. We propose lists of candidate responsibility species based on relative abundance of conservation priority species in the vicinity of roads and railroads, respectively. Abundance data were derived from crowd-sourced species observations. Species with ≥20% of observations in infrastructure habitats were included as candidate responsibility species. For roads 32 species were included in the list, for railroads seven species, with an overlap of three species between the lists. We analyzed habitat and management requirements of the listed species to try identifying functional groups. Most of the species require open or semi-open habitats, mainly dry grassland or heathland on sandy or limy soil, un-sprayed crop fields, or solitary trees. Host plants or substrates include broom (genus Genista, patches of bare soil, and sun exposed wood. Conservation actions prescribed for the species include, e.g., late or irregular mowing, removal of the field layer, planting of host species, protecting and providing particular substrates, and special protection of certain sites. We argue that road and railroad managers are particularly well suited to conduct most of these actions. We consider the responsibility species concept to be a useful tool for transportation agencies to set priorities for adapted verge management, and the current method to be effective in identifying a first list of candidate species. We discuss the possibility of also identifying responsibility habitats or general management measures based on the results.

  2. Extratos de Moringa oleifera e Vernonia sp. sobre Candida albicans e Microsporum canis isolados de cães e gatos e análise da toxicidade em Artemia sp. Moringa oleifera and Vernonia sp. extracts against Candida albicans and Microsporum canis isolates from dogs and cats and analysis of toxicity to Artemia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da incidência das infecções fúngicas, bem como o registro crescente de resistência e falha terapêutica, têm impulsionado a realização de estudos de prospecção de fitoquímicos com propriedades antifúngicas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo investigou o potencial antifúngico de extratos de Baccharis ligustrina, B. schultzii, Croton jacobinensis, Licania rigida, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia sp. e V. brasiliana, e de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba (Quimiotipos 1, 2, 3 e 4 e Ocimum gratissimum. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma avaliação qualitativa da atividade antifúngica de cada amostra por meio do método de difusão em ágar, frente a cepas de Candida albicans e Microsporum canis, mostrando que apenas os extratos de M. oleifera (MLF-C e Vernonia sp. (TVS-H apresentaram atividade frente a C. albicans e M. canis, com halos de inibição =10mm. Também foram determinadas a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, frente a 12 cepas de C. albicans e M. canis, e a toxicidade aguda de MLF-C e TVS-H, através de protocolos do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI e ensaio com Artemia sp., respectivamente. A CIM (80% de MLF-C e TVS-H variou de 0,156 a 2,5mg mL-1 frente C. albicans e de 0,039 a 1,25 e 0,039 a 0,625mg mL-1 para M. canis, respectivamente. A CIM (100% de MLF-C e TVS-H variou de 0,625 a 2,5mg mL-1 frente C. albicans é de 0,039 a 2,5 e 0,078 a 1,25mg mL-1 para M. canis, respectivamente. As doses letais (DL50 para o MLF-C e TVS-H foram de 201,09 e 204,17mg mL-1, respectivamente, sendo, portanto, demonstrada a baixa toxicidade desses extratos. Os extratos de M. oileifera e Vernonia sp. apresentaram atividade antifúngica frente cepas de C. albicans e M. canis, abrindo a perspectiva de estudos para caracterização dos seus componentes bioativos.The increase in the incidence of fungal infections and the frequent report of resistance and therapeutic failure has promoted the performance of phytochemical

  3. Insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas invasoras de áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas Galling insects associated with two species of ruderal plants in urban and peri urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genimar R. Julião

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos têm sido considerados importantes indicadores de mudanças ambientais e da qualidade de habitats. Apesar de seu hábito séssil, fácil visualização, abundância, e especificidade de hospedeiro, insetos indutores de galhas não têm sido utilizados em estudos desta natureza. Neste estudo foi investigado o uso potencial de insetos galhadores associados a duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras ruderais (Baccharis dracunculifolia e Vernonia polyanthes: Asteraceae como bioindicadores da qualidade de habitats. Procurou-se responder às seguintes questões: (i A diversidade de insetos galhadores é afetada pelo tipo de uso e ocupação da paisagem (solo?; (ii A resposta das comunidades de insetos galhadores difere entre as duas espécies de plantas hospedeiras?; (iii A diversidade de insetos galhadores é influenciada por características bióticas e físicas dos biótopo urbanos? Foram coletadas 6.226 galhas, pertinentes a 6 espécies de insetos galhadores associados à V. polyanthes e 11 espécies associadas à B. dracunculifolia. Não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença na riqueza de insetos galhadores entre os biótopos amostrados. No entanto, a abundância de insetos galhadores apresentou diferenças significativas quanto ao tipo de uso e ocupação da paisagem. As galhas foram mais numerosas em biótopos menos urbanizados, sendo observado uma relação forte e positiva com a porcentagem de cobertura vegetal do biótopo. As comunidades de insetos galhadores de ambas as espécies de plantas hospedeiras apresentaram respostas diferenciais quanto ao tipo de uso da paisagem. Os resultados sugerem três fatores que podem estar envolvidos com a diversidade de insetos galhadores em áreas urbanas: (i estrutura dos habitats num biótopo; (ii abundância e distribuição espacial do recurso planta hospedeira e; (iii freqüência e intensidade do manejo de reservas, parques, jardins e terrenos baldios de uma dada área urbana. Constatou-se ainda

  4. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2006-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid

  5. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  6. Flora asociada a la actividad melífera en apiarios al sur del departamento del Huila, macizo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudas Lleras Agustín

    2006-12-01

    micrantha, Bidens pilosa, Baccharis nitida, Coffea arabica y Cedrela sp.. Adicionalmente se consideran como especies importantes de la flora melífera a Toxicodendron striatum, Viburnum cornifolium, Vismia baccifera, Hyptis pseudosinuata, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium e Inga cocleensis, que a diferencia de las anteriores presentan índices de importancia más bajos pero están presentes en las tres localidades muestreadas y poseen un amplio espectro de hábitats. Se presenta un catálogo digital con fotos de alta resolución de 109 especies, correspondientes a 44 familias, de los cuales 61 especies hacen parte de la flora melífera reconocida. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán escoger especies melíferas de mayor importancia para iniciar trabajos de calendarios florales y ofertas de néctar, además de proponer el manejo de especies poco comunes que además de poseer importancia melífera pueden generar otros beneficios ecológicos y financieros. Este trabajo junto con la caracterización de la vegetación de las mismas zonas, permitirán establecer la capacidad de carga apícola de acuerdo a la oferta ambiental de la zona.

  7. Single-photon, Dual-color, Polarimetric Laser Altimeter Measurements of Lake Ice Freeboard, Roughness and Scattering Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Dabney, P.; Valett, S.; Shuman, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is an advanced technology airborne laser altimeter developed with a focus on remote sensing of ice sheets and sea ice including their melt state. Its development was sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program. SIMPL utilizes micropulse single photon laser ranging at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths in a four-beam push-broom configuration. Currently, the instrument is capable of flight altitudes of up to 5000 m; this spreads the 4 profiles over a cross-track distance of 30 m providing an estimate of both along-track and cross-track slope magnitudes and directions. For both wavelengths on each beam, depolarization is measured as the ratio of received energy perpendicular and parallel to the plane-polarized transmit beams. The precision of the single photon ranges is 8 cm and a range observation is acquired every 5 to 10 cm at airborne flight speeds. This performance enables measurement of ice freeboard and surface roughness at 5 m length scales based on the height dispersion of single photon ranges aggregated along the profiles. The depolarization ratio is a function of the scattering properties of the target, specifically the proportions of specular reflection and surface and volume scattering. The relationship between surface roughness and depolarization at green and near-IR wavelengths will be illustrated using data acquired during flights over Lake Erie ice cover in February 2009, an analog for sea ice. Observed in simultaneously acquired digital video frames, the ice cover appears to be a heterogeneous amalgamation of ice types, thicknesses and ages. The lake ice is covered by snow in places and contains numerous open water leads to enable ice freeboard detection relative to the water surface. The depolarization ratio differentiates open water, young clear ice, older granular ice and snow cover. The variability of the ratio along a

  8. Mycelial development preceding basidioma formation in Moniliophthora perniciosa is associated to chitin, sugar and nutrient metabolism alterations involving autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dayane Santos; Lopes, Maíza Alves; Menezes, Sara Pereira; Ribeiro, Lidiane Figueredo; Dias, Cristiano Villela; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Pires, Acassia Benjamin Leal; Goes-Neto, Aristóteles; Micheli, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We identified and characterized two chitinases, named MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2, from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa - the etiologic agent of witches' broom disease in cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) - during its development, mainly in the mycelia phases preceding the basidioma formation. The expression of MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2, together with MpCHS and MpATG8 (chitin synthase and autophagy genes, respectively), was analyzed during the M. perniciosa growth and development on bran-based solid medium as well as in liquid medium containing H2O2 or rapamycin (oxidative and nutritional related-autophagy stress agents, respectively). In order to link the expression of chitin metabolism-related genes to nutritional composition influencing fungus development, we also quantified total and reduced sugars, as well as macro- and micronutrients in the bran-based solid medium. The expression analysis showed that the MpCHS expression increased through mycelial development and then decreased in the primordium and basidioma phases, while the expression of MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 was higher in basidioma and primordium phases, respectively. Moreover, the expression pattern of MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 is distinct, the second correlated with the MpATG8 expression pattern and possibly with autophagy process, while the first may be related to the basidioma formation. The quantification of total and reduced sugars, as well as macro- and micronutrients supported the idea that the cell wall restructuration due to MpCHS, MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 is related to stress and fungal nutrient reallocation, allowing the formation and development of the basidioma. Experiments involving M. perniciosa growth on liquid medium containing H2O2 or rapamycin showed that MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 were over-expressed in response to oxidative but also to nutritional related-autophagy stresses. Interestingly, the expression level of MpCHS, MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 in presence of rapamycin is similar to the one observed in the primordium

  9. Observaciones sobre características, distribución y daños de sinfilidos (Symphyla y otros organismos del suelo en cultivos de piña, Ananas comosus, del Valle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga C. José Iván

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Como en los últimos años los cultivos de piña, Ananas comosus, del Valle, han sido atacados por sinfílifos, clasificados por el Dr. Evert Lindquist como Scutigerella inmaculata, se estudiaron aspectos biológicos, distribución, daños y relaciones con algunos microorganismos. Mediante encuestas e inspecciones al suelo y plantas se verificó su presencia en Palmira, Pradera, Buga, Buga la grande, Sevilla, Dagua y Darién, principales zonas productoras de piña en este departamento. Ensayos en laboratorio demostraron Que S. inmaculata es de hábitos alimenticios saprófagos y/o fitófagos y de esta forma puede producir daños a las raíces de la pila, causando el síntoma de "escoba", enrojecimiento al follaje y debilidad en la planta; también se demostró que 3 sinfílidos/plante producen los síntomas del ataque. El sinfílido se presenta desde semillero, siendo los ataques tempranos los más graves, causando pérdidas en raíces del 66% aproximadamente.Pineapples culture Ananas comosus of Valle, they have been attacked by symphylids last vean (Symphyla, classified by Dr. Evert Lindquist like Scutigerella inmaculata. Biologie aspects, distribution, harms and relationships with some microorganisms some studied in this work. This has a wide distribution on Valle and through surveys and inspections over soil and plants their presance was verified in Palmira, Pradera, Buga; Bugalagrande, Sevilla, Dagua y Darién, the main producer pineapple zones in this department. Laboratory essays showed that this symphilids has saphrophytes and plant eater food habits and by this way could produce harm the pineapples roots causing symptom "broom", foliage getting red color and weakness in plant; also is shown that three symphylids per plant produce tipical symptom of attacking. It is made evident from seed bed being early attacks were more grave causing' root losses about 66% (percent aproximatilly.

  10. LISS-4 camera for Resourcesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sandip; Dave, Himanshu; Dewan, Chirag; Kumar, Pradeep; Sansowa, Satwinder Singh; Dave, Amit; Sharma, B. N.; Verma, Anurag

    2006-12-01

    The Indian Remote Sensing Satellites use indigenously developed high resolution cameras for generating data related to vegetation, landform /geomorphic and geological boundaries. This data from this camera is used for working out maps at 1:12500 scale for national level policy development for town planning, vegetation etc. The LISS-4 Camera was launched onboard Resourcesat-1 satellite by ISRO in 2003. LISS-4 is a high-resolution multi-spectral camera with three spectral bands and having a resolution of 5.8m and swath of 23Km from 817 Km altitude. The panchromatic mode provides a swath of 70Km and 5-day revisit. This paper briefly discusses the configuration of LISS-4 Camera of Resourcesat-1, its onboard performance and also the changes in the Camera being developed for Resourcesat-2. LISS-4 camera images the earth in push-broom mode. It is designed around a three mirror un-obscured telescope, three linear 12-K CCDs and associated electronics for each band. Three spectral bands are realized by splitting the focal plane in along track direction using an isosceles prism. High-speed Camera Electronics is designed for each detector with 12- bit digitization and digital double sampling of video. Seven bit data selected from 10 MSBs data by Telecommand is transmitted. The total dynamic range of the sensor covers up to 100% albedo. The camera structure has heritage of IRS- 1C/D. The optical elements are precisely glued to specially designed flexure mounts. The camera is assembled onto a rotating deck on spacecraft to facilitate +/- 26° steering in Pitch-Yaw plane. The camera is held on spacecraft in a stowed condition before deployment. The excellent imageries from LISS-4 Camera onboard Resourcesat-1 are routinely used worldwide. Such second Camera is being developed for Resourcesat-2 launch in 2007 with similar performance. The Camera electronics is optimized and miniaturized. The size and weight are reduced to one third and the power to half of the values in Resourcesat

  11. Overview of Initial Results from CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, F.; Murchie, S.; Mustard, J.; Pelkey, S.; Roach, L.; Elhmann, B.; Arvidson, R.; Wiseman, S.; Milliken, R.; CRISM Team

    2007-05-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) reached 100 days of primary science phase operations on February 15th, 2007. Over this time period, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral observations and contextual multispectral survey data of type localities that record water-rock interaction through much of the geologic history of Mars. CRISM's primary science objectives are to characterize the mineralogical record of past aqueous environments and to monitor the contemporary spatial and seasonal distributions of volatiles in the surface-atmosphere system. These objectives are accomplished through an observation strategy that includes targeted data acquisition, atmospheric and seasonal monitoring, and global mapping. Targeted observations are acquired by gimbaling the instrument along-track to reduce apparent ground motion, resulting in a spatial resolution of 15-20 m/pixel in 544 wavelengths from 362 to 3920 nm. As a part of each targeted observation 10 additional spatially binned images are acquired at different atmospheric path lengths, creating an emission phase function (EPF) that allows surface-atmosphere separation in the analysis of the observed radiance. The atmospheric and seasonal monitoring campaigns consist of global grids of EPF measurements at regular Ls intervals. In CRISM's global mapping campaign, data are acquired in a push broom observing mode at a reduced spatial and spectral resolution of 200m/pxl and 72 selected spectral channels. Initial data analysis reveals evidence for environmental variability throughout Martian history. Noachian deposits exhibit diverse phyllosilicate mineralogy in a greater number of geologic units than previously recognized. Distinct mineralogic signatures are sometimes separated only by hundreds of meters, indicating variability in alteration environment or parent rock composition. Hesperian layered deposits exhibit strong vertical heterogeneity with

  12. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiza Botelho Leal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  13. ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX AND LDL-RECEPTOR GENE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SEVERE HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vladimirova-Kitova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue with the different levels of ankle-brachial index, as screening for LDL-receptor defective gene in newly detected asymptomatic severe hypercholesterolemia is less studied, but quite interesting. There have not been any studies on ankle-brachial index in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia in Bulgaria. Aim: To examine the difference between patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, who are carriers and non-carriers of LDL-R defective gene, with respect to their structural (ankle-brachial index characteristics of arterial wall. Methods and materials: 60 patients with documented severe hypercholesterolemia >7.5 mmol/l satisfying the Simon-Broom criteria for clinically established and probable Familial Hypercholesterolemia were studied. All of the patients had a negative stress echocardiography and not known coronary artery disease. The laboratory used was the Clinical Laboratory at the Medical University Plovdiv. The total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured with enzyme-colorimetry and cholesterol in high density lipoprotein and cholesterol in low density lipoprotein with direct automatic analyses. Apolipoproteins were calculated by immunoturbodimetric method. The biochemical analyzer Konelab 60i was used in all the measurements. Results: According to whether there were or were not molecular defects, patients were assigned to two groups: carriers (11 patients, 18 % and non-carriers (49 patients, 82 %.There was a statistically significant difference (p 0.05. We found no statistically significant difference between non-carriers and carriers with respect to body mass index (25.30 ± 0.40 vs 24.63 ± 0.45, respectively, t = 0.50; p > 0.05. There was not a statistically significant difference in levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol between carries (p>0.05. The cholesterol x years. score was significantly higher in the carries (440.36 ± 0.25 mmol-y/L, than in the non-carries (390.30 ± 0

  14. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  15. New passive instruments developed for ocean monitoring at the remote sensing lab-universitat politècnica de catalunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchán-Hernández, Juan F; Rodríguez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Tarongi, Jose M; Aguasca, Albert; Acevo, René

    2009-01-01

    Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (T(B)). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA's SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an "effective" wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ(0)) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (T(B)-σ(0)) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1

  16. New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Acevo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1 the use of satellite constellations, and (2 the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required. Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB. At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1 ESA’s SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2 NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0 will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB-σ0 present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1

  17. New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchán-Hernández, Juan F.; Rodríguez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Tarongi, Jose M.; Aguasca, Albert; Acevo, René

    2009-01-01

    Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA's SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB-σ0) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1) provides an

  18. Determining sources of elevated salinity in pre-hydraulic fracturing water quality data using a multivariate discriminant analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, L. K.; Hoke, G. D.; Lu, Z.; Siegel, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has the potential to introduce saline water into the environment due to migration of deep formation water to shallow aquifers and/or discharge of flowback water to the environment during transport and disposal. It is challenging to definitively identify whether elevated salinity is associated with hydraulic fracturing, in part, due to the real possibility of other anthropogenic sources of salinity in the human-impacted watersheds in which drilling is taking place and some formation water present naturally in shallow groundwater aquifers. We combined new and published chemistry data for private drinking water wells sampled across five southern New York (NY) counties overlying the Marcellus Shale (Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Steuben, and Tioga). Measurements include Cl, Na, Br, I, Ca, Mg, Ba, SO4, and Sr. We compared this baseline groundwater quality data in NY, now under a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing, with published chemistry data for 6 different potential sources of elevated salinity in shallow groundwater, including Appalachian Basin formation water, road salt runoff, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, and water softeners. A multivariate random number generator was used to create a synthetic, low salinity (chemical differences between groundwater impacted by formation water, road salt runoff, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, and water softeners. We then trained a multivariate, discriminant analysis model on the resulting data set to classify observed high salinity groundwater (> 20 mg/L Cl) as being affected by formation water, road salt, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, or water softeners. Single elements or pairs of elements (e.g. Cl and Br) were not effective at discriminating between sources of salinity, indicating multivariate methods are needed. The discriminant analysis model classified most accurately samples affected by formation water and landfill leachate, whereas those

  19. MicroRNA396-Targeted SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE Is Required to Repress Flowering and Is Related to the Development of Abnormal Flower Symptoms by the Phyllody Symptoms1 Effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chiao-Yin; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wang, Chun-Neng; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Shen, Bing-Nan; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-08-01

    Leafy flowers are the major symptoms of peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma infection in Catharanthus roseus. The orthologs of the phyllody symptoms1 (PHYL1) effector of PnWB from other species of phytoplasma can trigger the proteasomal degradation of several MADS box transcription factors, resulting in leafy flower formation. In contrast, the flowering negative regulator gene SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) was up-regulated in PnWB-infected C. roseus plants, but most microRNA (miRNA) genes had repressed expression. Coincidentally, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing the PHYL1 gene of PnWB (PHYL1 plants), which show leafy flower phenotypes, up-regulate SVP of Arabidopsis (AtSVP) but repress a putative regulatory miRNA of AtSVP, miR396. However, the mechanism by which PHYL1 regulates AtSVP and miR396 is unknown, and the evidence of miR396-mediated AtSVP degradation is lacking. Here, we show that miR396 triggers AtSVP messenger RNA (mRNA) decay using genetic approaches, a reporter assay, and high-throughput degradome profiles. Genetic evidence indicates that PHYL1 plants and atmir396a-1 mutants have higher AtSVP accumulation, whereas the transgenic plants overexpressing MIR396 display lower AtSVP expression. The reporter assay indicated that target-site mutation results in decreasing the miR396-mediated repression efficiency. Moreover, degradome profiles revealed that miR396 triggers AtSVP mRNA decay rather than miRNA-mediated cleavage, implying that AtSVP caused miR396-mediated translation inhibition. We hypothesize that PHYL1 directly or indirectly interferes with miR396-mediated AtSVP mRNA decay and synergizes with other effects (e.g. MADS box transcription factor degradation), resulting in abnormal flower formation. We anticipate our findings to be a starting point for studying the posttranscriptional regulation of PHYL1 effectors in symptom development. PMID:26103992

  20. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of Mars Express and its approach to science analysis and mapping for Mars and its satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, K.; Jaumann, R.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Heipke, C.; Oberst, J.; Neukum, G.; Ansan, V.; Bostelmann, J.; Dumke, A.; Elgner, S.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoekzema, N. M.; Kersten, E.; Loizeau, D.; Matz, K.-D.; McGuire, P. C.; Mertens, V.; Michael, G.; Pasewaldt, A.; Pinet, P.; Preusker, F.; Reiss, D.; Roatsch, T.; Schmidt, R.; Scholten, F.; Spiegel, M.; Stesky, R.; Tirsch, D.; van Gasselt, S.; Walter, S.; Wählisch, M.; Willner, K.

    2016-07-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars. The camera, in particular its Super Resolution Channel (SRC), also obtains images of Phobos and Deimos on a regular basis. As HRSC is a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of 3D points derived from stereo analysis allows producing DTMs with grid size of up to 50 m and height accuracy on the order of one image ground pixel and better, as well as corresponding orthoimages. Such data products have been produced systematically for approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far, while global shape models and a near-global orthoimage mosaic could be produced for Phobos. HRSC is also unique because it bridges between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of non-stereo datasets. This paper, in addition to an overview of the status and evolution of the experiment, provides a review of relevant methods applied for 3D reconstruction and mapping, and respective achievements. We will also review the methodology of specific approaches to science analysis based on joint analysis of DTM and orthoimage information, or benefitting from high accuracy of co-registration between multiple datasets, such as studies using multi-temporal or multi-angular observations, from the fields of geomorphology, structural geology, compositional mapping, and atmospheric science. Related exemplary results from analysis of HRSC data will be discussed. After 10 years of operation, HRSC covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 97% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, we also

  1. Retrievals of cloud microphysical properties from the Research Scanning Polarimeter measurements made during PODEX field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, M. D.; Cairns, B.; Sinclair, K.

    2013-12-01

    We present the retrievals of cloud droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius and variance) from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) measurements made during NASA's POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX), which was based in Palmdale, California in January - February 2013. The RSP is an airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was built for the NASA Glory Mission project. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectances in 9 spectral channels with center wavelengths of 410, 470, 555, 670, 865, 960, 1590, 1880 and 2250 nm. The RSP is a push broom scanner making samples at 0.8 degree intervals within 60 degrees from nadir in both forward and backward directions. The data from actual RSP scans is aggregated into "virtual" scans, each consisting of all reflectances (at a variety of scattering angles) from a single point on the ground or at the cloud top. In the case of water clouds the rainbow is observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135 and 170 degrees. It has a unique signature that is being used to accurately determine the droplet size and is not affected by cloud morphology. Simple parametric fitting algorithm applied to these polarized reflectances provides retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT), which allows to retrieve the droplet size distribution a parametric model. Of particular interest is the information contained in droplet size distribution width, which is indicative of cloud life cycle. The absorbing band method is also applied to RSP total reflectance observations. The difference in the retrieved droplet size between polarized and absorbing band techniques is expected to reflect the strength of the vertical gradient in cloud liquid water content. In addition to established retrieval

  2. A wide field-of-view imaging DOAS instrument for two-dimensional trace gas mapping from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, A.; Altube, P.; Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Hartmann, J.; Meier, A. C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed for the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping. The instrument has been characterized and successfully operated from aircraft. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved from the AirMAP observations. A major benefit of the push-broom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a charge coupled device (CCD) frame-transfer detector. A broad field of view across track of around 48° is achieved with wide-angle entrance optics. This leads to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible instrument positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m depending on flight altitude. The number of viewing directions is chosen from a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 individual fibres. The selection is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Observations at 30 m spatial resolution are obtained when flying at 1000 m altitude and making use of all 35 viewing directions. This makes the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small-scale variability. The position and aircraft attitude are taken into account for accurate spatial mapping using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken in June 2011. AirMAP was operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH-2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium-sized coal-fired power plant in north

  3. How big is an OMI pixel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Martin; Sihler, Holger; Tilstra, Lieuwe G.; Stammes, Piet

    2016-08-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a push-broom imaging spectrometer, observing solar radiation backscattered by the Earth's atmosphere and surface. The incoming radiation is detected using a static imaging CCD (charge-coupled device) detector array with no moving parts, as opposed to most of the previous satellite spectrometers, which used a moving mirror to scan the Earth in the across-track direction. The field of view (FoV) of detector pixels is the solid angle from which radiation is observed, averaged over the integration time of a measurement. The OMI FoV is not quadrangular, which is common for scanning instruments, but rather super-Gaussian shaped and overlapping with the FoV of neighbouring pixels. This has consequences for pixel-area-dependent applications, like cloud fraction products, and visualisation.The shapes and sizes of OMI FoVs were determined pre-flight by theoretical and experimental tests but never verified after launch. In this paper the OMI FoV is characterised using collocated MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance measurements. MODIS measurements have a much higher spatial resolution than OMI measurements and spectrally overlap at 469 nm. The OMI FoV was verified by finding the highest correlation between MODIS and OMI reflectances in cloud-free scenes, assuming a 2-D super-Gaussian function with varying size and shape to represent the OMI FoV. Our results show that the OMPIXCOR product 75FoV corner coordinates are accurate as the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a super-Gaussian FoV model when this function is assumed. The softness of the function edges, modelled by the super-Gaussian exponents, is different in both directions and is view angle dependent.The optimal overlap function between OMI and MODIS reflectances is scene dependent and highly dependent on time differences between overpasses, especially with clouds in the scene. For partially clouded scenes, the optimal overlap function was

  4. The detection of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kane, Maurice J

    2012-05-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is an autosomal dominant condition with a population prevalence of 1 in 500, and is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It may be caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100), or proprotein convertase subtilisin\\/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes, with over 1,000 causative mutations described. Statin therapy in HeFH is considered effective and safe. Audit data suggest that approximately 80% of the putative HeFH population remains unidentified and, therefore, there is a need to develop a strategy for the identification of affected individuals so that early lipid-lowering treatment may be offered. There is good evidence showing the effectiveness and acceptability of HeFH screening programs in Europe. The authors describe a protocol for an all island approach to HeFH detection in the Republic of Ireland\\/Northern Ireland. Index cases will be identified by opportunistic screening using the Simon Broome, or Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Death (MedPed) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Patients identified as "definite," "probable," or "possible" HeFH criteria will be offered genetic testing. The authors expect causative mutations to be identified in approximately 80% of patients with "definite" HeFH but in only approximately 20% of patients with "possible" HeFH. Cascade screening will be undertaken in first-degree relatives of the index case using genetic testing (where a causative mutation has been identified), or otherwise using LDL cholesterol concentration. The establishment of a HeFH screening program on an all-island basis will require: expansion of the existing molecular genetics diagnostic services, the establishment of a cohort of nurses\\/genetic counselors, a HeFH database to support cascade testing, the development of a network of lipid clinics (in a primary or secondary care setting), and an educational

  5. Paisaje y gestión de los recursos vegetales en el yacimiento romano de Gabia (Granada a través de la Arqueobotánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Rodríguez-Ariza, M.ª

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthracological and carpological findings are presented for the Roman villa of Gabia, which gives us important knowledge concerning the exploitation of the environment and the diverse use of plant resources. The results confirm the existence of a strongly humanized landscape, with relatively open vegetation where shrubby and thicket species have great importance, with the Holm oak and the Aleppo pine being the representatives of the tree stratum. Crops would predominate the setting, where cereals, i.e. barley and glumeless wheat, occupying land reclaimed from the forest, while legumes such as chick-peas, lentils, grass peas, sweet peas, and fava beans were also cultivated. The fuel for fireplaces came from wood gathered from the forest as well as the remains from pruning cultivated trees. For the construction of posts and beams, large trees were used, these offering long, straight logs in the case of pines and elms, and branches of great strength such as walnut and Holm oak. For the construction of roofs, shrub species were used: common junipers, legumes, broom, and rosemary.Se presentan los resultados obtenidos por la antracología y la carpología en la villa romana de Gabia, que nos dan un importante conocimiento sobre la explotación del medio y del uso de los recursos vegetales utilizados con diversas finalidades. Estos resultados confirman la existencia de un paisaje fuertemente antropizado, con una vegetación relativamente abierta donde tienen una gran importancia las especies arbustivas y de matorral, quedando sólo la encina y el pino carrasco como representantes del estrato arbóreo. Los cultivos predominarían en el entorno, siendo los cereales, con el trigo desnudo y la cebada vestida, los que ocuparían parte de las tierras ganadas al bosque, desarrollándose también leguminosas como garbanzos, lentejas, guijas, guisantes y habas. El combustible para los hogares provenía tanto de leña recogida en el bosque, como de los deshechos

  6. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikokavoura EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods: The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS. Results: PCOS (n=508 and non-PCOS (n=508 participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit. A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137 and non-PCOS participants (n=137 (–18.5±6.6 kg vs –19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190. Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08. Conclusion: Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight

  7. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of Mexican lime tree infected with "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekouei Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia", is the causative agent of witches' broom disease in Mexican lime trees (Citrus aurantifolia L., and is responsible for major losses of Mexican lime trees in Southern Iran and Oman. The pathogen is strictly biotrophic, and thus is completely dependent on living host cells for its survival. The molecular basis of compatibility and disease development in this system is poorly understood. Therefore, we have applied a cDNA- amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP approach to analyze gene expression in Mexican lime trees infected by "Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia". Results We carried out cDNA-AFLP analysis on grafted infected Mexican lime trees of the susceptible cultivar at the representative symptoms stage. Selective amplifications with 43 primer combinations allowed the visualisation of 55 transcript-derived fragments that were expressed differentially between infected and non-infected leaves. We sequenced 51 fragments, 36 of which were identified as lime tree transcripts after homology searching. Of the 36 genes, 70.5% were down-regulated during infection and could be classified into various functional groups. We showed that Mexican lime tree genes that were homologous to known resistance genes tended to be repressed in response to infection. These included the genes for modifier of snc1 and autophagy protein 5. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes involved in metabolism, transcription, transport and cytoskeleton was observed, which included the genes for formin, importin β 3, transducin, L-asparaginase, glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase, and RNA polymerase β. In contrast, genes that encoded a proline-rich protein, ubiquitin-protein ligase, phosphatidyl glycerol specific phospholipase C-like, and serine/threonine-protein kinase were up-regulated during the infection. Conclusion The present study identifies a number of candidate genes that might be involved in the

  8. Primary succession on slopes exposed to intense erosion: the case of Vesuvius Grand Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinca, Adriano; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2014-05-01

    Mt. Vesuvius (1281 m a.s.l.) is an active volcano dominating the central part of the Campania Region coastline, with a distinctive barren crater summit, known as Grand Cone, formed during the eruption of AD 79. Local environmental factors hindered the colonization of the Vesuvius Grand Cone by vascular plants after the last eruptions of 1906 and 1944. The Grand Cone exhibits very steep planar slopes (33-35 degrees), covered by unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits, mainly formed by lapilli and gravels, characterized by an extremely low water holding capacity and very low organic matter and nitrogen contents, and exposed to intense water and wind erosion. In the last decade Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC. (Fabaceae), has been expanding over the Grand Cone, facilitating the colonization by other species, especially herbaceous, with a dramatic change of the landscape appearance of the Vesuvius Grand Cone. G. aetnensis is a plant endemic of Mt. Etna and Eastern Sardinia and was firstly introduced at the base of Mt. Vesuvius within reforestation programs after the eruption of 1906. This plant is a nitrogen fixing species with a strong ability to colonize andosols, much more pronounced than the indigenous brooms (Cytisus scoparius and Spartium junceum). An intensive investigation has been conducted to explore the eco-hydrological processes driving the vegetation dynamics observed on the slopes of Grand Cone. Specific field surveys and laboratory experiments have been carried out to assess the effects of the G. aetnensis on soil physical and chemical properties, on the above- and below-ground microclimate, on the soil hydrological regime and on the distribution of coexisting species. The G. aetnensis triggers a pedogenetic process that contributes to a rapid increase of carbon and nitrogen stocks, available phosphorous, cation exchange capacity and a reduction of soil pH. The increase of carbon content also significantly improves the water retention properties in this coarse

  9. Comparative feasibility of gamma, electron beam and x-rays facilities at the Kuala Lumpur International airport (KLIA), Sepang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is one of the world's leading producers of rubber, palm oil and cocoa beans. There is a great concern within the commodity industries of the possible outbreak of plant diseases yet to be detected in the country but endemic in the South American tropics and Africa. The risk of transferring the diseases to Malaysia are high because of increasing contacts between Malaysia and the South American countries and Africa through trades, tourism and the South-South cooperation. Diseases of particular importance are the South American leaf blight (SALB) of rubber, vascular wilts of oil palm and witches'broom of cocoa caused by Microcyclus ulei, Fusarium oxysporum f sp. elaeidies and Crinipellis pemiciosa (Stahel) Singer respectively. Recent estimates by the Agriculture Department of Malaysia indicated in the event of large scale attack by SALB on rubber would result in revenue loss of a staggering RM 3-3.5 billion per annum, an equivalent of 70% loss in rubber acreage. This excludes massive unemployment in the rubber industry and cost of cleaning up activities to eradicate and free plantations of SALB. Recurring attacks of the diseases cannot be discounted given the fact that spores of fungi can remain dormant for years but still viable. Stringent control and quarantine steps are presently being exercised by the authorities to intercept at airports and hence prevent entry of infectious plant diseases in Malaysia. Many of the measures using chemicals, ultra violet light (UV), steam sterilization, air blowers etc. are not sufficiently effective in killing fungi especially when spores are carried in the personal belongings of air-passengers. There was suggestion that ionizing radiation offers alternative to the present methods for intercepting pathogens at the port of entry. This paper will firstly, discuss results on the investigations carried out to compare the effectiveness of various ionizing radiation sources, i.e., gamma, electron beam and x-rays; chemicals and UV

  10. Multiband CMOS sensor simplify FPA design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weng Lyang B.; Ling, Jer

    2015-10-01

    Push broom multi-band Focal Plane Array (FPA) design needs to consider optics, image sensor, electronic, mechanic as well as thermal. Conventional FPA use two or several CCD device as an image sensor. The CCD image sensor requires several high speed, high voltage and high current clock drivers as well as analog video processors to support their operation. Signal needs to digitize using external sample / hold and digitized circuit. These support circuits are bulky, consume a lot of power, must be shielded and placed in close to the CCD to minimize the introduction of unwanted noise. The CCD also needs to consider how to dissipate power. The end result is a very complicated FPA and hard to make due to more weighs and draws more power requiring complex heat transfer mechanisms. In this paper, we integrate microelectronic technology and multi-layer soft / hard Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology to design electronic portion. Since its simplicity and integration, the optics, mechanic, structure and thermal design will become very simple. The whole FPA assembly and dis-assembly reduced to a few days. A multi-band CMOS Sensor (dedicated as C468) was used for this design. The CMOS Sensor, allow for the incorporation of clock drivers, timing generators, signal processing and digitization onto the same Integrated Circuit (IC) as the image sensor arrays. This keeps noise to a minimum while providing high functionality at reasonable power levels. The C468 is a first Multiple System-On-Chip (MSOC) IC. This device used our proprietary wafer butting technology and MSOC technology to combine five long sensor arrays into a size of 120 mm x 23.2 mm and 155 mm x 60 mm for chip and package, respectively. The device composed of one Panchromatic (PAN) and four different Multi- Spectral (MS) sensors. Due to its integration on the electronic design, a lot of room is clear for the thermal design. The optical and mechanical design is become very straight forward. The flight model FPA

  11. Evolution of foredune barriers at Admiral Bay, Western Australia - Implications for Holocene relative sea levels and extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Squire, Peter; Pint, Anna; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Only few geomorphological studies on the Canning Coast of Western Australia exist to date, most probably reflecting its remoteness and low population density. However, WA's annual gross state product (GSP) growth of ~5 % during the past decade and the highest GSP per capita nationwide resulting from a mining boom increase public attention as well as the demand for precise information on landscape inventory and evolution. In this paper, new data from a sequence of vegetated foredune barriers, gradually being eroded by a migrating estuary inside the macrotidal Admiral Bay (also known as McKelson Creek, Whistle Creek or Panganunganyjal), 110 km southwest of Broome, are presented. Based on sediment cores, DGPS-based elevation transects, and stratigraphical analyses on outcrops of the relict foredunes, we aim at (i) reconstructing lateral coastal changes during the Holocene, (ii) drawing inferences on relative sea-level (RSL) change, and (iii) identifying and dating imprints of extreme-wave events. Sedimentary analyses comprise documentation of bedding structures, foraminiferal content and macrofaunal remains (including shell taphonomy), grain size, and organic matter. Chronological contexts are established using 26 14C-AMS datings. Marine flooding of the pre-Holocene base landward of the 2.5 km-wide foredunes can be pinpointed to 7400-7200 cal BP. A mangrove ecosystem established and was quickly replaced by intertidal coarse sands after only 200-400 years. The high-energy intertidal environment prevailed until c. 4000 cal BP before turning into the present supralittoral mudflat environment. At that time, coastal regression led to beach progradation and isochronic formation of foredune barriers. Drivers of progradation were a stable RSL or gradual RSL fall after the mid-Holocene highstand and a positive sand budget provided by high sublittoral productivity of calcareous shells in combination with erosion at the adjacent sandstone capes and longshore drift. The foredunes

  12. Avaliação genética de indivíduos e progênies de cupuaçuzeiro no estado do Pará e estimativas de parâmetros genéticos Genetic evaluation of individuals and progenies of Theobroma grandiflorum in the state of Pará and estimates of genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moysés Alves

    2008-09-01

    seleção recorrente para melhorar, gradativamente, o nível de resistência. Parece suficiente considerar na seleção apenas o número de vassouras, não sendo necessário considerar o peso. A correlação entre resistência no fruto e na inflorescência foi alta (0.84, indicando algum controle genético comum aos dois caracteres. Foram identificadas progênies superiores, simultaneamente, para produção de frutos e resistência à vassoura.This paper deals with the genotypic evaluation of Theobroma grandiflorum progenies in the Pará State for the characters number of fruits (NF in four harvests, intensity of occurrence of witch's broom disease in the inflorescences (WBI and in the fruits (WBF and weight of branches with witch's broom (WWB. Also, it presents estimates of genetic parameters that allow to infer on the genetic control and level of genetic variability in the appraised germplasm. All the characters presented considerable genetic variability, with coefficients of genetic variation varying from 27% to 88% at progenies level and from 38% to 123% at individual level. This reveals excellent possibilities for the selection in that hybrid experimental population. The estimates of individual narrow sense heritabilities, in a harvest, varied from 25% to 54% and the individual repeatabilities for NF was equal at 35%. With the four accomplished harvests the individual heritability increased to 48%, providing selective accuracy of 70%, for the individuals' selection. The gain in efficiency, when using more than five crops is practically worthless. For NF, genetic gains above 60% can be obtained with the selection of the best five individuals. Individuals with annual production of 17 fruits can be selected, value which is much more superior to the general average of 10 fruits, found in the commercial plantations. Superior genetic gains can be obtained with clone propagation of the best individuals in relation to the sexual propagation and for the best individual the

  13. Effects of Agrobacterium tumefac iens on the Symptoms of Paulownia sp. Plantlet in Vitro Cultured%根癌农杆菌对感染植原体的泡桐组培苗症状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国忠; 朱水芳; 罗飞; 李怀方; 裘维蕃

    2001-01-01

    采用含有激素合成相关基因的根癌农杆菌,伤口接种已感染植原体的泡桐丛枝组培苗和健康组培苗,结果发现对丛枝苗的致瘤能力明显低于健康对照苗,且被接种病苗的丛枝症状缓解.从健苗获得的T-DNA转化泡桐瘤组织细胞能在无激素培养基上稳定生长和连续继代培养2年以上,说明瘤组织细胞自身已获得了细胞分裂素和生长素合成能力.根据已报道的根癌农杆菌株系pTil 5955 T-DNA的异戊烯基转移酶基因(ipt)的保守序列,设计了一对引物(CYT和CYT′),用多聚酶链式反应(PCR)扩增了我国杨树致瘤农杆菌ipt基因部分序列(427 bp片段),也从遗传转化的两个泡桐无性系瘤组织At-ZH和At-T35扩增出此特异片段,从而进一步肯定了T-DNA已被整合到泡桐的染色体上,表明泡桐易于通过Ti质粒载体途径进行基因转移操作,但用此引物未能从泡桐、甘薯健株和感染植原体的组培病苗扩增出相应的427 bp特异片段.当用此遗传转化瘤组织嫁接病苗时,可减轻丛枝症状的严重度,延长病苗的存活时间和诱导病株生根,这进一步证实了泡桐在与植原体相互作用过程中激素代谢发生了变化.%By using Agrobacterium tumefac iens isolated from poplar crown gall disease with the hormone-produ cing genes in the T-DNA to inoculate healthy and infected Paulownia plantlets with phytoplasma, it is showed that tumorigensis of dise ased plantlets dropped apparently and the symptoms of witches' broom suppressed to some extent. The T-DNA was transformed into Paulownia resulting in tumor formation independent of exogenous hormone addition and ke eping subculture of tumor tissues for more than 2 years, thus confirming that th e tumor tissues gained the ability to synthesize cytokinin and auxin by itself. Based on the conserved sequence of isopentenyl adenosine transferase gene (ipt) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Op ine pTil 5955 strain, a pair of DNA

  14. Incidência de pragas e doenças em agroecossistemas de café orgânico de agricultores familiares em Poço Fundo-MG Incidence of plagues and diseases in agroecossystems of organic coffee of familiar farmers in Poço Fundo-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar a incidência de pragas Leucoptera coffeella (GUÉRIN-MENÉVILLE, 1842 e Hypothenemus hampei (FERRARI, 1867 e doenças Hemileia vastatrix (BERK e BROOME, 1869 e Cercospora coffeicola (BERK e CURTIS, 1880, durante o período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2002, foram selecionados três agroecossistemas com produção de café orgânico conduzidos por agricultores familiares do município de Poço Fundo-MG. O agroecossistema I possui 2.200 pés da cultivar 'Catuaí Vermelho' em espaçamento 2,5 x 1,3 m (0,72 ha. O agroecossistema II possui 2.000 pés ('Catuaí Vermelho' em espaçamento 2,8 x 1,0 m (0,56 ha. O agroecossistema III possui 1.100 pés ('Icatu Amarelo' em espaçamento 3,0 x 0,9 m (0,36 ha. A determinação da incidência de L. coffeella, C. coffeicola e H. vastatrix foi realizada mediante levantamentos mensais. A determinação da infecção por C. coffeicola em frutos foi realizada nos meses de abril, maio e junho de 2001 e 2002. O levantamento da infestação por H. hampei foi realizado nos meses de janeiro a junho/julho de cada ano. Determinou-se que a infestação por L. coffeella ultrapassou 20% no terço superior (principalmente no período seco. A infestação por H. hampei atingiu o nível de dano somente no agroecossistema I, em 2001, e no agroecossistema III, em 2002. A infecção por H. vastatrix no agroecossistema III não atingiu nível de dano em conseqüência da tolerância da cultivar ('Icatu' à infecção por esse fungo; porém, nos agroecossistemas I e II ('Catuaí Vermelho', a infecção na lavoura ultrapassou o nível de 10% (principalmente no período seco. A infecção por C. coffeicola em folhas e frutos atingiu níveis elevados (período seco. A produtividade do agroecossistema I, em 2001, foi de 510 Kg ha-1 e, em 2002, de 2.340 Kg ha-1; no agroecossistema II, em 2001, foi de 420 Kg ha-1 e, em 2002, de 1.290 Kg ha-1; e, no agroecossistema III, foi praticamente zero, em 2001, e em

  15. Volcanic Plume Elevation Model Derived From Landsat 8: examples on Holuhraun (Iceland) and Mount Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Arason, Þórður; Spinetti, Claudia; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca

    2016-04-01

    . We focus on the Holuhraun 2014 fissure eruption (Iceland) and on Mount Etna (Italy) 2013 episode. We validate our measurements against ground based measurements. The method has potential for detailed high resolution routine measurements of volcanic plume height/velocity. The method can be applied both to other multi focal plane modules push broom sensors (such as the ESA Sentinel 2) and potentially to other push-broom systems such as the CNES SPOT family and Pléiades.

  16. Photometric Lambert Correction for Global Mosaicking of HRSC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sebastian; Michael, Greg; van Gasselt, Stephan; Kneissl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) is a push-broom image sensor onboard Mars Express recording the Martian surface in 3D and color. Being in orbit since 2004, the camera has obtained over 3,600 panchromatic image sequences covering about 70% of the planet's surface at 10-20 m/pixel. The composition of an homogenous global mosaic is a major challenge due to the strong elliptical and highly irregular orbit of the spacecraft, which often results in large variations of illumination and atmospheric conditions between individual images. For the purpose of a global mosaic in the full Nadir resolution of 12.5 m per pixel we present a first-order systematic photometric correction for the individual image sequences based on a Lambertian reflection model. During the radiometric calibration of the HRSC data, values for the reflectance scaling factor and the reflectance offset are added to the individual image labels. These parameters can be used for a linear transformation from the original DN values into spectral reflectance values. The spectral reflectance varies with the solar incidence angle, topography (changing the local incidence angle and therefore adding an exta geometry factor for each ground pixel), the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the surface, and atmospheric effects. Mosaicking the spectral values together as images sometimes shows large brightness differences. One major contributor to the brightness differences between two images is the differing solar geometry due to the varying time of day when the individual images were obtained. This variation causes two images of the same or adjacent areas to have different image brightnesses. As a first-order correction for the varying illumination conditions and resulting brightness variations, the images are corrected for the solar incidence angle by assuming an ideal diffusely reflecting behaviour of the surface. This correction requires the calculation of the solar geometry for each

  17. Global Topography of Mars from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-Orbit Data Products: the first Quadrangle (MC-11E) and the Landing Site Areas of ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Hauber, Ernst; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Hoffmann, Harald; Heipke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    After more than 10 years of operation, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital elevation models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. The new global mapping program is based on the USGS MC-30 quadrangle scheme, where quadrangles are split into eastern and western parts to limit data volumes. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic (grid spacing of 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively) for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), and highlight their use for characterizing the landing site areas of ESA's ExoMars landing mission to be launched in 2018. HRSC is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars and its satellites. As a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of derived 3D points allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. HRSC also bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. A quality assessment of the MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus) quadrangle products shows that, using bundle block adjustment, adjacent image strips can be co-registered with an accuracy of approximately one pixel at the highest image resolution available. We will

  18. Produção de soros policlonais com alta afinidade contra o biotipo 'C' e o biotipo 'S' de Crinipellis perniciosa Production of high affinity polyclonal sera against Crinipellis perniciosa biotypes 'C' and 'S'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildemberg A Leal Júnior

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de soros policlonais contra fitopatógenos tem por finalidade a elaboração de imunoensaios que permitam identificar e caracterizar os mesmos com rapidez e a custos baixos. Soros policlonais foram produzidos contra extratos das hifas de isolados de Crinipellis perniciosa, agente causal da vassoura-de-bruxa, coletados de cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao nos estados do Pará e Bahia para identificação e caracterização de isolados de diversas regiões e hospedeiros. O soro denominado de 1 foi produzido a partir do isolado ESJOH-1 (originário do Pará, e o soro 2 foi produzido com o isolado CP-85 (originário da Bahia. Não houve reação cruzada dos soros contra extratos protéicos das espécies Alternaria solani, Marasmius sp., Oudemansiella canarii e Verticillium fungicola. Os soros apresentaram reação cruzada de alta afinidade com extratos de Moniliophthora roreri e de baixa a média afinidade com Marasmius cladophyllus. A caracterização dos isolados foi feita com amostras do biotipo-C coletados no Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Rondônia e Pará. As reações sorológicas dos dois soros não permitiram diferenciar os isolados do Pará e da Bahia, contra os quais foram produzidos, e também não reagiram diferencialmente com isolados de outros estados. O reconhecimento dos antígenos entre os soros foi variável, pois o soro 1 e soro 2 apresentaram reação sorológica diferenciada para alguns isolados. Os soros produzidos apresentaram alta afinidade contra isolados dos biotipos-C e S, independente de sua origem geográfica, podendo ser usados para identificação.The production of polyclonal sera against plant pathogens allows the development of immunoassays to quickly identify and characterize the pathogens at low cost. Polyclonal sera were produced against Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobromae cacao using hyphae extracts from isolates collected in Pará and Bahia states, to

  19. COVER CROPS EFFECTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF UPLAND RICE UNDER ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM PLANTAS DE COBERTURA DE SOLO E SEUS EFEITOS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DA CULTURA DO ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EM CULTIVO ORGÂNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paula de Jesus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research was conducted in an experimental area in Santo Antônio de Goiás (16º28'S, 49º17'W and altitude 823 m, Brazil, during the months of June, 2004, and March, 2005. The upland rice variety Aimoré was used along with several cover crops aiming to evaluate leaf area, number of tillers, dry matter, and nitrogen content in the phytomass during the rice crop cycle. The experimental design was the randomized blocks one, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of different cover crops, such as velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, broom sorghum (Sorghun bicolor, and a check treatment with spontaneous vegetation growing among the rice plants. The leguminous plants, specially C. juncea, presented better results in tillering production, leaf area index, dry matter yield, and accumulated nitrogen content, if compared to the treatments where grasses were used as soil cover crop. It was concluded that rice presented a satisfactory development in the different soil cover treatments, specially after leguminous cultivation.

    KEY-WORDS: Rice, green manure, leaf area index, dry matter.

    O experimento foi conduzido numa área experimental em Santo Antônio de Goiás (16º28'S, 49º17'W e altitude de 823 m, no período de junho de 2004 a março de 2005. Utilizou-se a cultivar Aimoré de arroz de terras altas, em seqüência a diferentes plantas de cobertura de solo, com o objetivo de avaliar o índice de área foliar (IAF, número de afilhos, acúmulo de massa de matéria seca (MMS e o teor de nitrogênio acumulado na fitomassa durante o ciclo da cultura do arroz. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco

  20. The Status of the Mercury Thermal Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) for BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Helbert, Jörn; Peter, Gisbert; Walter, Ingo; D'Amore, Mario; Säuberlich, Thomas; Weber, Iris

    2014-05-01

    The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) is one of the selected payloads of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission, to be launched in 2016. The scientific objectives of MERTIS are to 1.) Study Mercury's surface composition, 2.) Identify rock-forming minerals, 3.) Map the surface mineralogy, and 4.) Study surface temperature variations and thermal inertia. The instrument consists of an uncooled grating push-broom IR-spectrometer (TIS) and a radiometer (TIR), which will operate in the wavelength regions of 7-14 µm and 7-40 µm, respectively [1,2]. From its nominal orbit, MERTIS will map the surface globally at a spatial resolution of about 500 m and for approximately 5-10% of the surface at a resolution of up to 280 m. MERTIS consists of more than 10 miniaturized, highly integrated subsystems, including mirror optics, two IR detectors (bolometer and radiometer) with read-out electronics, two actuators (pointing unit and shutter), two on-board blackbody calibration targets at 300 and 700 K, two baffles (planet, space), heater, temperature sensors, and two cold redundant instrument controllers and power supplies. We have built, calibrated, and delivered the MERTIS instrument to ESA. The Flight Model of the instrument is now fully functional and integrated on the spacecraft. In its flight configuration, MERTIS has a mass of less than 3.1 kg and during nominal science operations has a power consumption of 7.9 - 9.9 W. After calibration, the SNR of MERTIS is 266 at 8 μm wavelength and a temperature of the scene of 700 K and a dwell time of 100 ms [3,4]. With additional data processing on-board a higher SNR is expected. This is much better than the required SNR of >100, which is necessary to resolve mineral bands with low spectral contrast [1,5,6]. To alleviate the problem of limited downlink capabilities of BepiColombo, we have created a highly optimized operational scenario to reduce the MERTIS data rate by about 60% from the original plan. We also

  1. 辽宁丹东四道沟金矿床构造控矿规律及其机制分析%Analysis of Structural Ore-Controlling Rules and Mechanism of the Sidaogou Gold Deposit in Dandong City, Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可勇; 万多; 刘正宏; 孙丰月; 边红业; 张晓东; 黄俊鹏

    2011-01-01

    辽宁丹东四道沟金矿床为—主体产于古元古代辽河群变质砂岩地层之中、成因上与燕山期中酸性岩浆活动有关的中温热液金矿床.区内工业矿体的空间产出受NE向F3断裂及其上盘竖井背斜构造的联合控制,并表现出如下规律:工业矿体主要沿竖井背斜内发育的层间破碎带产出,因而空间上呈“带”状分布特点;主要矿带自东而西在空间上呈现出“帚”状展布样式;矿带内主要工业矿体多分布于竖井背斜转折端以西部位,且呈现出SE向倾伏的产出规律,倾伏角一般为30°~35°.综合研究认为,四道沟矿区工业矿体的规律性产出与成矿期NE向断裂的右行斜冲活动方式有直接关系.%Located in Dandong City, Liaoning Province, Sidaogou. Gold deposit is of medium-temperature hydrothermal type, mainly occurs in the meta-sandstone strata of Liaohe Group of Early Proterozoic era,and is genetically related to the intermediate-felsic magmatic activities of the Yanshan episode. The spatial distribution of ore-bodies was jointly controlled by the NE strike F3 fault and the Shujing anticline developed in the hanging wall of F3. The structural ore-controlling regularities are as follows: 1)The ore-bodies occur mainly in the interbedded brecciation zones developed in the Shujing anticline and spatially display in belts; 2)The major ore-bodies display in a broom-shaped way from east to west; and 3)The ore-bodies in each ore belt mainly distribute at the western side of the hinge zone of Shujing anticline and clearly flank dip toward SE with the flank dipping angle between 30° to 35°. Based on this comprehensive study, we propose that the regular spatial occurrences of the ore-bodies in the mining district are closely related to the dextrorotation-oblique thrust motion of the NE faults. All these structural ore-controlling rules have both great theoretical and practical significances to the subsequentexploration work in the

  2. Seleção de descritores botânico-agronômicos para caracterização de germoplasma de cupuaçuzeiro Selection of morpho-agronomic descriptors for cupuaçuzeiro germplasm characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moysés Alves

    2003-07-01

    the final selection was done. Three criteria for variable exclusion were adopted. Thirty four descriptors were excluded, representing a reduction of 64%. A minimal list of descriptors for cupuaçuzeiro was proposed, including leaf length, leaf thickness, leaf apex width, leaf base vein angle, flower bud length, flower peduncle length, flower peduncle diameter, ovary girth, number of ovules, flower petal lamina length, staminode length, seed width, flat seeds, acidity, brix, pH, number of fallen flowers buds, number of abscised immature pods and number of witches-brooms.

  3. El fuego favorece la invasión de Teline monspessulana (Fabaceae al aumentar su germinación Fire promotes Teline monspessulana (Fabaceae invasion by increasing its germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL A GARCÍA

    2010-01-01

    fires on the seed bank of Teline monspessulana (L. K. Koch (French Broom and its implications for the invasión of the species in the mediterranean area of south-central Chile. For this aim, soil seedbank samples were subjected to different treatments that simúlate fire conditions through controlled burns. In addition, for seeds taken from mature plants the optimal range of temperatures at which germination occurs was determined. The results show that after a wildfire germination of T. monspessulana increases significantly. Heating of the seeds was the factor that triggers this increase in germination. Furthermore, it was determined that the seeds reach their maximum germination rate when preheated between 80 and 120 °C for 10 minutes. At 140 °C, 100 % of the seeds die. During a fire, optimal temperatures for germination are reached about 2 cm in depth within the soil or at the surface in areas where the accumulation of fuel (biomass does not exceed 5 tons ha4. The small portion of the seed bank that manages to be stimulated is offset by the large seedbank that can exceed 8000 seeds m"². This study shows that the fire, a common phenomenon in mediterranean areas and increasingly frequent in central Chile, would be promoting the persistence of T. monspessulana in areas with high human disturbance.

  4. [Anatomy and uses of the mature leaves of three species of Sabal (Arecaceae) of the Yucatan, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Martha; Rebollar, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the leaf anatomy of Sabal mauritiiformis (Karst.) Griseb. & H. Wendl., Sabal mexicana Mart. and Sabal yapa Wright ex Becc., three of the four most representative species of the Yucatán Península, in Mexico. These species are locally used: in the roofing of traditional homes, as food (fruits and apical buds), and in the production of hats, brooms and handicrafts. Leaf samples were collected in secondary growth of lower montane rainforest in the state of Quintana Roo and in two home gardens in the state of Yucatán. Herbarium samples were obtained, and samples of blade and petiole were fixed in formaline-acetic acid-alcohol. Cross incisions were made on the blade and petiole, and were dyed with safranin and toluidine blue O. The results show that S. mauritiiformis and S. yapa are morphologically alike: both are tall, slim palm trees; the leaf in S. mauritiiformis is a shorter palm-like structure compared with the other two species. The shape of the main nerve, as seen in cross section, is rectangular in the three species. The hastula in the three species is acuminate and adaxial. The foliar anatomic structure is similar in the three species, although there are some differences. The adaxial an abaxial epidermis of the blade consist of one layer and, superficially, the anticlinal walls are straight; the stomata are intercostal, of the tetracytic type, present on both surfaces in S. mexicana and S. yapa and only on the abaxial surface on S. mauritiiformis. The hypodermis is one layer thick in S. yapa and in S. mexicana and two layers thick in S. mauritiiformis. In the three species the palisade parenchyma consists of several undefined strata as the cells are similar-in shape and size--to the cells in the spongy parenchyma, so there is no marked difference between these strata and the spongy parenchyma seems almost continuous. Both fibrous and vascular bundles are distributed between the hypodermis and the palisade parenchyma; the fiber bundles can

  5. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  6. MarsExpress High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-orbit Data Products: Methodology, Mapping Concepts and Performance for the first Quadrangle (MC-11E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars. As the surface areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital terrain models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic obtained for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), together with results of a performance analysis for this data set. The geomorphological analysis of surface features observed by HRSC has allowed to characterize major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes at different scales. Such studies (in the field of geomorphology, but also compositional mapping and atmospheric science) have been based on joint analysis of DTM and orthoimage information, and have benefitted from the high accuracy of co-registration between multiple datasets, which is particularly important for multi-temporal and multi-angular observations. HRSC is unique because it bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. As HRSC is a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of 3D points derived from stereo analysis allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better, as well as corresponding orthoimages. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. After more than 10 years of operation, HRSC covered about 70% of the surface by

  7. Estructura básica del baile flamenco. Basic structure of flamenco dancing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González Sánchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pautas estructurales aplicables a la hora de coreografiar un baile tradicional flamenco. Las partes principales de las que consta la coreografía de un palo flamenco tradicional son: 1ª Letra; 2ª Letra; Escobilla; y Final. Podemos decir que estas serían partes ineludibles de un palo. En este artículo señalamos además, qué opciones tiene cada elemento que conforma el hecho flamenco (cante-baile-guitarra, esto es, qué puede hacer en cada una de esas partes. Así se proporciona al lector herramientas funcionales a la hora de crear una coreografía flamenca como coreógrafo o intérprete, o bien a la hora de analizarla, como espectador.Se explican las estructuras de algunos palos que por sus particularidades, se diferencian del resto. Uno de ellos es el baile por alegrías, donde señalamos aquellas partes que lo convierten en uno de los palos estructuralmente más definidos. Se hace hincapié en el silencio de alegrías, parte que lo diferencia del resto de cantiñas o cantes de Cádiz. También se propone una estructura para el baile por caña y polo, cuyos cantes tienen una sucesión de ayes característicos que se repiten varias veces en su interpretación. Finalmente se muestra una posible estructura para tangos y bulerías, pero como palos propios no como bailes festeros o final de otros palos.Structural guidelines which are to be applicable at the time to choreograph a traditional flamenco dance.The main parts which the choreography of each traditional variety (or palo of flamenco dance consists of are: 1st lyric, 2nd lyric, broom (or escobilla, and Final. We can say that these should be considered the basic elements all varieties must include. In this article we also point out what role each element that makes up the flamenco (song-dance-guitar plays; that is, what each one of those elements can do. In this way, we provide the reader with functional tools when making flamenco dance, both as a choreographer and a performer; and even

  8. Phase 1 Development Report for the SESSA Toolkit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Melton, Brad J; Anderson, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    The Site Exploitation System for Situational Awareness ( SESSA ) tool kit , developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) , is a comprehensive de cision support system for crime scene data acquisition and Sensitive Site Exploitation (SSE). SESSA is an outgrowth of another SNL developed decision support system , the Building R estoration Operations Optimization Model (BROOM), a hardware/software solution for data acquisition, data management, and data analysis. SESSA was designed to meet forensic crime scene needs as defined by the DoD's Military Criminal Investigation Organiza tion (MCIO) . SESSA is a very comprehensive toolki t with a considerable amount of database information managed through a Microsoft SQL (Structured Query Language) database engine, a Geographical Information System (GIS) engine that provides comprehensive m apping capabilities, as well as a an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) . An electronic sketch pad module is included. The system also has the ability to efficiently generate necessary forms for forensic crime scene investigations (e.g., evidence submittal, laboratory requests, and scene notes). SESSA allows the user to capture photos on site, and can read and generate ba rcode labels that limit transcription errors. SESSA runs on PC computers running Windows 7, but is optimized for touch - screen tablet computers running Windows for ease of use at crime scenes and on SSE deployments. A prototype system for 3 - dimensional (3 D) mapping and measur e ments was also developed to complement the SESSA software. The mapping system employs a visual/ depth sensor that captures data to create 3D visualizations of an interior space and to make distance measurements with centimeter - level a ccuracy. Output of this 3D Model Builder module provides a virtual 3D %22walk - through%22 of a crime scene. The 3D mapping system is much less expensive and easier to use than competitive systems. This document covers the basic installation and

  9. Rigorous Photogrammetric Processing of HiRISE Stereo Images for Topographic and Geomorphologic Analysis at MER landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; di, K.; Hwangbo, J.; Chen, Y.

    2007-12-01

    High-precision topographic information is critical to Mars surface exploration. Such information can be derived from both orbital and ground rover data. The availability of HiRISE stereo images makes a great progress in high resolution imaging and topographic and morphological information derivation. This presentation gives the necessary rigorous photogrammetric model for HiRISE stereo image processing and results achieved at the Mars Exploration Rover mission sites. HiRISE is a push-broom imaging sensor. For short segments of the orbital trajectory, 2nd-order polynomials can be used to model change in the exterior orientation (EO) parameters with respect to time. Since all of the 14 CCD lines (10 red, 2 blue-green and 2 NIR) share the same EO parameters at a specific time, only one set of polynomial parameters is needed to model the EO parameters for all the CCD arrays. The orbit's initial position and pointing angles are provided in the SPICE kernels. For any given ephemeris time, the EO parameters can be retrieved by interpolating the spacecraft's trajectory and pointing vectors. Based on the developed rigorous sensor model, we have developed a method for bundle adjustment (BA) of HiRISE stereo images that removes or reduces measurement inconsistency and improves mapping precision. We have also developed a hierarchical stereo matching process. Based on the original images, an image pyramid with 5 levels is constructed by sub-sampling of each previous level. Interest points are generated by Foerstner operator at every image scale. Matching starts from the images of the lowest resolution; results are transferred to the next higher level, with more interest points being extracted and matched. After matching the highest resolution images, evenly distributed matched interest points are selected as tie points between the stereo images. In the end, grid points (4-pixel spacing) are defined and matched to generate a DTM of the terrain. Using the HiRISE images TRA_000873

  10. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    constant head we repeated the test for three different rate of fiber compaction within the flow cell, corresponding to three different densities (146 kg/m3, 200 kg/m3 and 240 kg/m3). We observed that with increasing density of the fibers there is an increase of hydraulic conductivity. The importance of the experimental results on permeability acquires greater relevance when compared to the values of hydraulic conductivity already known from the literature for different soils types. In this study, special attention has been given to the value of hydraulic conductivity of this fiber, considering that in the framework of groundwater remediation strategies if the hydraulic conductivity in the barrier is lower than that of the surrounding aquifer, the plume may change its natural pathway, bypassing the barrier and veering towards larger hydraulic conductivity. Reference • Lee, B. G. and Rowell, R. M.: Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using lignocellulosic fibers, J. Natural Fibers, 1, 97-108, 2004. • Troisi, S., Fallico, C., Straface, S., and Mazzuca, L.: Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. Brevetto dell'Università della Calabria (n.: CS2008A00018), 2008. • C. Fallico, S. Troisi, A. Molinari, and M. F. Rivera.: Characterization of broom fibers for PRB in the remediation of aquifers contaminated by heavy metals, Biogeosciences journal , 7, 2545-2556, 2010

  11. 藜麦新品种陇藜1号的选育及应用前景%Breeding and Application Prospects of New Variety Chenopodium quinoa cv. Longli 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨发荣

    2015-01-01

    陇藜1号是甘肃省农业科学院畜草与绿色农业研究所采用系统育种和栽培驯化相结合的方法选育而成的国内首个藜麦新品种。在2013—2014年进行的多点区域试验中,陇藜1号2 a 10点(次)平均折合产量为2100.0 kg/hm2,比对照品种静乐藜麦增产9.6%。陇藜1号属中晚熟品种,植株呈扫帚状,株高181.2~223.6 cm,生育期128~140 d,分枝数23~27个。种子为圆形药片状,千粒重2.40~3.46 g。籽粒含粗蛋白171.5~187.8 g/kg、脂肪56.5~59.3 g/kg、赖氨酸5.5~6.9 g/kg、全磷4.5~6.8 g/kg。陇藜1号在田间表现为抗霜霉病和叶斑病,总体抗病能力强。陇藜1号植株抗倒伏,再生能力强。具有耐寒、耐旱、耐盐碱、耐瘠薄等特性,适应性广。适宜在甘肃省无霜期大于120 d,降水量250 mm以上,海拔1500~3000 m的山地、川地及灌溉区域种植。并对藜麦的应用前景进行了展望。%Chenopodium quinoa cv. Longli 1 is the first new variety in China,which is bred by pasture and green Agriculture Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences through the methods of line breeding,cultivation and domestication. In multiple locations of regional tests,the average yields of Longli 1 are 2 100.00 kg/hm2,which is increased 9.6%compared with control. Longli 1 is mid-late maturing quinoa variety. The plant likes brooms,which plant height is 181.2~223.6 cm,growth period is 128~140 d,and the numbers of branch are 23~27. The seeds are round pill shaped,the weight of a thousand seeds is 2.40~3.46 g. Crude protein,fat, proline,total phosphorus contents in seeds are 171.5~187.8 g/kg,56.5~59.3 g/kg,5.5%~6.9 g/kg and 4.5~6.8 g/kg,respectively. Longli 1 displays the strong disease-resistant ability. Longli 1 shows lodging resistance and strong regeneration. It has some physiological characteristics,such as cold-resistant,drought-resistant and salty-resistant. It is suitable for planting in hilly and irrigation areas in

  12. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary remarks Preceding the detailed literary review, here a few events, topics and publications for the busy reader including * The decision of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) to declare unconstitutional and invalid chicken owner ordinances permitting caging * The decision of the German parliament to declare animal protection a national goal * Publication of a number of books which are likely to influence discussions for years to come since they bring to a close developments having emerged over an extended period of time. Without claiming to be exhaustive the following should be mentioned: Marc Bekoff and Carron A. Meany, ed.: "Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare", an extensive work being reviewed by Peter Thornton in chapter 3.6 of this report. For the first time, animal protection of the Anglo-American tradition is being summarised, in theory as well as in practice, and, on high standards: "The list of contributors reads like a Who"s Who of experts in their chosen fields and includes philosophers such as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Tom Beauchamp and Bernard Rollin and welfare scientists such as Don Broom, David Fraser, Temple Grandin. Others involved in examining the role of animals in society and our relationship with them, such as Andrew Linzey, Richard Ryder, James Serpell and David Morton (to name just a few), have also provided entries" (Peter Thornton). The comprehensive monograph by Johannes Caspar: "Tierschutz im Recht der modernen Industriegesellschaft. Eine rechtliche Neukonstruktion auf philosophischer und historischer Grundlage" (Animal Protection in the Law of modern industrial Society. A new legal Construct on a philosophical and historical Base) represents an extensive critical incorporation of animal protection in Germany under legal and ethical aspects including a detailed rendering of the actual treatment of animals. The term "critical incorporation" was used on purpose since never before was cruelty

  13. 山西省饮水型慢性砷中毒病区环境介质中砷暴露水平调查%Level of aseninc in environmental media in water-born endemic arsenicosis area of Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建; 王三祥; 王正辉; 王大朋; 李贞; 金洹宇; 刘星; 王小平; 安艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of arsenic in environmental media and food stuffs including vegetables in water-born endemic arsenicosis area for provide a scientific basis for endemic arsenicosis of Shanxi province.Methods Samples of drinking water,soil,and glutinous broom corn,foxtail millet,and potato were collected from local families in water-born endemic arsenicosis area of Shanyin county,Shanxi province.According to “Diagnosis Standard for Endemic Arsenicosis” (WS/T 211-2001 ),totally 309 people from 126 families were choosen for the survey.The content of arsenic in drinking water,glutinous broom corn and foxtail millet was quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).The level of arsenic in soil and potato was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometer(AFS).The water arsenic concentrations were divided into five groups,≤10,> 10 - 50,> 50 - 100,> 100 - 200,and > 200 μ g/L,analysis the relationship between water arsenic exposure and skin lesions.Result In this study,126 water samples were collected.Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were 4.04 - 720.00 μg/L,the median value was 87.75 μg/L,and the ratio of arsenic level higher than the Chinese standards for drinking water(50 μg/L) was 63.49%(80/126).The levels of arsenic in food were 0.16 - 4.58 mg/kg,the median value of arsenic in food was 0.66 mg/kg,and 98.73%(78/79) of arsenic exceeded 0.2 mg/kg.Arsenic concentrations in soil and vegetable were 5.34 - 13.74 mg/kg and 0 - 0.30 mg/kg,respectively.Predicted inorganic arsenic intake from food and vegetable was modeled with the equivalent intake from drinking water for a typical Chinese diet.Daily consumption of grain with a total arsenic level of 0.17 mg/kg would be equivalent to a drinking water arsenic level of 10 μg/L.Otherwise,adjusted with gender and age,symptoms of skin lesions correlated positively with water arsenic concentrations in all subjects.The OR values were 3

  14. Variación espacio-temporal de la lluvia de semillas en pastizales abandonados de alta montaña tropical (Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua

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    Vargas Ríos Orlando

    2004-12-01

    autocoria, el síndrome de dispersión de G. sibbaldioides. Le sigue en importancia la anemocoria. En cuanto a riqueza, es la anemocoria la especie dominante. Para el pastizal B, el síndrome de dispersión dominante tanto en abundancia como en riqueza fue la anemocoria. Se encontraron además especies con síndrome de dispersión barócoro, mixto, y zoócoro en los dos pastizales. En cuanto a formas de vida, en el pastizal A dominaron las formas herbáceas como Rumex acetosella, Hypochaeris radicata y Carex sp1; mientras que en el pastizal B dominaron las formas leñosas, arbustos de subpáramo como
    P. nitida, P ledifolia y Baccharis prunifolia. Igualmente se encontró una heterogeneidad espacial en la lluvia de semillas al interior de los dos pastizales. En efecto, los valores más altos de abundancia de la lluvia de semillas se concentraron en las zonas de los pastizales adyacentes a los
    parches de vegetación que los rodean, es decir, las zonas más cercanas a las fuentes de semillas; mientras que hacia las partes centrales se encontraron las abundancias más bajas. En cuanto a la variación temporal, la lluvia de semillas en los dos pastizales se concentró en los meses del año con menor precipitación. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, la lluvia de semillas en pastizales  abandonados de alta montaña tiende hacia una vegetación propia del subpáramo, por lo cual, para la recuperación del bosque altoandino, es preciso enriquecer o potenciar la entrada de especies pioneras propias del bosque.

  15. 歧口凹陷后裂陷期构造特征与浅层油气成藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁鹏; 任建业; 艾能平; 史双双; 周江羽; 张俊霞

    2011-01-01

    calculate fault active rate to determine the tectonic activity law in Qikou sag. Then we get the following observations; ① The active faults includes continued growing main faults and numerous EW trended new faults,and these two kinds of faults intersects to each other with low angle which show as the broom shape on the plane, associated with the regional dextral tensile shearing stress field. ② The fold structure includes drape anticline, reservoir drag fold and normal shaped negative flower structure which distributes orderly from west to east on the plane,but they coexist together in some place. ③Igneous structures usually show as a long volcanic channel with several hat shape structures. The top of volcano characterizes as strong reflections because of the onlap of the o-verlaying strata, and several faults formed beside these volcano channels. ④ The main fault active rates show that the activity of the post-rifting faults can be divided into three types in Qikou sag:continuous decrease after continuous increase, continuous increase and mixed pattern. The first and second types of the faults are most beneficial to hydrocarbon accumulations and distributed in the oil fields. The most valuable shallow reservoirs in Qikou sag are the faulted-fold type and the buried-hill drape anticline type. Active igneous rocks are also very valuable to the generation and migration of the hydrocarbon.

  16. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

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    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    with the European Union's (EU guidelines for animal protein production, Brazilian poultry production needs to undergo a process of adaptation. In May, 2007, the EU Commission established its new guidelines for animal welfare in poultry production, pressured by consumer demand. In the EU, there is a growing concern among consumers as to how poultry are reared and slaughtered. European consumers are in the fore front of the demand of high quality products produced with under better welfare conditions, and have spread this concern throughout the world. Beaumont et al. (2010 mentioned that European consumers frequently perceive that standard commercial poultry production has poor animal welfare practices. According to Nääs et al. (2008, Brazilian poultry production today needs to find a balance between cruelty and productivity. In fact, ensuring animal welfare may provide better financial results, as it increases the producer's profit margins and allows maintaining Brazilian chicken export quotas to the EU. França (2008 noted that biological studies that define ethical limits and guidelines for poultry production foster the development of new production practices that may ensure good product quality and productivity without putting bird welfare at risk. Gonyou (1994 states that, when animal welfare started to be studied, the only behavioral factors considered were those related to feeding and reproduction. These first studies used as indicators of animal welfare reduced life expectancy, impaired growth, impaired reproduction, body damage, disease, immunosuppression, adrenal activity, behavior anomalies, and self-narcotization (Broom, 1991. However, current studies evaluate additional indicators, such as natural behaviors, behavioral needs, preferences, behavioral problems, emotional state, cognitive abilities, etc. In the field of ethology, the expression of natural behavior is a frequently used tool used to estimate the welfare of poultry destined to human consumption

  17. Gorduras de descarte e componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos Trim fat and external components of the body of steers and cull cows from different genetic groups

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    Jonatan Cattelan

    2010-12-01

    cows, respectively. The animals were maintained at feedlot finished until they reached the finishing degree for slaughter. The experimental diet had a roughage concentrate ratio of 40:60 (dry matter basis, containing 14.2% of crude protein and 2,869kcal of digestible energy kg-1 dry matter. The experimental design was complete randomized in a 2x2 (two categories and two genetic groups factorial scheme. The slaughter weight (PAB (509.67 versus 414.50kg and the empty body weight (PCVZ (433.01 versus 355.27kg, respectively were higher for cows in relation to steers. When the components were expreseds in absolutes values and adjusted for PCVZ and PAB, cull cows showed higher inguinal fat, renal fat and internal total fat weights. When the components weights were adjusted for PAB e PCVZ, the steers showed higher head, foots, tail broom and total external components. The 5/8Ch 3/8Ne animals showed higher head absolute weight and ruminal fat in relation to PCVZ, while the 5/8Ne 3/8Ch showed higher rawhide weight in relation to PAB and PCVZ, and in relation to PAB higher total extern components weight. The carcass dressing percentage and non integrants body parts of carcass didn't show any correlation.

  18. SUSTENTABILIDADE DE SISTEMAS ORGÂNICOS COM PLANTAS DE COBERTURA NA CULTURA DO ARROZ, POR MEIO DE ALTERAÇÕES FÍSICAS DO SOLO ORGANIC SYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY USING COVER CROPS IN RICE CULTIVATION THROUGH SOIL PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES CHANGES

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    Roberta Paula de Jesus

    2010-05-01

    ísica intermediária. A porcentagem de agregados com diâmetro maior que 2 mm e o diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados foram maiores, independentemente de cobertura de solo, na camada 0,10-0,20 m de profundidade. Também, independentemente da cobertura de solo, o conteúdo de matéria orgânica decresceu com a profundidade do solo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantas de cobertura; preparo do solo; porosidade; estabilidade de agregados.

    To evaluate the influence of cover crops on Oxisol physical attributes, in an organic production system with conventional tillage, a study was conducted at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil, for two years, in a succession cover crops-rice, in which cover crops were sown in the autumn/winter and the subsequent crop, rice cultivar Aimoré, was sown in the summer. Five cover crops were used: Velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima, Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, Broom sorghum (Sorghum technicum, and spontaneous vegetation fallowing. A randomized blocks design with four replications was used. In the second year of

  19. Aspectos agronômicos da cultura da mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl

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    Edgard S. Normanha

    1950-07-01

    cuttings. Data from field trials indicated that a spacing ranging between 0,80 x 0,40 cm and 1,00 x 0,60, according to soil fertility, is more advantageous than the spacing of 1,20 x 0,60 cm as it is usually adopted. Test on depth of planting were made with 15 cm long cuttings planted in furrows 5, 10 and 15 cm deep, and subsequently covered. The plants grown from cuttings planted 15 cm deep produced less and were more difficult to be dug out. Planting at 5 cm depth is also inadvisable because the plants may be easily uprooted by erosion or strong winds. Planting at 10 cm depth is to be recommended. Studies on cassava bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas manihoti (Arthaud-Ber-thet Burk, revealed that several common varieties and clones derived from seedlings show more resistance than the usually cultivated types. Cuttings of the resistant types were released to the growers and are now being widely used. A virus disease of the witches broom type, present in some localities, caused severe losses in cassava plantings made with the variety "Vassourinha". Tests carried out in infested areas showed that the variety "Brava da Ponte" is highly resistant to the disease, and the varieties "Preta" and "Holandi do Itaguá" show a fair degree of resistance.