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Sample records for brook station rifle

  1. Environmental contaminants in fish from Mere Brook - U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mere Brook bisects three former landfills at the U.S. Naval Air Station in Brunswick, Maine (NASB). Leachate, soil, and sediment analyzed during Superfund remedial...

  2. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... and to conduct scoping for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). SUMMARY: NASA intends to conduct... Project located near Sandusky, Ohio, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as...

  3. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  4. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  5. The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

  6. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  7. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  8. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  9. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepietowski, J C; Wasik, F; Szybejko-Machaj, G; Bieniek, A; Schwartz, R A

    2001-07-01

    The Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is an autosomal dominant one characterized by cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas and occasionally spiradenomas. Within a given family, some members may have cylindromas whereas others may have trichoepitheliomas or both. We describe the coexistence of trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex (also known as epithelioma adenoides cysticum of Brooke) and cylindromas in a 30-year-old man, and discuss the relationship between these two autosomal dominant syndromes.

  11. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  12. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apollo Tyres LTD, Chalakudy, India for saturated process steam production. The results showed that the heat transfer increased when compared with existing inner plane wall water tubes.

  13. Engineering Design Handbook: Recoilless Rifle Weapon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-15

    will be assumed that the require information on recoil impulse and reader has a familiarity with basic principles possibly recoil force and velocity-time...aor of a Sptts- Trama Projcdke, M48A1, cm- producins dense white smoke. However, the PIOYcd la the 106 min Recoileu Rifle low melting and ignition

  14. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    18  Figure 2.  Typical Platoon Flashlight and NVGs .............................................................33  x THIS...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...conditions may be such that pickup from a central point is impossible, and supplies are therefore delivered by helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft (HQ USMC

  15. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  16. Using human-centered design to improve the assault rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Lang; Yuan, Cheng-Kang; Liu, Bor-Shong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to interview infantry soldiers to determine their preferences with respect to rifle design and to examine the effect of buttstocks on shooting performance. Factor analysis showed that seven main factors should be considered in rifle redesign including tactics necessary, interface design, saving weight, bullpup configuration, sight design, other devices, and bayonet lug. For the shooting experiment, a total of four shooting trials were performed with the T-91 rifle, with buttstock lengths of 26 mm, 34 mm, self-adjusting stock, and bullpup stock. The analysis revealed that buttstock length had a significant effect on shooting performance. The redesigned rifle weight and total length should be reduced to 3.2 kg and 750 mm, respectively. The rifle buttstock should be a non-adjustable bullpup style. The buttstock shape should be curved and the hand-guard type should be more deeply and density seams, while the trigger handle shape should be slanted.

  17. Gyroscopic Stability of Open Tipped Match Style Rifle Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work has produced formulas for predicting stability of rifle bullets of near uniform density and also for plastic-tipped rifle bullets. These formulas have been shown to be accurate to within 5%. However, the original Miller twist formula for metal bullets of near uniform density underestimates the stability of match style open tipped rifle bullets having a significant empty volume in the tip. This paper presents a new formula for accurately estimating the stability of these open tipped match style rifle bullets from parameters easily obtained such as the bullet mass, length, and depth of the empty space in the tip. The formula is tested by measuring the aerodynamic drag vs. predicted stability of several bullets over a range of stabilities.

  18. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  19. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  20. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  1. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brooks Falls area. 13.1226... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene (CYLD) mutations in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: novel insights into the role of deubiquitination in cell signaling. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  3. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  4. Katherine Brooke'ist / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika teleseriaali "Vaprad ja ilusad" ("The Bold and the Beautiful") osatäitja Katherine Kelly Lang (Brooke). Artikli aluseks on Soap Opera Weekly ajakirjaniku Linda Susmani vestlus näitlejannaga

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  6. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  7. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  8. Clinical effects of pranayama on performance of rifle shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amte Snehal Shekhar, Mistry Hetal M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has an enormous scientifically proven effect on man’s physical and psychological functioning. Pranayama constitute the most vital aspects of yoga. Various methods of pranayama have a sound scientific basis and are traditionally believed to produce equilibrium between psychic and somatic aspects of bodily functions. The link between body and mind is obligatory for the better performance of sports persons. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the effect of pranayama on the performance of Rifle shooters by measuring the parameters like-breath holding time, lung functional capacity and shooting performance. Method: 52 state level shooters subjects were chosen from 2 centres between the age group of 15-30years. Out of them, 26 shooters were given training in the techniques of pranayama for 3weeks.The other 26 subjects served as control i.e. with out Pranayama training. Variables like shooting performance, breath holding time (BHT, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR and pulse rate (PR were measured in both the groups. Results: The study showed highly significant improvement in all the five variables shooting performance (in mm, BHT, PEFR, RR and PR with p value of 3.62E-05, 2.78E-07, 1.31E-09, 0.013, 3.40E-04respectively. Conclusion: So it can be concluded that pranayama is efficacious for better performance of Rifle shooters and should be included in their training practice.

  9. Peter Brook y el pensamiento tradicional

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolescu, Basarab

    2014-01-01

    La trayectoria creativa de Peter Brook tiene su fuente en la investigación sobre la tradición. En este ensayo se hace un recorrido por su concepción teatral y se revisan los diversos sentidos del concepto “tradición”. Desde la perspectiva transdiciplinaria se analizan los componentes centrales del teatro de Brook: energía, movimiento e interrelación, así como la estructura ternaria del espacio, la relación entre determinismo y espontaneidad y la imposibilidad de un lenguaje universal. El pens...

  10. Air rifle ammunition and its influence on wounding potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D

    1985-03-01

    Two new types of air rifle pellet have been introduced; Prometheus, made from steel and nylon, and 'Sabo', made from lead alloy and plastic. Both have radio-opaque and radio-lucent components and their manufacturers claim better penetration. To establish their capabilities and the clinical implications a comparison of penetration was made between diablo, Prometheus and 'Sabo' pellets using gelatin 20% as a tissue simulant. Prometheus penetrated no further than diablo pellets but fragmented in up to 70% of cases. 'Sabo' penetrated 46% further than diablo (p = 0.001) and its plastic component did not penetrate at ranges greater than 0.5 m. Prometheus penetrated steel, unlike the other pellets, and is therefore potentially more dangerous in head injury. Because of fragmentation after impact it should be remembered that the radio-lucent sleeve is likely to be lying in the wound track. 'Sabo' would appear to be the most dangerous in soft and medium density materials.

  11. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  12. Using pRIFLE criteria for acute kidney injury in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Amalia C. Saragih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI in critically ill children and its mortality rate is high. The lack of a uniform definition for AKI leads to failure in determining kidney injury, delayed treatment, and the inability to generalize research results. Objectives To evaluate the pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE criteria (risk for renal dysfunction, injury to the kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal disease for diagnosing and following the clinical course of AKI in critically ill children. We also aimed to compare AKI severity on days 1 and 3 of pediatric intensive care unit (PICUu stay in critically ill pediatric patients. Methods This prospective cohort study was performed in PICU patients. Urine output (UOP, serum creatinine (SCr, and glomerular filtration rate on days 1 and 3 of PICU stay were recorded. Classification of AKI was determined according to pRIFLE criteria. We also recorded subjects’ immune status, pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD score, admission diagnosis, the use of vasoactive medications, diuretics, and ventilators, as well as PICU length of stay and mortality. Results Forty patients were enrolled in this study. AKI was found in 13 patients (33%. A comparison of AKI severity on day 1 and day 3 revealed no statistically significant differences for attainment of pRIFLE criteria by urine output only (pRIFLE UOP; P=0.087 and by both UOP and SCr (pRIFLECr+UOP; P=0.577. However, attainment of pRIFLE criteria by SCr only (pRIFLECr was significantly improved between days 1 and 3 (P=0.026. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality or length of stay between subjects with AKI and those without AKI. Conclusion The pRIFLE criteria is feasible for use in diagnosing and following the clinical course of AKI in critically ill children.[Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:32-6.

  13. Predictive value of RIFLE classification on prognosis of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiong; CHEN Hui-de; WANG Xiao-wen; ZHAO Song; CHEN Xiu-kai; ZHENG Yue; SONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimal timing to start continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients has not been accurately established. The recently proposed risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria for diagnosis and classification of AKI may provide a method for clinicians to decide the "optimal timing" for starting CRRT under uniform guidelines. The present study aimed: (1) to analyze the correlation between RIFLE stage at the start of CRRT and 90-day survival rate after CRRT start, (2) to further investigate the correlation of RIFLE stage with the malignant kidney outcome in the 90-day survivors, and (3) to determine the influence of the timing of CRRT defined by RIFLE classification on the 90-day survival and malignant kidney outcome in 90-day survivors. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on the data of 106 critically ill patients with AKI, treated with CRRT during a 6-year period in a university affiliated surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Information such as sex, age, RIFLE stage, sepsis, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of organ failures before CRRT, CRRT time during SiCU, survival, and kidney outcome conditions at 90 days after CRRT start was collected. According to their baseline severity of AKI at the start of CRRT, the patients were assigned to three groups according to the increasing severity of RIFLE stages: RIFLE-R (risk of renal dysfunction, R), RIFLE-I (injury to the kidney, I) and RIFLE-F (failure of kidney function, F) using RIFLE criteria. The malignant kidney outcome was classified as RIFLE-L (loss of kidney function, L) or RIFLE-E (end-stage kidney disease, E) using RIFLE criteria. The correlation between RIFLE stage and 90-day survival rate was analyzed among these three RIFLE-categorized groups. Additionally, the association between RIFLE stage and the malignant kidney outcome (RIFLE-L+RIFLF-E) in the 90-day survivors was analyzed

  14. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  15. The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

  16. U.S. Army Rifle and Carbine Adoption between 1865 and 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    which remained the standard for U.S. military rifles well into the 1960s. The .30-caliber rifle has resurfaced during the current war on terrorism as...the hip and the time limit was reduced to one minute for the second and third trials. The Krag proved capable of firing 15 shots in 32 seconds as a...magazine empty.” Rapidity at will – “Same as test I, except that piece will be fired from the hip , without aim at stop butt at short range; hits

  17. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  18. Effects of Shivering on Rifle Shooting Performance in U. S. Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    M-16A2 rifle [Fig. 1 (B)], and a control switch interfaced with a desktop computer. The subjects aimed and fired at a solid black bull’s-eye...shivering response, as noted by an increase in myoelectric activity and visual observation, began 5 to 30 min after exposure to the cold environment

  19. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout (Salvelinus...

  1. VT Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of...

  2. VT Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of...

  3. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring - Phase 2 in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — In 2000, Foote Brook was identified as a high priority site for restoration after the extensive countywide stream stability study, Stream Stability Assessment of...

  4. Environmental contaminants in brook trout from Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June 2012, four brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected by angling from Chapman Pond and East Loring Lake at Aroostook NWR in northeast Maine. Two...

  5. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  7. Effects of Rifle Handling, Target Acquisition, and Trigger Control on Simulated Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    performance with the M16A1 rifle. Study 1. A validation of the artificial intelligence direct fire weapons research test bed. Orlando, FL: U.S...communication and superior performance in skilled marksmen: An EEG coherence analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 25(2... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  8. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  9. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  10. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  11. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 5, Addenda D6--D8 to Appendix D: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  12. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  13. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  14. Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection following rifle butt recoil chest injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mamatha; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Jufaili, Mahmood; Valiath, John

    2011-11-01

    Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  15. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  16. Oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite in groundwater at Old Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Veeramani, Harish; Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Blue, Lisa Y.; Giammar, Dianiel E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Suvorova, Elena; Yabusaki, Steve; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Mehta, Apurva; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Reductive bioremediation is currently being explored as a possible strategy for uranium-contaminated aquifers such as the Old Rifle site (Colorado). The stability of U(IV) phases under oxidizing conditions is key to the performance of this procedure. An in situ method was developed to study oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite (UO2), a desirable U(VI) bioreduction product, in the Old Rifle, CO, aquifer under different variable oxygen conditions. Overall uranium loss rates were 50–100 times slower than laboratory rates. After accounting for molecular diffusion through the sample holders, a reactive transport model using laboratory dissolution rates was able to predict overall uranium loss. The presence of biomass further retarded diffusion and oxidation rates. These results confirm the importance of diffusion in controlling in-aquifer U(IV) oxidation rates. Upon retrieval, uraninite was found to be free of U(VI), indicating dissolution occurred via oxidation and removal of surface atoms. Interaction of groundwater solutes such as Ca2+ or silicate with uraninite surfaces also may retard in-aquifer U loss rates. These results indicate that the prolonged stability of U(IV) species in aquifers is strongly influenced by permeability, the presence of bacterial cells and cell exudates, and groundwater geochemistry.

  17. Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George

    2013-10-01

    Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.

  18. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  19. Mujeres malditas pintadas de gris : el arte de Romaine Brooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Serrano de Haro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de su morbosa elegancia y fatídica sensualidad, los retratos de Romaine Brooks, grises como la nostalgia, son aceptados y considerados dignos de atención crítica desde hace muy poco tiempo. Romaine Brooks,norteamericana nacida en Roma en 1874, cuyas pinturas gozaron de una gran popularidad en el París de principios de siglo XX, fue prácticamente olvidada a partir de los años treinta. La donación de buena parte de su obra al Museo Nacional de Washington a fines de los años 60 y la exposición antológica de su obra en 1971 (un año después de su muerte, iniciaron lo que sería un proceso de recuperación de su figura y su pintura.

  20. A geologic framework for mineralization in the western Brooks Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a 950-km-long north-vergent fold and thrust belt, which was formed during Mesozoic convergence of the continental Arctic Alaska terrane and the oceanic Angayucham terrane and was further shortened and uplifted in Tertiary time. The Arctic Alaska terrane consists of parautochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains and De Long Mountains subterranes. The Endicott Mountains allochthon of the western Brooks Range is the setting for many sulfide and barite occurrences, such as the supergiant Red Dog zinc-lead mine. Mineralization is sediment hosted and most commonly is present in black shale and carbonate turbidites of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. The reconstructed Kuna basin is a 200 by +600 km feature that represents the culmination of a remarkable chain of events that includes three fluvial-deltaic and two or more orogenic cycles, Middle Devonian to Mississippian episodes of extension and igneous activity, and the emergence of a seaward Lower Proterozoic landmass that may have constituted a barrier to marine circulation. Mississippian extension and related horst-and-graben architecture in the western Brooks Range is manifested in part by strong facies variability between coeval units of allochthons and structural plates. Shallow marine to possibly nonmarine arkose, platform to shelf carbonate, slope-to-basin shale, chert and carbonate turbidites, and submarine volcanic rocks are all represented in Mississippian time. The structural setting of Mississippian sedimentation, volcanism, and mineralization in the Kuna basin may be comparable to documented Devono-Mississippian extensional sags or half-grabens in the subsurface north of the Brooks Range. Climate, terrestrial ecosystems, multiple fluvial-deltaic aquifers, and structural architecture affected the liberation, movement, and redeposition of metals in ways that are incompletely understood.

  1. BROOKS GLYCERINE 10缓震基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中底为王

    2012-01-01

    在跑鞋品牌里要论谁最具专业科技性,身为“四大跑鞋品牌”之一的BROOKS 相信是很多跑步迷心中的首选。2011年BROOKS推出了极具创新精神的中底缓震技术DNA,为整个跑步界投下了重磅炸弹,

  2. Prospecting for natural attenuation: Coupled geophysical-biogeochemical studies at DOE's Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Long, P. E.; Flores Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2011-12-01

    Research activities at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado (USA) are designed to integrate geochemical, biological, and hydrological studies to enhance our understanding of subsurface uranium mobility. While much of the research activities at the site have focused on stimulating subsurface microbial activity through acetate amendment, there is growing interest in the role that natural biogeochemical processes play in constraining uranium mobility in the aquifer. Such processes constitute a form of natural uranium attenuation in the subsurface and are inferred to result from elevated concentrations of natural organic matter associated with alluvial sediments. Referred to as naturally reduced zones (NRZ's), they are characterized by the presence of reduced and/or magnetic mineral phases (e.g. FeS, FeS2, and Fe3O4), elevated Fe(II), and refractory organic carbon compounds (e.g. roots, twigs, and cones). Elevated rates of microbial activity associated with NRZ's and their mineralogical makeup act to sequester uranium from groundwater at levels higher that background alluvium. Their unique composition within a matrix of relatively oxidized, low-bioactivity sediments constitutes a potential target for a variety of exploration geophysical techniques, such as induced polarization and magnetic susceptibility. Both methods have been successfully applied at the Rifle IFRC site to delineate the ubiquity and extent of NRZ's across the floodplain. Sediments recovered from drilling targets identified through the use of exploration geophysical techniques have identified elevated uranium concentrations associated with both magnetite and framboid pyrite; however, the extent to which such minerals are the direct product of in situ microbial activity remains unknown. While diverse, the microbial community composition of NRZ's suggest dominance by fermentative organisms capable of degrading lignitic carbon to low molecular weight organic

  3. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  4. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  5. Numerical Study of Modular 5.56 mm Standard Assault Rifle Referring to Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Płatek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes investigations carried out to verify a loading mechanism of a newly designed modular assault rifle MSBS-5.56. A complex character of interaction between its elements during a reloading process encouraged the authors implement a numerical approach based on the multibody system to specify the essential dynamic characteristics. The achieved results were compared to the data recorded during the experimental tests on the shooting range. Owing to the proposed modelling methodology, a good agreement between experimental and numerical studies has been achieved.A numerical model presented in the paper will be applied in further investigations to analyse strength parameters of the reloading mechanism and to conduct additional optimisation studies.

  6. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  7. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Rifle sites. That remedial action consists of removing approximately 4,185,000 cubic yards (cy) of tailings and contaminated materials from their current locations, transporting, and stabilizing the tailings material at the Estes Gulch disposal site, approximately six miles north of Rifle. The tailings and contaminated materials are comprised of approximately 597,000 cy from Old Rifle, 3,232,000 cy from New Rifle, and 322,000 cy from vicinity properties and about 34,000 cy from demolition. The remedial action plan includes specific design requirements for the detailed design and construction of the remedial action. An extensive amount of data and supporting information have been generated for this remedial action and cannot all be incorporated into this document. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents.

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  9. Brooks Range and eastern Alps: a tectonic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwig, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    A comparison of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range (BR) and the Eastern Alps (EA) reveals a remarkable parallelism. Both of these Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts are underlain by sialic crust formed in an earlier Paleozoic orogenic cycle. The old basement is revealed in major tectonic windows: the Tauern Fenster (EA) and the Doonerak Window-Schwatka Mountains (BR) - which are unconformably overlapped by transgressive, neritic marine clastic to carbonate successions - the Permo-Triassic through Hochstegenkalk sequence (EA), and the Kekiktuk-Kayak-Lisburne sequence (BR). These successions are passive-margin sequences that pass southward, in palinspastically restored cross sections, to synchronous deep-water facies deposited on ophiolitic basement - Bunderschiefer on Triassic-Jurassic ophiolites (EA) and Kuna facies or Etivluk sequence on upper Paleozoic ophiolites (BR). Onset of subduction-collision is marked by olistostromal facies - Cretaceous wildflysch (EA) and Jura-Cretaceous Okpikruak Formation (BR) - and the development of major flysch-molasse successions in the foreland basins of the collisional fold and thrust belts. Important major contrasts between these two mountain ranges reside in their colliding blocks and their post-orogenic histories. Alpine orogenesis was driven by continent-continent collision, closing out a young, narrow ocean, whereas Brooks Range deformation appears to have originated by arc-continent collision, closing out an older, broad (.)ocean. Younger Cenozoic deformation is extensional and strike-slip in the Eastern Alps, producing disjunctive basins, but Cenozoic deformation in the Brooks Range is diverse and includes compression in the east and extension in the far west.

  10. 小口径火炮数控拉线机床设计与研究%Design and research on CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胜龙; 王新科; 景富军

    2012-01-01

    膛线是火炮身管的命脉线,膛线的加工质量决定了火炮的有效射程、命中率和寿命.针对国内外火炮膛线加工技术差距,结合小口径火炮膛线加工工艺,设计了小口径火炮数控拉线机床,并对机床关键结构与控制系统进行了描述.%The rifle is a key factor for rifled barrel , and the rifle processing quality decided the effective firing range, shooting accuracy and lifetime. Aiming at the rifle processing technology gap at home and a-broad, and considering the rifle processing technology for small caliber piece, we designed the CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece, and described its key structures and control system.

  11. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 test facility-Thermal vacuum and propellant test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen; Weaver, Harold; Cmar, Mark

    2012-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  12. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 Test Facility: Thermal Vacuum and Propellant Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  13. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In criminology, there are actual problems of determining the type (machine gun, rifle, large caliber, pistol and a particular model of small rifle for its ammunition, in particular, discovered in the use of weapons. The article proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis and its programmatic toolkit – a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos", we have implemented a software interface that provides input to the system images, and the identification of their external contours on the basis of luminance and color contrast. Typing by multiparameter contour images of specific ammunition, we create and verify the system-cognitive model, with the use of which (if the model is sufficiently reliable, we can solve problems of system identification, classification, study of the simulated object by studying its model and others. For these tasks we perform the following steps: 1 enter the images of ammunitions into the system of "Eidos" and create mathematical models of their contours; 2 synthesis and verification of models of the generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multivariate typology; 3 quantification of the similarities-differences of the specific ammunition with generalized images of ammunition of various types and models of small rifle (system identification; 4 quantification of the similarities-differences of the types of munitions, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  16. Sorption of U(VI) to G. uraniireducens and A. palmae under Old Rifle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Howe, K.; Comolli, L.; Long, P.; Stucker, V.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial reduction as a remediation method for uranium contaminated Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been explored with promising results. Although transport models have been improved to include variations in geochemical concentration, reductive microbial processes and adsorption of uranium to minerals, they do not incorporate the presence of microbes as possible sorption surfaces that may influence the overall transport of uranium. Our overall objective is to examine U(VI) sorption to biomass by determining partition coefficients between U(VI) and the microbial species of Geobacter uraniireducens and Acholeplasma palmae. Once these partition coefficients are obtained, they will be incorporated into a thermodynamic model with the geochemical parameters of the Old Rifle Site. Preliminary results indicate that U(VI) sorbs 1000X more strongly to bacteria under atmospheric pCO2 conditions than under 2% pCO2 conditions. U(VI) sorption to the surface of G. uraniireducens is 4X stronger than to the surface of A. Palmae and in high-DIC waters is comparable in strength to reported U(VI)-mineral surface sorption. While the concentration of G. uraniireducens during and after remediation results in relatively small sorption site density, the possibility persists that sorption to G. uraniireducens may retard uranium transport at the geochemical gradients which exist in nature.

  17. The impact of bed temperature on heat transfer characteristic between fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczuk, Artur; Nowak, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the heat transfer study focuses on assessment of the impact of bed temperature on the local heat transfer characteristic between a fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes (38mm-O.D.) in a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Heat transfer behavior in a 1296t/h supercritical CFB furnace has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameter of 0.219 and 0.246mm. The heat transfer experiments were conducted for the active heat transfer surface in the form of membrane tube with a longitudinal fin at the tube crest under the normal operating conditions of CFB boiler. A heat transfer analysis of CFB boiler with detailed consideration of the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and the contribution of heat transfer mechanisms inside furnace chamber were investigated using mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient are compared with empirical correlation for CFB units in large-scale.

  18. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2009-04-20

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can be an effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Meteorological Data to Assess Evapotranspiration and Infiltration at the Rifle Site, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Long, P. E.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Christensen, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Net infiltration to the vadose zone, especially in arid or semi-arid climates, is an important control on microbial activity and solute and green house gas fluxes. To assess net infiltration, we performed a statistical analysis of meteorological data as the basis for hydrological and climatic investigations and predictions for the Rifle site, Colorado, USA, located within a floodplain in a mountainous region along the Colorado River, with a semi-arid climate. We carried out a statistical analysis of meteorological 30-year time series data (1985-2015), including: (1) precipitation data, taking into account the evaluation of the snowmelt, (2) evaluation of the evapotranspiration (reference and actual), (3) estimation of the multi-time-scalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), (4) evaluation of the net infiltration rate, and (5) corroborative analysis of calculated net infiltration rate and groundwater recharge from radioisotopic measurements from samples collected in 2013. We determined that annual net infiltration percentage of precipitation varies from 4.7% to ~18%, with a mean of ~10%, and concluded that calculations of net infiltration based on long-term meteorological data are comparable with those from strontium isotopic investigations. The evaluation of the SPEI showed the intermittent pattern of droughts and wet periods over the past 30 years, with a detectable decreasein the duration of droughts with time. Local measurements within the floodplain indicate a recharge gradient with increased recharge closer to the Colorado River.

  20. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  1. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  2. The Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration Project (2001) and Post Monitoring Project (2002)--Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of rainbow, brown,...

  3. Post Monitoring (2003) of the Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration Project--Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of rainbow, brown,...

  4. Olemuse teater. Kantor ja Brook / Jan Kott ; tõlk. Eva-Liisa Linder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kott, Jan

    2004-01-01

    T. Kantori lavastustest "Surnud klass" ja "Wielopole Wielopole" ning P. Brooki "Carmeni" lavastusest. Tõlgitud raamatust : Jan Kott. The Theatre of Essence: Kantor and Brook.- The Theatre of Essence and other Essays. Evanston, Northwestern University Press, 1984, lk. 159-165

  5. Flume length and post-exercise impingement affect anaerobic metabolism in brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, C; O'Keefe, R A; Benfey, T J

    2010-02-01

    The effect of flume length and impingement time on post-exercise lactate concentrations in brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis were examined. Swimming in longer flumes increased lactate concentrations, as does impingement after swimming in short flumes.

  6. 75 FR 38716 - Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...-9319, e-mail D13-SG-SecPortlandWWM@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the docket, call Renee V... America are holding a fireworks display near Brookings, Oregon on July 4, 2010. Due to the...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5m) of the shelf and slope environments of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA. The ASCII includes multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM300, Simrad...

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  9. [The forensic medical characteristic of the factors associated with a shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and the inflicted injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭzberg, S A; Makarov, I Iu; Lorents, A S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the structural characteristics of the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and three regular types of the bullets differing in the head shape fired from it. Morphological features of the injuries inflicted by such bullets are described in conjunction with the peculiarities of precipitation of the shot products in their projection as the prerequisites for their objective differentiation. Results: The study allowed to reveal the composition of the gunshot residues and to determine the maximum distance of their distribution. The specific features of experimental damage inflicted by the shots from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle to the coarse white calico fabric targets were shown to depend on the shot range. The objective signs of the so-called "short-range" shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle were described for the first time.

  10. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  11. Landscape models of brook trout abundance and distribution in lotic habitat with field validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are native fish in decline owing to environmental changes. Predictions of their potential distribution and a better understanding of their relationship to habitat conditions would enhance the management and conservation of this valuable species. We used over 7,800 brook trout observations throughout New York State and georeferenced, multiscale landscape condition data to develop four regionally specific artificial neural network models to predict brook trout abundance in rivers and streams. Land cover data provided a general signature of human activity, but other habitat variables were resistant to anthropogenic changes (i.e., changing on a geological time scale). The resulting models predict the potential for any stream to support brook trout. The models were validated by holding 20% of the data out as a test set and by comparison with additional field collections from a variety of habitat types. The models performed well, explaining more than 90% of data variability. Errors were often associated with small spatial displacements of predicted values. When compared with the additional field collections (39 sites), 92% of the predictions were off by only a single class from the field-observed abundances. Among “least-disturbed” field collection sites, all predictions were correct or off by a single abundance class, except for one where brown trout Salmo trutta were present. Other degrading factors were evident at most sites where brook trout were absent or less abundant than predicted. The most important habitat variables included landscape slope, stream and drainage network sizes, water temperature, and extent of forest cover. Predicted brook trout abundances were applied to all New York streams, providing a synoptic map of the distribution of brook trout habitat potential. These fish models set benchmarks of best potential for streams to support brook trout under broad-scale human influences and can assist with planning and

  12. Modeling Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields with Realistic Anatomical Models: The Brooks Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to code, a number of...rewritten in C. Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to...have made significant contributions include: Aldon Lyssy, who volunteered to scavenge and build the first Beowulf : Peter Gajsek who lead the first

  13. Charles Lewis Brook: third Director of the BAA Variable Star Section

    CERN Document Server

    Shears, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Charles Lewis Brook, MA, FRAS, FRMetS (1855 - 1939) served as Director of the BAA Variable Star Section from 1910 to 1921. During this time he was not merely interested in collecting the observations of the members (to which he also contributed), but he also spent considerable amounts of time analysing the data and preparing numerous publications on the findings. This paper discusses Brook's life and work, with a particular focus on his contribution to variable star astronomy.

  14. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  15. Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2012-12-01

    Stony Brook University offers an unusual series of short courses to help science graduate students learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including the public, public officials, potential funders and employers, students, the press, and colleagues in other fields. The courses include six 1-credit (14-hour) modules in oral and written communication that rely on practice and interactive feedback. More than 120 master's and PhD students, from more than 16 departments, have taken at least one of the courses since spring 2011. Most students who try one module end up taking two or three. An additional course for medical and nursing students was added in fall 2012. The courses are offered in the School of Journalism and were developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). CCS was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. The Communicating Science courses have received strong institutional support and enthusiastic reviews. They are required by two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. Two successive Provosts have subsidized course costs for PhD students, and Graduate School leaders are working to establish a steady funding stream to allow expansion of the program. Our aspiration at CCS is for every science graduate student to receive some training in communicating about science to the public. Several factors have helped in establishing the program: --CCS' multidisciplinary nature helped build support, with participation by faculty from across the campus, including not only the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, but journalism, theatre arts, and the Writing Program, as well as nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. --Before offering courses, CCS conducted all-day workshops and high

  16. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  17. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species.

  18. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  19. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  20. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  1. Analysis of floods, including the tropical storm Irene inundation, of the Ottauquechee River in Woodstock, Bridgewater, and Killington and of Reservoir Brook in Bridgewater and Plymouth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District for a 25-mile reach of the Ottauquechee River and a 2-mile reach of Reservoir Brook in Vermont. The reach of the Ottauquechee River that was studied extends from River Road Bridge in Killington, Vt., to the Taftsville Dam in the village of Taftsville, in the town of Woodstock, Vt., and the reach of Reservoir Brook extends from a location downstream from the Woodward Reservoir in Plymouth, Vt., to its confluence with the Ottauquechee River in Bridgewater, Vt. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood (also referred to as the 100-year flood) and the peak of the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011, which was greater than the 0.2-percent AEP flood (also referred to as the 500-year flood), as referenced to the USGS Ottauquechee River near West Bridgewater, Vt. streamgage (station 01150900).

  2. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  5. LopheliaII2012: Coral Research on Oil Rigs in the Gulf of Mexico on TDI-Brooks Vessel Brooks McCall between 2012-07-12 and 2012-07-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The final year of a multi-year effort to study Lophelia coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico is occurring on the TDI-Brooks research vessel, Brooks McCall,...

  6. Comparacao dos criterios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO quanto a capacidade de predicao de mortalidade em pacientes graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Machado Levi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em pacientes gravemente enfermos, sendo os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO utilizados para sua classificação. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a comparação dos critérios citados quanto à capacidade de predição de mortalidade em pacientes gravemente enfermos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, utilizando como fonte de dados prontuários médicos. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os critérios de exclusão foram tempo de internamento menor que 24 horas e doença renal crônica dialítica. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até a alta ou óbito Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado, regressão logística multivariada e curva ROC. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 64 anos, com mulheres e afrodescendentes representando maioria. Segundo o RIFLE, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 22,58%, 24,19% e 35,48% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda e em estágios Risk, Injury e Failure, respectivamente. Quanto ao AKIN, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 12,90% e 40,32% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. Considerando o KDIGO 2012, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 11,29% e 41,94% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. As três classificações apresentaram resultados de curvas ROC para mortalidade semelhantes. Conclusão: Os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO apresentaram-se como boas ferramentas para predição de mortalidade em pacientes graves, não havendo diferença relevante entre os mesmos.

  7. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  8. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using adsorption Kd values for the sand and adsorption data. The model successfully predicted U(VI) adsorption observed from a multilevel sampling well installed at the site. A comparison of the model with the one developed previously for a uranium mill tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In forensics there is an urgent need to determine the type of rifle (automatic, rifle, large caliber pistol depending on its used ammunition found at the scene of the use of weapons. We offer a solution to this problem with the use of new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its program toolkitwhich is a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the "Eidos" system we have implemented the software interface that allows posting of images and identifying their outer contours. By multivariable typing, the system creates a systemic-cognitive model, the use of which, if the model is sufficiently accurate, may be helpful in solving problems of system identification, prediction, classification, decision support and research of the modeled object by studying its model. For this task the following stages: 1 input images of ammunitions into the "Eidos" system and creation of their mathematical models; 2 the synthesis and verification of the models of generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multiparameter typing; 3 improving the quality of the model by separating classes for typical and atypical parts; 4 quantification of the similarities-the differences between specific types of munitions with generic images of different types of ammunition of the weapon (system identification; 5 quantification of the similarity-differences between types of ammunition, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis of generalized images of ammunition. A numerical example is given. We also possess a successful experience of solving similar problems in other subject areas

  10. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  11. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  12. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  13. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  14. Endocrine disruption in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) exposed to leachate from a public refuse dump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noaksson, E.; Linderoth, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Norrgren, L.; Zebühr, Y.; Balk, L.

    2003-01-01

    Lake Molnbyggen was previously found to harbour a large number of sexually immature female perch (Perca fluviatilis) suffering from endocrine disruption. In an attempt to pin-point the source of the endocrine-disrupting substance(s) (EDSs), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbacken, a strea

  15. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  16. Reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method for a French contemporary population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frédéric; Rérolle, Camille; Hérin, Fabrice; Dédouit, Fabrice; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    The Suchey-Brooks method is commonly used for pubic symphyseal aging in forensic cases. However, inter-population variability is a problem affected by several factors such as geographical location and secular trends. The aim of our study was to test the reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method on a virtual sample of contemporary French males. We carried out a retrospective study of 680 pubic symphysis from adult males undergoing clinical Multislice Computed Tomography in two hospitals between January 2013 and July 2014 (Toulouse and Tours, France). The reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method was tested by the calculation of inaccuracy and bias between real and estimated ages, and the mean age for each stage and the mean stage for each 10-years age interval were compared. The degree of inaccuracy and bias increased with age and inaccuracy exceeded 20 years for individuals over 65 years of age. The results are consistent with an overestimation of the real age for stages I and II and an underestimation of the real age for stages IV, V and VI. Furthermore, the mean stages of the reference sample were significantly lower for the 14-25 age group and significantly higher for individuals over 35 years old. Age estimation is potentially limited by differential inter-population error rates between geographical locations. Furthermore, the effects of secular trends are also supported by research in European countries showing a reduction in the age of attainment of indicators of biological maturity during the past few decades. The results suggest that the Suchey-Brooks method should be used with caution in France. Our study supports previous findings and in the future, the Suchey-Brooks method could benefit from re-evaluation of the aging standards by the establishment of new virtual reference samples.

  17. A Comparison of Traditional and Novel Definitions (RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO) of Acute Kidney Injury for the Prediction of Outcomes in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K.; Mc Gorrian, Catherine; Treacy, Cecelia; Kavanaugh, Edel; Brennan, Alice; Mahon, Niall G.; Murray, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if newer criteria for diagnosing and staging acute kidney injury (AKI) during heart failure (HF) admission are more predictive of clinical outcomes at 30 days and 1 year than the traditional worsening renal function (WRF) definition. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected clinical data on 637 HF admissions with 30-day and 1-year follow-up. The incidence, stages, and outcomes of AKI were determined using the following four definitions: KDIGO, RIFLE, AKIN, and WRF (serum creatinine rise ≥0.3 mg/dl). Receiver operating curves were used to compare the predictive ability of each AKI definition for the occurrence of adverse outcomes (death, rehospitalization, dialysis). Results AKI by any definition occurred in 38.3% (244/637) of cases and was associated with an increased incidence of 30-day (32.3 vs. 6.9%, χ2 = 70.1; p < 0.001) and 1-year adverse outcomes (67.5 vs. 31.0%, χ2 = 81.4; p < 0.001). Most importantly, there was a stepwise increase in primary outcome with increasing stages of AKI severity using RIFLE, KDIGO, or AKIN (p < 0.001). In direct comparison, there were only small differences in predictive abilities between RIFLE and KDIGO and WRF concerning clinical outcomes at 30 days (AUC 0.76 and 0.74 vs. 0.72, χ2 = 5.6; p = 0.02) as well as for KDIGO and WRF at 1 year (AUC 0.67 vs. 0.65, χ2 = 4.8; p = 0.03). Conclusion During admission for HF, the benefits of using newer AKI classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO) lie with the ability to identify those patients with more severe degrees of AKI who will go on to experience adverse events at 30 days and 1 year. The differences in terms of predictive abilities were only marginal. PMID:23801998

  18. TOPMODEL simulations of streamflow and depth to water table in Fishing Brook Watershed, New York, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    TOPMODEL, a physically based, variable-source area rainfall-runoff model, was used to simulate streamflow and depth to water table for the period January 2007-September 2009 in the 65.6 square kilometers of Fishing Brook Watershed in northern New York. The Fishing Brook Watershed is located in the headwaters of the Hudson River and is predominantly forested with a humid, cool continental climate. The motivation for applying this model at Fishing Brook was to provide a simulation that would be effective later at this site in modeling the interaction of hydrologic processes with mercury dynamics.

  19. Prognosis of acute kidney injury in dogs using RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure)-like criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-J; Chang, C-C; Chan, J P-W; Hsu, W-L; Lin, K-W; Wong, M-L

    2011-03-12

    A retrospective case-series study evaluated the prognosis of 853 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure) criteria, derived from human medicine. The 30-day mortality of dogs with AKI in each class was found to be 23.8 per cent (40 of 168) dogs for Risk, 41.0 per cent (107 of 261) dogs for Injury and 78.5 per cent (333 of 424) dogs for Failure. Using the dogs in the Risk class as the reference, the mortality of dogs in either the Injury or Failure class was significantly higher than that of dogs in the Risk class (PFailure class (three days). Using a multiple logistic regression model, a new score that simultaneously considered RIFLE class, diarrhoea status and serum phosphorus level was calculated to predict prognosis. Evaluation using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) indicated that the new scoring method (AUROC 0.80) was a better prognostic indicator than using RIFLE criteria alone (AUROC 0.73).

  20. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    Electron donor amendment for bioremediation often results in precipitation of secondary minerals and the growth of biomass, both of which can potentially change flow paths and the efficacy of bioremediation. Quantitative estimation of precipitate and biomass distribution has remained challenging, partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of natural porous media and the scarcity of field data. In this work, we examine the effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on the spatial distributions of mineral precipitates and biomass accumulated during a biostimulation field experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Field bromide breakthrough data were used to infer a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity through inverse transport modeling, while the solid phase Fe(III) content was determined by assuming a negative correlation with hydraulic conductivity. Validated by field aqueous geochemical data, reactive transport modeling was used to explicitly keep track of the growth of the biomass and to estimate the spatial distribution of precipitates and biomass. The results show that the maximum mineral precipitation and biomass accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the injection wells, occupying up to 5.4vol.% of the pore space, and is dominated by reaction products of sulfate reduction. Accumulation near the injection wells is not strongly affected by heterogeneities present in the system due to the ubiquitous presence of sulfate in the groundwater. However, accumulation in the down-gradient regions is dominated by the iron-reducing reaction products, whose spatial patterns are strongly controlled by both physical and geochemical heterogeneities. Heterogeneities can lead to localized large accumulation of mineral precipitates and biomass, increasing the possibility of pore clogging. Although ignoring the heterogeneities of the system can lead to adequate prediction of the average behavior of sulfate-reducing related products, it can also lead to an

  1. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks and St. Rogatien Bank, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20m) of the shelf and slope environments of Brooks Banks and St. Rogatien, Hawaii, USA. The ASCII includes multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad...

  2. Physico-Chemical Heterogeneity of Organic-Rich Sediments in the Rifle Aquifer, CO: Impact on Uranium Biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Noémie; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Pham, Don Q; O'Brien, Timothy M; Hausladen, Debra; Noël, Vincent; Lallier, Florent; Maher, Kate; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Rifle alluvial aquifer along the Colorado River in west central Colorado contains fine-grained, diffusion-limited sediment lenses that are substantially enriched in organic carbon and sulfides, as well as uranium, from previous milling operations. These naturally reduced zones (NRZs) coincide spatially with a persistent uranium groundwater plume. There is concern that uranium release from NRZs is contributing to plume persistence or will do so in the future. To better define the physical extent, heterogeneity and biogeochemistry of these NRZs, we investigated sediment cores from five neighboring wells. The main NRZ body exhibited uranium concentrations up to 100 mg/kg U as U(IV) and contains ca. 286 g of U in total. Uranium accumulated only in areas where organic carbon and reduced sulfur (as iron sulfides) were present, emphasizing the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions to uranium retention and the essential role of organic matter. NRZs further exhibited centimeter-scale variations in both redox status and particle size. Mackinawite, greigite, pyrite and sulfate coexist in the sediments, indicating that dynamic redox cycling occurs within NRZs and that their internal portions can be seasonally oxidized. We show that oxidative U(VI) release to the aquifer has the potential to sustain a groundwater contaminant plume for centuries. NRZs, known to exist in other uranium-contaminated aquifers, may be regionally important to uranium persistence.

  3. An investigation into the behaviour of air rifle pellets in ballistic gel and their interaction with bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Beard, J; Allison, R

    2010-07-15

    Although air weapons are considerably lower in power than other firearms, there is increasing concern that serious injuries can result from their misuse. The present study was therefore carried out to improve understanding of the terminal ballistic behaviour of air rifle pellets. Pellets were fired into ballistic gel under a variety of conditions. The pellets penetrated further than anticipated from their low cross-sectional density, and Bloom number was not necessarily a good guide to gel behaviour. Pellet penetration into the gel decreased with increasing gel concentration, and appeared to be linear at higher concentrations. Pointed pellets penetrated up to 50% further than rounded pellets. Power and range affect penetration, but other factors are also important, and power alone is not a simple guide to potential penetration. Test firings were also carried out firing pellets into ballistic gel that contained sections of animal bone. Computed tomography (CT) and visual observation were employed to record the interactions. CT scanning showed potential as a tool for examining pellet damage. The bone appeared to be undamaged, but the pellets were severely deformed on impact. If the pellet strikes the bone at an angle, less energy is absorbed by the impact and the pellet fragments may ricochet and cause further damage in the gel. A tentative model is proposed for estimating the energy absorbed by the impact.

  4. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  5. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  6. Exploring the potential of life-history key innovation: brook breeding in the radiation of the Malagasy treefrog genus Boophis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, M; Andreone, F; Glaw, F; Kosuch, J; Meyer, A; Schaefer, H-C; Veith, M

    2002-08-01

    The treefrog genus Boophis is one of the most species-rich endemic amphibian groups of Madagascar. It consists of species specialized to breeding in brooks (48 species) and ponds (10 species). We reconstructed the phylogeny of Boophis using 16S ribosomal DNA sequences (558 bp) from 27 species. Brook-breeders were monophyletic and probably derived from an ancestral pond-breeding lineage. Pond-breeders were paraphyletic. The disparity in diversification among pond-breeders and brook-breeders was notable among endemic Malagasy frogs, although it was not significant when considering Boophis alone. Sibling species which have different advertisement calls but are virtually indistinguishable by morphology were common among brook-breeders; genetic divergence between these species was high (modal 8% total pairwise divergence). Substitution rates in brook-breeding species were significantly higher than in pond-breeders. Speciation of pond-breeders may be hindered by their usually more synchronous reproduction and a higher vagility which enhances gene flow, while a higher potential of spatial segregation and speciation may exist along brooks.

  7. RIFLE 评分评价妊娠并发急性肾损伤的发生和预后%The evaluation value of RIFLE scoring for occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云宏; 顾勤; 刘宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用RIFLE评分评价重症监护室(ICU)收治的重症孕产妇妊娠并发急性肾损伤(AKI)的发生情况及临床预后情况。方法采用回顾性分析的方法研究2009年6月至2012年6月三年间南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院ICU收治重症孕产妇的临床资料。采用2004年急性透析质量指导组(ADQI)推荐诊断标准,将入组患者分为非妊娠并发AKI组及妊娠并发AKI组,AKI组组内按RIFLE评分的分期标准分为严重程度不同的“风险期(R)”、“损伤期(I)”、“衰竭期(F)”,比较各期患者住院期间急性生理学和慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)评分、肾功能转归、需要肾脏替代治疗例数、住ICU和住院时间及死亡率等指标。结果3年内共有81例重症孕产妇收住ICU,妊娠并发AKI的发生率为23.5%(19/81),其中10例患者需要肾脏替代治疗,转出ICU时11例患者肾功能完全恢复,4例患者肾功能部分恢复,4例患者肾功能未恢复。根据RIFLE评分的分期标准对妊娠并发AKI患者分组,其中7例符合R期,6例符合Ⅰ期,6例符合F期。R期患者中无发展到F期,Ⅰ期患者中1例发展到F期。F期患者APACHEⅡ评分[(14.5±6.72)分]明显高于R期患者[(6.86±2.79)分](P=0.008),三亚组组间肾功能转归(完全恢复、部分恢复、未恢复)有显著性差异(P=0.026),F期患者住ICU时间[(10.17±5.81)d]较R期[(4.00±4.12)d]患者明显延长(P=0.039)。结论危重孕产妇发生妊娠并发AKI的概率较高,RIFLE评分的不同分期与患者APACHEⅡ评分、肾功能转归及住ICU时间均有关。%Objective Using RIFLE scoring to evaluate the occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury(AKI) in pregnancy of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to the intensive care unit(ICU). Methods A retrospective analysis of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to

  8. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  9. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  10. Analysis about Rifling Grooves of Small-caliber Ammunition on the Flow Field%膛线沟槽对小口径弹体流场的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵缧; 董富强

    2015-01-01

    早期弹体滚转力矩和马格努斯效应数值计算中多采用简化弹体模型,没有考虑膛线沟槽的影响。但对小口径弹体而言,分析亚音速条件下膛线沟槽的影响对弹道计算至关重要。文中采用Fluent[1]软件对不同攻角和不同滚转速度的流场进行计算,对比光滑弹体和带沟槽弹体的流场差异,得到膛线沟槽对流场的影响规律。分析发现膛线沟槽使得滚转力矩和马格努斯力矩减小。结论认为弹体上的膛线沟槽影响较大,需要在实际工程计算中给予考虑。%In previous studies, rifling grooves generally ignored in simplified model of ammunition when calculating Magnus effect and roll-ing moment of ammunition. However, due to high requirement trajectory of small caliber ammunition, effect of rifling grooves should be studied. With the help of Fluent software, the effect of rifling groove on flow field over small caliber ammunition by comparing CFD results of smooth bullet and rifling grooves bullet. Flow fields for three different angles of attack and three different rolling rates were studied. Re-sults show that the rolling moment and Magnus moment of the bullet smaller if the effect of rifling grooves considered. So the effect of rifling grooves should be considered in practical engineering calculation.

  11. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  12. Effect of postthaw storage time and sperm-to-egg ratio on fertility of cryopreserved brook trout sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynca, J; Dietrich, G J; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Ciereszko, A

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of postthaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of brook trout (n = 9). Furthermore, we examined the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of postthaw, cryopreserved, brook trout sperm. The application of a cryopreservation procedure produced very high postthaw sperm motility (56.8 ± 4.0%). The cryopreserved sperm of brook trout could be stored up to 60 minutes without loss of the percentage of sperm motility (52.0 ± 9.0%). The fertilization capacity of brook trout postthaw sperm was comparable with the fertilization rate of fresh semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1 (42.4 ± 14.0% and 36.5 ± 11.0% for eyed and hatched stages, respectively). The possibility of postthaw semen storage for the prolonged time and the obtainment of high fertilization rate at low sperm-to-egg ratio can lead to the significant improvement of brook trout semen cryopreservation procedure.

  13. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  14. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  15. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  16. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  17. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  18. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  19. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  20. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  1. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  2. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  3. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  4. Familial multiple eccrine spiradenomas with cylindromatous features associated with epithelioma adenoides cysticum of Brooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberian, B J; Sulica, V I; Kao, G F

    1990-07-01

    Four cases of rare familial multiple eccrine spiradenomas showing features of dermal cylindromas and associated with epithelioma adenoides cysticum of Brooke are reported. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from three generations of this family and routine histochemical and immunoperoxidase stains were used. The eldest affected family member had multiple disfiguring facial and scalp tumors, which precipitated episodes of depression. Unlike other cutaneous genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, the cutaneous adnexal tumors occurring in these patients continue to erupt and grow during their lifetimes.

  5. DETECTION OF RENIBACTERIUM SALMONINARUM IN TISSUE OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS BY NESTED RT–PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vardić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum causes kidney disease with high mortality rate and considerable economic losses in salmonid farming. Thus, application of fast and sensitive method for R. salmoninarum diagnosis is of great importance. This paper describes detection of R. salmoninarum in brook trout tissue with gross clinical signs of disease by nested RT–PCR. Determination of partial sequence of bacterial msa gene was done prior to comparison with similar sequences from different R. salmoninarum isolates. Nested RT–PCR proved to be a rapid and valuable diagnostic tool for R. salmoninarum detection, and sequence analysis confirmed previously reported genetic uniformity of this bacteria

  6. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  7. 基于ADAMS的自动步枪自动机数值仿真研究%Numerical Simulation Based on ADAMS for Automatic Rifle Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋超杰; 姚养无

    2014-01-01

    An automatic rifle was taken as study object ,the simulation model of the automatic rifle automata was set up by UG and ADAMS ,and the virtual prototype model of the automata was realized in ADAMS/View environment .Through ADAMS simulation analysis function ,the dynamic characteristic curves of the automata were obtained .This study may provide a basis for the design and test of firearms .%以某自动步枪为研究对象,利用 UG 和 ADAMS 软件联合建立了其三维仿真模型,将其导入ADAMS/View环境中得到虚拟样机模型,通过ADAMS自身的仿真分析功能得到了自动机的动力学特性曲线。为枪械设计提供了依据,并大大降低了枪械试验的费用和时间。

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (WALDTH00450021) on Town HIghway 45, crossing Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00450021 on Town Highway 45 crossing Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The VTAOT files state that the stream is Coles Brook, both the USGS and the VTAOT maps state that it is Joes Brook.

  9. Organic Carbon Inventories and Vertical Fluxes Through the Vadose Zone into Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Kim, Y.; Faybishenko, B.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Gilbert, B.; Dayvault, R. D.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding carbon inventories and fluxes within the vadose zone and groundwater of semi-arid regions is challenging because of their typically deep profiles, moderately low soil organic carbon (SOC) inventories, low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes, and slow changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) inventories. The remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site situated on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado possesses a number of characteristics that facilitate investigation of subsurface carbon fluxes. These include locally derived fill soil having SOC and SIC concentrations representative of the region, established vegetation cover (perennial grasses and shrubs) on the fill, boundaries between the fill and underlying alluvium distinguishable through concentrations of SIC and other chemical components, predictable groundwater flow and interaction with the adjacent Colorado River, and a clearly delineated impermeable lower boundary (Wasatch Formation shale) at depths ranging from 6 to 7.5 m. Environmental characteristics of this site permit year-round sampling of both pore water and pore gas throughout most of the moderately deep (~ 3.5 m) vadose zone. Within this well-defined hydrological system, we recently installed a suite of tensiometers, pore water (vadose zone and groundwater) samplers, gas samplers, and neutron probe access tubes at three sites along a transect aligned with the groundwater flow direction in order to determine inventories and fluxes of water, carbon, and other components. The tensiometer and piezometer measurements are revealing impacts of infiltration and groundwater recharge events, evapotranspiration, and capillary fringe-groundwater interactions. The results of pore water analyses are showing relatively high concentrations of DOC (up to 4 mM) in the vadose zone, and particulate organic carbon (POC) mobile in the capillary fringe. Differences in DOC characteristics are being determined using a variety of analytical techniques. Hydraulic

  10. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed...

  11. Comparison of CO2 trapping in highly heterogeneous reservoirs with Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten type capillary pressure curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Dominic, David F; Mehnert, Edward; Okwen, Roland T

    2015-01-01

    Geological heterogeneities essentially affect the dynamics of a CO2 plume in subsurface environments. Previously we showed how the dynamics of a CO2 plume is influenced by the multi-scale stratal architecture in deep saline reservoirs. The results strongly suggest that representing small-scale features is critical to understanding capillary trapping processes. Here we present the result of simulation of CO2 trapping using two different conventional approaches, i.e. Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten, for the capillary pressure curves. We showed that capillary trapping and dissolution rates are very different for the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten approaches when heterogeneity and hysteresis are both represented.

  12. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  13. Plant communities as indicators of salt marsh hydrology A study at Goose Fare Brook, Saco, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millette, P.M. (Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Salt marsh stratigraphy often relies on vegetation fragment distribution as an indicator of paleo-sea level. This study is attempting to validate the use of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at Goose Fare Brook in Saco, Maine as paleo-sea level indicators. Plant zones were mapped and each zone boundary was surveyed to describe the relationship between sea level and plant species zonation. Data showing the contact elevations between S. patens and S. alterniflora were examined, and contacts from different environments in the marsh were compared. Differences in contact elevations ranged from only a few centimeters to more than eighty centimeters. Three series of groundwater monitoring wells were installed along transects. Within a single transect, one well was placed in the creek bottom, measuring the free water surface, and one was placed at each of several plant zone boundaries. Strip chart recordings from one series of monitoring wells show the flood dominated patterns of tidally influenced groundwater fluctuations in the wells. Root depths of 100 plugs each of S. alterniflora and S. patens were also measured. A comparison of these measurements and those from monitoring wells will assist in the determination of the average length of submergence time for each species. Preliminary findings suggest that sea level is not the only force affecting the modern zonation of these two indicator plants in Goose Fare Brook.

  14. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Królikowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of nineteen comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semimajor axes between 50 and 150 thousand au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as nearly two-year long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star)-measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star)-measurements, and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for originally used reference stars. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction of orbital elements uncertainties. Based on the most preferred orbital s...

  15. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  16. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  17. Water age and stream solute dynamics at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; McGuire, Kevin; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The contribution discusses experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is used to model both conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to estimate the relevant hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). Within this framework, dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow were simulated by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation at Hubbard Brook. The analysis of the results provided by the calibrated model allowed a robust estimate of the emerging concentration-discharge relationship, streamflow age distributions (including the fraction of event water) and storage size, and their evolution in time due to hydrologic variability.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report. Volume 4, Addenda D1--D5 to Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James W.

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984.

  19. Associação do RIFLE com letalidade e tempo de internação em pacientes críticos com lesão renal aguda RIFLE: association with mortality and length of stay in critically ill acute kidney injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Rosso dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a classificação do RIFLE com a letalidade e tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e no hospital. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, observacional e longitudinal aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição. Foram coletados os dados de todos os pacientes internados por mais de 24 horas na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina de setembro de 2007 a março de 2008 e com seguimento até a alta ou óbito. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: com lesão renal aguda e sem lesão renal aguda. O grupo com lesão renal aguda foi classificado conforme o RIFLE e subdividido de acordo com a classe máxima alcançada: risco, injúria ou falência. Não foram incluídas as classes loss e end-stage no estudo. Analisou-se também APACHE II e SOFA. Utilizaram-se os testes t Student e Qui-Quadrado, principalmente. Um pOBJECTIVE: To correlate the RIFLE classification with mortality and length of stay both in the intensive care unit and hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study, approved by the Institution's Ethics Committee. Data were collected for all patients staying longer than 24 hours in the intensive care unit of Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina from September 2007 to March 2008, followed-up either until discharge or death. Patients were divided in two groups: with or without acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injury group was additionally divided according to the RIFLE and sub-divided according to the maximal score in Risk, Injury of Failure. Loss and End-stage classes were not included in the study. APACHE II and SOFA were also evaluated. The t Student and Chi-Square tests were used. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The sample included 129 patients, 52 (40.3% with acute kidney injury

  20. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  1. Experimental Study of U(VI) Release Kinetics from Aquifer Sediments from a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Rifle, Colorado, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Campbell, K. M.; Hayes, K. F.; Davis, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium(VI) release kinetics from aquifer sediments from a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado was studied to understand uranium distribution within the sediments. The sediments were sampled at depths of 3.5-3.8 m in December 2004. The samples were air-dried, sieved, and the uranium content in the sediments, determined by gamma-radiometry, was 4.1 μg/g sediment. The labile fraction of U(VI) in the sediments was determined using carbonate/bicarbonate extractions, which should cause complete desorption of U(VI) in the absence of mass transfer limitations. Carbonate/bicarbonate extraction of the sediments showed very slow release kinetics, with only 12 % of the labile U(VI) in the sediments being released during the first 96 hours of extraction. This is much less than found in a previous study at a different mill tailings site (Naturita, Colorado), in which more than 80 % of labile U(VI) was released during the same period of extraction. Up to two months of carbonate/bicarbonate extraction released 1 μg U(VI) per gram of Rifle sediment, which is 25 % of the total U in the sediment. Extraction with an artificial groundwater prepared to simulate the field groundwater chemistry showed 0.26 μg U/g sediment was released during the initial 94 hours of extraction, with a gradual increase of released U(VI) with time, while other major and minor elements (except Si) rapidly reached steady-state concentrations during the first few hours of reaction. Two hypotheses are under consideration to explain the slow U(VI) release kinetics: 1) colloidal clay fraction particles cementing larger grains of the sediments are creating nanoscale interparticle pores that act as a diffusion barrier to U(VI) desorption, and 2) a U(IV) solid phase exists whose oxidation and dissolution control the U(VI) release rate. To test the hypotheses, oxidation and extraction of the sediments have been conducted using oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study are

  2. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  3. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  4. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  5. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  6. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  8. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  9. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7 (WALDTH00020007) on Town Highway 2, crossing Coles Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00020007 on Town Highway 2 crossing Coles Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). Coles Brook is also referred to as Joes Brook. A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in north-eastern Vermont. The 12.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly shrub and brushland. In the study area, Coles Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/

  11. Growth of a Science Center: The Center for Science and Mathematics Education (CESAME) at Stony Brook University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafney, Leo; Bynum, R. David; Sheppard, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the origin and development of CESAME (The Center for Science and Mathematics Education) at Stony Brook University. The analysis identifies key ingredients in areas of personnel, funding, organizational structures, educational priorities, collaboration, and institutionalization. After a discussion of relevant issues in…

  12. Drought-induced stomatal closure probably cannot explain divergent white spruce growth in the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Annalis H; Sullivan, Patrick F; Csank, Adam Z; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Ellison, Sarah B Z

    2016-01-01

    Increment cores from the boreal forest have long been used to reconstruct past climates. However, in recent years, numerous studies have revealed a deterioration of the correlation between temperature and tree growth that is commonly referred to as divergence. In the Brooks Range of northern Alaska, USA, studies of white spruce (Picea glauca) revealed that trees in the west generally showed positive growth trends, while trees in the central and eastern Brooks Range showed mixed and negative trends during late 20th century warming. The growing season climate of the eastern Brooks Range is thought to be drier than the west. On this basis, divergent tree growth in the eastern Brooks Range has been attributed to drought stress. To investigate the hypothesis that drought-induced stomatal closure can explain divergence in the Brooks Range, we synthesized all of the Brooks Range white spruce data available in the International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and collected increment cores from our primary sites in each of four watersheds along a west-to-east gradient near the Arctic treeline. For cores from our sites, we measured ring widths and calculated carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), and needle intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) from δ13C in tree-ring alpha-cellulose. We hypothesized that trees exhibiting divergence would show a corresponding decline in δ13C, a decline in C(i), and a strong increase in iWUE. Consistent with the ITRDB data, trees at our western and central sites generally showed an increase in the strength of the temperature-growth correlation during late 20th century warming, while trees at our eastern site showed strong divergence. Divergent tree growth was not, however, associated with declining δ13C. Meanwhile, estimates of C(i) showed a strong increase at all of our study sites, indicating that more substrate was available for photosynthesis in the early 21st than in the early 20th century. Our

  13. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: Oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Budahn, James R.; Murchey, Benita L.

    1989-11-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippean), Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks (pillow basalt, subordinate diabase, basaltic tuff, and radiolarian chert). Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. Classification based on immobile trace elements confirms the tholeiitic character of most of the basalts but suggests that some had primary compositions transitional to alkali basalt. Although field and petrographic features of the basalts are similar, trace element characteristics allow definition of geographically distinct suites. A central outcrop belt along the crest of the mountains is made up of basalt with relatively flat rare earth element (REE) patterns. This belt is flanked to the north and south by LREE (light rare earth element)-enriched basalts. Radiolarian and conodont ages from interpillow and interlayered chert and limestone indicate that the central belt of basalts is Triassic in age, the southern belt is Jurassic in age, and the northern belt contains a mixture of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Data for most of the basalts cluster in the "within-plate basalt" fields of trace element discriminant diagrams; none have trace-element characteristics of island arc basalt. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted

  14. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  15. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  16. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  17. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  18. Incidence of pigmented skin tumors in a population of wild Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Amat, Fèlix; Bargalló, Ferran; Carranza, Salvador

    2011-04-01

    We report the presence of pigmented skin tumors in three populations of the endangered amphibian Montseny brook newt, Calotriton arnoldi, one of the European amphibian species with the smallest distribution range (40 km(2) in the Montseny Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain). Examination of one of the tumors by light microscopy was consistent with chromatophoroma and was most suggestive of a melanophoroma. Tumors were not found in juveniles. In adults, only two of three populations were affected. The proportions of males and females affected were not significantly different, but there was a positive correlation between body size and presence of tumors in both sexes. The etiology of chromatophoromas remains unknown but, in our study, they do not appear to have been caused by water quality or Ultraviolet B.

  19. Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water of a brook in a cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Svec, Pavel; Saavedra, Ma José; Figueras, Ma José; Sedlacek, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    Aeromonas P2973 was isolated from the water of a brook in a cavern in the Czech Republic. This isolate could not be biochemically identified at the species level, considering all updated species descriptions. Subsequent extensive phenotypic characterisation, DNA-DNA hybridisation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4705 bp) was employed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy of this isolate. Based on this polyphasic approach, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CCM7641(T) (DSM24474(T), CECT7862(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Pseudolinkage of the duplicate loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J E; May, B; Stoneking, M; Lee, G M

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoretic variation involving three alleles is described for the duplicated loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-1,2), from muscle extracts of brook trout. Both loci exhibit largely disomic inheritance. Exceptional progeny types are proposed to be the result of a form of tetrasomic inheritance. Nonrandom segregation was found among the progeny of males doubly heterozygous for AAT markers; where so-called linkage phase was known, this nonrandom assortment was shown to be pseudolinkage (78.9 percent recombination). Analyses of joint segregation of triply heterozygous males for the AAT-(1,2) loci and for the single alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus (AGP-1) revealed true linkage of AGP-1 with one AAT locus (mean r = 11 percent), but pseudolinkage with the other AAT locus (r = 74 percent). Intraindividual variation for homoeologous multivalent pairing of two acrocentric with two metacentric chromosomes in males, but with bivalent pairing in females, is proposed to account for pseudolinkage and for the tetrasomically inherited types.

  1. The physiological response of diploid and triploid brook trout to exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, C A; Kieffer, J D; Benfey, T J

    2003-01-01

    Using triploidy as an experimental model, we examined whether cell size limits the post-exercise recovery process in fish. Because triploids generally possess larger cells, which could affect many physiological and biochemical processes, we hypothesized that triploids would take longer to recover from exhaustive exercise compared to diploids. To test this, we measured plasma lactate, glucose and osmolality, and white muscle energy stores (glycogen, phosphocreatine and ATP) and lactate before and immediately following exhaustive exercise and during recovery at 2 and 4 h post-exercise. In addition, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Overall, diploid and triploid brook trout showed similar metabolic responses exercise, but plasma osmolality, white muscle lactate, white muscle ATP and post-exercise oxygen consumption rates recovered earlier in triploids compared to diploids. The results of this study suggest that the characteristic larger cell size of triploidy does not limit the physiological response to, or recovery from, exhaustive exercise.

  2. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  3. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  4. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  5. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on 1 year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  6. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on one year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  7. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS: application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Brauer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS is a new parametric (conceptual rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater–surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014. Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on one year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious. Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  8. Changes in seasonal climate outpace compensatory density-dependence in eastern brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassar, Ronald D.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how multiple extrinsic (density-independent) factors and intrinsic (density-dependent) mechanisms influence population dynamics has become increasingly urgent in the face of rapidly changing climates. It is particularly unclear how multiple extrinsic factors with contrasting effects among seasons are related to declines in population numbers and changes in mean body size and whether there is a strong role for density-dependence. The primary goal of this study was to identify the roles of seasonal variation in climate driven environmental direct effects (mean stream flow and temperature) versus density-dependence on population size and mean body size in eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We use data from a 10-year capture-mark-recapture study of eastern brook trout in four streams in Western Massachusetts, USA to parameterize a discrete-time population projection model. The model integrates matrix modeling techniques used to characterize discrete population structures (age, habitat type and season) with integral projection models (IPMs) that characterize demographic rates as continuous functions of organismal traits (in this case body size). Using both stochastic and deterministic analyses we show that decreases in population size are due to changes in stream flow and temperature and that these changes are larger than what can be compensated for through density-dependent responses. We also show that the declines are due mostly to increasing mean stream temperatures decreasing the survival of the youngest age class. In contrast, increases in mean body size over the same period are the result of indirect changes in density with a lesser direct role of climate-driven environmental change.

  9. Stream Carbon Dioxide Dynamics and Evasion in Temperate Forest Catchments at Hubbard Brook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. F.; Driscoll, C. T.; Cole, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Degassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) from small streams draining forest landscapes have come under close scrutiny as potentially significant sources of CO2 relative to the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon. Quantifying such losses is essential to our understanding of how temperate forest ecosystems function as carbon sinks. The concentration of CO2 in stream water is not only a product of in-stream metabolism but also terrestrial respiration, thereby functioning as integrative measure of whole catchment respiration. Longitudinal surveys and in situ monitoring (4 hour intervals) of dissolved pCO2 were conducted to examine the spatial and temporal variability in headwater streams at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA. A valley wide survey of contrasting headwaters revealed that CO2 was rapidly lost and approached atmospheric equilibrium within the first 400 m of first flowing water. Catchment geomorphology (soil depth, slope, aspect) did not appear to significantly influence pCO2 variation between streams. Stream flow exhibited a strong control over pCO2, approaching atmospheric levels under high flows and increasing to upwards of 15,000 µatm during low flow periods. Two distinct phases of diurnal fluctuations in pCO2 were observed from early May to mid June, and again in mid August until late October. These diurnal patterns were largely absent during the height of the growing season (mid June through July). The role of small streams draining northern temperate forest ecosystems relative to the NEE of CO2 will be discussed. The Hubbard Brook pCO2 time-series are among the first reported for northern temperate forest headwaters and represent a potential advancement towards assessing whole catchment soil respiration.

  10. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène BOULET, Éric NORMANDEAU, Bérénice BOUGAS, Céline AUDET,Louis BERNATCHEZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy, whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning. Moreover, several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species, as well as polymorphism within a population. The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromous and resident forms during the first transition from freshwater to saltwater environments are only partially understood. Insofar research has typically focused on species of the genus Salmo. Here, using a 16,000 cDNA array, we tested the hypothesis that anadromous brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis are characterized by differences in their transcriptome relative to resident brook charr before the anadromous fish migration. Families originating from parapatric populations of anadromous and resident charr were reared in controlled environments mimicking natural temperature and photoperiod, and sampled in spring, while still in fresh water. While anadromous and resident charr showed similar transcriptome profiles in white muscle, they were characterized by striking differences in their gill transcriptome profiles. Genes that were upregulated in the gills of anadromous charr were principally involved in metabolism (mitochondrial electron transport chain, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis, development (tissue differentiation and innate immunity. We discuss the nature of these transcriptomic differences in relation to molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of anadromous and resident life history tactics and suggest that the anadromous charr express some of the molecular processes present in other migratory salmonids [Current Zoology 58 (1: 158–170, 2012].

  11. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marylène BOULET; (E)ric NORMANDEAU; Bérénice BOUGAS; Cé1ine AUDET; Louis BERNATCHEZ

    2012-01-01

    Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy,whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning.Moreover,several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species,as well as polymorphism within a population.The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromous and resident forms during the first transition from freshwater to saltwater environments are only partially understood.Insofar research has typically focused on species of the genus Salmo.Here,using a 16,000 cDNA array,we tested the hypothesis that anadromous brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis are characterized by differences in their transcriptome relative to resident brook charr before the anadromous fish migration.Families originating from parapatric populations of anadromous and resident charr were reared in controlled environments mimicking natural temperature and photoperiod,and sampled in spring,while still in fresh water.While anadromous and resident charr showed similar transcriptome profdes in white muscle,they were characterized by striking differences in their gill transcriptome profiles.Genes that were upregulated in the gills of anadromous charr were principally involved in metabolism (mitochondrial electron transport chain,glucose metabolism,and protein synthesis),development (tissue differentiation) and innate immunity.We discuss the nature of these transcriptomic differences in relation to molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of anadromous and resident life history tactics and suggest that the anadromous chart express some of the molecular processes present in other migratory salmonids [Current Zoology 58 (1):158-170,2012].

  12. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  13. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  14. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  15. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  16. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  17. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  18. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  19. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  20. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  1. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  2. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  3. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  4. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  5. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  6. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  7. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  8. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  9. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  10. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  11. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  12. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  13. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (WALDTH00180022) on Town Highway 18, crossing Coles Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00180022 on Town Highway 18 crossing Coles Brook also known as Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  15. Injuria Renal Aguda aplicando escala de pRifle en Niños del Hospital Universitario del Valle: características clínicas, manejo y evolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Restrepo de Rovetto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: to know the epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in the pediatric population at Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV, a tertiary University Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methods: We obtained a series of cases through daily surveillance for a seven-month period (June 1 to December 31, 2009 in patients older than 30 days and under 18 years at HUV. We excluded patients with previous diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The new pRIFLE scale was used to define AKI. Results: 27 patients were detected, with mean age of 36 months. Incidence of AKI was 0.38% from pediatric admissions and 6.2% from the pediatric intensive care unit (pICU admissions. The pRIFLE scale at study entrance was: Risk: 2 patients, Injury: 8, Failure: 17. Etiology of AKI was: pre-renal in 89%, primary renal disease in 3.7%, and post-renal in 7.4%. There was an association of AKI with sepsis in 66.7% and 48.2% progressed to septic shock. Six patients required renal replacement therapy, all required peritoneal dialysis. The AKI was multi-factorial in 59.3% and associated with systemic multi-organ failure in 59.3%. At study entry, 63% patients were in pICU. The average hospital stay was 21.3 ± 9.2 days. Six children died, 16 resolved AKI, and nine were left with renal sequelae. Conclusions: We recommended pRIFLE scale for early diagnosis of AKI in all pediatric services. Education in pRIFLE scale, prevention of AKI, and early management of sepsis and hypovolemia is recommended.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity of mobilization processes and input pathways of herbicides into a brook in a small agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Tobias; Lück, Alfred; Popow, Gabriel; Strahm, Ivo; Winiger, Luca; Gaj, Marcel; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Soil applied herbicides can be transported from their point of application (agricultural field) to surface waters during rain events. There they can have harmful effects on aquatic species. Since the spatial distribution of mobilization and transport processes is very heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the total load in a surface water body may differ considerably. The localization of especially critical areas (contributing areas) can help to efficiently minimize herbicide inputs to surface waters. An agricultural field becomes a contributing area when three conditions are met: 1) herbicides are applied, 2) herbicides are mobilized on the field and 3) the mobilized herbicides are transported rapidly to the surface water. In spring 2009, a controlled herbicide application was performed on corn fields in a small (ca 1 km2) catchment with intensive crop production in the Swiss plateau. Subsequently water samples were taken at different locations in the catchment with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We observed both saturation excess and hortonian overland flow during the field campaign. Both can be important mobilization processes depending on the intensity and quantity of the rain. This can lead to different contributing areas during different types of rain events. We will show data on the spatial distribution of herbicide loads during different types of rain events. Also the connectivity of the fields with the brook is spatially heterogeneous. Most of the fields are disconnected from the brook by internal sinks in the catchment, which prevents surface runoff from entering the brook directly. Surface runoff from these disconnected areas can only enter the brook rapidly via macropore-flow into tile drains beneath the internal sinks or via direct shortcuts to the drainage system (maintenance manholes, farmyard or road drains). We will show spatially distributed data on herbicide concentration in purely subsurface systems which shows

  17. Sibship reconstruction for inferring mating systems, dispersal and effective population size in headwater brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis populations have declined in much of the native range in eastern North America and populations are typically relegated to small headwater streams in Connecticut, USA. We used sibship reconstruction to infer mating systems, dispersal and effective population size of resident (non-anadromous) brook trout in two headwater stream channel networks in Connecticut. Brook trout were captured via backpack electrofishing using spatially continuous sampling in the two headwaters (channel network lengths of 4.4 and 7.7 km). Eight microsatellite loci were genotyped in a total of 740 individuals (80–140 mm) subsampled in a stratified random design from all 50 m-reaches in which trout were captured. Sibship reconstruction indicated that males and females were both mostly polygamous although single pair matings were also inferred. Breeder sex ratio was inferred to be nearly 1:1. Few large-sized fullsib families (>3 individuals) were inferred and the majority of individuals were inferred to have no fullsibs among those fish genotyped (family size = 1). The median stream channel distance between pairs of individuals belonging to the same large-sized fullsib families (>3 individuals) was 100 m (range: 0–1,850 m) and 250 m (range: 0–2,350 m) in the two study sites, indicating limited dispersal at least for the size class of individuals analyzed. Using a sibship assignment method, the effective population size for the two streams was estimated at 91 (95%CI: 67–123) and 210 (95%CI: 172–259), corresponding to the ratio of effective-to-census population size of 0.06 and 0.12, respectively. Both-sex polygamy, low variation in reproductive success, and a balanced sex ratio may help maintain genetic diversity of brook trout populations with small breeder sizes persisting in headwater channel networks.

  18. Stratigraphic controls on lateral variations in the structural style of northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structural style of the range-front region of the northeastern Brooks Range in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is strongly controlled by (1) the existence of detachment horizons in both pre-Mississippian rocks and the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous cover sequence, and (2) lithology and structural competency of the pre-Mississippian rocks. These variables strongly influence lateral changes in structural style. The Brooks Range of northwestern ANWR is dominated by a series of narrow linear anticlinoria, whereas in northeastern ANWR the Brooks Range is characterized by only two broad and strongly arcuate anticlinoria. In both areas, the anticlinoria are controlled by the geometry of a duplex bounded by a floor thrust in pre-Mississippian rocks and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale, near the base of the cover sequence. In the west, where the pre-Mississippian partially consists of structurally competent carbonates, each anticlinorium marks a single horse in the duplex. However, in the east, pre-Mississippian rocks are relatively incompetent and each anticlinorium is cored by multiple horses. In the west, shortening above the roof thrust is by detachment folding, except where the shale detachment horizon is depositionally absent. In contrast, in eastern ANWR shortening above the roof thrust is by major thrust duplication of the entire cover sequence, perhaps due to lithology and thickness changes within the detachment horizon.

  19. The effects of Fe-oxidizing microorganisms on post-biostimulation permeability reduction and oxidative processes at the Rifle IFRC site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara Sze-Yue [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-07-02

    Fe oxidation and biomineral formation is important in aquifers because the highly-reactive oxides can control the mobility of nutrients (e.g. phosphate, C) and metals (e.g. arsenic, uranium). Mineral formation also has the potential to affect hydrology, depending on the volume and distribution in pore spaces. In this exploratory study, we sought to understand how microbial Fe-oxidizers and their biominerals affect, and are affected by groundwater flow. As part of work at the Rifle aquifer in Colorado, we initially hypothesized that Fe-oxidizers were contributing to aquifer clogging problems associated with enhanced bioremediation. To demonstrate the presence of Fe-oxidizers in the Rifle aquifer, we enriched FeOM from groundwater samples, and isolated two novel chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, Hydrogenophaga sp. P101 and Curvibacter sp. CD03. To image cells and biominerals in the context of pores, we developed a “micro-aquifer,” a sand-filled flow-through culture chamber that allows for imaging of sediment pore space with multiphoton confocal microscopy. Fe oxide biofilms formed on sand grains, demonstrating that FeOM produce Fe oxide sand coatings. Fe coatings are common on aquifer sands, and tend to sequester contaminants; however, it has never previously been shown that microbes are responsible for their formation. In contrast to our original hypothesis, the biominerals did not clog the mini-aquifer. Instead, Fe biofilm distribution was dynamic: they grew as coatings, then periodically sloughed off sand grains, with some flocs later caught in pore throats. This has implications for physical hydrology, including pore scale architecture, and element transport. The sloughing of coatings likely prevents the biominerals from clogging wells and aquifers, at least initially. Although attached biomineral coatings sequester Fe-associated elements (e.g. P, As, C, U), when biominerals detach, these elements are transported as particles

  20. Design and Simulation of Muzzle Brake in Anti-materiel Rifle%反器材步枪膛口装置设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓; 王刚; 周峰

    2014-01-01

    某反器材步枪膛口装置为两腔冲击式制退器,由于结构设计原因,枪手在射击时,制退器后喷的火药燃气会产生较大的冲击波﹑声响及火焰,对射手容易造成伤害。为了解膛口装置制退效率的影响因素,优化其结构使其在相同制退效率下,减小冲击波等对射手的伤害,根据三维非定常 Euler 方程,利用 Fluent软件对弹丸飞离改进后膛口装置时的流场建模并进行仿真,并利用 Matlab软件编程对其制退效率进行了数值计算,两者结果相符。结果分析表明:优化后制退器可在保证相同制退效率下,有效地减小冲击波大小,可为解决同类问题提供有价值的借鉴。%The muzzle brake of an anti-materiel rifle is the impacted muzzle brake with two ca-vities.Due to its structural design,when the shooter is shooting,gunpowder gas backfired by the muzzle brake will produce a lot of the shock waves,noise and flame,this will be harm to the shooter.In order to understand the effect factors of the recoil efficiency of the rifle muzzle brake,and optimize its structure to decrease the harm to the shooter under condition of the same recoil efficiency,the process of proj ectile flying away from a three-dimensional muzzle brake was simulated by use of the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations and the Fluent software.Moreover,the recoil efficiency of the muzzle brake was calculated by means of the Matlab software,and the two results were consistent.The results showed that the improved muzzle brake of the equal efficiency can effectively reduce the shock wave,and can also provide valuable reference for solving the similar problems.

  1. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  2. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  3. Streambed-material characteristics and surface-water quality, Green Pond Brook and tributaries, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1983-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, D.A.; Lacombe, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study designed to determine whether Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contain contaminated streambed sediments and to characterize the quaity of water in the brook. Results of previous investigations at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey, indicate that significant contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil is present at the arsenal. Forty-five streambed-material samples were collected for analysis to determine whether contaminants have migrated to the brook from the surrounding area. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, base/neutral- and acid-etractable compounds, insecticides, and other constituents. Results of an electromagnetic-conductivity and natural-gamma-ray survey were used to describe the distribution of particle sizes in streambed and substreambed sediments. Historical results of analyses of streambed-material and surface-water samples also are presented. Samples of streambed material from three areas in Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contained organic and (or) inorganic constituents in concentrations greater than those typically found at the arsenal. These areas are Green Pond Brook, from the area near the outflow of Picatinny Lake downstream to Farley Avenue; Bear Swamp Brook, from the area near building 241 downstream to the confluence with Green Pond Brook; and Green Pond Brook, from the open burning area downstream to the dam near building 1178. Contaminants identified include trace elements, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine insecticides. Surface water in Green Pond Brook contained several volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloroethylene, at maximum concen- trations of 3.8, 4.6, and 11 micrograms per liter, respectively. Volatilization is expected to remove volatile organic compounds in the steep, fast- flowing reaches of the brook. No organic or inorganic constituents were

  4. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  5. Lateral continuity of the Blarney Creek Thrust, Doonerak Windown, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, C.M.; Julian, F.E.; Phelps, J.C.; Oldow, J.S.; Avellemant, H.G.

    1985-04-01

    The contact between Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks, exposed along the northern margin of the Doonerak window in the central Brooks Range, is a major thrust fault called the Blarney Creek thrust (BCT). The BCT has been traced over a distance of 25 km, from Falsoola Mountain to Wien Mountain. The tectonic nature of this contact is demonstrated by: (1) omission of stratigraphic units above and below the BCT; (2) large angular discordance in orientation of first-generation cleavage at the BCT; (3) numerous thrust imbricates developed in the upper-plate Carboniferous section that sole into the BCT; and (4) truncation of an upper-plate graben structure at the BCT. Lack of evidence for pre-Carboniferous deformation in the lower plate casts doubt on the interpretation of the contact as an angular unconformity. However, the localized presence below the BCT of Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak Shale, in apparent depositional contact with lower Paleozoic rocks, suggests that the BCT follows an originally disconformable contact between the Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks. The juxtaposition of younger over older rocks at the BCT is explained by calling upon the BCT to act as the upper detachment surface of a duplex structure. Duplex development involves initial imbrication of the Carboniferous section using the BCT as a basal decollement, followed by formation of deeper thrusts in the lower Paleozoic section, which ramp up and merge into the BCT.

  6. Flow path studies in forested watersheds of heatwater tributaries of Brush Brook, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Donald S.; Bartlett, Richmond J.; Magdoff, Frederick R.; Walsh, Gregory J.

    1994-09-01

    An investigation was undertaken into how headwater tributaries of Brush Brook, Vermont, could have average pH differences of almost two units (4.75 and 6.7). Sampling along four tributaries revealed that most of one tributary, below an area of seeps, had consistently higher pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+, and lower Al than other sites. Bedrock mapping showed numerous fractures in vicinity of the seeps. A portion of this tributary's watershed and a portion of an acid tributary's watershed were intensively mapped for soil depth. Sampling showed the widespread existence of dense basal till in the watershed of the acid tributary but none in that of the near-neutral stream. Lateral flow, found above the dense till, was chemically similar to that of the acid tributary and to solutions sampled from soil B horizons. There were no differences in the average pH of nonseep soils sampled from either watershed. Flow paths are hypothesized to be through the B horizons in the acid tributaries and from below the soil profile in the near-neutral tributary. The acid catchment should be more sensitive to environmental change.

  7. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Kazyak

    Full Text Available A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors.

  8. Are brook trout streams in Western Virginia and Shenandoah National Park recovering from acidification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Webb; Bernard J. Cosby; Frank A. Deviney, Jr.; James N. Galloway; Suzanne W. Maben; Arthur J. Bulger [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2004-08-01

    Streamwater composition data obtained through periodic sampling of streams that support brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the mountains of western Virginia were examined for evidence of recovery from acidification during the 1988-2001 period. Measurements of sulfate deposition in precipitation indicate that sulfate deposition in the region declined approximately 40% between 1985 and 2000. While no significant regional trends in acid-base constituents were observed for the set (n = 65) of western Virginia study streams, significant regional trends were observed for a subset (n = 14) of streams in Shenandoah National Park (SNP). For the subset of SNP streams, the median increase in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was 0.168 {mu} equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1} and the median decrease in sulfate concentration was -0.229 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. Although these trends are consistent with recovery from acidification, the degree of apparent recovery is small compared to estimates of historic acidification in SNP streams and much less than observed in other, more northern regions in the United States. Correlation between sulfate concentration trends and current sulfate concentrations in streamwater suggests that recovery from stream acidification in the western Virginia region is determined by sulfur retention processes in watershed soils. A transient increase in nitrate concentrations that occurred among some western Virginia streams following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) complicates interpretation of the observed patterns of change in acid-base status. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Rougemont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis and brook lamprey (L. planeri show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC and Isolation with Migration (IM models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history.

  10. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  11. Geochronology of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for the geologic evolution of the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombach, C.S.; Layer, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    A compilation of published geochronology of rocks and minerals from the western and central Brooks Range provides a framework for understanding the complex history of the Brooks Range and northern Alaska. A simplified timeline of events comprises (1) Devonian extension, (2) Mississippian extension and Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, (3) a passive interval, (4) pre-Brooks Range orogeny rock-formation and thermal event, (5) inception of Brooks Range orogeny, (6) exhumation and the end of main-stage deformation, and (7) subsequent episodic deformation. This compilation is supplemented by new 40Ar/39Ar dates of white mica from the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag (+ barite) deposits from the western Brooks Range. The deposits are hosted in black shale and carbonate rocks of the Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Kuna Formation. Quartz-pyrite-white mica grains in sedimentary rocks above the Anarraaq deposit yield an age of 195.0 ?? 2.0 Ma, and paragenetically late quartz-pyrite-white mica from the Main orebody at the Red Dog deposit has an age of 126.1 ?? 0.7 Ma. These white micas are much younger than the age of Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization at Red Dog (338 ?? 5.8 Ma Re-Os age of pyrite). The date for white mica from Anarraaq (???195 Ma) appears to be related to a large-scale thermal event in the region immediately before the inception of the Brooks Range orogeny. The white mica from the Red Dog deposit (???126 Ma) correlates with the later stages of the orogeny, a period of blueschist metamorphism, extension, and rapid exhumation, which varied with geographic location. These dates suggest that the Red Dog deposits underwent significant hydrothermal overprinting during multiple episodes of the Brooks Range orogeny. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  12. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  13. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  14. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  15. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  16. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  17. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  19. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  20. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  1. Frozen debris lobe morphology and movement: an overview of eight dynamic features, southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Margaret M.; Gyswyt, Nora L.; Simpson, Jocelyn M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Hubbard, Trent D.

    2016-05-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are elongated, lobate permafrost features that mostly move through shear in zones near their bases. We present a comprehensive overview of eight FDLs within the Dalton Highway corridor (southern Brooks Range, Alaska), including their catchment geology and rock strengths, lobe soil characteristics, surface movement measurements collected between 2012 and 2015, and analysis of historic and modern imagery from 1955 to 2014. Field mapping and rock strength data indicate that the metasedimentary and metavolcanic bedrock forming the majority of the lobe catchments has very low to medium strength and is heavily fractured, thus easily contributing to FDL formation. The eight investigated FDLs consist of platy rocks typical of their catchments, organic debris, and an ice-poor soil matrix; massive ice, however, is present within FDLs as infiltration ice, concentrated within cracks open to the surface. Exposure of infiltration ice in retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) and associated debris flows leads to increased movement and various stages of destabilization, resulting in morphological differences among the lobes. Analysis of historic imagery indicates that movement of the eight investigated FDLs has been asynchronous over the study period, and since 1955, there has been an overall increase in movement rates of the investigated FDLs. The formation of surface features, such as cracks, scarps, and RTSs, suggests that the increased movement rates correlate to general instability, and even at their current distances, FDLs are impacting infrastructure through increased sediment mobilization. FDL-A is the largest of the investigated FDLs. As of August 2015, FDL-A was 39.2 m from the toe of the Dalton Highway embankment. Based on its current distance and rate of movement, we predict that FDL-A will reach the Dalton Highway alignment by 2023.

  2. Linking water age and solute dynamics in streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettin, Paolo; Bailey, Scott W.; Campbell, John L.; Green, Mark B.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Likens, Gene E.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    We combine experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is here applied to conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to compute hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). The innovative contribution of this paper is the simulation of dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow, achieved by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation. The travel time analysis provided an estimate of streamflow age distributions and their evolution in time related to catchment wetness conditions. The use of age information to reproduce a 14 year data set of silicon and sodium stream concentration shows that, at catchment scales, the dynamics of such geogenic solutes are mostly controlled by hydrologic drivers, which determine the contact times between the water and mineral interfaces. Justifications and limitations toward a general theory of reactive solute circulation at catchment scales are discussed.

  3. Caledonian Deformation in Polydeformed Pre-Mississippian Rocks of the Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. G.; Toro, J.; Benowitz, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the northeastern Brooks Range of Alaska there are polydeformed metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks exposed below a major pre-Mississippian unconformity. Elsewhere in northern Alaska it has been challenging to correlate the tectonic fabrics of these early Paleozoic to Neoproterozoic rocks to the different orogenic events of the Arctic because of the strong overprint of Mesozoic and Tertiary Brookian deformation. However, our recent field investigations along the Kongakut and Aichiklik rivers of ANWR have identified an older (pre-Brookian) structural event based on the orientation of penetrative cleavage planes and a contrast in folding style to Brookian structures. Many of the cleavage planes are north dipping and orientated parallel to the axial planes of south-vergent folds. Although metamorphic grade is generally low, in localized areas the cleavage planes contain white micas, whose petrologic and isotopic characteristics indicate that they crystallized during fabric formation. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the white micas yield a metamorphic age of ~400 Ma (Early Devonian). This is evidence for a south-directed structural event which is contemporaneous with Caledonian deformation in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stratigraphicaly, the basement consists of a diverse package of highly deformed marine clastic sediments, and a thick section of basaltic to andesitic flows and volcaniclastic rocks, the Whale Mountain volcanics, which have a sharp southern contact but grade northward and upwards into the clastic rocks. All units are metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. We are currently investigating the age and geochemical characteristics of the Whale Mountain volcanics to determine their tectonic affinity and role in the assemblage of the North Slope block of Northern Alaska.

  4. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  5. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  6. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations were...

  7. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  8. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  9. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  10. Stratigraphic controls on lateral variations in the structural style of northeastern Brooks range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.

    1988-02-01

    The structural style of the range-front region of the northeastern Brooks Range in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is strongly controlled by (1) the existence of detachment horizons in both pre-Mississippian rocks and the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous cover sequence, and (2) lithology and structural competency of the pre-Mississippian rocks. These variables strongly influence lateral changes in structural style. The Brooks Range of northwestern ANWR is dominated by a series of narrow linear anticlinoria, whereas in northeastern ANWR the Brooks Range is characterized by only two broad and strongly arcuate anticlinoria. In both areas, the anticlinoria are controlled by the geometry of a duplex bounded by a floor thrust in pre-Mississippian rocks and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale, near the base of the cover sequence. In the west, where the pre-Mississippian partially consists of structurally competent carbonates, each anticlinorium marks a single horse in the duplex. However, in the east, pre-Mississippian rocks are relatively incompetent and each anticlinorium is cored by multiple horses. In the west, shortening above the roof thrust is by detachment folding, except where the shale detachment horizon is depositionally absent. In contrast, in eastern ANWR shortening above the roof thrust is by major thrust duplication of the entire cover sequence, perhaps due to lithology and thickness changes within the detachment horizon. A Devonian batholith marks the boundary between the eastern and western structural provinces. The thrust-controlled range front of eastern ANWR extends north of the batholith, suggesting that the batholith itself may be underlain by a thrust fault.

  11. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  12. Nature of hydrothermal fluids at the shale-hosted Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Marsh, Erin E.; Emsbo, Poul; Rombach, Cameron; Kelley, Karen D.; Anthony, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district in the western Brooks Range, northern Alaska, contains numerous shale-hosted Zn-Pb sulfide and barite deposits in organic-rich siliceous mudstone and shale, chert, and carbonate rocks of the Carboniferous Kuna Formation. The giant Red Dog shale-hosted deposits consist of a cluster of four orebodies (Main, Qanaiyaq, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq) that lie within distinct thrust panels that offset a single ore deposit during the Mesozoic Brookian orogeny. These Zn-Pb-Ag-barite orebodies contain one of the world's largest reserves and resources of zinc.

  13. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.M.; Welsh, S.A.; Turk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (large (100-150 mm) ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). In aquaria, ammocoetes were given a choice to burrow into six equally-available substrate types: small gravel (2.360-4.750 mm), coarse sand (0.500-1.400 mm), fine sand (0.125-0.500 mm), organic substrate (approximately 70% decomposing leaves/stems and organic sediment particles, and 30% silt and fine sand), an even mixture of silt, clay, and fine sand, and silt/clay (population sizes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin, and implications for brook-trout habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Saad, David A.; Pratt, Dennis M.; Lenz, Bernard N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2002–03, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of five Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin (Cranberry River, Bark River, Raspberry River, Sioux River, and Whittlesey Creek) to determine the physical limitations for brook-trout habitat. The goals of the study were threefold: (1) to describe geomorphic characteristics and processes, (2) to determine how land-cover characteristics affect flood peaks, and (3) to determine how regional groundwater flow patterns affect base flow.

  15. Level II scour analysis for bridge 2 (WODFTH00010002) on Town Highway 1, crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODFTH00010002 on Town Highway 1 crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont (figures 1-8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  16. Analysis of brook trout spatial behavior during passage attempts in corrugated culverts using near-infrared illumination video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Constantin, Pierre-Marc; Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    We used video recording and near-infrared illumination to document the spatial behavior of brook trout of various sizes attempting to pass corrugated culverts under different hydraulic conditions. Semi-automated image analysis was used to digitize fish position at high temporal resolution inside the culvert, which allowed calculation of various spatial behavior metrics, including instantaneous ground and swimming speed, path complexity, distance from side walls, velocity preference ratio (mean velocity at fish lateral position/mean crosssectional velocity) as well as number and duration of stops in forward progression. The presentation summarizes the main results and discusses how they could be used to improve fish passage performance in culverts.

  17. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  18. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  19. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  20. 步枪实弹发射枪榴弹后坐过载环境仿真方法%Setback Overload Environment Simulation of Rifle Grenade Live Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍帅; 王雨时; 闻泉; 黄建强; 龚显益; 喻新连

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide ballistic environment to fuze design,the process of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm and 7.62 mm caliber bullet was simulated with the software ANSYS/LS-DYNA,and then the setback over-load-time curve was obtained,the peak of the setback overload was obtained through experiments using the cop-per cylinder pressure measuring principle,which proved the result of simulation.The peak of the setback over-load of firing rifle grenade using bullet was more than 1 9 000 g,and it’s much higher than that of firing rifle grenade using blank.The time that firing rifle grenade using bullet is as short as 120 μs,and closed to the time of impact when fuze was dropping to steel plate from 1.5 m height.The setback overload of firing rifle grenade using 7.62 mm calber bullet is 80% higher than that of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm caliber bullet.The set-back overload was lower when the material of the bullet trap was softer,whereas which was higher.%针对步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载环境特殊,并不是膛压函数的问题,应用 ANSYS/LS-DYNA 有限元仿真软件对5.8 mm 和7.62 mm 口径步枪实弹发射枪榴弹过程进行数值模拟,获得了后坐过载-时间曲线,利用铜柱测压原理实验测得了后坐过载峰值,验证了仿真结果。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载峰值最小达19000 g ,远大于步枪空包弹发射时的后坐过载。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载持续时间很短,只有120μs 左右,与1.5 m 落高跌向钢板的跌落冲击持续时间接近。7.62 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载比5.8 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载大80%左右;捕弹器材料软时后坐过载小,反之则较大。

  1. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  2. Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (1808-1889), MD, FRS, LRCS Ed: Chemical pathologist, pharmacologist and pioneer in electric telegraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Neil

    2015-09-18

    This article reviews the life and work of Sir William O'Shaughnessy Brooke (formerly Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy), an Edinburgh doctor of medicine and Fellow of the Royal Society who as a young doctor in London analysed the blood and excreta of cholera victims, an action which led to the first successful use of intravenous replacement therapy. His career in India was distinguished in several spheres: chemistry, pharmacology in which he introduced cannabis indica to Europe, and in the field of electric telegraphy where he became the superintendent of telegraphs for India.

  3. Population response to habitat fragmentation in a stream-dwelling brook trout population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.; Coombs, J.A.; O'Donnell, M. J.; Dubreuil, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation can strongly influence population persistence and expression of life-history strategies in spatially-structured populations. In this study, we directly estimated size-specific dispersal, growth, and survival of stream-dwelling brook trout in a stream network with connected and naturally-isolated tributaries. We used multiple-generation, individual-based data to develop and parameterize a size-class and location-based population projection model, allowing us to test effects of fragmentation on population dynamics at local (i.e., subpopulation) and system-wide (i.e., metapopulation) scales, and to identify demographic rates which influence the persistence of isolated and fragmented populations. In the naturally-isolated tributary, persistence was associated with higher early juvenile survival (-45% greater), shorter generation time (one-half) and strong selection against large body size compared to the open system, resulting in a stage-distribution skewed towards younger, smaller fish. Simulating barriers to upstream migration into two currently-connected tribuory populations caused rapid (2-6 generations) local extinction. These local extinctions in turn increased the likelihood of system-wide extinction, as tributaries could no longer function as population sources. Extinction could be prevented in the open system if sufficient immigrants from downstream areas were available, but the influx of individuals necessary to counteract fragmentation effects was high (7-46% of the total population annually). In the absence of sufficient immigration, a demographic change (higher early survival characteristic of the isolated tributary) was also sufficient to rescue the population from fragmentation, suggesting that the observed differences in size distributions between the naturally-isolated and open system may reflect an evolutionary response to isolation. Combined with strong genetic divergence between the isolated tributary and open system, these results

  4. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-29

    SUNY-Stony Brook) developed now techniques for the isolation and stabilization of caroteno - chlorophyll proteins from marine algae. He is nov using...Biochemical basis Planta 16: 1 -5 of plant breeding. Vol. II. CBC Press. Boca Raton. Florida, Tischner, R., Huttermann. A. (1978). Light mediated

  5. Designing Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  6. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  7. Comparative diel feeding ecology of brook silverside, golden shiner, and subyearling pumpkinseed in a Lake Ontario embayment during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; Diaz, Avriel R; Nack, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Fish feeding ecology has been shown to vary over a 24-h period in terms of the prey consumed and feeding intensity. Consequently, in order to best determine the interspecific feeding associations within a fish community, examination of the diet at multiple times over a 24-h period is often necessary. We examined the diel feeding ecology of three fish species that were numerically dominant in a Lake Ontario embayment during summer. The diet of each of the three species, subyearling pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucus, and brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus, was distinct with no significant overlap in diet composition occurring within any of the 4-h time intervals. The diet composition of each species suggested that brook silverside were feeding at the surface (terrestrial invertebrates and aquatic surface dwelling hemipterans) whereas subyearling pumpkinseed (amphipods) and golden shiner (tipulids) were feeding on different benthic prey. Differences in feeding periodicity were most pronounced for subyearling pumpkinseed. Our findings provide valuable insights on interspecific feeding associations among these three fish species during summer in a Lake Ontario embayment.

  8. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition.

  9. Compressor station layout considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; Ohanian, Sebouh; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses issues that influence the decision on the arrangement of compressors and the type of equipment in gas pipeline compressor stations. Different concepts such as multiple small units versus single large units are considered, both regarding their impact on the individual station and the overall pipeline. The necessity of standby units is discussed. Various concepts for drivers (gas turbine, gas motor and electric motor) and compressors (centrifugal and reciprocating) are analyzed. The importance of considering all possible operating conditions is stressed. With the wide range of possible operating conditions for the pipeline in mind, the discussion is brought into the general context of operational flexibility, availability, reliability, installation issues, remote control, and operability of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors compared to other solutions such as electric motor driven compressors or gas engine driven reciprocating compressors. The impact of different concepts on emissions and fuel cost is discussed. Among the assumptions in this paper are the performance characteristics of the compressor. This paper outlines how these performance characteristics influence the conclusions. (author)

  10. State University of New York, University of Stoney Brook, University and Clinical Practice Management Plan Space Leasing Practices. Report 96-S-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This audit report assesses the propriety and economy of space leasing practices of the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY-SB) for the period July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1996, specifically those related to a health center that includes five professional schools, a 536-bed teaching hospital, and a 350-bed veterans' home. Some of…

  11. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...... of the fuelling. Models of cascade systems consisting of between 1 and 8 tanks have been used to analyse the effect of the number of tanks at the station with respect to energy consumption. An optimisation using a parameter variation of the tanks volumes and pressures is performed, to reduce the energy...... in accordance with the fuelling protocol. The analysis showed that it is possible to eliminate all the high pressure storage tanks from the cascade system, using one of the other fuelling systems. The energy consumption of the direct compression system was 18 % lower than for the two other systems. The exergy...

  12. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  13. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  14. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  15. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  16. Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Region Floodplain: Multiple Approaches to Constrain Estimates of Seasonal- and Depth Dependent Fluxes at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Bill, M.; Faybishenko, B.; Hobson, C.; Dayvault, R.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of floodplains as links between watersheds and rivers highlights the need to understand water and carbon fluxes within floodplain profiles, from their surface soil, through the vadose zone and underlying groundwater. Here, we present results of field and laboratory measurements conducted to quantify fluxes at a remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. This semi-arid site has a vegetated, locally derived fill soil that replaced the original milling-contaminated soil to a depth of about 1.5 m. The fill soil overlies about 4.5 m of native sandy and cobbly alluvium containing the shallow aquifer. The aquifer generally drains into the Colorado River and is underlain by low permeability Wasatch Formation shale. Within this system, key issues being investigated include water and carbon fluxes between the vadose zone and aquifer, and CO2 fluxes through the vadose zone soil out to the atmosphere. Magnitudes of these fluxes are typically low, thus challenging to measure, yet increasingly important to quantify given the expansion of arid and semi-arid regions under changing climate. The results of field investigations demonstrated that the annual water table rise and fall are driven by snowmelt runoff into the Colorado River in late spring to early summer. Tensiometer data indicate that net recharge from the deeper part of the vadose zone into groundwater occurs later in summer, after water table decline. The effectiveness of summer evapotranspiration in limiting groundwater recharge is reflected in water potentials decreasing to as low as -3 MPa within the upper 1.5 m of the vadose zone. Examination of the historical precipitation record further indicates that net recharge only occurs in years with above-average precipitation during winter and spring. These short intervals of net recharge also facilitate C transport into groundwater because of higher organic C concentrations in the vadose zone. Fluxes of CO2 measured

  17. Depositional settings, correlation, and age carboniferous rocks in the western Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Blome, C.D.; Young, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Kuna Formation (Lisburne Group) in northwest Alaska hosts the Red Dog and other Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the Red Dog district. New studies of the sedimentology and paleontology of the Lisburne Group constrain the setting, age, and thermal history of these deposits. In the western and west-central Brooks Range, the Lisburne Group includes both deep- and shallow-water sedimentary facies and local volcanic rocks that are exposed in a series of thrust sheets or allochthons. Deep-water facies in the Red Dog area (i.e., the Kuna Formation and related rocks) are found chiefly in the Endicott Mountains and structurally higher Picnic Creek allochthons. In the Red Dog plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, the Kuna consists of at least 122 m of thinly interbedded calcareous shale, calcareous spiculite, and bioclastic supportstone (Kivalina unit) overlain by 30 to 240 m of siliceous shale, mudstone, calcareous radiolarite, and calcareous lithic turbidite (Ikalukrok unit). The Ikalukrok unit in the Red Dog plate hosts all massive sulfide deposits in the area. It is notably carbonaceous, is generally finely laminated, and contains siliceous sponge spicules and radiolarians. The Kuna Formation in the Key Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon (60-110 m) resembles the Ikalukrok unit but is unmineralized and has thinner carbonate layers that are mainly organic-rich dolostone. Correlative strata in the Picnic Creek allochthon include less shale and mudstone and more carbonate (mostly calcareous spiculite). Conodonts and radiolarians indicate an age range of Osagean to early Chesterian (late Early to Late Mississippian) for the Kuna in the Red Dog area. Sedimentologic, faunal, and geochemical data imply that most of the Kuna formed in slope and basin settings characterized by anoxic or dysoxic bottom water and by local high productivity. Shallow-water facies of th e Lisburne Group in the Red Dog area are present locally in the Endicott Mountains

  18. GPU-Accelerated Stony-Brook University 5-class Microphysics Scheme in WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system. Microphysics plays an important role in weather and climate prediction. Several bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the WRF, with different numbers of simulated hydrometeor classes and methods for estimating their size fall speeds, distributions and densities. Stony-Brook University scheme (SBU-YLIN) is a 5-class scheme with riming intensity predicted to account for mixed-phase processes. In the past few years, co-processing on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) has been a disruptive technology in High Performance Computing (HPC). GPUs use the ever increasing transistor count for adding more processor cores. Therefore, GPUs are well suited for massively data parallel processing with high floating point arithmetic intensity. Thus, it is imperative to update legacy scientific applications to take advantage of this unprecedented increase in computing power. CUDA is an extension to the C programming language offering programming GPU's directly. It is designed so that its constructs allow for natural expression of data-level parallelism. A CUDA program is organized into two parts: a serial program running on the CPU and a CUDA kernel running on the GPU. The CUDA code consists of three computational phases: transmission of data into the global memory of the GPU, execution of the CUDA kernel, and transmission of results from the GPU into the memory of CPU. CUDA takes a bottom-up point of view of parallelism is which thread is an atomic unit of parallelism. Individual threads are part of groups called warps, within which every thread executes exactly the same sequence of instructions. To test SBU-YLIN, we used a CONtinental United States (CONUS) benchmark data set for 12 km resolution domain for October 24, 2001. A WRF domain is a geographic region of interest discretized into a 2-dimensional grid parallel to the ground. Each grid point has

  19. Magic simulation of surface water acidification at, and first year results from the Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation, Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Wright, R.F.; Kahl, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The catchments of East and West Bear Brooks, Maine, USA, with similar stream chemistries and hydrographs, have been hydrologically and chemically monitored for 3.5 years. These clear water streams are low in ANC (0-70 microeg/litre), with variations caused by changing concentrations of base cations, SO4, NO3, and Cl. After one year of treatment, the response of the stream chemistry and the response modelled by MAGIC are similar. Episodes of high discharge in the treated catchment are not characterized by lower ANC and pH, and higher Al than prior to the manipulation. Concentrations of NO3 have increased about 10 microeg/litre during the dormant season, presumably due to additional nitrification of N and NH4. Discharge-chemistry relationships indicate that changes in stream chemistry, except for NO3, are dominated by ion exchange reactions in the upper part of the soil profile.

  20. Intraspecific growth variation among rainbow trout and brook trout: Impact of initial body weight and feeding level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Ostenfeld, T.

    2010-01-01

    for RT-L (5.91) than for all other groups (RT-H: 1.50, P feed was restricted. Overall, ration level had large impact on slopes (H: 1.63, L: 4.39, P ...This study describes growth variation within groups of salmonids and the relation to initial fish weights and feeding levels. PIT-tagged rainbow trout (RT) and brook trout (BT) of start weight 120–170 g were reared in separate tanks for 9 weeks. Both species were fed each day either a high ration...... in each tank in each period was applied as indicator for this propensity (termed “slope”). All calculated slopes in the experiment were positive which indicates the general ability of weighty fish to gain more weight than smaller individuals. The average slope during all 9 weeks was 2–4 times higher...

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30, (HUNTTH00220030), on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220030 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (IRAVT013300133) on State Route 133, crossing an Ira Brook Tributary, Ira, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure IRA-VT01330013 on State Route 133 crossing an Ira Brook Tributary, Ira, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  3. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  4. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  5. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  6. Intraspecific variation in thermal tolerance and acclimation capacity in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): physiological implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Bradley C; Burness, Gary; Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Currie, Suzanne; McDermid, Jenni L; Wilson, Chris C

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water fishes are becoming increasingly vulnerable as changing thermal conditions threaten their future sustainability. Thermal stress and habitat loss from increasing water temperatures are expected to impact population viability, particularly for inland populations with limited adaptive resources. Although the long-term persistence of cold-adapted species will depend on their ability to cope with and adapt to changing thermal conditions, very little is known about the scope and variation of thermal tolerance within and among conspecific populations and evolutionary lineages. We studied the upper thermal tolerance and capacity for acclimation in three captive populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from different ancestral thermal environments. Populations differed in their upper thermal tolerance and capacity for acclimation, consistent with their ancestry: the northernmost strain (Lake Nipigon) had the lowest thermal tolerance, while the strain with the most southern ancestry (Hill's Lake) had the highest thermal tolerance. Standard metabolic rate increased following acclimation to warm temperatures, but the response to acclimation varied among strains, suggesting that climatic warming may have differential effects across populations. Swimming performance varied among strains and among acclimation temperatures, but strains responded in a similar way to temperature acclimation. To explore potential physiological mechanisms underlying intraspecific differences in thermal tolerance, we quantified inducible and constitutive heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSC70, respectively). HSPs were associated with variation in thermal tolerance among strains and acclimation temperatures; HSP70 in cardiac and white muscle tissues exhibited similar patterns, whereas expression in hepatic tissue varied among acclimation temperatures but not strains. Taken together, these results suggest that populations of brook trout will vary in their ability to cope with a

  7. Integrating beneficiaries into assessment of ecosystem services from managed forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Caputo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forests contribute to human wellbeing through the provision of important ecosystem services. Methods: In this study, we investigated how the perceived importance of ecosystem services may impact the overall benefit provided by managed watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest over a 45-year period, using standardized measures of service capacity weighted by service importance weights derived from a survey of beneficiaries. Results: The capacity of watersheds to regulate water flow and quality was high in all watersheds throughout the study period, whereas cultural services such as scenic beauty declined after harvest. Impacts on greenhouse gas regulation depended on the efficiency with which harvested biomass was used. Surveys revealed that stakeholders placed high value on all ecosystem services, with regulating and cultural services seen as more important than provisioning services. When service metrics were weighted by survey responses and aggregated into a single measure, total service provision followed the same overall trend as greenhouse gas regulation. Where biomass use was less efficient in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, harvesting resulted in an overall “ecosystem service debt”; where use was more efficient, this “ecosystem service debt” was reduced. Beneficiaries’ educational backgrounds significantly affected overall assessment of service provision. Beneficiaries with college or university degrees incurred smaller “ecosystem service debts” and were less negatively affected by harvesting overall. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of including empirical measures of beneficiary preference when attempting to quantify overall provision of ecosystem services to human beneficiaries over time. Keywords: Ecosystem services, Forests, Long-term ecological research, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Regulating services

  8. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): implementation and application to the freely draining Hupsel Brook catchment and controlled Cabauw polder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Teuling, Ryan; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) to fill the gap between complex, spatially distributed models which are often used in lowland catchments and simple, parametric models which have mostly been developed for mountainous catchments. This parametric rainfall-runoff model can be used all over the world in both freely draining lowland catchments and polders with controlled water levels. Here, we present the model implementation, opportunities for practical application and experience from validation studies with data from two field sites. The open source model code is implemented in R and is set-up such that it can be used by both practitioners and researchers. For direct use by practitioners, defaults are implemented for relations between model variables and to compute initial conditions, leaving only four parameters which require calibration. For research purposes, the defaults can easily be changed. WALRUS is computationally efficient, which allows operational forecasting and uncertainty estimation by creating ensembles. An approach for flexible time steps increases numerical stability and makes model parameter values independent of time step size, which facilitates use of the model with the same parameter set for multi-year water balance studies as well as detailed analyses of individual flood peaks. We applied WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the slightly sloping, freely draining Hupsel Brook catchment and the flat Cabauw polder with controlled water levels. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well during the years used for calibration and validation. The model also performs well during extremely wet periods (flash flood in the Hupsel Brook catchment in August 2010) and extremely dry periods (summer 1976) and can forecast the effect of control operations (changing weir elevations and surface water supply).

  9. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5–2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by ‘riverscape’ variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries.

  10. Chromosomal characteristics and distribution of rDNA sequences in the brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska-Jewsiewicka, A; Kuciński, M; Kirtiklis, L; Dobosz, S; Ocalewicz, K; Jankun, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814) chromosomes have been analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques enabling characteristics and chromosomal location of heterochromatin, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), ribosomal RNA-encoding genes and telomeric DNA sequences. The C-banding and chromosome digestion with the restriction endonucleases demonstrated distribution and heterogeneity of the heterochromatin in the brook trout genome. DNA sequences of the ribosomal RNA genes, namely the nucleolus-forming 28S (major) and non-nucleolus-forming 5S (minor) rDNAs, were physically mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and primed in situ labelling. The minor rDNA locus was located on the subtelo-acrocentric chromosome pair No. 9, whereas the major rDNA loci were dispersed on 14 chromosome pairs, showing a considerable inter-individual variation in the number and location. The major and minor rDNA loci were located at different chromosomes. Multichromosomal location (3-6 sites) of the NORs was demonstrated by silver nitrate (AgNO3) impregnation. All Ag-positive i.e. active NORs corresponded to the GC-rich blocks of heterochromatin. FISH with telomeric probe showed the presence of the interstitial telomeric site (ITS) adjacent to the NOR/28S rDNA site on the chromosome 11. This ITS was presumably remnant of the chromosome rearrangement(s) leading to the genomic redistribution of the rDNA sequences. Comparative analysis of the cytogenetic data among several related salmonid species confirmed huge variation in the number and the chromosomal location of rRNA gene clusters in the Salvelinus genome.

  11. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  12. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  13. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  14. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  15. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  16. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (HUNTTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00210034 on Town Highway 21 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 6.23-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 90.0 mm (0.295 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 26, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 21 crossing of Brush Brook is a 28-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 26-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 25.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with a wingwall on the upstream right. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 5 degrees. A tributary enters Brush Brook on the right bank immediately downstream of the bridge. At the confluence, the

  18. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  19. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  20. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  1. 77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... concerning this proposed rule contact John Goodwin, FAA, Repair Station Branch (AFS-340), 800 Independence....Goodwin@faa.gov . For legal questions concerning this proposed rule contact Edmund Averman, FAA, Office...

  2. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  3. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  4. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  5. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  6. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  7. Technical Note: Reliability of Suchey-Brooks and Buckberry-Chamberlain methods on 3D visualizations from CT and laser scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Buckberry, Jo; Cattaneo, Cristina;

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that the ageing method of Suchey-Brooks (pubic bone) and some of the features applied by Lovejoy et al. and Buckberry-Chamberlain (auricular surface) can be confidently performed on 3D visualizations from CT-scans. In this study, seven observers applied the Suchey......-Brooks and the Buckberry-Chamberlain methods on 3D visualizations based on CT-scans and, for the first time, on 3D visualizations from laser scans. We examined how the bone features can be evaluated on 3D visualizations and whether the different modalities (direct observations of bones, 3D visualization from CT......-scan and from laser scans) are alike to different observers. We found the best inter-observer agreement for the bones versus 3D visualizations, with the highest values for the auricular surface. Between the 3D modalities, less variability was obtained for the 3D laser visualizations. Fair inter...

  8. [Peculiarities of dopamine receptors on the membrane of spinal cord multipolar neurons of the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukinich, A a; Tsvetkov, E A; Veselkin, N P

    2007-01-01

    On isolated multiporal neurons of spinal cord of amniocoete larva of the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri, by the patch-clamp method in configuration "the whole cell", a modulating effect of dopamine on potential-activated Na+ currents was studied. Application of dopamine (10 microM) was shown to produce a complex action on the sodium current amplitude. In some cases a decrease of the amplitude, on average, by 13.5 +/- 2.2% was found, while in others--an increase, on average, by 8.6 +/- 6.1%. The modulation dopamine effect was not accompanied by any changes either of the threshold of the current appearance or of resistance of neuronal cell membranes. Pharmacological analysis with use of dopamine agonist has shown that the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM) decreases the Na+ current amplitude, whereas the agonist of D2-receptors (-)-quinpirole (10 microM) can produce in different cells both an increase, by 30.7 +/- 17.0 %, and a decrease, by 13.2 +/- 3.1%, of the Na+ current amplitude. The obtained data indicate the existence of D1- and D2-receptors on the membrane of multipolar spinal neurons of the amniocoete larva of the brook lamprey. Study of action of antagonists has shown that the antagonist of D1-receptors (+)-SCH-23390 (10 microM) does not affect action of the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM); the antagonist of D2-receptors (-)-sulpiride (10 microM) blocks completely effects both of the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM) and of the agonist of D2-receptors (-)-quinpirole (10 microM). The antagonist of D1-receptors (+)-SCH-23390 (10 microM) produced no effect on action of the agonist of D1-receptors (-)-SKF-38393 (10 microM). The obtained data indicate peculiarities of dopamine receptors of Cyclostomata as compared with those in mammals.

  9. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  10. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  12. Micromorphologic evidence for paleosol development in the Endicott group, Siksikpuk formation, Kingak(?) shale, and Ipewik formation, western Brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; White, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Micromorphologic evidence indicates the presence of paleosols in drill-core samples from four sedimentary units in the Red Dog area, western Brooks Range. Well-developed sepic-plasmic fabrics and siderite spherules occur in claystones of the Upper Devonian through Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate (Endicott Group), the Pennsylvanian through Permian Siksikpuk Formation (Etivluk Group), the Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous Kingak(?) Shale, and the Lower Cretaceous Ipewik Formation. Although exposure surfaces have been previously recognized in the Endicott Group and Kingak Shale on the basis of outcrop features, our study is the first microscopic analysis of paleosols from these units, and it provides the first evidence of subaerial exposure in the Siksikpuk and Ipewik Formations. Regional stratigraphic relations and geochemical data support our interpretations. Paleosols in the Siksikpuk, Kingak, and Ipewik Formations likely formed in nearshore coastal-plain environments, with pore waters subjected to inundation by the updip migration of slightly brackish ground water, whereas paleosols in the Kanayut Conglomerate probably formed in a more distal setting relative to a marine basin.

  13. Patterns of δ13 C and δ15 N in wolverine Gulo gulo tissues from the Brooks Range, Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fredrik DALERUM; Anders ANGERBJ(O)RN; Kyran KUNKEL; Brad S.SHULTS

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of carnivore diets is essential to understand hew carnivore populations respond demographically to variations in prey abundance. Analysis of stable isotopes is a useful complement to traditional methods of analyzing carnivore diets. We used data on δ13 C and δ15 N in wolverine tissues to investigate patterns of seasonal and annual diet variation in a wolverine Gulo gulo population in the western Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. The stable isotope ratios in wolverine tissues generally reflected that of terrestrial carnivores, corroborating previous diet studies on wolverines. We also found variation in δ13 C and δ15 N both between muscle samples collected over several years and between tissues with different assimilation rates, even after correcting for isotopic fractionation. This suggests both annual and seasonal diet variation. Our results indicate that data on δ13 C and δ15 N holds promise for qualitative assessments of wolverine diet changes over time. Such temporal variation may be important indicators of ecological responses to environmental perturbations, and we suggest that more refined studies of stable isotopes may be an important tool when studying temporal change in diets of wolverines and similar carnivores.

  14. The MAGIC simulation of surface water acidification at, and first year results from, the Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation, Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A; Wright, R F; Kahl, J S; Scofield, J P

    1992-01-01

    The catchments of East and West Bear Brooks, Maine, USA, have been hydrologically and chemically monitored for 3.5 years. Stream chemistries and hydrographs are similar. These clear water streams are low in ANC (0-70 microeq litre(-1)), with variations caused by changing concentrations of base cations, SO4, NO3 and Cl. The latter range between 90-120, 0-40 and 65-75 microeq litre(-1), respectively. The West Bear catchment is being treated with six applications per year of dry (NH4)2SO4 at 1800 eq ha(-1) year(-1). After one year of treatment, the response of the stream chemistry and the response modelled by MAGIC are similar. Retentions of NH4 and SO4 are nearly 100% and greater than 80%, respectively. The additional flux of SO4 is compensated principally by an increased Ca concentration. Episodes of high discharge in the treated catchment are now characterized by lower ANC and pH, and higher Al than prior to the manipulation. Concentrations of NO3 have increased about 10 microeq litre(-1) during the dormant season, presumably due to additional nitrification of N from NH4. Discharge-chemistry relationships indicate that changes in stream chemistry, except for NO3, are dominated by ion exchange reactions in the upper part of the soil profile.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of rainbow trout and brook trout exposed to elevated selenium from coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.; Rasmussen, J.; Hontela, A. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Palace, V.; Carroll, L. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Wang, F. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since selenium (Se) is an element that bioaccumulates, anthropogenic activities in areas that already have high Se in parent rock can result in an increase in Se in aquatic systems. Se causes reproductive deformities in rainbow trout (RT), at lower concentrations than for brook trout (BT). This presentation reported on a study conducted at coal mines in northeastern Alberta in which juvenile hatchery-reared RT and BT were stocked into 2 reference and 2 Se contaminated end pit lakes. Fish were sampled at 0, 6, and 12 months after stocking, and will be sampled at 18 and 24 months. Water Se levels were found to be high in contaminated lakes. Selenite, the more toxic form of Se, was the highest in Pit C4. Liver glutathione levels were similar in the 2 fish species, and cellular damage in the fish was beginning to increase. At 6 months, liver glycogen levels were higher in the BT than in the RT, but no tangible site specific patterns emerged. At all sites except Pit C4, the RT were in better condition than BT. BT from Pit C4 also had a lower ability to secrete cortisol, suggesting that the elevated selenite levels may negatively affect fish. Se accumulation results from 28 fish sampled at 12 months were also discussed.

  16. Primary and Secondary Controls on Measurements of Forest Height Using Large-Footprint Lidar at the Hubbard Brook LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert G.; Blair, J. Bryan; Schwarz, Paul A.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Dubayah, Ralph; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On September 26, 1999, we mapped canopy structure over 90% of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, using the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This airborne instrument was configured to emulate data expected from the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) space mission. We compared above ground heights of the tallest surfaces detected by lidar with average forest canopy heights estimated from tree-based measurements in or near 346 0.05 ha plots (made in autumn of 1997 and 1998). Vegetation heights had by far the predominant influence on lidar top heights, but with this large data set we were able to measure two significant secondary effects: those of steepness or slope of the underlying terrain and of tree crown form. The size of the slope effect was intermediate between that expected from models of homogeneous canopy layers and for solitary tree crowns. The first detected surfaces were also proportionately taller for plots with more basal area in broad leaved northern hardwoods than for mostly coniferous plots. We expected this because of the contrast between the shapes of cumulative distributions of surface area for elliptical or hemi-elliptical tree crowns and those for conical crowns. Correcting for these secondary effects, when appropriate data are available for calibration, may improve vegetation structure estimates in regional studies using VCL or similar lidar data sources.

  17. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of parental effects on transcriptomic landscape during early development in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougas, B; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2013-05-01

    Parental effects represent an important source of variation in offspring phenotypes. Depending on the specific mechanisms involved, parental effects may be caused to different degrees by either the maternal or the paternal parent, and these effects may in turn act at different stages of development. To detect parental effects acting on gene transcription regulation and length phenotype during ontogeny, the transcriptomic profiles of two reciprocal hybrids from Laval × Rupert and Laval × Domestic populations of brook charr were compared at hatching, yolk sac resorption and 15 weeks after exogenous feeding. Using a salmonid cDNA microarray, our results show that parental effects modulated gene expression among reciprocal hybrids only at the yolk sac resorption stage. In addition, Laval × Domestic and Laval × Rupert reciprocal hybrids differed in the magnitude of theses parental effects, with 199 and 630 differentially expressed transcripts, respectively. This corresponds to a maximum of 18.5% of the analyzed transcripts. These transcripts are functionally related to cell cycle, nucleic acid metabolism and intracellular protein traffic, which is consistent with observed differences associated with embryonic development and growth differences in other fish species. Our results thus illustrate how parental effects on patterns of gene transcription seem dependent on the genetic architecture of the parents. In addition, in absence of transcriptional differences, non-transcript deposits in the yolk sac could contribute to the observed length differences among the reciprocal hybrids before yolk sac resorption.

  19. Contributions of separate reactions to the acid-base buffering of soils in brook floodplains (Central Forest State Reserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Rusakova, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    The acid-base buffering of gleyic gray-humus soils developed in brook floodplains and undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes has been characterized by the continuous potentiometric titration of soil water suspensions. During the interaction with an acid, the major amount of protons (>80%) is consumed for the displacement of exchangeable bases and the dissolution of Ca oxalates. In the O and AY horizons, Mn compounds make the major contribution (2-15%) to the acid buffering. The buffer reactions with the participation of Al compounds make up from 0.5 to 1-2% of the total buffering capacity, and the protonation of the surface OH groups of kaolinite consumes 2-3% of the total buffering capacity. The deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of Fe hydroxides (9-43%), the deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of illite crystals (3-19%), and the dissolution of unidentified aluminosilicates (9-14%) are the most significant buffer reactions whose contributions have been quantified during the interaction with a base. The contribution of the deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of kaolinite particles is lower (1-5%) because of the small specific surface area of this mineral, and that of the dissolution of Fe compounds is insignificant. In the AY horizon, the acid and base buffering of soil in the rhizosphere is higher than beyond the rhizosphere because of the higher contents of organic matter and nonsilicate Fe and Al compounds.

  20. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  1. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  2. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  3. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  4. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  5. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  6. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  7. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  8. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook watershed in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvir, J.A. [National School of Forest Science, Comayagua (Honduras); Rustad, L. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Durham, NH (United States). Forest Service Northeastern Research Station; Wiersma, G.B.; White, A.S. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Forest Ecosystem Science; Fernandez, I. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Plant, Soil and Environmental Studies; White, G.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances have been noted in trees growing in controlled nitrogen-fertilization experiments over areas of different nitrogen deposition rates and along N deposition gradients. Long-term foliar nutrient concentration data is not generally available because of a lack of long-term nitrogen studies and systematic measurements. This study at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) focused on temporal changes in the foliar nutrient concentrations in sugar maple, American beech, and red spruce. The foliar chemistry was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the paired-watershed forest ecosystem of the BBWM study in which 1 watershed was treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate at a rate of about 25 kg of nitrogen per hectare per year. Foliar nitrogen concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in the foliage were found to be lower in the American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. Potassium concentrations did not vary between the 2 watersheds and the differences in phosphorous and manganese concentrations were inconsistent from one year to another. The differences in nitrogen concentrations in the foliage of sugar maple declined over time between the 2 watersheds. Differences in foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, mostly due to the steady decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. There was no noted temporal trend in sugar maple foliar calcium and magnesium concentrations between the watersheds. It was concluded that the watersheds of the BBWM may be in the later stages of nitrogen saturation, where the supply of nitrogen exceeds the nitrogen demand of plants and microorganisms in the ecosystem. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. pH preference and avoidance responses of adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-03-01

    The pH preferred and avoided by wild, adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in a series a laboratory tests using gradual and steep-gradient flow-through aquaria. The results were compared with those published for the observed segregation patterns of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams. The adult S. trutta tested showed a preference for pH 4·0 while adult S. fontinalis did not prefer any pH within the range tested. Salmo trutta are not found in Pennsylvania streams with a base-flow pH pH well above 4·0. Adult S. trutta displayed a lack of avoidance at pH below 5·0, as also reported earlier for juveniles. The avoidance pH of wild, adult S. fontinalis (between pH 5·5 and 6·0) and S. trutta (between pH 6·5 and 7·0) did not differ appreciably from earlier study results for the avoidance pH of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta. A comparison of c.i. around these avoidance estimates indicates that avoidance pH is similar among adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in this study. The limited overlap of c.i. for avoidance pH values for the two species, however, suggests that some S. trutta will display avoidance at a higher pH when S. fontinalis will not. The results of this study indicate that segregation patterns of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams could be related to pH and that competition with S. trutta could be mediating the occurrence of S. fontinalis at some pH levels.

  10. Simulation of Flow Field in Gap of Electrochemical Machining by Rifle Cathode of Pull Type with the Stream%拉式顺流膛线阴极电解加工间隙流场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涵; 范植坚; 范庆明; 郑雄伟

    2016-01-01

    针对传统膛线阴极电解加工时加工间隙流场发散、电解液逆流使电解机床主轴受力大以及阴极工作齿严重烧伤时整体阴极报废等问题,设计了一种电解液在阴极内部换向、加工间隙顺流、可更换工作齿的大口径深混合膛线拉式阴极结构,采用多物理场仿真软件 COM-SOL 对加工间隙流场进行仿真。结果表明拉式顺流阴极流场分布优于传统拉式正流阴极。在确定拉式顺流阴极结构的前提下,阴极圆锥盘角度为100°、斜小孔倾斜50°、回液小孔孔径为2 mm 时电解液压力损失最小,最有利于电解产物的排除,电解液排除顺畅。%Aiming at the situation of push force of ECM tool spindle because of the spred and inversion of gap flow field,and the scraped cathode because of burned working tooth in traditional electrolytic cathode rifling,a new cathode structure of large diameter,deep and mixing composite rife is designed,by which the electrolyte stream reverses inside,the gap is downsteam and the working tooth is replaceable. The simulation of flow field in the gap by the COMSOL shows that the pull downstream cathode is better than the traditional rifling cathode.Based upon this pull downstream cathode,the electrolyte pressure loss is less and the exclusion of the electrolytic products smoothly while the cathode is with the parameters of cone angle of 100°,the inclination of inclined hole of 50°and the return liquid hole diameter of 2 mm.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (DUXBTH00040036) on Town Highway 4, crossing Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00040036 on Town Highway 4 crossing the Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 4.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. The upstream and downstream right overbanks are forested. The downstream left overbank is brushland, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the Crossett Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 55 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 51.6 mm (0.169 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 4 crossing of the Crossett Brook is a 29-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 48 (FFIETH00300048) on Town Highway 30, crossing Wanzer Brook, Fairfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00300048 on Town Highway 30 crossing Wanzer Brook, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 6.78-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover upstream of the bridge and on the downstream right bank is primarily pasture. The downstream left bank is forested. In the study area, Wanzer Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material is cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 111 mm (0.364 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 30 crossing of Wanzer Brook is a 31-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 28-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical stone wall abutments with concrete caps and “kneewall” footings. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7H (HUNTTH0001007H) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH001007H on Town Highway 1 crossing the Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–10). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.In August 1976, Hurricane Belle caused flooding at this site which resulted in road and bridge damage (figures 7-8). This was approximately a 25-year flood event (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1978). The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.20-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. Downstream of the bridge is brushland and pasture.In the study area, the Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 65.5 mm (0.215 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 24, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Cobb Brook is a 23-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 20-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, June 21, 1996). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (HUNTTH00220032) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220032 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 5.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the downstream right overbank which is pasture. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.05 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 58 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 127 mm (0.416 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 36-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 34-foot steel-beam span and a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 35.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls on the left. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (HUNTTH00220033) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220033 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 8.65-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the downstream right overbank which is pasture. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 42 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 76.7 mm (0.252 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 26, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 40-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 23.5-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 36.9 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees. The scour protection measure at the site was type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (HUNTTH00220031) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220031 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 5.01-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of trees and brush. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.06 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from boulder to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 107.0 mm (0.352 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 34-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot steel I-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 31.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. The VTAOT computed opening-skewto-roadway is 2 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (HUNTTH00290029) on Town Highway 29, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00290029 on Town Highway 29 crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 4.16-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.024 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 53 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 112.0 mm (0.367 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 29 crossing of Cobb Brook is a 36-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995) and a wooden deck. The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway was measured to be 20 degrees. VTAOT records indicate an opening-skew-to-roadway of zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (WALDTH00060023) on Town Highway 6, crossing Stannard Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00060023 on Town Highway 6 crossing Stannard Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in eastern Vermont. The 5.61-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the upstream surface cover is shrub and brushland with some trees. The downstream surface cover is forest. In the study area, Stannard Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 54 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 64.0 mm (0.210 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 8, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 6 crossing of Stannard Brook is a 59-ft-long (bottom width), two-lane pipe arch culvert consisting of one 22-foot corrugated plate pipe arch span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.9 ft.The pipe arch is supported by vertical, concrete kneewalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the mean

  19. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  20. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  1. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made at a code speed not in excess of 20 words per minute; or (2) By arranging for the primary station... visual presentation or a clearly understandable aural presentation of the translator station's...

  2. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double......This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre...

  3. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  4. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  5. Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. From California to Beyond--An Interview with Brook Thomas,professor ofAmerican Literature at the University of California,Irvine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brook Thomas; Xin Qu

    2011-01-01

    In this interview Xin Qu chats with Brook Thomas,professor of American Literature at the University of California,Irvine.Book Thomas is a fellow of the Von Humboldt Foundation in Germany,the Woodrow Wilson Center,the American Council of Learned Societies(ACLS),and the National Endowment for the Humanities(NEH).Early in 1993,Professor Thomas's paper: The New Historicism and Other Old-fashioned Topics was translated and included in The New Historicism and Literature Criticism,published by Peking University Press.Xin Qu ready to share the interview with the reader.

  7. Una nota crítica sobre “La revolución que no fue” de Mcbrearty y Brooks (2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel LONGA MARTÍNEZ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available McBrearty y Brooks (2000 ofrecen una importante revisión de la evidencia arqueológica africana que sostiene que (1 la conducta moderna aparece de manera gradual, no brusca, y (2 aparece en África, no en Europa. A partir de ambas conclusiones, las autoras critican el modelo de ‘revolución humana’. Mi trabajo muestra que la segunda afirmación no es negada por ninguno de los defensores de tal modelo, pues todos ellos consideran que la modernidad conductual surgió en África, no en Europa.

  8. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1 ARUBA Reina Beatrix 789820 Dec 86 (OCDS) --....................................... 5 ARGENTINA Buenos Alres/Ezeiza 875760 Apr 89 (CB...74 Oruro/Mendoza 852420 Feb 87 (OCDS) ...................................... 78 Potosi/ Rojas 852930 Feb 87 (OCDS...F 0 0 0 f 21-23 LST 0 0 0 0 # 0 F 1 0 0 0 F ALL HOURS # f F 0 0 # 0 F F 0 0 0 F 004 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: REINA BEATRIX INTL

  9. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  10. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  11. Identification of larval Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), river lampreys (L. ayresi), and western brook lampreys (L. richardsoni) and thermal requirements of early life history stages of lampreys. Annual report 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Reiche, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  12. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  13. A historical perspective on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1991-01-01

    The historical development of space stations is presented through a series of various spacecraft configurations including: (1) Salut 6; (2) Skylab; (3) the Space Operations Center (SOC); (4) the Manned Science and Applications Space Platform; (5) Space Station Freedom; and (4) the Mir Space Station.

  14. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon....

  15. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for transmission by: (1) Stations in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service; (2) General aviation ground... continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that station identification is transmitted at... carrier; (2) For general aviation airborne mobile stations in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,...

  16. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  17. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  18. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  20. 47 CFR 90.476 - Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of fixed stations and certain... Systems § 90.476 Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations. (a) Fixed stations and...)(11), 90.35(c)(42), and 90.267 are not subject to the interconnection provisions of §§ 90.477 and...

  1. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  2. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  3. VEGETATION MEDIATED THE IMPACTS OF POSTGLACIAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON FIRE REGIMES IN THE SOUTHCENTRAL BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Hu, F S; Brown, T A

    2008-10-28

    We examine direct and indirect impacts of millennial-scale climatic change on fire regimes in the southcentral Brooks Range, Alaska, using four lake-sediment records and existing paleoclimate interpretations. New techniques are introduced to identify charcoal peaks semi-objectively and detect statistical differences in fire regimes. Peaks in charcoal accumulation rates (CHARs) provide estimates of fire return intervals (FRIs) which are compared between vegetation zones described by fossil pollen and stomata. Climatic warming from ca 15-9 ka BP (calendar years before CE 1950) coincides with shifts in vegetation from herb tundra to shrub tundra to deciduous woodlands, all novel species assemblages relative to modern vegetation. Two sites cover this period and show increased CHARs and decreased FRIs with the transition from herb to shrub tundra ca 13.3-14.3 ka BP. Short FRIs in the Betula-dominated shrub tundra (mean [m] FRI 144 yr; 95% CI 119-170) primarily reflect the effects of flammable, continuous fuels on the fire regime. FRIs increased significantly with the transition to Populus-dominated deciduous woodlands ca 10.5 ka BP (mFRI 251 yr [158-352]), despite evidence of warmer- and drier-than-present summers. We attribute reduced fire activity under these conditions to low flammability of deciduous fuels. Three sites record the mid to late Holocene, when cooler and moister conditions allowed Picea glauca forest-tundra and P. mariana boreal forests to establish ca 8 and 5.5 ka BP. Forest-tundra FRIs did not differ significantly from the previous period (mFRIs range from 131-238 yr), but FRIs decreased with the transition to boreal forest (mFRI 145 yr [129-163]). Overall, fire-regime shifts in the study area showed greater correspondence with vegetation characteristics than with inferred climate, and we conclude that vegetation mediated the impacts of millennial-scale climatic change on fire regimes by modifying landscape flammability. Our findings emphasize the

  4. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Kieth H; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  5. Assessment of aquifer properties, evapotranspiration, and the effects of ditching in the Stoney Brook watershed, Fond du Lac Reservation, Minnesota, 2006-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Tomasek, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, assessed hydraulic properties of geologic material, recharge, and evapotranspiration, and the effects of ditching on the groundwater resources in the Stoney Brook watershed in the Fond du Lac Reservation. Geologic, groundwater, and surface-water data were collected during 2006–9 to estimate hydrologic properties in the watershed. Streamflow and groundwater levels in the shallow glacial deposits in the Stoney Brook watershed were analyzed to estimate groundwater-flow directions, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration within the watershed and to assess the effect of ditches on surrounding groundwater resources. Groundwater, streamflow, and precipitation data collected during the study (2006–9) can be used to update the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service and Fond du Lac Resource Management Division surface-water models, which are used to evaluate the effect of proposed adjustments to the ditching system on streamflow on wild rice production and aquatic habitats.

  6. The physiological stress response and oxidative stress biomarkers in rainbow trout and brook trout from selenium-impacted streams in a coal mining region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.L.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Palace, V.P.; Hontela, A. [University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-11-15

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element that can be toxic at concentrations slightly greater than those required for homeostasis. The main chronic toxic effects of Se in fish are teratogenic deformities, but Se can also activate the physiological stress response and redox cycle with reduced glutathione causing oxidative damage. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, appear to be more sensitive to Se than brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological stress response (plasma cortisol, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, gill Na+/K+ ATPase, cortisol secretory capacity, K and liver somatic index) and oxidative stress biomarkers (liver GSH, GPx, lipid peroxidation, vitamin A and vitamin E) in rainbow trout (RNTR) and brook trout (BKTR) collected from reference and Se-exposed streams. The physiological stress response was not impaired (cortisol secretory capacity unchanged); although there were species differences in plasma cortisol and plasma glucose levels. Liver GSH, GPx and vitamin levels were higher in RNTR than BKTR, but lipid peroxidation levels were not different. The elevated GSH reserves may make RNTR more sensitive to Se-induced lipid peroxidation, but this may be offset by the RNTR's higher antioxidant (GPx and vitamin) levels. Species-specific biochemical differences may mediate differences in Se sensitivity and be used in aquatic Se risk assessments.

  7. The effects of low-speed swimming following exhaustive exercise on metabolic recovery and swimming performance in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, James D; Kassie, Roshini S; Taylor, Susan G

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether low-speed swimming during recovery from exhaustive exercise improved both metabolic recovery and performance during a swimming challenge. For these experiments, brook trout were allowed to recover from exhaustive exercise for 2 h while swimming at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 body length (BL) s(-1) or allowed to recover from exhaustive exercise for 1, 2, or 3 h while swimming at 1.0 BL s(-1). At the appropriate interval, either (i) muscle and blood samples were removed from the fish or (ii) fish were assessed for performance (i.e., fatigue time) during a fixed-interval swimming test. Low-speed swimming during recovery from exhaustive exercise resulted in significantly longer fatigue times compared with fish recovering in still water (i.e., 0 BL s(-1)). However, swimming during recovery did not expedite recovery of muscle lactate or blood variables (e.g., lactate, osmolarity, glucose). These observations suggest that metabolic recovery and subsequent swimming performance may not be directly linked and that other factors play a role in swimming recovery in brook trout.

  8. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  9. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  10. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  11. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  12. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater...

  13. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  14. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater...

  15. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  16. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  17. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 6 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Snow Drift Management Summit Station...Drift Management Summit Station Greenland Robert B. Haehnel and Matthew F. Bigl U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold...Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ARC-15-33, “Monitoring and Managing Snow Drifting at Summit Station, Greenland” ERDC

  18. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  19. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. Settings and Design: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Results: In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both. Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1–6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0 was 3.2 (1.4–6.7, P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9–1.8, P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Conclusion: Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of Zn-Pb-Ag Mineralization in the Northern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Layer, Paul W.; Newberry, Rainer J.

    2004-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating method potentially can be used to provide absolute ages for a number of formerly undatable, low-temperature ore deposits. This study demonstrates the use of this method by determining absolute ages for Zn-Pb-Ag sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits and vein-breccia occurrences found throughout a 300-km-long, east-west-trending belt in the northern Brooks Range, Alaska. Massive sulfide deposits are hosted by Mississippian to Pennsylvanian(?) black carbonaceous shale, siliceous mudstone, and lesser chert and carbonate turbidites of the Kuna Formation (e.g., Red Dog, Anarraaq, Lik (Su), and Drenchwater). The vein-breccia occurrences (e.g., Husky, Story Creek, West Kivliktort Mountain, Vidlee, and Kady) are hosted by a deformed but only weakly metamorphosed package of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian mixed continental and marine clastic rocks (the Endicott Group) that stratigraphically underlie the Kuna Formation. The vein-breccias are mineralogically similar to, but not spatially associated with, known massive sulfide deposits. The region's largest shale-hosted massive sulfide deposit is Red Dog; it has reserves of 148 Mt grading 16.6 percent zinc, 4.5 percent lead, and 77 g of silver per tonne. Hydrothermally produced white mica in a whole-rock sample from a sulfide-bearing igneous sill within the Red Dog deposit yielded a plateau age of 314.5 Ma. The plateau age of this whole-rock sample records the time at which temperatures cooled below the argon closure temperature of the white mica and is interpreted to represent the minimum age limit for massive sulfide-related hydrothermal activity in the Red Dog deposit. Sulfide-bearing quartz veins at Drenchwater crosscut a hypabyssal intrusion with a maximum biotite age of 337.0 Ma. Despite relatively low sulfide deposition temperatures in the vein-breccia occurrences (162°-251°C), detrital white mica in sandstone immediately adjacent to large vein-breccia zones was partially to

  1. Quantifying Uncertainty in the Net Hydrologic Flux of Calcium at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. L.; Yanai, R. D.; Green, M.; Likens, G. E.; Buso, D. C.; See, C.; Barr, B.

    2013-12-01

    Small watersheds are hydrologically distinct ecological units that integrate chemical, physical and biological processes. The basic premise of the small watershed approach is that the flux of chemical elements in and out of watersheds can be used to evaluate nutrient gains or losses. In paired watershed studies, following a pre-treatment calibration period, a treated watershed is compared with a reference watershed enabling evaluation of the treatment on nutrient flux and cycling. This approach has provided invaluable insight into how ecosystems function and respond to both natural and human disturbances. Despite the great advances that have been made using this approach, the method is often criticized because the treatments are usually not replicated. The reason for this lack of replication is that it is often difficult to identify suitable replicate watersheds and is expensive due to the large scale of these studies. In cases where replication is not possible, traditional statistical approaches cannot be applied. Uncertainty analysis can help address this issue because it enables reporting of statistical confidence even when replicates are not used. However, estimating uncertainty can be challenging because it is difficult to identify and quantify sources of uncertainty, there are many different possible approaches, and the methods can be computationally challenging. In this study, we used uncertainty analysis to evaluate changes in the net hydrologic flux (inputs in precipitation minus outputs in stream water) of calcium following a whole-tree harvest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. In the year following the harvest, there was a large net loss of calcium (20 kg/ha/yr) in the treated watershed compared to the reference (5 kg/ha/yr). Net losses in the treated watershed have declined over the 26 years after the harvest, but still remain elevated compared to the reference. We used uncertainty analysis to evaluate whether the

  2. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of <1 μeq L(-1) per year from 1988 to 2006. Precipitation chemistry, hydrology, vegetation, and temperature drive seasonal stream chemistry. Low flow periods were typical in June-October, with relatively greater contributions of deeper flow solutions with higher pH; higher concentrations of acid-neutralizing capacity, Si, and non-marine Na; and low concentrations of inorganic Al. High flow periods during November-May were typically dominated by solutions following shallow flow paths, which were characterized by lower pH and higher Al and DOC concentrations. Biological activity strongly controlled NO3- and K(+). They were depressed during the growing season and elevated in the fall. Since 1987, East Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the

  3. ACSSB land mobile earth station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shinichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Kawahara, Hideki; Tada, Shun-Ichi

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the performance of the land mobile earth station using the Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB) modulation technique developed for mobile satellite communications and results of the field experiments which were conducted in rural, suburban, and urban areas. This ACSSB system uses a 3-kHz pilot tone, and the voice frequency band is from 300 to 2500 Hz. The experiments show that the required C/N0 for voice communications is 40 dBHz and the required C/N0 for pilot signal tracking is 34 dBHz. Voice quality in rural and suburban areas was degraded slightly. In urban areas shadowings due to the presence of large buildings and trees caused signal losses. A comparison of the ACSSB system with the conventional narrow-band frequency-modulation system indicates that the ACSSB system can transmit voice signals more efficiently.

  4. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  5. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  6. China Tightens Control over Petrol Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Huiping

    2002-01-01

    @@ China has recently mounted a nationwide campaign to standardize petrol stations. Based on the reports from China Central Television, all the petrol station that have not been licensed with "Oil Products Retail Permit" issued by the provincial economic and trade commission will be halted for business operation. Such petrol stations will be allowed to resume business if they are in line with the local industrial development plan and obtain the permits after going though all the necessary formalities. The petrol stations that are not in line with the development plan will be closed before August 31,2002.

  7. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  8. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-07

    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  9. East Baton Rouge Fire Stations, UTM15 NAD83, LAGIC (2002) [ebr_fire_stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset consists of twenty-nine (29) geocoded points representing fire stations in East Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana. Thirty (30) fire station, disctrict, and...

  10. Cenozoic thrust emplacement of a Devonian batholith, northeastern Brooks Range: Involvement of crystalline rocks in a foreland fold-and-thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Involvement of crystalline rocks in thrusting near the foreland basin of a fold-and-thrust belt is relatively uncommon. In the northeastern Brooks Range, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was thrust northward and structurally elevated above adjacent foreland basin deposits during Cenozoic fold-and-thrust deformation. The batholith may have acted initially as a regional structural buttress, but a drop in the basal detachment surface to greater depth south of the batholith resulted in northward transport of the batholith. Shortening within the batholith was accommodated by (1) the development of discrete thrust slices bounded by ductile shear zones, (2) simple shear and development of penetrative mesoscopic and microscopic fabrics throughout the batholith, or both. The Mississippian Kayak Shale, a regional detachment horizon at the base of the overlying cover sequence, is depositionally thin or absent adjacent to the batholith. Thus, most of the cover sequence remained structurally coupled to the batholith during thrusting and was shortened by the development of penetrative structures.

  11. Development of the GPU-based Stony-Brook University 5-class microphysics scheme in the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2011-11-01

    Several bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with different numbers of simulated hydrometeor classes and methods for estimating their size fall speeds, distributions and densities. Stony-Brook University (SBU-YLIN) microphysics scheme is a 5-class scheme with riming intensity predicted to account for mixed-phase processes. In this paper, we develop an efficient graphics processing unit (GPU) based SBU-YLIN scheme. The GPU-based SBU-YLIN scheme will be compared to a CPU-based single-threaded counterpart. The implementation achieves 213x speedup with I/O compared to a Fortran implementation running on a CPU. Without I/O the speedup is 896x.

  12. Areas contributing recharge to production wells and effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook Basins, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.; Stone, Janet R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook Basins in southern Rhode Island are an important water resource for public and domestic supply, irrigation, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Health, began a study in 2012 as part of an effort to protect the source of water to six large-capacity production wells that supply drinking water and to increase understanding of how climate change might affect the water resources in the basins. Soil-water-balance and groundwater-flow models were developed to delineate the areas contributing recharge to the wells and to quantify the hydrologic response to climate change. Surficial deposits of glacial origin ranging from a few feet to more than 200 feet thick overlie bedrock in the 24.4-square mile study area. These deposits comprise a complex and productive aquifer system.

  13. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part II. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This second part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations according to frequency in ascending order. Information included covers call letters,…

  14. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part I. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Country and City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This first part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations. Information is indexed alphabetically by country and city. Within a city, stations…

  15. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part III. Frequency Modulation Broadcasting Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This third part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers frequency modulation broadcasting stations. It contains two sections: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the…

  16. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and wa

  17. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  18. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae, with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Valbuena-Ureña

    Full Text Available The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper, restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi, endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM, molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  19. Modeling potential hydrochemical responses to climate change and increasing CO2 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest using a dynamic biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Driscoll, Charles T.; Campbell, John L.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic hydrochemical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting the interactive effects of climate change, atmospheric CO2, and atmospheric deposition on the hydrology and water quality of forested watersheds. We used the biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to evaluate the effects of potential future changes in temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, and atmospheric CO2on pools, concentrations, and fluxes of major elements at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, United States. Future climate projections used to run PnET-BGC were generated specifically for the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest with a statistical technique that downscales climate output (e.g., air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation) from atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) to a finer temporal and spatial resolution. These climate projections indicate that over the twenty-first century, average air temperature will increase at the site by 1.7°C to 6.5°C with simultaneous increases in annual average precipitation ranging from 4 to 32 cm above the long-term mean (1970-2000). PnET-BGC simulations under future climate change show a shift in hydrology characterized by later snowpack development, earlier spring discharge (snowmelt), greater evapotranspiration, and a slight increase in annual water yield (associated with CO2 effects on vegetation). Model results indicate that under elevated temperature, net soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification markedly increase, resulting in acidification of soil and stream water, thereby altering the quality of water draining from forested watersheds. Invoking a CO2 fertilization effect on vegetation under climate change substantially mitigates watershed nitrogen loss, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of CO2 effects on forest vegetation.

  20. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  1. Nagymaros power station on the River Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilka, J.

    1987-02-01

    This article deals with the economic aspects of Austrian cooperation in power station construction as practised in the consulting activities of Oesterreichische Donaukraftwerke AG, and discusses in detail this company's participation in the construction of the main structure for the Nagymaros power station on the Danube under a general contract.

  2. Plans for Learning Stations. Tractor Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This shop guide gives graphic illustration of twenty-eight learning stations in a tractor mechanics shop, at each of which a specific learning activity occurs. The authors suggest that each station (most of them constructed of plywood or sheet metal and angle iron) be self-contained, having its own appropriate tools, supplies, parts, and set of…

  3. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancharov, A.I. E-mail: a.i.ancharov@inp.nsk.su; Evdokov, O.V.; Tolochko, B.P.; Sukhorukov, A.V.; Baru, S.E.; Savinov, G.A.; Kosov, A.V.; Sheromov, M.A.; Sikka, S.K.; Momin, S.N

    2000-06-21

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  4. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    CERN Document Server

    Ancharov, A I; Tolochko, B P; Sukhorukov, A V; Baru, S E; Savinov, G A; Kosov, A V; Sheromov, M A; Sikka, S K; Momin, S N

    2000-01-01

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  5. Contract for new Scottish hydro station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A£4M (US$6M) Contract has been awarded to Miller Civil Engineering Services for the construction of Scottish and Southern Energy's new 3MW hydro power station on the river Cuileig, near Ullapoot in Scotland, The plant will be the pow, er company's first new hydroelectric station since the 1960s. Construction is set to take 12 months, beginning in mid November,

  6. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  7. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  8. 47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV... extinguishment or improper functioning of a tower light: (1) The nature of such extinguishment or...

  9. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  11. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  12. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  13. Regeneration of water at space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

    2011-05-01

    The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

  14. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  15. Thermoelectrical power stations in 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M. (University of Padova, Italy)

    1968-01-01

    In Italy in 1967, geothermal electric power production was 2.66% of the national energy production. The implementation of traditional and nuclear power plants is described. The trend in conventional thermoelectric power plants is characterized by ever-increasing block capacities (100-160 MW at present), they are expected to increase to 600 MW in Europe and to 1200 MW in the USA 10 years from now. Nuclear power plants with pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and graphite-gas reactors have been built recently in Italy. Studies are being conducted in the area of high-speed reactors and breeder reactors. A description is presented of a power station using geothermal energy. At the end of 1967, geothermal power plants with an electrical capacity of 340 MW were in operation. Generally, U.S. thermoelectrical engine blocks with high productivity were used. The thermodynamic characteristics of these blocks are described in detail. The most powerful engine in the field in Italy- a turbocompressore Franco Tosi- was constructed in the ENEL central Castlenuovo Val Cecina in the Larderello region. The compressor is fed by a combined flow of steam, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. It is characterized by a load of 22 t/h and an input pressure of 0.0905 atm at the outlet. The absorbed power is 2.28 MW at a velocity of 50 rotations/sec. Thirty figures are presented.

  16. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1020 - Station license period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 1997. (ii) Television stations, October 1, 1998..., October 1, 1995. (ii) Television stations, October 1, 1996. (2) North Carolina and South Carolina: (i) Radio stations, December 1, 1995. (ii) Television stations, December 1, 1996. (3) Florida, Puerto...

  18. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  19. Modelling of Train Noise in Underground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.

    1996-08-01

    TNS, a computer model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of train noise in underground stations, is developed. The train is regarded as a series of sections, and the train noise distribution in a station is calculated by inputting the sound attenuation from a train section source in the underground system (i.e., the station and tunnel). This input can be obtained by physical scale modelling. The prediction by TNS in an underground station in London shows good agreement with site measurements. A series of computations in the station demonstrates that: (1) the overall level of the train noise in the area near the end walls is slightly less than the other areas; (2) some conventional architectural acoustic treatments in the station are effective when a train is still in the tunnel but not as helpful when the train is already in the station; and (3) train noise has a significant effect on the speech intelligibility of public address systems as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI).

  20. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 3 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-19 to 2010-05-21, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Brooks McCall, Cruise 03, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  1. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 2 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-15 to 2010-05-17, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Brooks McCall, Cruise 02 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  2. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 5 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-01, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Brooks McCall, Cruise 05, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18 to 2010-05-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18...

  4. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 9 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-23 to 2010-06-25, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Brooks McCall, Cruise 09 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  5. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  6. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  7. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  8. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  9. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  10. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  11. Outdoor Field Experience with Autonomous Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; Blanco, A; Carolino, N; Cerda, M A; Conceicao, R; Cunha, O; Ferreira, M; Fonte, P; Luz, R; Mendes, L; Pereira, A; Pimenta, M; Sarmento, R; Tome, B

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this w...

  12. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge : Station Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify and...

  13. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  14. Redundancy Calibration of Phased Array Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Noorishad, Parisa; van Ardenne, Arnold; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the benefits and limitations of using the redundant visibility information in regular phased array systems for improving the calibration. Regular arrays offer the possibility to use redundant visibility information to constrain the calibration of the array independent of a sky model and a beam models of the station elements. It requires a regular arrangement in the configuration of array elements and identical beam patterns. We revised a calibration method for phased array stations using the redundant visibility information in the system and applied it successfully to a LOFAR station. The performance and limitations of the method were demonstrated by comparing its use on real and simulated data. The main limitation is the mutual coupling between the station elements, which leads to non-identical beams and stronger baseline dependent noise. Comparing the variance of the estimated complex gains with the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) indicates that redundancy is a stable and optimum method for cali...

  15. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  16. CDMP COOP Station History Indexing Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 66-page document entitled 'Station history COOP Rework via WSSRD and stragglers NC4 & NC3: Keying Rules,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC's...

  17. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  18. Alum Astronaut Phones From International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the second time inside of a year, faculty, staff and some family members at the Naval Postgraduate School were honored to participate in a video-teleconference with a member of the International Space Station (ISS) crew.

  19. Space Station concept development group studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  20. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  1. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.; Dokoupil, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  2. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...... to the development of an interactive installation which takes place in Hoje Taastrup train station in Denmark....

  3. Nuclear applications in manned space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksbank, W. A., Jr.; Sieren, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    The zirconium hydride reactor, coupled to a thermo-electric or Brayton conversion system, and the Pu 238 isotope/Brayton system, are considered to be the viable nuclear candidates for the modular space station electrical power system. The basic integration aspects of these nuclear electrical power systems are reviewed, including unique requirements imposed by the buildup and incremental utilization considerations of the modular station. Also treated are the various programmatic aspects of nuclear power system design and selection.

  4. The Auroral Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Auroral Station in Adventdalen near Longyearbyen, Svalbard (78°N, 15°E). The main instruments at the site are for optical observation of aurora and airglow, but magnetic and radar observations are also carried out. Emission spectra show the difference between the dayside and nightside optical aurora. A newly compiled mesospheric temperature series from the station is also presented, derived through 20 years of spectral measurements of the hydroxyl airglow layer.

  5. [Medicine at a polar station in Antarctica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Kristián; Zvěřina, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    The paper describes specific aspects of work of a scientific expedition doctor and the stay and life at a polar research station in Antarctica. Apart from the outline of everyday problems, the first named author also learns about the history of medical practitioners working in Antarctica, writes about the results of the biomedical research activities conducted in the period of 2011-2014 and briefly describes the daily routine at a scientific polar station in Antarctica.

  6. Compression station anti-surge system considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; White, Robert C. [Solar Turbines Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Centrifugal compressor surge and its prevention have drawn significant attention in the literature. An important aspect of surge avoidance lies in the design of the compressor station and, in particular, the piping upstream and downstream of the compressor. Most anti-surge systems are perfectly capable of avoiding surge during normal operating conditions. However, unplanned emergency shutdowns present a significant challenge, and surge avoidance in these cases depends to a large degree on the station layout. Furthermore, the concepts used in the anti surge system (valves, piping, coolers) also impact the start-up of the station, or of individual units of the station. In this paper a simplified surge control system model is presented and used to develop simpler rules that help with proper sizing of upstream and downstream piping systems, as well as the necessary control element. Since the design of the surge control and recycle system also affects the start-up of units and stations, start-up considerations for stations with and without cooled recycle loops are discussed. (author)

  7. Space station interior noise analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-02-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  8. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite (Waite, 1973). The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program (Fledderman 2003). The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  9. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  10. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  12. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Humansystems® Résume La Direction – Besoins en Ressources Terrestres (DBRT) est engagée dans un processus d’acquisition qui livrera une capacité de...transported via a variety of vehicles, typically stored in the individual CR’s home, and cleaned after each use. Differences were observed in Lee...le fusil présentement émis est difficile à maintenir et a besoin de modernisation. La Direction – Besoin en Ressources Terrestres (DBRT) est engagé

  13. The ’Rakkasans’ Rifle & Headquarters Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College,Combat Studies Institute,Fort...its ability to figure things out and apply a logical and methodical approach to everything. These two companies were completely different in nature, but...equal in their abilities to accomplish any given task. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as

  14. Frontline Strategies of the National Rifle Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    editor of the NRA’s monthly newsletters “Freedom’s Voice” and the “The EVC Update,” as well as the weekly “Grassroots Alert”. Mr. Caroline’s detailed...responsibilities include: • recruiting, training and mobilization of over 320 Election Volunteer Coordinators ( EVCs ), • coordinating political...Election Volunteer Coordinators The continued training of the Election Volunteer Coordinators’ ( EVC ) gives the NRA a diverse source of influence by

  15. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district and vicinity, western Brooks Range, Alaska: provenance, deposition, and metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schmidt, J.M.; Young, L.E.; Rombach, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the western Brooks Range reveal a complex evolutionary history for strata surrounding the large Zn-Pb-Ag deposits of the Red Dog district. Data for major elements, trace elements, and rare earth elements (REE) were obtained on 220 samples of unaltered and unmineralized siliciclastic rocks from the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Endicott Group (Hunt Fork Shale, Noatak Sandstone, Kanayut Conglomerate, Kayak Shale), the overlying Carboniferous Lisburne Group (Kuna Formation, unnamed drowned shelf facies), and the Pennsylvanian-Permian Siksikpuk Formation. Major base metal sulfide deposits of the region are present only in the Kuna Formation, which in the Red Dog district comprises siliceous black shale and black chert, minor limestone (calcareous radiolarite), and sparse lithic turbidite and bedded siliceous rock. Gray and rare black shales of the Kayak Shale and common black shales of the Kuna Formation are anomalously low in iron (avg Fe/Ti = 6.25 and 6.34, respectively) relative to other Paleozoic shales in the region (9.58-10.6) and to average shales worldwide (10.1-10.5). In contrast, the bedded siliceous rocks contain appreciable hematite (avg Fe/Ti = 35.0) and high U/Ti and REE/Ti ratios that are interpreted to reflect low amounts of detrital material and a major Fe-rich eolian component.

  16. Behavioural and physiological responses of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to midwinter flow reduction in a small ice-free mountain stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmer, A N; Paul, A J; Hontela, A; Rasmussen, J B

    2011-09-01

    This study presents an experimental analysis of the effects of midwinter flow reduction (50-75%, reduction in discharge in 4 h daily pulses) on the physical habitat and on behaviour and physiology of overwintering brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in a small mountain stream. Flow reduction did not result in significant lowering of temperature or formation of surface or subsurface ice. The main findings were (1) daily movement by S. fontinalis increased (c. 2·5-fold) during flow reduction, but was limited to small-scale relocations (banks were the preferred habitat and availability of these habitats was reduced during flow reduction. (3) Although both experimental and reference fish did lose mass and condition during the experiment, no effects of flow reduction on stress indicators (blood cortisol or glucose) or bioenergetics (total body fat, water content or mass loss) were detected, probably because access to the preferred type of cover remained available. Like other salmonids, S. fontinalis moves little and seeks physical cover during winter. Unlike many of the more studied salmonids, however, this species overwinters successfully in small groundwater-rich streams that often remain ice-free, and this study identifies undercut banks as the critical winter habitat rather than substratum cover.

  17. Tephrochronology of the Brooks River Archaeological District, Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska: What can and cannot be done with tephra deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Dumond, D.E.; Meyer, C.E.; Schaaf, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Brooks River Archaeological District (BRAD) in Katmai National Park and Preserve is a classical site for the study of early humans in Alaska. Because of proximity to the active Aleutian volcanic arc, there are numerous tephra deposits in the BRAD, which are potentially useful for correlating among sites of archaeological investigations. Microprobe analyses of glass separates show, however, that most of these tephra deposits are heterogeneous mixtures of multiple glass populations. Some glasses are highly similar to pyroclasts of Aniakchak Crater (160 km to the south), others are similar to pyroclasts in the nearby Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, and some are similar to no other tephra samples from the Alaska Peninsula. Moreover, tephra deposits in any one archaeological study site are not always similar to those from nearby sites, indicating inconsistent preservation of these mainly thin, fine-grained deposits. At least 15, late Holocene tephra deposits are inferred at the BRAD. Their heterogeneity is the result of either eruptions of mixed or heterogeneous magmas, like the 1912 Katmai eruption, or secondary mixing of closely succeeding tephra deposits. Because most cannot be reliably distinguished from one another on the basis of megascopic properties, their utility for correlations is limited. At least one deposit can be reliably identified because of its thickness (10 cm) and colour stratification. Early humans seem not to have been significantly affected by these tephra falls, which is not surprising in view of the resilience exhibited by both plants and animals following the 1912 Katmai eruption.

  18. Perturbation in protein expression of the sterile salmonid hybrids between female brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou during early spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Senda, Yoshie; Abe, Syuiti

    2013-05-01

    Most males and females of intergeneric hybrid (BM) between female brook trout (Bt) Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon (Ms) Oncorhynchus masou had undeveloped gonads, with abnormal germ cell development shown by histological examination. To understand the cause of this hybrid sterility, expression profiles of testicular proteins in the BM and parental species were examined with 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Compared with the parental species, more than 60% of differentially expressed protein spots were down-regulated in BM. A total of 16 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated proteins were identified in BM. Up-regulated were transferrin and other somatic cell-predominant proteins, whereas down-regulated were some germ cell-specific proteins such as DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa. Other pronouncedly down-regulated proteins included tubulins and heat shock proteins that are supposed to have roles in spermatogenesis. The present findings suggest direct association of the observed perturbation in protein expression with the failure of spermatogenesis and the sterility in the examined salmonid hybrids.

  19. Character, relative age and implications of fractures and other mesoscopic structures associated with detachment folds: an example from the Lisburne Group of the Northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, C.L. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.; Wallace, W.K.; Atkinson, P.K.; Brinton, J. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.; Bui, T.; Jensen, J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Lorenz, J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration can benefit enormously from a proper knowledge of the history and unique character of a fold-and-thrust belt. The study of fractures and other mesoscopic structures can help explain folding mechanisms. The northeastern Brooks Range of Alaska represents a fairly simple fold-and-thrust belt in which the history of fracture development can be studied. Deformed Lisburne Group carbonates preserve the character and sequence of fractures and suggest a variety of mechanisms for fracture formation before, during, and after folding. The earliest fractures were probably formed in the foreland basin and later incorporated into the thrust belt, then thrusted and folded. Later, carbonates that were previously lying flat were incorporated into the fold-and-thrust belt where they were deformed mainly by a detachment fold, as a result of flexural slip and homogeneous flattening. Early fractures such as these were commonly overprinted or destroyed by ductile strain as later homogeneous flattening allowed additional shortening. These were in turn overprinted by late extension fractures that formed during flexural slip in the last phases of folding or after folding due to unroofing of the orogenic wedge. This study thus highlights how multiple generations of mesoscopic structures may be related to the kinematics of a specific fold-and-thrust belt. 45 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  20. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  1. 76 FR 20249 - Update Station License Expiration Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 2013. (ii) Television stations... reflect the current license expiration dates for radio and television broadcast stations. The current... through 2015 for television stations; these expiration dates are long out of date. Modifying the rule...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1225 - Station inspections by FCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC. 73.1225 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1225 Station inspections by FCC. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, or at any time it is in operation. (b) In the course of...

  3. 47 CFR 74.3 - FCC inspections of stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC inspections of stations. 74.3 Section 74.3... Services in Part 74 § 74.3 FCC inspections of stations. (a) The licensee of a station authorized under this part must make the station available for inspection by representatives of the FCC during the...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs....

  5. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  6. 47 CFR 80.72 - Antenna requirements for coast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for coast stations. 80.72 Section 80.72 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.72 Antenna requirements for coast stations. All emissions of a coast station a...

  7. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  8. 47 CFR 73.621 - Noncommercial educational TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncommercial educational TV stations. 73.621... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.621 Noncommercial educational TV stations... telecommunications service in § 73.646 are applicable to noncommercial educational TV stations. (g)...

  9. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  10. Impact of suntracking on Space Station controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Barber, Mark; Holmes, Eric

    The multibody dynamics of the Space Station is studied as affected by the suntracking motions of the photovotaic arrays. Dynamic responses are simulated for the Station being controlled by control moment gyros (CMGs). Controllability is shown to be a function of flight orientation, stage (inertial properties, CP-CG offset) and the suntracking dynamics. For certain combinations of these parameters, the aerodynamic, inertial disturbances and motor torques from alpha joint(s) arising from near-perfect suntracking are too large for the control moment gyro system to control. However, by imposing slight restrictions on the dynamics of the suntracking, CMGs are able to provide Station attitude stability with excellent pointing performance and an excellent microgravity environment.

  11. 47 CFR 73.878 - Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC... (LPFM) § 73.878 Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, and at any time it is in operation. In the course of...

  12. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-11341; FCC 13-65] Federal Earth Stations--Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum...-Federal Fixed- Satellite Service (FSS) and Mobile-Satellite Service (MSS) space stations interference... space stations. Under the first proposal the Commission proposes to modify the Allocation Table...

  13. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. 25.137 Section 25.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for Declaratory Ruling” requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S. licensed space station to serve the...

  14. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV... TV or TV translator station or change the facilities of an existing station will not be accepted...

  15. Fire Stations - FIRE_STATIONS_HSIP_IDHS_IN: Fire Stations in Indiana as Developed for the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — FIRE_STATIONS_HSIP_IDHS_IN is a point shapefile that contains locations of fire station, as developed for the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program (HSIP). The...

  16. Frontiers of technology. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, R.; Nolan, M.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the Space Station technology assessment efforts conducted by NASA under its Advanced Development Program, which has over the last three years enlisted 14 different disciplines in the refinement of every aspect of Space Station interior and exterior design. Major investigations have delved into the application of novel coatings to materials subjected to prolonged exposure to radiation, the design of berthing and docking mechanisms, the demonstration of EVA structural assembly methods in a neutral buoyancy water tank, and an investigation of the effects of meteoroids and space debris on EVA garments, which have prompted the development of a novel 'hard' suit.

  17. The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montstein, Christian

    2014-08-01

    During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

  18. XTP for the NASA space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Space Station is a truly international effort; therefore, its communications systems must conform to established international standards. Thus, NASA is requiring that each network-interface unit implement a full suite of ISO protocols. However, NASA is understandably concerned that a full ISO stack will not deliver performance consistent with the real-time demands of Space Station control systems. Therefore, as a research project, the suitability of the Xpress transfer protocol (XTP) is investigated along side a full ISO stack. The initial plans for implementing XTP and comparing its performance to ISO TP4 are described.

  19. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  20. Gravitational biology on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  1. Study of Electromagnetism Compatibility of Bleeper Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Transmitted power will decrease, cross-modulate distortion and inter-modulate distortion will be caused and antenna pattern will shift if transmitted antennas are fixed together. All these will lead to the alteration of area coverage. According to the basic theory of electromagnetism compatibility a computer model is established. We do some quantitative analysis of the problems above and give total number, arrangement mode and distance between antennas of bleeper station that operate at 150 MHz. The relation of these factors above are also given. All these are basis of the arrangement of antenna group of bleeper station.

  2. From city’s station to station city: an integrative spatial approach to the (re)development of station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Conceição, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spaces of station areas do not fully achieve the liveability level sought out by recent redevelopment projects. Additionally, the role that architecture plays in their spatial definition seems to be constrained, likely because of the projects’ highly complex interdisciplinary planning processes.

  3. Texturas de los minerales del grupo de la sílice de la manifestación epitermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo, región de Moa: clasificación, descripción e implicaciones genéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leduar Ramayo-Cortés

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la región de Moa, Cuba oriental, se localizan varias manifestaciones hidrotermales. Se trata de sistemas vetiformes y brechas hidrotermales con contenidos significativos de metales nobles. La manifestación hidrotermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo se destaca por su extensión, y está formada por brechas y vetas de cuarzo mineralizadas, vinculadas preferentemente a fracturas correspondientes al sistema de fallas NW-SE y se hospeda en rocas sedimentarias del Campaniense Tardío-Daniense. El estudio textural de los minerales del grupo de la sílice permitió el reconocimiento de varias texturas, las cuales fueron clasificadas en tres grupos: 1 texturas de crecimiento primario (calcedonia maciza, costriforme, en peine, cristales zonados, y maciza, 2 texturas de recristalización (mosaico, plumosa y llameante, y 3 texturas de reemplazo (en enrejado, paralelo y radiado. Sobre la base de este análisis se estableció la secuencia deposicional de los diferentes minerales del grupo de la sílice y se reveló la presencia de la paragénesis de alteración adularia-sericita, lo cual indicaría el desarrollo de un sistema epitermal de baja sulfuración. Estas texturas también se usaron para indicar el nivel de emplazamiento dentro del sistema epitermal; en este caso, el emplazamiento de la manifestación El Rifle-Hato Viejo se corresponde con el nivel intermedio o coloiforme-costriforme, el cual se encuentra por encima de la zona propicia para la deposición del oro, por lo que podría esperarse la presencia de contenidos más elevados en profundidad.

  4. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  5. Offshore Metocean Station for Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balluff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy concepts are able to sustainably satisfy the world energy demand without any restrictions for the following generations. In these concepts the wind energy and wave / current energy are important factors as the description and the prognosis of waves and currents is a complex issue, especially offshore. For the estimation of the average annual wind speed and thus the energy production of offshore wind farms it is imperative to know the exact wind conditions at each project site. Suitable prognosis methods are missing so far, are not accurate enough or at beta stage. The only possibility to achieve exact information about the offshore conditions is a metocean station consisting of wind and wave sensors. These met stations can be lattice masts mounted on monopiles or buoys equipped with meteorological sensors, both in combination with wave sensors to include all important parameters. Though conventional metocean stations are far more common, established and are measuring data of high quality, cheaper and more flexible solutions as the likes of floating Lidars (Light Detection And Ranging are about to be used during the operation of wind farms. This article explains currently used methods of measurements offshore with respect to wind and wave and compares it with reanalysis data. This data has advantages in comparison to measurements from conventional metocean stations, but cannot be used independently. This article proves that using solely reanalysis data is not possible, that measurements offshore are still necessary and that its operation helps improving the performance of offshore wind farms.

  6. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  7. The Leica TCRA1105 Reflectorless Total Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreault, F.

    2005-09-06

    This poster provides an overview of SLAC's TCRA1105 reflectorless total station for the Alignment Engineering Group. This instrument has shown itself to be very useful for planning new construction and providing quick measurements to difficult to reach or inaccessible surfaces.

  8. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  9. Micro hydro-electric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monition, L.; Le Nir, M.; Roux, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion of all aspects of hydro-power exploitation using micro-power stations. It offers guidance to techniques for assessing the power available from a given stream, designing and building siteworks, selecting the appropriate turbine types for given conditions, and measuring and controlling environmental hazards associated with micro-hydro installations.

  10. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... termination of the communication in progress on this frequency. (c) Station identification may be by voice or... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... between 15 to 20 words per minute, and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, with the...

  11. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  12. PROSPECTS AND FEATURES OF BIOGASOLINE STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the promising areas belonging to energy-saving technologies; it is the introduction of biogasoline stations into agricultural production. The analysis of the application in the world has been shown. To determine the cost-effectiveness of biogasoline stations we have shown the data for the calculation of the potential of biomass: organic waste settlements; animal waste; waste of poultry; crop residues; waste processing industry. We have obtained graphic dependences of electricity generated in the day from livestock and poultry, as well as the number of sunflower, rice, and sugar beets. The table also shows the thermal properties of organic agricultural wastes, allowing increasing the efficiency of calculations to determine the biomass resources. We have considered the schemes of biogasoline stations, a gas turbine power plant and a steam turbine power plant and disclosed the features of their work. To improve the operating and technical specifications of the stations intended for power generation we have proposed using non-contact generators and stabilization of parameters of electric power in their designs to carry out direct frequency converter. We have disclosed the advantages and disadvantages of biogas, as well as the direction of its effective use. It is shown that the use of all the possibilities in the complex of biogasoline stationns (production of fertilizers and motor oil, production of heat and electricity would improve the efficiency and the payback of investment would be from 3 to 5 years, which is mainly determined by the volumes of biomass

  13. Space Station - Implications for space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, D. L.; Willenberg, H. J.; Atkins, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Space-based materials processing R&D is examined. It is proposed that the Space Station's Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility will be utilized by academic, government, and commercial customers. Users requirements for materials processing in space are discussed. Consideration is given to the time allocation of the facility, charges to users, and the property rights of the users.

  14. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  15. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  16. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  17. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS progr

  18. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  19. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  20. Square Kilometre Array station configuration using two-stage beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Jiwani, Aziz; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Hall, Peter J; Padhi, Shantanu; de Vaate, Jan Geralt bij

    2012-01-01

    The lowest frequency band (70 - 450 MHz) of the Square Kilometre Array will consist of sparse aperture arrays grouped into geographically-localised patches, or stations. Signals from thousands of antennas in each station will be beamformed to produce station beams which form the inputs for the central correlator. Two-stage beamforming within stations can reduce SKA-low signal processing load and costs, but has not been previously explored for the irregular station layouts now favoured in radio astronomy arrays. This paper illustrates the effects of two-stage beamforming on sidelobes and effective area, for two representative station layouts (regular and irregular gridded tile on an irregular station). The performance is compared with a single-stage, irregular station. The inner sidelobe levels do not change significantly between layouts, but the more distant sidelobes are affected by the tile layouts; regular tile creates diffuse, but regular, grating lobes. With very sparse arrays, the station effective area...