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Sample records for brook charr salvelinus

  1. Behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in lacustrine brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis.

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    Andrea Bertolo

    Full Text Available The need to vary body temperature to optimize physiological processes can lead to thermoregulatory behaviours, particularly in ectotherms. Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. The main objective of this study was to determine whether different thermal tactics exist among individuals of the same population. We studied the behavioural thermoregulation of 33 adult brook charr in a stratified lake using thermo-sensitive radio transmitters that measured hourly individual temperature over one month. The observed behavioural thermoregulatory patterns were consistent between years and suggest the existence of four tactics: two "warm" tactics with both crepuscular and finer periodicities, with or without a diel periodicity, and two "cool" tactics, with or without a diel periodicity. Telemetry data support the above findings by showing that the different tactics are associated with different patterns of diel horizontal movements. Taken together, our results show a clear spatio-temporal segregation of individuals displaying different tactics, suggesting a reduction of niche overlap. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a vertebrate.

  2. Genome evolution in the fish family salmonidae: generation of a brook charr genetic map and comparisons among charrs (Arctic charr and brook charr with rainbow trout

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    Moghadam Hooman K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are regarded as 4R derivative species, having experienced 4 whole genome duplication events in their ancestry. Many duplicated chromosome regions still share extensive homology with one another which is maintained primarily through male-based homeologous chromosome pairings during meiosis. The formation of quadrivalents during meiosis leads to pseudolinkage. This phenomenon is more prevalent within 5 of the 12 ancestral teleost linkage groups in salmonids. Results We constructed a genetic linkage map for brook charr and used this in combination with the genetic map from Arctic charr, to make comparisons with the genetic map of rainbow trout. Although not all chromosome arms are currently mapped, some homologous chromosome rearrangements were evident between Arctic charr and brook charr. Notably, 10 chromosome arms in brook charr representing 5 metacentric chromosomes in Arctic charr have undergone rearrangements. Three metacentrics have one arm translocated and fused with another chromosome arm in brook charr to a make a new metacentrics while two metacentrics are represented by 4 acrocentric pairs in brook charr. In two cases (i.e., BC-4 and BC-16, an apparent polymorphism was observed with the identification of both a putative metacentric structure (similar to metacentric AC-4 = BC-4 and a joining of acrocentric AC-16 + one arm of AC-28 = BC-16, as well as two separate acrocentric linkage groups evident in the mapping parents. Forty-six of the expected 50 karyotypic arms could be inter-generically assigned. SEX in brook charr (BC-4 was localized to the same homologous linkage group region as in Arctic charr (AC-4. The homeologous affinities detected in the two charr species facilitated the identification of 20 (expected number = 25 shared syntenic regions with rainbow trout, although it is likely that some of these regions were partial or overlapping arm regions. Conclusions Inter-generic comparisons among 2

  3. Heritability of life-history tactics and genetic correlation with body size in a natural population of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

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    Thériault, V; Garant, D; Bernatchez, L; Dodson, J J

    2007-11-01

    A common dimorphism in life-history tactic in salmonids is the presence of an anadromous pathway involving a migration to sea followed by a freshwater reproduction, along with an entirely freshwater resident tactic. Although common, the genetic and environmental influence on the adoption of a particular life-history tactic has rarely been studied under natural conditions. Here, we used sibship-reconstruction based on microsatellite data and an 'animal model' approach to estimate the additive genetic basis of the life-history tactic adopted (anadromy vs. residency) in a natural population of brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. We also assess its genetic correlation with phenotypic correlated traits, body size and body shape. Significant heritability was observed for life-history tactic (varying from 0.52 to 0.56 depending on the pedigree scenario adopted) as well as for body size (from 0.44 to 0.50). There was also a significant genetic correlation between these two traits, whereby anadromous fish were genetically associated with bigger size at age 1 (r(G) = -0.52 and -0.61). Our findings thus indicate that life-history tactics in this population have the potential to evolve in response to selection acting on the tactic itself or indirectly via selection on body size. This study is one of the very few to have successfully used sibship-reconstruction to estimate quantitative genetic parameters under wild conditions. PMID:17956389

  4. Hybridization between native white-spotted charr and nonnative brook trout in the upper Sorachi River, Hokkaido, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, Satoshi; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Koizumi, Itsuro; Hasegawa, Koh

    2013-01-01

    Invasion status and impacts of nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a Hokkaido stream were investigated with field surveys and genetic analyses. Nonnative brook trout was detected in nine (41 %) of the 22 sampled reaches in three tributaries of the Sorachi River, Hokkaido, Japan. Based on the external pigmentation, twelve putative hybrids between brook trout and native white-spotted charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were collected in two reaches. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA ...

  5. Ecological diversity in the polymorphic fish Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Pamela J., 1979-

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is extremely diverse and its differentiation may indicate ecological speciation. This dissertation aims to compare trends in ecological diversity across broad geographical regions and place it within an ecosystem context by comparing study systems in Iceland and Alaska. In the first chapter, gut contents of Arctic charr across ~50 lakes in Iceland were analyzed to form 6 habitat-associated prey categories. Consumption of zooplankton was related to high sili...

  6. Behaviour, physiology and carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus

    OpenAIRE

    Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Magnhagen, Carin; Backström, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour during an exploration task and the response to a confinement stress of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were evaluated. Behaviour of individuals during 90 min of exploration was classified into high and low activity. High-activity individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels following stress compared to low-activity individuals. This indicates that high- and low-activity individuals correspond to reactive and proactive stress-coping styles. Further, a pigmentation analysis showe...

  7. Landlocked Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ) population structure and lake morphometry in Greenland - is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Jeppesen, E.; Landkildehus, F.;

    2000-01-01

    Landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alphinus) populations in sub-Arctic and Arctic Greenland lakes were sampled with multi- mesh-sized survey gillnets. The study covered a range of small shallow lakes (0.01 km(2) maximum depth 200 In). Arctic charr were found in one to three different forms in la...

  8. Landlocked Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ) population structure and lake morphometry in Greenland - is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Jeppesen, E.; Landkildehus, F.; Lauridsen, T.L.; Geertz-Hansen, Peter; Christoffersen, K.; Sparholt, H.

    2000-01-01

    Landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alphinus) populations in sub-Arctic and Arctic Greenland lakes were sampled with multi- mesh-sized survey gillnets. The study covered a range of small shallow lakes (0.01 km(2) maximum depth 200 In). Arctic charr were found in one to three different forms in...... lakes with maximum depths >3 m. A dwarf form occurred in all lakes inhabited by Arctic charr and was the only form in lakes with maximum depths 20 m, large-sized charr were more abundant, and the length- frequency distribution of the population was bimodal, with a first mode around 10-12 cm and a second...... mode around 2637 cm. In a single large and deep lake, a distinct medium-sized pelagic zooplankton-eating charr form occurred. Maximum size of individual charr was significantly positively correlated with lake maximum depth and volume, and the mean size of large-sized charr was significantly positively...

  9. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  10. Morphological divergence in a trimorphic population of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) in Skogsfjordvatn, northern Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Sigrid Østrem

    2013-01-01

    Sympatric polymorphisms are found in many freshwater fish taxa, including the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)). Polymorphism is often expressed as differences in morphology, behaviour and life-history strategies, and may be driven by alternative phenotypic adaptations to resource use such as habitat and prey preferences. Morphological divergence is usually linked to different functions of the morphological trait. Here, I study the correlations between morphology and ecological ...

  11. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  12. The pineal gland of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.): a survey of seasonal melatonin production and gland ultrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Musæus, Fredrikke Johansen

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system involved with rhythmic activity in e.g. fish. The main product of the pineal gland is the indole hormone melatonin, synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin is mainly synthesized when it is dark, as light inhibit the production. For this reason melatonin is thought to be strongly involved in biological rhythms. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a circumpolar species and anadromous in parts of its distribution area. Arctic charr ...

  13. Area use of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in an Arctic fjord system - a two year acoustic telemetry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkemoen, Odin Lagerborg

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and the brown trout Salmo trutta L. are fish species with complex and comparable life strategies. However, there are also differences between the two species. The migratory behavior of Arctic charr and brown trout at sea is poorly understood compared to their far more studied behavior in fresh water. Because of the declining populations of anadromous Arctic charr the last decades, this species is particularly important to understand in order to mitigat...

  14. Land-locked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) population structure and lake morphometry in Greenland - is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Jeppesen, E.; Landkildehus, F.;

    2000-01-01

    Landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in sub-Arctic and Arctic Greenland lakes were sampled with multi-mesh-sized survey gillnets. The study covered a range of small shallow lakes (0.01 km2, maximum depth <3.3 m) to large deep lakes (43 km2, maximum depth >200 m). Arctic charr ...

  15. Growth and fatty acid composition of two strains of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on diets formulated with low fish oil inclusion in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth, culture conditions and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate two Arctic charr stocks (one commercial stock and one from the ...

  16. Life history strategies of a trimorphic population of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) in Skogsfjordvatn, northern-Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Smalås, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms are widespread throughout many different taxa of vertebrates. Discrete polymorphisms or morphs usually differentiate in morphology, ecology and life history, most likely driven by adaptations to different habitats and resources. For sympatric morphs to be able to maximize fitness in different niches and habitats, they may develop differences in several life history traits. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) is a good model species for verifying and understanding ecological d...

  17. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  18. Genetic Variability and Structuring of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus Populations in Northern Fennoscandia.

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    Takahito Shikano

    Full Text Available Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26 differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent population size bottlenecks. Estimates of contemporary effective population size (Ne ranged from seven to 228 and were significantly correlated with those of historical Ne but not with lake size. A census size (NC was estimated to be approximately 300 individuals in a pond (0.14 ha, which exhibited the smallest Ne (i.e. Ne/NC = 0.02. Genetic variability in this pond and a connected lake is severely reduced, and both genetic and empirical estimates of migration rates indicate a lack of gene flow between them. Hence, albeit currently thriving, some northern Fennoscandian populations appear to be vulnerable to further loss of genetic variability and are likely to have limited capacity to adapt if selection pressures change.

  19. Temporal changes in daily food intake of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L., of different sizes monitored by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal variations in food consumption of three year classes of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, held under conditions of constant temperature ( 10 °C) and continuous artificial illumination were studied by monitoring daily food intake at different times of the year. Food was supplied continuously in excess and consumption was determined using X-radiography. There were found to be seasonal differences in the amounts of food consumed, with food intake being lowest during the autumn. Attempts were made to relate these changes to patterns of sexual maturation, but results were equivocal and further study is required in order to isolate the factors responsible for variations observed

  20. Cytogenetic and histological studies of the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) x arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    In aquaculture, application of fish hybrids has increased. This technique permits improvement of the fish production by providing specimens showing better growth rate when compared to the parental species. Indeed, sterile individuals are highly demanded because quite frequently parental fish mature before they reach the market size, which impairs their growth and decrease their economic value. Throughout the last years, the commercial and scientific interest in salmonids has increased rapidly...

  1. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38'N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr. PMID:26421838

  2. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle.

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    Anja Striberny

    Full Text Available The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART, Agouti related Peptide (AgRP, Neuropeptide Y (NPY and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2 and Leptin Receptor (LepR genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38'N and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May, feeding charr (July, and non-feeding charr (January. Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July. In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr.

  3. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus squeezed in a complex fish community dominated by perch (Perca fluviatilis

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    Odd Terje Sandlund

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the complex fish community of Lake Skasen, southeastern Norway, the relative population density, habitat use and diet of Arctic charr, perch, roach and burbot was studied by a gill net survey during June-September 2010. A marked segregation in habitat use was observed, with Arctic charr and burbot captured in the profundal and deepest part of the pelagic habitat, and perch and roach captured in the littoral and upper part of the pelagic. Perch dominated the total catches, followed by roach. Arctic charr occurred in low numbers in the catches, and also had a low annual growth rate. Even in June, at low water temperatures, Arctic charr were confined to the profundal. Both Arctic charr, roach and perch fed on the same cladocerans, but all size groups of perch had fish as an important part of the diet. Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes revealed a narrow trophic niche of Arctic charr, positioned at the extreme pelagic end of the carbon gradient relative to the other fish species. These had a wider span of δ13C signatures, but more positioned towards the littoral end of the carbon gradient. The low growth rate of Arctic charr, despite a low population density, indicates that food is a limiting resource for charr in this lake, probably due to a confinement to the profundal habitat as a result of competition and predator avoidance. Since all age-classes of Arctic charr seem to be enclosed in the profundalhabitat, intraspecific competition and predation may be supplementary stressors resulting in low annual recruitment and low population density, as well as low individual growth rate, i.e. the population is squeezed. The narrow trophic niche of Arctic charr compared to perch, roach and burbot, revealed by stable isostope analysis, supports this conclusion.

  4. Long-term rearing of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus under different salinity regimes at constant temperature.

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    Arnason, T; Gunnarsson, S; Imsland, A K; Thorarensen, H; Smáradóttir, H; Steinarsson, A; Gústavsson, A; Johansson, M; Björnsson, B Th

    2014-10-01

    Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus of the Hólar strain (mean ± s.e. body mass = 152·1 ± 3·1 g) were reared at four different salinity regimes at a constant temperature of 7·4° C. Two groups were given a three-month acclimation in salinity 18 before the salinity was increased to either 25 or 29 (groups called A25 and A29), and two groups were reared in salinities 25 or 29 over the full experimental period of 409 days (groups called F25 and F29). In the first 3 months, the A25 and A29 groups had the highest growth rates. By October 2011, there were no significant differences (two-way nested ANOVA, P > 0·05) in the mean body masses among A25, F25 and F29 (c. 1450 g), whereas A29 had a lower mean mass (1282 g). The growth in the last period from October 2011 to January 2012 was reduced by sexual maturation in the highest salinity regimes (A29 and F29), whereas fish in groups A25 and F25 showed high growth throughout the study. Males in all salinity groups had higher growth rates than females for the most part of the study, but the divergence between the sexes was most pronounced in the highest salinity regimes. All salinity groups showed distinct changes in Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, with high activity in spring and summer, and lower activity in the autumn. Plasma sodium (Na(+) ) levels were stable indicating that none of the experimental groups had problems in maintaining hydromineral balance during the study. While plasma leptin levels were not affected by salinity regimes, it was noted that these levels were 13-30% higher in fish with empty guts compared with those having food in their gut at the time of sampling. This suggests a link between leptin levels and food intake, indicating that this hormone may play a role in food intake and energy allocation in fishes. PMID:25053158

  5. Endocrine disruption in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) exposed to leachate from a public refuse dump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noaksson, E.; Linderoth, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Norrgren, L.; Zebühr, Y.; Balk, L.

    2003-01-01

    Lake Molnbyggen was previously found to harbour a large number of sexually immature female perch (Perca fluviatilis) suffering from endocrine disruption. In an attempt to pin-point the source of the endocrine-disrupting substance(s) (EDSs), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbacken, a strea

  6. Differences in organotin accumulation in relation to life history in the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Otolith Sr:Ca ratios in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → Sea-run type have higher risk of TBT and TPT than freshwater-residents in white-spotted charr. - Abstract: To examine the accumulation pattern of organotins (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate migration type. Mean Sr:Ca ratio from the core to the edge of the otolith in sea-run individuals was significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident one. There were no significant correlations in S. leucomaenis between OT accumulation and various biological characteristics. It is noteworthy that TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are both of the same species. These results suggest that sea-run S. leucomaenis have a higher ecological risk of OT exposure than freshwater-residents during their life histories.

  7. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrat...

  8. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  9. Optimal swimming speeds reflect preferred swimming speeds of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, 1874)

    OpenAIRE

    Tudorache, Christian; O’Keefe, Robyn A.; Benfey, Tillmann J.

    2011-01-01

    Several measures have been developed to quantify swimming performance to understand various aspects of ecology and behaviour, as well as to help design functional applications for fishways and aquaculture. One of those measures, the optimal swimming speed, is the speed at which the cost of transport (COT) is minimal, where COT is defined as the cost of moving unit mass over unit distance. The experimental protocol to determine the optimal swimming speed involves forced-swimming in a flume or ...

  10. Morphological, ecological and behavioural differentiation of sympatric profundal and pelagic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Loch Dughaill Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, O.E.; Barry, J; Van Leeuwen, T. E.; Lyle, A.; Newton, Jason; Cunningham, P.; Adams, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in populations of fishes that inhabit postglacial lakes is often associated with trophic specialisations. A common sympatric foraging divergence seen in Arctic charr is into either plankton or littoral-zoobenthos feeding specialisms. In this study, we report a sympatric polymorphic Arctic charr population which is not centred on this divergence but instead manifests as a plankton (pelagic)—profundal zoobenthos foraging specialisms. The head shape of profundal fish was rou...

  11. Histology and DNA cytophotometry of the pancreas of acid exposed brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, J.E.

    1970-01-01

    The gross anatomy and histology of the pancreas were studied in untreated and acid exposed brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Also, three fixatives (4% formalin, Zenker-formol, and Bouin's) and four staining procedures (hematoxylin and eosin, phloxine-methylene blue, Mallory-Heidenhain's azan, and chromium-hematoxylin-phloxine) were evaluated in terms of their utility for histological studies of the brook trout pancreas. Finally, the exocrine cells of control and acid exposed trout were examined cytophotometrically to determine feulgen DNA content. Briefly, the major findings were as follows: although pancreatic tissue in the brook trout is diffusely scattered among the pyloric caeca and mesenteries bordering hepatic, splenic and small intestinal areas, and bulk of the gland resides next to the pyloric stomach and its entrance into the small intestine; pancreatic islets are also most numerous and best developed in this region; endocrine islets are composed of two granular cell types: Basophilic beta cells which comprise more than 70% of the islet and alpha cells which are scattered singly throughout each islet; histochemical analysis of F-DNA content of exocrine pancreas under control and experimental conditions indicates that these cells were not influenced by acute acid exposure; no histopathological changes were found in either endocrine or exocrine cells which could be attributed to prior exposure of trout to acid pH; and Mallory-Heidenhain's azan staining of Zenker-formol fixed tissue specimens proved to be an excellent stain for histological studies of both endocrine and exocrine components of the trout pancreas.

  12. From autochthonous to allochthonous resources: seasonal shifts in food use by stream-dwelling YOY Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus through the ice-free season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, J; Gabler, H-M; Amundsen, P-A

    2016-02-01

    Substantial seasonal changes in resource use associated with enhanced water-column use were revealed in stream-living YOY Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during the ice-free season. In July, YOY individuals showed a diet dominated by aquatic invertebrates (mainly Chironomidae larvae), but despite the small size of the fish, the abundance of terrestrial insects in their diet increased markedly from July to September (from 1·9 to 62·8%). Similarly, the frequency of surface drifting foragers, i.e. individuals feeding on allochthonous resources, increased from July to September (from 20·6 to 80%); allochthonous resources thus constituting an important energy subsidy for YOY S. alpinus during the late sub-Arctic summer. PMID:26577804

  13. Phenotypic and genetic variation in two North American arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) stocks cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic charr were obtained as eggs from two North American sources, an eastern (Fraser River, Canada) and a western (Bristol Bay, Alaska) stock. Fish from each family (n=38) were pit tagged at approximately 12 months post-hatch (eastern mean+SE=247+/-13g, western mean+SE=220+/-g) and stocked commun...

  14. Arctic charr farming

    OpenAIRE

    Brännäs, Eva; Larsson, Stefan; Saether, Björn Steinar; Siikavuopio, Sten Ivar; Thorarensen, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Ólafur; Jeuthe, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) is a holarctic salmonid fish species with both landlocked and anadromous populations. In Scandinavia it is mainly found in the mountain area, but it also appears in deep and large lake further south, i.e. in the Alps. It is the northernmost freshwater fish and A. charr is generally regarded as the most cold-adapted freshwater fish. A. charr has been commercially farmed since the early 90ths and today, the total production is 3000, 2300 and 700 tonnes/y...

  15. Comparative analysis of total mercury concentrations in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has documented that total mercury concentrations ([THg]) are lower in anadromous Arctic charr than in non-anadromous conspecifics, but the two life-history forms have rarely been studied together. Here, data from nine pairs of closely-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations were used to explore the impact of biological and life-history factors on individual [THg] across a range of latitudes (49–81° N) in eastern Canada. Unadjusted mean [THg] ranged from 20 to 114 ng/g wet weight (ww) in anadromous populations, and was significantly higher in non-anadromous populations, ranging from 111 to 227 ng/g ww. Within-population variations in [THg] were best explained by fish age, and were often positively related to fork-length and δ15N-inferred trophic level. Differences in [THg] were not related to differences in length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) among populations of either life-history type. Mercury concentrations were not related to site latitude in either the anadromous or non-anadromous fish. We conclude that the difference in Arctic charr [THg] with life-history type could not be explained by differences in fish age, fork-length, trophic position, or length-at-age, and discuss possible factors contributing to low mercury concentrations in anadromous, relative to freshwater, fish. - Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in 9 co-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations. ► Mean [THg] in non-anadromous populations exceeded mean [THg] in spatially paired anadromous populations. ► Among-individual variation in [THg] was best explained by fish age. ► The lower [THg] in anadromous fish could not be explained by differences in age, fork-length, trophic level, or growth rate. ► Variations in Arctic charr [THg] were independent of latitude (49–81° N) in eastern Canada

  16. Growth Performance, Food Intake and Feed Converison Ratios in Rainbow (Onchorynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) Reared as a Single and Mixed Species

    OpenAIRE

    Okumuş, İbrahim; ÇELİKKALE, M. Salih; KURTOĞLU, İ. Zeki; BAŞÇINAR, Nadir

    1998-01-01

    Growth performances, daily food consumption and feed conversion ratios of rainbow (Onchorynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) reared as single and mixed species were compared. During the experimental period, which lasted for about a growing season (December - June, 217 days), mean % weight increment of single species brook trout group were maximum (from 18.2 to 165.6 g), followed by mixed rainbow (26.8 to 241.6 g) and brook trout (17.0 to 151.8 g), and single species rainb...

  17. Impacts of a gape limited Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, on larval Northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile, growth: A field enclosure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currens, C.R.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of amphibian population structure is directly affected by predation. Although aquatic predators have been shown to have direct negative effects on larval salamanders in laboratory and field experiments, the potential impacts of gape-limited fish on larval salamander growth has been largely underexplored. We designed an enclosure experiment conducted in situ to quantify the effects of gape-limited Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on larval Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) growth. We specifically tested whether the presence of fish too small to consume larvae had a negative effect on larval growth. The results of this study indicate that the presence of a gape-limited S. fontinalis can have a negative effect on growth of larval A. gracile salamanders. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. In vitro effects of the extracellular protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum on phagocyte function in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, C L; Smith, S A; Holladay, S D

    1998-04-30

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a facultative intracellular pathogen often found in host phagocytes where it appears to successfully avoid the host fish's immunological defenses. The objective of this investigation was to determine if soluble extracellular protein (ECP) produced by R. salmoninarum may contribute to the immunomodulation in bacterial kidney disease (BKD) via inhibition of phagocyte respiratory burst and/or phagocytosis mechanisms. Splenic cells from adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were incubated with two different concentrations of ECP (0.1 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml) and viable R. salmoninarum. Splenic cell cultures were evaluated for respiratory burst activity via flow cytometry with the dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) assay and for phagocytosis via light microscopic assessment of microsphere engulfment. Respiratory burst activity was significantly inhibited in all treatment groups as compared to untreated fish, while no differences were noted in phagocytic activity. PMID:9646439

  19. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  20. Ontogenetic dynamics of infection with Diphyllobothrium spp. cestodes in sympatric Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Eirik H.; Knudsen, Rune; Kristoffersen, Roar; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    The trophic niches of Arctic charr and brown trout differ when the species occur in sympatry. Their trophically transmitted parasites are expected to reflect these differences. Here, we investigate how the infections of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and D. ditremum differ between charr and trout. These tapeworms use copepods as their first intermediate hosts and fish can become infected as second intermediate hosts by consuming either infected copepods or infected fish. We examined 767 charr and 368 trout for Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in a subarctic lake. The prevalence of D. ditremum was higher in charr (61.5%) than in trout, (39.5%), but the prevalence of D. dendriticum was higher in trout (31.2%) than in charr (19.3%). Diphyllobothrium spp. intensities were elevated in trout compared to charr, particularly for D. dendriticum. Large fish with massive parasite burdens were responsible for the high Diphyllobothrium spp. loads in trout. We hypothesize that fish prey may be the most important source for the Diphyllobothrium spp. infections in trout, whereas charr predominantly acquire Diphyllobothrium spp. by feeding on copepods. Our findings support previous suggestions that the ability to establish in a second piscine host is greater for D. dendriticum than for D. ditremum.

  1. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  2. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Y.; Vokoun, J.C.; Letcher, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5-2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by 'riverscape' variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Genetic and morphological divergence in three strains of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis commonly stocked in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J McKinney

    Full Text Available Fitness related traits often show spatial variation across populations of widely distributed species. Comparisons of genetic variation among populations in putatively neutral DNA markers and in phenotypic traits susceptible to selection (QST FST analysis can be used to determine to what degree differentiation among populations can be attributed to selection or genetic drift. Traditionally, QST FST analyses require a large number of populations to achieve sufficient statistical power; however, new methods have been developed that allow QST FST comparisons to be conducted on as few as two populations if their pedigrees are informative. This study compared genetic and morphological divergence in three strains of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis that were historically or currently used for stocking in the Lake Superior Basin. Herein we examined if morphological divergence among populations showed temporal variation, and if divergence could be attributed to selection or was indistinguishable from genetic drift. Multivariate QST FST analysis showed evidence for divergent selection between populations. Univariate analyses suggests that the pattern observed in the multivariate analyses was largely driven by divergent selection for length and weight, and moreover by divergence between the Assinica strain and each of the Iron River and Siskiwit strains rather than divergent selection between each population pair. While it could not be determined if divergence was due to natural selection or inadvertent artificial selection in hatcheries, selected differences were consistent with patterns of domestication commonly found in salmonids.

  4. DETECTION OF RENIBACTERIUM SALMONINARUM IN TISSUE OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS BY NESTED RT–PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vardić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum causes kidney disease with high mortality rate and considerable economic losses in salmonid farming. Thus, application of fast and sensitive method for R. salmoninarum diagnosis is of great importance. This paper describes detection of R. salmoninarum in brook trout tissue with gross clinical signs of disease by nested RT–PCR. Determination of partial sequence of bacterial msa gene was done prior to comparison with similar sequences from different R. salmoninarum isolates. Nested RT–PCR proved to be a rapid and valuable diagnostic tool for R. salmoninarum detection, and sequence analysis confirmed previously reported genetic uniformity of this bacteria

  5. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  6. Preference and avoidance pH of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta exposed to different holding pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if short-term exposure of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta to a lower pH than found in their source stream results in a shift in preference or avoidance pH. The lack of a shift in preference or avoidance pH of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta suggests that these species can be held at a pH different from the source waterbody for a short period of time without altering preference or avoidance pH behaviour. PMID:26147766

  7. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal and anal fins in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, E M; Lauder, G V

    2007-01-01

    Recent kinematic and hydrodynamic studies on fish median fins have shown that dorsal fins actively produce jets with large lateral forces. Because of the location of dorsal fins above the fish's rolling axis, these lateral forces, if unchecked, would cause fish to roll. In this paper we examine the hydrodynamics of trout anal fin function and hypothesize that anal fins, located below the fish's rolling axis, produce similar jets to the dorsal fin and help balance rolling torques during swimming. We simultaneously quantify the wake generated by dorsal and anal fins in brook trout by swimming fish in two horizontal light sheets filmed by two synchronized high speed cameras during steady swimming and manoeuvring. Six major conclusions emerge from these experiments. First, anal fins produce lateral jets to the same side as dorsal fins, confirming the hypothesis that anal fins produce fluid jets that balance those produced by dorsal fins. Second, in contrast to previous work on sunfish, neither dorsal nor anal fins produce significant thrust during steady swimming; flow leaves the dorsal and anal fins in the form of a shear layer that rolls up into vortices similar to those seen in steady swimming of eels. Third, dorsal and anal fin lateral jets are more coincident in time than would be predicted from simple kinematic expectations; shape, heave and pitch differences between fins, and incident flow conditions may account for the differences in timing of jet shedding. Fourth, relative force and torque magnitudes of the anal fin are larger than those of the dorsal fin; force differences may be due primarily to a larger span and a more squarely shaped trailing edge of the anal fin compared to the dorsal fin; torque differences are also strongly influenced by the location of each fin relative to the fish's centre of mass. Fifth, flow is actively modified by dorsal and anal fins resulting in complex flow patterns surrounding the caudal fin. The caudal fin does not encounter

  8. Genomic arrangement of salinity tolerance QTLs in salmonids: A comparative analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Joseph D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait locus (QTL studies show that variation in salinity tolerance in Arctic charr and rainbow trout has a genetic basis, even though both these species have low to moderate salinity tolerance capacities. QTL were observed to localize to homologous linkage group segments within putative chromosomal regions possessing multiple candidate genes. We compared salinity tolerance QTL in rainbow trout and Arctic charr to those detected in a higher salinity tolerant species, Atlantic salmon. The highly derived karyotype of Atlantic salmon allows for the assessment of whether disparity in salinity tolerance in salmonids is associated with differences in genetic architecture. To facilitate these comparisons, we examined the genomic synteny patterns of key candidate genes in the other model teleost fishes that have experienced three whole-genome duplication (3R events which preceded a fourth (4R whole genome duplication event common to all salmonid species. Results Nine linkage groups contained chromosome-wide significant QTL (AS-2, -4p, -4q, -5, -9, -12p, -12q, -14q -17q, -22, and −23, while a single genome-wide significant QTL was located on AS-4q. Salmonid genomes shared the greatest marker homology with the genome of three-spined stickleback. All linkage group arms in Atlantic salmon were syntenic with at least one stickleback chromosome, while 18 arms had multiple affinities. Arm fusions in Atlantic salmon were often between multiple regions bearing salinity tolerance QTL. Nine linkage groups in Arctic charr and six linkage group arms in rainbow trout currently have no synteny alignments with stickleback chromosomes, while eight rainbow trout linkage group arms were syntenic with multiple stickleback chromosomes. Rearrangements in the stickleback lineage involving fusions of ancestral arm segments could account for the 21 chromosome pairs observed in the stickleback karyotype. Conclusions Salinity tolerance in

  9. Basal mercury concentrations and biomagnification rates in freshwater and marine food webs: Effects on Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterns of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) biomagnification were investigated in six pairs of co-located lacustrine and marine food webs supporting a common predator, Arctic charr. Mercury biomagnification rates (the slope of log Hg concentration versus δ15N-inferred trophic level) did not differ significantly between the two feeding habitats for either THg or MeHg, but THg and MeHg concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in the lacustrine environment than in the marine environment. The proportion of THg as MeHg was related to trophic level, and the relationship was statistically similar in the lacustrine and marine habitats. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats. We conclude that the known difference in Hg concentration between anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr is driven by differential Hg concentrations at the base of the lacustrine and marine foodwebs, and not by differential biomagnification rates. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and methylmercury ([MeHg]) were measured in 6 paired lacustrine and marine food webs. ► Biomagnification rates (slopes of [THg] or [MeHg] versus δ15N-inferred trophic level) were similar in the two habitat types. ► Mercury concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in lacustrine than in marine food webs. ► The percentage of methylated mercury increased with trophic level similarly in the two habitat types. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats

  10. Basal mercury concentrations and biomagnification rates in freshwater and marine food webs: Effects on Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, S. van der, E-mail: sdorn@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dempson, J.B. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, A1C 5X1 (Canada); Evans, M.S. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, D.C.G. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    Patterns of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) biomagnification were investigated in six pairs of co-located lacustrine and marine food webs supporting a common predator, Arctic charr. Mercury biomagnification rates (the slope of log Hg concentration versus δ{sup 15}N-inferred trophic level) did not differ significantly between the two feeding habitats for either THg or MeHg, but THg and MeHg concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in the lacustrine environment than in the marine environment. The proportion of THg as MeHg was related to trophic level, and the relationship was statistically similar in the lacustrine and marine habitats. The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats. We conclude that the known difference in Hg concentration between anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr is driven by differential Hg concentrations at the base of the lacustrine and marine foodwebs, and not by differential biomagnification rates. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and methylmercury ([MeHg]) were measured in 6 paired lacustrine and marine food webs. ► Biomagnification rates (slopes of [THg] or [MeHg] versus δ{sup 15}N-inferred trophic level) were similar in the two habitat types. ► Mercury concentrations at the base of the food web were higher in lacustrine than in marine food webs. ► The percentage of methylated mercury increased with trophic level similarly in the two habitat types. ► The biomagnification rate of MeHg exceeded that of THg in both habitats.

  11. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14 cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40 cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the populatio...

  12. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Church, S.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality, habitats, and biota of streams in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado, USA, are affected by metal contamination associated with acid drainage. We determined metal concentrations in components of the food web of the Animas River and its tributaries - periphyton (aufwuchs), benthic invertebrates, and livers of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - and evaluated pathways of metal exposure and hazards of metal toxicity to stream biota. Concentrations of the toxic metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and trout livers from one or more sites in the upper Animas River were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Periphyton from sites downstream from mixing zones of acid and neutral waters had elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) reflecting deposition of colloidal Fe and Al oxides, and reduced algal biomass. Metal concentrations in benthic invertebrates reflected differences in feeding habits and body size among taxa, with greatest concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the small mayfly Rhithrogena, which feeds on periphyton, and greatest concentrations of Pb in the small stonefly Zapada, a detritivore. Concentrations of Zn and Pb decreased across each trophic linkage, whereas concentrations of Cu and Cd were similar across several trophic levels, suggesting that Cu and Cd were more efficiently transferred via dietary exposure. Concentrations of Cu in invertebrates and trout livers were more closely associated with impacts on trout populations and invertebrate communities than were concentrations of Zn, Cd, or Pb. Copper concentrations in livers of brook trout from the upper Animas River were substantially greater than background concentrations and approached levels associated with reduced brook trout populations in field studies and with toxic effects on other salmonids in laboratory studies. These results indicate that bioaccumulation and transfer of

  13. Analysis of trade-offs between threats of invasion by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and intentional isolation for native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.P.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.; Fausch, K.D.; Young, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Native salmonid fishes often face simultaneous threats from habitat fragmentation and invasion by nonnative trout species. Unfortunately, management actions to address one may create or exacerbate the other. A consistent decision process would include a systematic analysis of when and where intentional use or removal of barriers is the most appropriate action. We developed a Bayesian belief network as a tool for such analyses. We focused on native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and considered the environmental factors influencing both species, their potential interactions, and the effects of isolation on the persistence of local cutthroat trout populations. The trade-offs between isolation and invasion were strongly influenced by size and habitat quality of the stream network to be isolated and existing demographic linkages within and among populations. An application of the model in several sites in western Montana (USA) showed the process could help clarify management objectives and options and prioritize conservation actions among streams. The approach can also facilitate communication among parties concerned with native salmonids, nonnative fish invasions, barriers and intentional isolation, and management of the associated habitats and populations. ?? 2008 NRC.

  14. Satiation meal and the effects of meal and body sizes on gastric evacuation rate in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, U; Seyhan, K; Başçinar, N; Başçinar, N S

    2016-08-01

    Gastric evacuation (GE) experiments were performed on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial food pellets. The experiments included small fish (36 g; 15 cm total length, LT ) fed meals of 0·2, 0·4 and 0·8 g and large fish (152 g; 23 cm) fed meals of 0·8, 2·0 and 4·0 g at temperatures ranging from 15·1 to 18·2° C. The stomach contents were thereafter sampled and weighed at 3 h intervals until the first empty stomach was observed. The course of GE was examined by use of a general power function of the data that revealed that the square-root function described the GE rate (GER) by the current stomach content mass independently of original meal size. Using the square-root function, the relationship between GER and fish size was described by a power function of fish length, whereas the effect of temperature was described by a simple exponential function. GER of the commercial pellets fed to S. fontinalis could thus be described by dStdt=-0·000464L1·31e0·052TSt (g h(-1) ), where St is stomach mass (g) at time t (h), L is total fish length (cm) and T is temperature (° C). The result of this study should provide a useful tool for planning of feeding regimes in production of S. fontinalis by optimizing growth and minimizing food waste. PMID:27282124

  15. Ecology and impacts of nonnative salmonids with special reference to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) in North Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Korsu, K. (Kai)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract My main objectives in this thesis were to explore general patterns and mechanisms driving salmonid invasions globally and, more specifically, to examine the invasion dynamics and impacts of the North American brook trout in North European stream systems. Non-native salmonids have often spread extensively and caused many harmful impacts on their native counterparts. Among the three globally introduced salmonids, the European brown trout appeared as the 'worst' alien species (st...

  16. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  17. Environmental contaminants in brook trout from Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June 2012, four brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected by angling from Chapman Pond and East Loring Lake at Aroostook NWR in northeast Maine. Two...

  18. Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic charr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Killie, J.-E.A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) with Aroclor 1254. After contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by Arctic animals. After four months, PCB concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, PCBs in kidneys of fed fish were 33 to 50% of those in fasted fish. Arctic charr were exposed to Aeromonas salmonicida, the bacteria responsible for furunculosis, by cohabitation with infected conspecifics. Fasted fish had a significant trend toward lower survival with higher dose of PCBs - from 68% in controls to 48% in treatment involving 100 mg kg-1. Independent of PCB contamination, fed fish had the lowest survival; we attribute this to stress associated with establishing and maintaining feeding hierarchies. A significant decrease in the activity of lysozyme was observed in skin mucus, as was hemagglutination ability of a putative rhamnose lectin in fasted, but not in fed, PCB-treated fish. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs on Arctic charr, and they illustrate the importance of considering environmentally relevant nutritional status in ecotoxicological studies.

  19. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  20. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC–MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile–water (containing 7.5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min for 12 min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00–5,000 ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2 ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2 ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  1. Biological and life-history factors affecting total mercury concentrations in Arctic charr from Heintzelman Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Shannon van der, E-mail: sdorn@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, James D.; Babaluk, John A. [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, Michael, E-mail: m3power@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    A snapshot sample of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Heintzelman Lake (81 Degree-Sign 42 Prime N, 66 Degree-Sign 56 Prime W), Ellesmere Island, Canada was used to elucidate the biological and life-history factors potentially influencing individual total mercury (THg) concentrations. Migratory history was significant, with anadromous fish having a lower mean THg concentration (64 {mu}g/kg ww) than the non-anadromous Arctic charr (117 {mu}g/kg ww). The increase in individual THg concentration with age was shown to be independent of length-at-age when large and small individuals within the same age groups were compared. Similarly, the diets of individual Arctic charr were comparable regardless of size, and there was no apparent ontogenetic shift in diet that could explain differences in length-at-age or THg concentration among fast- and slow-growing groups of fish (i.e., fish of the same age but differing sizes). Maturity state was also not related to THg concentration, but appears to be related to differences in length-at-age, with slow-growing fish allocating more energy to reproduction than fast-growing conspecifics. The differences in THg concentration among individual Arctic charr were best explained by fish age. We suggest that the increase in mercury concentration with age can be altered by a shift in diet (e.g., to piscivory) or habitat (e.g., anadromy), but is otherwise unaffected by changes in size or length-at-age. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in Arctic charr from a single lake in the Canadian high Arctic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anadromous Arctic charr had a significantly lower mean [THg] (64 {mu}g/kg ww) than the non-anadromous fish (117 {mu}g/kg ww). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) was not related to mean [THg] when same-age groups were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prey resource use, determined by {delta}{sup 13}C and

  2. Biological and life-history factors affecting total mercury concentrations in Arctic charr from Heintzelman Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A snapshot sample of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Heintzelman Lake (81°42′N, 66°56′W), Ellesmere Island, Canada was used to elucidate the biological and life-history factors potentially influencing individual total mercury (THg) concentrations. Migratory history was significant, with anadromous fish having a lower mean THg concentration (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous Arctic charr (117 μg/kg ww). The increase in individual THg concentration with age was shown to be independent of length-at-age when large and small individuals within the same age groups were compared. Similarly, the diets of individual Arctic charr were comparable regardless of size, and there was no apparent ontogenetic shift in diet that could explain differences in length-at-age or THg concentration among fast- and slow-growing groups of fish (i.e., fish of the same age but differing sizes). Maturity state was also not related to THg concentration, but appears to be related to differences in length-at-age, with slow-growing fish allocating more energy to reproduction than fast-growing conspecifics. The differences in THg concentration among individual Arctic charr were best explained by fish age. We suggest that the increase in mercury concentration with age can be altered by a shift in diet (e.g., to piscivory) or habitat (e.g., anadromy), but is otherwise unaffected by changes in size or length-at-age. -- Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in Arctic charr from a single lake in the Canadian high Arctic. ► Anadromous Arctic charr had a significantly lower mean [THg] (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous fish (117 μg/kg ww). ► Length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) was not related to mean [THg] when same-age groups were compared. ► Prey resource use, determined by δ13C and δ15N isotopes and gut contents, was similar among fast- and slow-growing fish. ► Maturity state was not related to [THg], but the slow-growing group

  3. Reproductive behaviour and sex trait allocations in an external fertilizer – the Charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Figenschou, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This thesis illuminates several aspects of mate choice and sexual selection in a species with external fertilization and no parental care. At a general level we have contributed to the basic framework within evolutionary biology and ecology and at a more specific level, as the proximate mechanisms controlling the associations between immune response, parasite intensities and traits indicative of sperm quality are not straightforward, we examined the effect of increased immunological activity ...

  4. Water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems (ras) for arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus L.) culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Isla Molleda , M.

    2008-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish culture have been used for more than three decades. The interest in RAS is due to their have advantages such as greatly reduced land and water requirements in places where the water resources are limited; but the RAS have also disadvantages like the deterioration of the water quality if the water treatment processes within the system are not controlled properly. The water quality problems in RAS were associated with low DO and high fish waste m...

  5. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements. PMID:19603412

  6. Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 loci in sympatric Salvelinus alpinus resource morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina H Kapralova

    Full Text Available Northern freshwater fish may be suitable for the genetic dissection of ecological traits because they invaded new habitats after the last ice age (∼10.000 years ago. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus colonizing streams and lakes in Iceland gave rise to multiple populations of small benthic morphotypes, often in sympatry with a pelagic morphotype. Earlier studies have revealed significant, but subtle, genetic differentiation between the three most common morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. We conducted a population genetic screen on four immunological candidate genes Cathelicidin 2 (Cath2, Hepcidin (Hamp, Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2a (Leap-2a, and Major Histocompatibility Complex IIα (MHCIIα and a mitochondrial marker (D-loop among the three most common Lake Thingvallavatn charr morphs. Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between morphs at the Cath2 and MHCIIα loci. No such signal was detected in the D-loop nor in the other two immunological genes. In Cath2 the small benthic morph deviated from the other two (FST  = 0.13, one of the substitutions detected constituting an amino acid replacement polymorphism in the antimicrobial peptide. A more striking difference was found in the MHCIIα. Two haplotypes were very common in the lake, and their frequency differed greatly between the morphotypes (from 22% to 93.5%, FST  = 0.67. We then expanded our study by surveying the variation in Cath2 and MHCIIα in 9 Arctic charr populations from around Iceland. The populations varied greatly in terms of allele frequencies at Cath2, but the variation did not correlate with morphotype. At the MHCIIα locus, the variation was nearly identical to the variation in the two benthic morphs of Lake Thingvallavatn. The results are consistent with a scenario where parts of the immune systems have diverged substantially among Arctic charr populations in Iceland, after colonizing the island ∼10.000 years ago.

  7. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  8. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Jr, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  9. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  10. Movement Patterns and Multi-Scale Factors That Influence Exotic Brook Trout And Endemic Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Distribution And Abundance In The Mill Creek Drainage, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Benjamin Keith

    2008-01-01

    Introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are implicated as a primary factor leading to the decline in distribution and abundance of native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, not all introductions are successful, suggesting local conditions influence the success of invasions. Therefore, I sought to determine the multi-scale factor(s) that influence brook trouts’ invasion success of native Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii utah) habitats in Mill Creek, Utah. I...

  11. Distribution of Po-210 and Pb-210 in Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an Arctic freshwater lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is little information available with regard to the accumulation of Po-210 and Pb-210 by freshwater fish in natural freshwater systems despite the potential for relevant ingestion doses to man. This is maybe of particular pertinence for certain population groups where freshwater fish are an important dietary food item. Equally, it is important to understand the body distributions of these naturally occurring radionuclides to quantify the resulting doses to different tissues and organs of freshwater fish. With regard to the latter, it is important to consider not only the doses arising from bio-accumulated Po-210 and Pb-210 in various body compartments but additionally the internal dose from unabsorbed Po-210 and Pb-210 in the digestive tract. In this study, activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 were determined in muscle and various internal organs of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled from a lake in the Norwegian Arctic (69 deg. 4' N, 19 deg. 20' E). Observed activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 in different tissues will be discussed in relation to physiological parameters and ambient lake water activity concentrations. Results from this study will be compared to two similar studies conducted in freshwater systems where elevated activity concentrations of these radionuclides have been observed. Ingestion dose rates to man and effective absorbed dose rates to different tissues and organs of Arctic Charr from Po-210 and Pb-210 will be derived and compared to those from observed activity concentrations of the anthropogenic radionuclide Cs-137. (authors)

  12. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    OpenAIRE

    Cucherousset, Julien; Aymes, J.-C.; Poulet, Nicolas; Santoul, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temp...

  13. An Evaluation of the Relative Performance of Diploid Versus Triploid Brook Trout with Consideration of the Influence of Lake Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Triploid (sterile) trout potentially offer a more risk-averse option for stocking popular non-native sport fish; however the relative performance (e.g., survival and growth) of triploid versus diploid fish in natural settings is not well understood. I evaluated the relative performance of triploid versus diploid brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) stocked in high mountain Uinta lakes in response to food availability and lake morphology. I chose a set of 9 lakes that included a range of elevat...

  14. Domestic feed sources to farmed Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). An investigation of nutritional implications and impact on the ecological footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Muminović, Muhamed

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of recapturing nutrients from Baltic Sea through mussel farming and producing mussel meal, detoxification of polluted fish into purified high quality fish meal and oil and introducing microorganisms as waste consumers as well as good protein sources for fish diets. Work on this study is focused on comparing growth performance of test diet, which has been made strictly of domestic (Baltic Sea) protein sources to commercial diet. Also, the study backs up the idea...

  15. Environmental contaminants in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Cove Brook and two tributaries of the Sheepscot River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a federally-listed endangered species with a Distinct Population Segment (DPS) designated in Maine. In July 2006, thirty-six...

  16. Distribution of Po-210 and Pb-210 in Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an Arctic freshwater lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynn, J.P.; Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    There is little information available with regard to the accumulation of Po-210 and Pb-210 by freshwater fish in natural freshwater systems despite the potential for relevant ingestion doses to man. This is maybe of particular pertinence for certain population groups where freshwater fish are an important dietary food item. Equally, it is important to understand the body distributions of these naturally occurring radionuclides to quantify the resulting doses to different tissues and organs of freshwater fish. With regard to the latter, it is important to consider not only the doses arising from bio-accumulated Po-210 and Pb-210 in various body compartments but additionally the internal dose from unabsorbed Po-210 and Pb-210 in the digestive tract. In this study, activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 were determined in muscle and various internal organs of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled from a lake in the Norwegian Arctic (69 deg. 4' N, 19 deg. 20' E). Observed activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 in different tissues will be discussed in relation to physiological parameters and ambient lake water activity concentrations. Results from this study will be compared to two similar studies conducted in freshwater systems where elevated activity concentrations of these radionuclides have been observed. Ingestion dose rates to man and effective absorbed dose rates to different tissues and organs of Arctic Charr from Po-210 and Pb-210 will be derived and compared to those from observed activity concentrations of the anthropogenic radionuclide Cs-137. (authors)

  17. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, Leanne; Östman, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta) and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis), from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ånn. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H'T = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, AR = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (GIS = 0.144) and brook charr (GIS = 0.129) although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species. PMID:27032100

  19. Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Faulks

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ånn. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H'T = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, AR = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (GIS = 0.144 and brook charr (GIS = 0.129 although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, Leanne; Östman, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta) and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis), from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ånn. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H’T = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, AR = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (GIS = 0.144) and brook charr (GIS = 0.129) although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species. PMID:27032100

  1. Heritability of morphology in brook trout with variable life histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Varian

    Full Text Available Distinct morphological variation is often associated with variation in life histories within and among populations of both plants and animals. In this study, we examined the heritability of morphology in three hatchery strains of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, which were historically or are currently used for stocking and supplementation of both migratory and resident ecotypes in the upper Great Lakes region. In a common garden experiment, significant variation in body morphology was observed within and across populations sampled at three time periods. The most notable differences among strains were differences in dorso-ventral body depth and the shape of the caudal peduncle, with some differences in the anterior-posterior placement of the dorsal and ventral fins. Variation with and among 70 half-sib families indicates that heritabilities of morphology and body size were significant at most developmental time points both within and across strains. Heritabilities for morphological characters within strains ranged from 0 to 0.95 across time points. Significant within-strain heritabilities for length ranged from 0 to 0.93 across time points and for weight ranged from 0 to 0.88. Significant additive genetic variation exists within and across hatchery brook trout strains for morphology and size, indicating that these traits are capable of responding to natural or artificial selection.

  2. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  3. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  4. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  5. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber; Jason Detar; John A. Sweka

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  6. A genetic basis for the phenotypic differentiation between siscowet and lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Study Type Sample Organism Sequencing Platform Other Salvelinus namaycush 454 GS FLX Article Sum ... he phenotypic differentiation between siscowet and lean ... lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Goetz Frederick ... ncipal forms of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): lean , siscowet and humper. Wild lean ... and siscowet diffe ...

  7. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  8. Synchronizace ovulace jikernaček sivena amerického a pstruha duhového

    OpenAIRE

    JANKOVÝCH, Antonín

    2012-01-01

    The effect of GnRH analogue on synchronizing ovulation in the female brook charr and rainbow trout was assessed in 3 experiments (2010- brook charr, 2011-brook charr+rainbow trout). Prior to the onset of the spawning season females of brook charr and rainbow trout were hormonaly stimulated.

  9. A comparative study on water column and bottom feeding habit of tank reared brook trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed consumption growth rate and feed conversion were compared for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) feeding in the water column or at the tank bottom. The trial that lasted 120 days was conducted in four 300 L fibreglass tanks with two replicates of fish (mean weight of 45.9 g) in each feeding treatment. Fish fed in the water column exhibited a mean (SD) specific growth rate(SGR) of 0.93 and reached a final mean weight of 138.9 (28.9) g whereas bottom fed fish had a mean SGR of 0.91 and 135.7 (39.2) g body weight. Overall feed conversion ratios (FCR) and condition factors (CF) were assessed as 1.73, 1.22 for the water column and 1.71, 1.25 bottom fed fish. None of these variables showed statistically significant difference between the treatments. thus, it seems that brook trout may feed both in water column and at bottom in tank culture conditions and this habit could be utilised for reducing feed waste in intensive commercial trout culture

  10. 患病北极红点鲑的病原分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Causative Agents of Sick Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秀杰; 刘荭; 高隆英; 何俊强; 江育林

    2007-01-01

    对2004年5月四川省某养殖基地养殖的北极红点鲑患病鲑进行了病理学检查和病原分离,从病灶处分离到细菌和真菌.分离到的细菌经API生化鉴定为杀鲑气单胞菌杀鲑亚种(Aeromonas salmonicida subsp.salmonicida).用引物AP1和AP2对纯化后的细菌进行PCR扩增,结果扩增出长度为421 bp的DNA片段,对扩增片段进行克隆、测序,用NCBI-BLASTn在GenBank中搜寻相似序列,结果与杀鲑气单胞菌各株A层蛋白部分编码基因有99%以上的序列同源性.用引物EUS-F和EUS-R对分离到的真菌进行PCR扩增,结果扩增出长度为755 bp的DNA片段,对扩增片段进行克隆、测序,用NCBI-BLASTn在GenBank中搜寻相似序列,结果与水霉属各株的DNA片段(包括18S核糖体RNA基因部分序列、内转录间隔区1全序列、5.8S核糖体RNA基因全序列、内转录间隔区2全序列和28S核糖体RNA部分序列)有93%~100%的同源性;而与属于丝囊霉菌属的EUS各株相对应的DNA片段仅有60%的序列同源性.因此判定所分离的真菌为水霉.杀鲑气单胞菌是引起疖疮病和溃疡病等病的病原菌,而水霉广泛存在于水中,当鱼受伤后,水霉孢子容易从患病部位侵入鱼体,加重感染.因此判断该病主要是由杀鲑气单胞菌引起,而水霉则引起继发感染.

  11. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  12. Katherine Brooke'ist / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika teleseriaali "Vaprad ja ilusad" ("The Bold and the Beautiful") osatäitja Katherine Kelly Lang (Brooke). Artikli aluseks on Soap Opera Weekly ajakirjaniku Linda Susmani vestlus näitlejannaga

  13. A Vegetation Survey of Trout Brook Flowage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trout Brook structure was started in 1963 under the Accelerated Public Works Program and finished in the summer of 1965. There is a 200 foot earthdike, a metal...

  14. Effective number of breeders, effective population size and their relationship with census size in an iteroparous species, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzante, Daniel E; McCracken, Gregory R; Parmelee, Samantha; Hill, Kristen; Corrigan, Amelia; MacMillan, John; Walde, Sandra J

    2016-01-27

    The relationship between the effective number of breeders (Nb) and the generational effective size (Ne) has rarely been examined empirically in species with overlapping generations and iteroparity. Based on a suite of 11 microsatellite markers, we examine the relationship between Nb, Ne and census population size (Nc) in 14 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations inhabiting 12 small streams in Nova Scotia and sampled at least twice between 2009 and 2015. Unbiased estimates of Nb obtained with individuals of a single cohort, adjusted on the basis of age at first maturation (α) and adult lifespan (AL), were from 1.66 to 0.24 times the average estimates of Ne obtained with random samples of individuals of mixed ages (i.e. [Formula: see text]). In turn, these differences led to adjusted Ne estimates that were from nearly five to 0.7 times the estimates derived from mixed-aged individuals. These differences translate into the same range of variation in the ratio of effective to census population size [Formula: see text] within populations. Adopting [Formula: see text] as the more precise and unbiased estimates, we found that these brook trout populations differ markedly in their effective to census population sizes (range approx. 0.3 to approx. 0.01). Using AgeNe, we then showed that the variance in reproductive success or reproductive skew varied among populations by a factor of 40, from Vk/k ≈ 5 to 200. These results suggest wide differences in population dynamics, probably resulting from differences in productivity affecting the intensity of competition for access to mates or redds, and thus reproductive skew. Understanding the relationship between Ne, Nb and Nc, and how these relate to population dynamics and fluctuations in population size, are important for the design of robust conservation strategies in small populations with overlapping generations and iteroparity. PMID:26817773

  15. Reframing Romaine Brooks' heroic queer modernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Cassandra L

    2010-01-01

    Modernism was not a wholesale embracing of Greenberg's definition as abstracting, non-objective, and autonomous. The expatriate U.S. artist and lesbian Romaine Brooks politicized her portraits of females based on a queer combination of the Byronic erotic and Baudelaire's modern dandy. Her execution of her queer modernist aesthetics re-presents female heroes as part of a self-reflective dynamic of lesbian modernity that emphasizes the ambiguity of normative gender binaries and plays with style, personality, and impersonation as disrupting to bourgeoisie mores. My focus is on how Brooks shatters normative conventions of portraiture in her revolutionary critique of heteronormativity. PMID:20408008

  16. Changes in seasonal climate outpace compensatory density-dependence in eastern brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassar, Ronald D.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how multiple extrinsic (density-independent) factors and intrinsic (density-dependent) mechanisms influence population dynamics has become increasingly urgent in the face of rapidly changing climates. It is particularly unclear how multiple extrinsic factors with contrasting effects among seasons are related to declines in population numbers and changes in mean body size and whether there is a strong role for density-dependence. The primary goal of this study was to identify the roles of seasonal variation in climate driven environmental direct effects (mean stream flow and temperature) versus density-dependence on population size and mean body size in eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We use data from a 10-year capture-mark-recapture study of eastern brook trout in four streams in Western Massachusetts, USA to parameterize a discrete-time population projection model. The model integrates matrix modeling techniques used to characterize discrete population structures (age, habitat type and season) with integral projection models (IPMs) that characterize demographic rates as continuous functions of organismal traits (in this case body size). Using both stochastic and deterministic analyses we show that decreases in population size are due to changes in stream flow and temperature and that these changes are larger than what can be compensated for through density-dependent responses. We also show that the declines are due mostly to increasing mean stream temperatures decreasing the survival of the youngest age class. In contrast, increases in mean body size over the same period are the result of indirect changes in density with a lesser direct role of climate-driven environmental change.

  17. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halden, N.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  19. Harriet Brooks: Canada's First Woman Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey

    2004-03-01

    During those early halcyon days of the study of radioactivity, one young Canadian woman, Harriet Brooks, joined Ernest Rutherford's group as his first research student. Later, she joined J.J. Thomson's group in Cambridge and, finally, Marie Curie's group in Paris. During her short research career, she made several important contributions to science. She investigated the nature of 'emanation' from radium; discovered that radioactive substances could undergo successive decay; and first reported the recoil of the radioactive atom. Much of this research was published under her name alone though Rutherford made extensive reference to her discoveries in his Bakerian lecture of 1904. Brooks life is of interest not only in what she accomplished, but also in the challenges she faced as a pioneering woman scientist in the early part of the twentieth century. In the presentation we will blend the account of her life and work with the societal context. This work was accomplished jointly with Marelene F. Rayner-Canham.

  20. Intelligence without Robots: A Reply to Brooks

    OpenAIRE

    Etzioni, Oren

    1993-01-01

    In his recent papers, entitled Intelligence without Representation and Intelligence without Reason, Brooks argues for mobile robots as the foundation of AI research. This article argues that even if we seek to investigate complete agents in real-world environments, robotics is neither necessary nor sufficient as a basis for AI research. The article proposes real-world software environments, such as operating systems or databases, as a complementary substrate for intelligent-agent research and...

  1. Expression of miR-199a, lum and ets2 in benthic and pelagic Arctic charr morphs at developmental stage 200τ

    OpenAIRE

    Ligthart, Kate, 1992-

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs play an important role in development by regulating gene expression. They are recruited to RISC complexes, which bind to target mRNAs. This interaction causes silencing of the target mRNAs by repressing translation or by initiating degradation. In lake Þingvallavatn there are four morphs of Arctic charr that are very different in morphology and their feeding apparatus. The different morphs of Arctic charr have different levels of miRNA gene expression during their embryonic development...

  2. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Stochastic life history modeling for managing regional-scale freshwater fisheries: an experimental study of brook trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Blair K; Cote, David; Fleming, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    Environmental heterogeneity can combine with evolutionary responses to create very dynamic and often locally independent populations across a landscape. Such complexity creates difficulties for managers trying to conserve populations across large areas. This study develops, applies, and tests the use of stochastic life history modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to assess management scenarios related to the realities of regional fisheries management and conservation. We apply this approach to the management of recreational brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fishing; an activity that can severely impact species balance, abundance, and the size structure of fish communities. Specifically, the model incorporates population-specific life-history information (e.g., growth rate, reproductive effort, and survival) to allow forecasts of the impact of various management strategies and/or changes to environmental conditions on a population's ecological characteristics (e.g., size structure, abundance, and probability of persistence). Sampling was carried out in 16 water bodies spread across four sites in Atlantic Canada. Each water body was sampled in 2005 and reassessed in 2008. This sampling had two primary objectives: (1) define a significant proportion of life-history variation of brook trout in Atlantic Canada, and (2) to test the precision and accuracy of model predictions of population responses to experimental exploitation and management changes. The model successfully predicted population responses to changes in adult survival in 12 of 13 populations having sufficient data for validation testing, while also proving to be a useful tool when engaging stakeholders regarding management options and their associated risk. We suggest that such models are cost-effective and have great potential for informing proactive management of jurisdictions with numerous and diverse populations. PMID:27411259

  4. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Kieth H; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  5. Metallothionein in brook trout (Salvenlinus fontinalis) as a biological indicator of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cadmium-saturation technique for quantifying metallothionein in mammalian tissues was evaluated for use in fish tissue. Metallothionein characteristically binds 7 gram-atoms of a metal such as cadmium per mole of protein so saturating MT with respect to one metal and then quantifying that metal would thus result in the indirect quantification of MT. The authors administered 3 mg 109cadmium/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection over a 5-day period to adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to induce MT in liver and kidney tissues. Homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatant was used to quantitate cadmium in three fractions: 100,000 g supernatant, cadmium-saturated MT, and unsaturated MT. The cadmium-saturated MT method involved the following steps: saturation of MT in an aliquot of 100,000 g supernatant with excess cadmium; removal of excess cadmium by addition of 2% hemoglobin; denaturation of hemoglobin by heating at 1000C followed by rapid cooling on ice; centrifugation at 10,000 g; digestion of an aliquot of supernatant in concentrated nitric acid for 16 hours at 700C, and quantification of cadmium by atomic absorption and graphite furnace techniques or radiometric measurement with a scintillation counter. The cadmium saturation technique was modified in two ways so the amount of cadmium bound to unsaturated MT could be measured; first, the binding sites on MT were not saturated with excess cadmium, and second, the concentration of hemoglobin added to remove free cadmium and aid in coagulating low-molecular-weight proteins was 1% instead of 2%. The method gave precise measurements of MT concentrations when aliquots of liver homogenate which were analyzed separately were quantified by atomic absorption or radiometric measurements. Two to four times more cadmium and MT concentrated in the liver of treated fish than in the kidney

  6. Maintenance of phenotypic variation: Repeatability, heritability and size-dependent processes in a wild brook trout population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B.H.; Coombs, J.A.; Nislow, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in body size can result from within-cohort variation in birth dates, among-individual growth variation and size-selective processes. We explore the relative effects of these processes on the maintenance of wide observed body size variation in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Based on the analyses of multiple recaptures of individual fish, it appears that size distributions are largely determined by the maintenance of early size variation. We found no evidence for size-dependent compensatory growth (which would reduce size variation) and found no indication that size-dependent survival substantially influenced body size distributions. Depensatory growth (faster growth by larger individuals) reinforced early size variation, but was relatively strong only during the first sampling interval (age-0, fall). Maternal decisions on the timing and location of spawning could have a major influence on early, and as our results suggest, later (>age-0) size distributions. If this is the case, our estimates of heritability of body size (body length=0.25) will be dominated by processes that generate and maintain early size differences. As a result, evolutionary responses to environmental change that are mediated by body size may be largely expressed via changes in the timing and location of reproduction. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  8. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout...

  9. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring - Phase 2 in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — In 2000, Foote Brook was identified as a high priority site for restoration after the extensive countywide stream stability study, Stream Stability Assessment of...

  10. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  11. Techniques for Functional Testing of Factors Associated with Arctic charr Polymorphism: phenotypic analysis in zebrafish and in vitro assays in cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Freya Mae, 1996-

    2016-01-01

    Trophic morphology in Teleosts, including the jaw and pharyngeal arches, determines feeding type and performance. Polymorphism in trophic morphology facilitates niche partitioning and the coexistence of morphs within ecosystems. In Lake Thingvallavatn, Iceland, Arctic charr displays four morphs, two benthic; small (SB) and large (LB), and two pelagic; piscivorous (PI) and planktivorous (PL). These ecomorphs show disparity in behaviour, morphology and feeding type, as well as variation in gene...

  12. Effects of roads on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally threatened species

    OpenAIRE

    Teachout, Emily; Quan, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Bull trout are apex predators requiring a large prey base and a large home range, and are known to move throughout and between basins in search of prey. However, bull trout are dependent upon very cold, clean waters for spawning (below 9 degrees Celsius) and are typically characterized as spawning in the upper-most reaches of watersheds. Bull trout have four life history forms: resident...

  13. Clarification to Brook and Willoughby (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups" by Christina A. Brook and Teena Willoughby (Developmental Psychology, 2016[May], Vol 52[5], 835-845). In the article, Figures 1 and 2 and Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 were inadvertently designated as supplemental material. The figures and tables are present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-13161-001.) University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the

  14. The Fountain of Living Water and the Deceitful Brook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2005-01-01

    decitful brook, like waters that fail." Moreover, it is part of an intertextual network of water metaphors in other Old Testament books like Job and Psalms. The use of water imagery in the Book of Jeremiah points to a textinternal discussion which emphasizes the necessity of recognizing different...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the white char Salvelinus albus (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Parensky, Valery A; Kovalev, Mikhail Yu; Ayala, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced in two individuals of white char Salvelinus albus. The genome sequences are 16 653 bp in size, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the salmonid fish genomes published previously. The low level of sequence divergence detected between the genome of S. albus and the GenBank complete mitochondrial genomes of the Northern Dolly Varden char S. malma (KJ746618) and the Arctic char S. alpinus (AF154851) may likely be due to recent divergence of the species and/or historical hybridization and interspecific replacement of mtDNA. PMID:26358825

  16. Embryonic developmental progression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Walbaum, 1792) and its relation to lake temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Glenn K.; Adams, Jean V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental progression of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) embryos was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. From this examination, key developmental stages were described in detail. The key developmental stages were then applied to individual lake trout egg lots incubated in constant temperatures of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10°C. We used Belehradek's, Thermodynamic, and Power models, and also developed the Zero model to determine stage specific developmental rates of lake trout eggs for each background temperature. From the models, hatch dates and staging were predicted for temperature regimes from Lake Superior (1990–91) and Lake Huron (1996–97). Based on the existing lake temperature data and the observed spawning dates, the Zero and the Power models predict that post peak spawning may contribute significantly to overall recruitment success for these years.

  17. K-Ar geochronology of the southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southern Brooks Range schist belt is characterized by metasediments with subordinate metabasites and metafelsites. Blueschists occur within the schist belt from the Chandalar Quadrangle westward to the Baird Mountains Quadrangle. We report 76 new 40K-40Ar mineral ages from 47 metamorphic and igneous rocks in the southwestern Brooks Range. The pattern of radiometric ages provide evidence that the schist belt has, at least in part, undergone a Late Precambrian blueschist facies metamorphism. Silurian to Devonian carbonates and Middle Devonian felsic volcanics were later deposited on this Precambrian basement. Subsequent deformations produced the present pattern of isoclinal, recumbent folds, resulting in the interlayering of rocks of markedly different ages and lithologies. The entire schist terrane was metamorphosed to greenchist facies in Mesozoic time, probably as a result of Jurassic-Cretaceous northward overthrusting of oceanic crust and upper mantle, resulting in the resetting of most K-Ar mica ages to the mid-Cretaceous. A series of apparent 40K-40Ar ages intermediate between Late Precambrian and mid-Cretaceous are interpreted as indicating varying amounts of partial argon loss from older rocks during the Mesozoic metamorphism. Some glaucophanes contain excess radiogenic 40Ar. (auth)

  18. Effects of the introduction of Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) on the Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) population in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Søyland, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the number and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting on Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, has been declining. The main hypothesis is that the decline in nesting ospreys is due to the introduction of the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), which is believed to have reduced the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) population in Yellowstone Lake substantially. The lake trout inhabit deeper water range than the cutthroat and is theref...

  19. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  20. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  1. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species. PMID:11878477

  2. Dwarf char, a new form of chars (the genus Salvelinus) in Lake Kronotskoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, S.D.; Pivovarov, E.A.; Ostberg, C.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Kronotskoe is situated in the Kronotskii State Nature Reserve and is a unique natural heritage of Kamchatka. The lake–river system of the reserve includes numerous springs and small streams and three large inflowing rivers, Listvennichnaya, Unana, and Uzon, which form the main bays of Lake Kronotskoe; one river (Kronotskaya) flows from the lake. This river is characterized by several rapids, which are assumed to be unsurmountable barriers for fish migration. The ichthyofauna of the lake has been isolated for a long time, and some endemic fishes appeared, including char of the genus Salvelinus and the residential form of red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (the local name is kokanee). These species are perfect model objects to study microevolution processes. Char of Lake Kronotskoe are characterized by significant polymorphism and plasticity [1–3]; therefore, they are extremely valuable for studying the processes of speciation and form development. That is why the populations of char in Lake Kronotskoe are unique and attract special attention of researchers. 

  3. The Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration Project (2001) and Post Monitoring Project (2002)--Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of rainbow, brown,...

  4. Post Monitoring (2003) of the Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration Project--Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of rainbow, brown,...

  5. Environmental contaminants in fish from Mere Brook - U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mere Brook bisects three former landfills at the U.S. Naval Air Station in Brunswick, Maine (NASB). Leachate, soil, and sediment analyzed during Superfund remedial...

  6. Olemuse teater. Kantor ja Brook / Jan Kott ; tõlk. Eva-Liisa Linder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kott, Jan

    2004-01-01

    T. Kantori lavastustest "Surnud klass" ja "Wielopole Wielopole" ning P. Brooki "Carmeni" lavastusest. Tõlgitud raamatust : Jan Kott. The Theatre of Essence: Kantor and Brook.- The Theatre of Essence and other Essays. Evanston, Northwestern University Press, 1984, lk. 159-165

  7. Arctic valley: A report on the 1956 Murie Brooks Range, Alaska Expedition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the report on the 1956 Murie Brooks Range expedition. Topics covered include the physiogeography, geology, climate, vegetation, mammals, birds,...

  8. Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2012-12-01

    Stony Brook University offers an unusual series of short courses to help science graduate students learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including the public, public officials, potential funders and employers, students, the press, and colleagues in other fields. The courses include six 1-credit (14-hour) modules in oral and written communication that rely on practice and interactive feedback. More than 120 master's and PhD students, from more than 16 departments, have taken at least one of the courses since spring 2011. Most students who try one module end up taking two or three. An additional course for medical and nursing students was added in fall 2012. The courses are offered in the School of Journalism and were developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). CCS was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. The Communicating Science courses have received strong institutional support and enthusiastic reviews. They are required by two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. Two successive Provosts have subsidized course costs for PhD students, and Graduate School leaders are working to establish a steady funding stream to allow expansion of the program. Our aspiration at CCS is for every science graduate student to receive some training in communicating about science to the public. Several factors have helped in establishing the program: --CCS' multidisciplinary nature helped build support, with participation by faculty from across the campus, including not only the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, but journalism, theatre arts, and the Writing Program, as well as nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. --Before offering courses, CCS conducted all-day workshops and high

  9. The role of groundwater in the effect of climatic warming on stream habitat of brook trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater fisheries are linked to climate through the variables of water temperature, water quality and water quantity. These three ecosystem linkages provide a basis for assessments of potential impacts of climate change on fisheries resources. A characteristic of fisheries resources, whether it be the size or distribution of fish populations, or a measure of yield, which can be related to climate through one or more of these linkages, is a useful tool with which to forecast the effects of climate change. A stream population of brook trout is a coldwater fisheries resource that is linked to climate by groundwater. Stream dwelling brook trout at low altitudes rely heavily on groundwater discharge in summer to maintain low stream temperature. Groundwater temperature tracks mean annual air temperature due to the insulative effect of the lower troposphere on the surface of the earth. The effect of elevated groundwater temperature on the stream habitat of brook trout was investigated in two brook trout streams north of Toronto, Ontario, with an energy balance stream temperature model, calibrated to both streams to simulate maximum water temperature observed in the brook trout zones. Simulated maximum summer temperatures from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies scenario reduced the brook trout zones by up to 42%. 17 refs., 2 figs

  10. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2012-12-01

    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  11. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.A. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  12. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  13. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of acidic lake water on survival of aurora trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) embryos and alevins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snucins, E.J.; Liimatainen, V.A.; Gale, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1960s the aurora trout, a rare color variant of the brook trout, disappeared from its native waters in northeastern Ontario. Its disappearance was attributed to acidification of the waters by atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions from metal smelters at Sudbury, Ontario. Recently, water quality in the Sudbury area has improved due to emission reductions. These experiments were designed to assess the toxicity of current water quality in the native lakes of aurora trout. During May 1984, hatchery-reared aurora trout alevins were held for 4 days in 3 of their native lakes (Whiligig, Whitepine and Wilderness with pH 4.5-4.8) and a control lake, Regan Lake (pH 6.5), and survival rates were assessed. In a second bioassay, embryos and alevins were buried in the substrate at 3 groundwater upwelling sites, and survival rates were assessed. The final test involved a 14-day exposure of groundwater-reared fish to ambient conditions.

  15. LopheliaII2012: Coral Research on Oil Rigs in the Gulf of Mexico on TDI-Brooks Vessel Brooks McCall between 2012-07-12 and 2012-07-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The final year of a multi-year effort to study Lophelia coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico is occurring on the TDI-Brooks research vessel, Brooks McCall,...

  16. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century. PMID:26013644

  17. Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary and Results for the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Sandusky OH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (later known as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities. After successfully completing the objective of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth, NASA was faced with budget reductions from Congress in 1973. These budgetary constraints caused NASA to cease operations at several research facilities across the country, including those at Plum Brook Station. The major test facilities at Plum Brook were maintained in a standby mode, capable of being reactivated for future use. The Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) was shut down January 5, 1973 and all of the nuclear fuel was eventually removed and shipped off site to a U.S. Department of Energy facility in Idaho for disposal or reuse. Decommissioning activities are currently underway at the PBRF (NASA 1999). The objectives of the confirmatory survey activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and final status survey (FSS) results

  18. Stratigraphy of Endicott Mountains and Picnic Creek allochthons, Killik River and Chandler Lake Quadrangles, North-Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mull, C.G.; Adams, K.E.; Bodnar, D.A.; Siok, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Geologic mapping in the Killik River and Chandler Lake quadrangles has delineated rocks of at least three of the major allochthons found in the De Long Mountains of the western Brooks Range: the Brooks Range (Endicott Mountains), Picnic Creek, and Copter Peak allochthons. Rocks characteristic of parts of the tpnavik River and Nuka Ridge allochthons are also present.

  19. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... increase its use of renewable energy sources on the NASA-owned land at Plum Brook Station, which will... energy at Plum Brook Station had the greatest potential of generating large amounts of renewable energy... Transportation Management), requiring 7.5% of all electrical energy used agencywide to come from renewable...

  20. Temperature, pressure and light data collected by attached Archival Transmitting Tags to Salvelinus malma (Dolly Varden trout) in the Wulik River, Alaska, during 2012-06 to 2013-10 (NODC Accession 0119954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data collected by electronic tags (Pop-up Satellite Archival Transmitting) attached to Salvelinus malma (Dolly Varden trout) in the Wulik...

  1. Essences, Unifyings, and Black Militancy: Major Themes in Gwendolyn Brooks's "Family Pictures" and "Beckonings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates that midway through the decade of the 1970s, Gwendolyn Brooks continues to be inspired by the same subjects; militancy and communal unity, the celebration of blackness, black heroes, love, religion, and the role of the poet, were the burden of her poems in earlier periods. (MB)

  2. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  3. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  4. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  5. The evolution of the science of Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Kahl, J. S.; Rustad, L. E.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Almquist, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 3-21. ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * acidification * stream * soil * nitrogen * sulfur * phosphorus * base cations Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2010

  6. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  8. Arctic char - friend or foe?: Climate driven seasonal variation in competitive impact of Arcticchar (Salvelinus alpinus L) on brown trout (Salmo truttaence L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvan, Eva Marita

    2010-01-01

    Here I test for climate driven seasonal effects on competition in lakes using brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) as model organisms. Winter and summer brown trout consumption rates were estimated by 1374 Cs tracer methodology using brown trout sampled in  allopatric (brown trout) and 10 sympatric (brown trout/Arctic char) lakes, located along an altitudinal gradient in central Scandinavia. Lake catchment area  vegetation properties ranged from southern borea...

  9. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  10. The effect of urban runoff on the water quality of the Sweetbriar Brook, Ampthill, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Krafft, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Sweetbriar Brook, a small watercourse in Ampthill, Bedfordshire, in a mainly residential catchment, was studied. The scope was to characterise the water quality during low flow conditions and storms, by chemical analyses of dissolved oxygen, turbidity, metals, nutrients, oil and thermotolerant coliform bacteria, among others. A baseline series of analyses from five sampling points along the stream was undertaken during spring-summer 2005. One storm was sampled in short time intervals at t...

  11. X-linked mental retardation syndrome: Three brothers with the Brooks-Wisniewski-Brown syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morava, E.; Storcz, J.; Kosztolanyi, G. [Univ. Medical School, Pecs (Hungary)

    1996-07-12

    We report on 3 brothers with growth and mental retardation, bifrontal narrowness, short palpebral fissures, deeply set eyes with entropion, wide bulbous nose, small mouth, myopia, and spastic diplegia. The patients were born to normal and non-consanguineous parents. The similarity of our cases with those recently reported by Brooks et al. supports their suggestion that these patients are representative of a distinct entity. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Amoxicillin pulsatile - MiddleBrook: APC 111, APC-111, PULSYS-enhanced amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals (formerly Advancis Pharmaceutical) is developing an improved version of amoxicillin using its pulsatile oral drug delivery technology, called PULSYS. Amoxicillin PULSYS is intended to provide a lower treatment dose, once-daily alternative to currently approved amoxicillin and penicillin regimens for the treatment of adolescents/adults with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. If amoxicillin PULSYS is approved, it will be the first and only once-daily amoxicillin therapy approved for use in the US. Regulatory submissions for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis have been made in the US. Amoxicillin PULSYS is in clinical development for the treatment of pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis due to group A streptococcal infections in adolescents/adults as a tablet formulation. MiddleBrook was conducting clinical development of a sprinkle formulation for children. However, this has been put on hold for financial reasons. MiddleBrook is seeking regulatory approval for this product as a 505(b)(2) product, which is one that is not considered to be a completely new product, but is also not a generic product. It is a product with some differences from a previously approved product and clinical data to support such differences are required; however, the basic safety and efficacy studies may have been conducted by other organisations. In June 2007, Advancis Pharmaceutical was renamed as MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MiddleBrook and Par Pharmaceuticals entered a co-promotion agreement for this product in June 2004. Par was to fund future development in exchange for co-exclusive marketing rights and exclusive rights to sell amoxicillin PULSYS. MiddleBrook retained responsibility for the manufacturing programme and also retained all patents and brand names and was responsible for their enforcement. However, this collaboration was subsequently terminated in August 2005 by Par Pharmaceutical. MiddleBrook received the US $4.75 million R&D reimbursement

  13. Subcellular distribution of trace elements and liver histology of landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled along a mercury contamination gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barst, Benjamin D; Rosabal, Maikel; Campbell, Peter G C; Muir, Derek G C; Wang, Xioawa; Köck, Günter; Drevnick, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    We sampled landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from four lakes (Small, 9-Mile, North, Amituk) in the Canadian High Arctic that span a gradient of mercury contamination. Metals (Hg, Se, Tl, and Fe) were measured in char tissues to determine their relationships with health indices (relative condition factor and hepatosomatic index), stable nitrogen isotope ratios, and liver histology. A subcellular partitioning procedure was employed to determine how metals were distributed between potentially sensitive and detoxified compartments of Arctic char livers from a low- and high-mercury lake (Small Lake and Amituk Lake, respectively). Differences in health indices and metal concentrations among char populations were likely related to differences in feeding ecology. Concentrations of Hg, Se, and Tl were highest in the livers of Amituk char, whereas concentrations of Fe were highest in Small and 9-Mile char. At the subcellular level we found that although Amituk char had higher concentrations of Tl in whole liver than Small Lake char, they maintained a greater proportion of this metal in detoxified fractions, suggesting an attempt at detoxification. Mercury was found mainly in potentially sensitive fractions of both Small and Amituk Lake char, indicating that Arctic char are not effectively detoxifying this metal. Histological changes in char livers, mainly in the form of melano-macrophage aggregates and hepatic fibrosis, could be linked to the concentrations and subcellular distributions of essential or non-essential metals. PMID:26986088

  14. Evidence of widespread natural reproduction by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Michigan waters of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; He, J.X.; Johnson, J.E.; O'Brien, T. P.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Localized natural reproduction of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron has occurred since the 1980s near Thunder Bay, Michigan. During 2004–2006, USGS spring and fall bottom trawl surveys captured 63 wild juvenile lake trout at depths ranging from 37–73 m at four of five ports in the Michigan waters of the main basin of Lake Huron, more than five times the total number captured in the previous 30-year history of the surveys. Relatively high catches of wild juvenile lake trout in bottom trawls during 2004–2006 suggest that natural reproduction by lake trout has increased and occurred throughout the Michigan waters of the main basin. Increased catches of wild juvenile lake trout in the USGS fall bottom trawl survey were coincident with a drastic decline in alewife abundance, but data were insufficient to determine what mechanism may be responsible for increased natural reproduction by lake trout. We recommend further monitoring of juvenile lake trout abundance and research into early life history of lake trout in Lake Huron.

  15. Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is not the cause of thiamine deficiency impeding lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Evans, Allison N.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, James L.; Heppell, Scott A.; Riley, Stephen C.; Krueger, Charles C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a global concern affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans. In Great Lakes salmonines, thiamine deficiency causes embryo mortality and is an impediment to restoration of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocks. Thiamine deficiency in fish may result from a diet of prey with high levels of thiaminase I. The discoveries that the bacterial species Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus produces thiaminase I, is found in viscera of thiaminase-containing prey fish, and causes mortality when fed to lake trout in the laboratory provided circumstantial evidence implicating P. thiaminolyticus. This study quantified the contribution of P. thiaminolyticus to the total thiaminase I activity in multiple trophic levels of Great Lakes food webs. Unexpectedly, no relationship between thiaminase activity and either the amount of P. thiaminolyticus thiaminase I protein or the abundance of P. thiaminolyticus cells was found. These results demonstrate that P. thiaminolyticus is not the primary source of thiaminase activity affecting Great Lakes salmonines and calls into question the long-standing assumption that P. thiaminolyticus is the source of thiaminase in other wild and domestic animals.

  16. Micro-PIXE analysis of strontium in Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus, otoliths from Quttinirpaaq National Park, Nunavut, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus, exhibit either lake resident or anadromous (sea-run) life histories. Anadromy is less prevalent at the northern and southern extremes of the distribution. Effective conservation and management of char requires knowledge of life histories exhibited by individuals and populations. Micro-PIXE line-scans were used to determine the distribution of strontium (Sr) in otoliths from which life history patterns were determined for Arctic char from 10 lakes in Quttinirpaaq National Park in the Canadian High Arctic. Although most populations were lake resident as expected, the data indicated that a component of the char population from one lake was anadromous. This represents the most northerly known char population to exhibit anadromy. Mean Sr concentrations in otoliths of char from all populations, as determined by point analysis and also from line-scan data, showed no significant differences between the methods. Mean Sr concentrations (from point analysis) showed significant differences between some of the populations. These differences combined with other analyses (e.g. morphometrics, genetics) can be used to differentiate biological populations. Thus, micro-PIXE analysis is a useful tool for assessing diversity in Arctic char and contributing to their management and conservation in the park

  17. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  18. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  19. Effects of coancestry on accuracy of individual assignments to population of origin: examples using Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinand, Bruno; Scribner, Kim T; Page, Kevin S; Filcek, Kristi; Main, Laura; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K

    2006-05-01

    Methods for assigning individuals to population of origin are widely used in ecological genetics, resources management, and forensics. Characteristics of genetic data obtained from putative source populations that enhance accuracy of assignment are well established. How non-independence within and among unknown individuals to be classified [i.e., gene correlations within individual (inbreeding) and gene correlations among individuals within group (coancestry)] affect assignment accuracy is poorly understood. We used empirical data for six microsatellite loci and offspring from full-sib crosses of hatchery strains of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush; Salmonidae) representing known levels of coancestry (mean theta = 0.006 and 0.06) within families to investigate how gene correlations can affect assignment. Additional simulations were conducted to further investigating the influence of allelic diversity (2, 6 or 10 alleles per locus) and inbreeding (F = 0.00, 0.05, and 0.15) on assignment accuracy for cases of low and high inter-population variance in allele frequency (mean F (st) = 0.01 and 0.1, respectively). Inbreeding had no effect on accuracy of assignments. In contrast, variance in assignment accuracy across replicated simulations, and for each empirical case study increased with increasing coancestry, reflecting non-independence of probabilities of correct assignment among members of kin groups. Empirical estimates of assignment error rates should be interpreted with caution if appreciable levels of coancestry are suspected. Additional emphasis should be placed on sampling designs (spatially and temporally) that define or minimize the potential for sampling related individuals. PMID:16850237

  20. Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination. PMID:25226430

  1. A dynamic-bioenergetics model to assess depth selection and reproductive growth by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, John M; Blanchfield, Paul J; Abrahams, Mark V

    2014-06-01

    We coupled dynamic optimization and bioenergetics models to assess the assumption that lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) depth distribution is structured by temperature, food availability, and predation risk to maximize reproductive mass by autumn spawning. Because the model uses empirical daily thermal-depth profiles recorded in a small boreal shield lake (lake 373 at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario) during 2 years of contrasting thermal stratification patterns, we also assessed how climate-mediated changes in lakes may affect the vertical distribution, growth, and fitness of lake trout, a cold-water top predator. The depths of acoustic-tagged lake trout were recorded concurrently with thermal-depth profiles and were compared to model output, enabling an assessment of model performance in relation to the observed fish behavior and contrasting thermal conditions. The depths and temperatures occupied by simulated fish most closely resembled those of the tagged fish when risk of predation was included in the model, indicating the model may incorporate the most important underlying mechanisms that determine lake trout depth. Annual differences suggest less use of shallow (warm), productive habitats, resulting in markedly less reproductive mass, during the year with the warm stratification pattern. Mass for reproduction may be lower in warmer conditions because of reduced reproductive investment, yet survival may be inadvertently higher because risky surface waters may be avoided more often in warmer, shallower, and metabolically costly conditions. At a minimum our study suggests that lake trout reproductive mass and fitness may be expected to change under the anticipated longer and warmer stratification patterns. PMID:24682254

  2. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-04-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of nineteen comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semimajor axes between 50 and 150 thousand au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as nearly two-year long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star)-measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star)-measurements, and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for originally used reference stars. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction of orbital elements uncertainties. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion it will be once again a comet from the Oort spike.

  3. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  4. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  5. Two stages of deformation and fluid migration in the central Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Shelton, Kevin L.; Underwood, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a north-directed fold and thrust belt that forms the southern boundary of the North Slope petroleum province in northern Alaska. Field-based studies have long recognized that large-magnitude, thin-skinned folding and thrusting in the Brooks Range occurred during arc-continent collision in the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (Neocomian). Folds and thrusts, however, also deform middle and Upper Cretaceous strata of the Colville foreland basin and thus record a younger phase of deformation that apatite fission-track data have shown to occur primarily during the early Tertiary (~60 and ~45 Ma). A structural and kinematic model that reconciles these observations is critical to understanding the petroleum system of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  6. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Dion

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  7. Comparison of CO2 trapping in highly heterogeneous reservoirs with Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten type capillary pressure curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Dominic, David F; Mehnert, Edward; Okwen, Roland T

    2015-01-01

    Geological heterogeneities essentially affect the dynamics of a CO2 plume in subsurface environments. Previously we showed how the dynamics of a CO2 plume is influenced by the multi-scale stratal architecture in deep saline reservoirs. The results strongly suggest that representing small-scale features is critical to understanding capillary trapping processes. Here we present the result of simulation of CO2 trapping using two different conventional approaches, i.e. Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten, for the capillary pressure curves. We showed that capillary trapping and dissolution rates are very different for the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten approaches when heterogeneity and hysteresis are both represented.

  8. Assessment of ozone effects on nitrate export from Hubbard Brook Watershed 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the air pollution ozone on soil N dynamics and temporal and spatial patterns of streamflow nitrate flux at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Watershed 6 during the 1964-1994 period was assessed using aggregated (one-cell) and spatially explicit (208-cell) versions of the SImple NItrogen Cycle (SINIC) model. Simulated ozone effects included reductions in stomatal conductance and plant N demand. Model uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Ambient ozone was estimated to cause an additional 0.042 gN/m2 per year of nitrate export, 12% of the mean annual streamflow nitrate flux. The 95% credible interval of this estimate was 0.002-0.083 gN/m2 per year, or 0.72-27.3% of the annual flux. The large uncertainty in this estimate suggests that it may be difficult to identify ozone effects on nitrate export utilizing long term data from a single site. - Ambient ozone was estimated to cause an additional 0.042 gN/m2 per year of nitrate to be exported from Hubbard Brook Watershed 6 during 1964-1994

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Korean lamprey (Lethenteron morii) and American brook lamprey (L. appendix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiafei; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zhe; Jia, Liang; Buchinger, Tyler; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of two lampreys with complex taxonomic histories, the Korean lamprey (Lethenteron morii) and the American brook lamprey (L. appendix) were determined. Three-nt length difference between two genomes occurred on tRNA-Ser2 and control region 2. Except for 3 indel sites, there are 58 variable sites between two genomes which occurred on 11 of the 13 protein-coding genes (aside from COX3 and ND3) and 2 of rRNAs, tRNAs, control regions and intergenic regions. Among these sites, 15 sites are non-synonymous substitution sites occurred on 8 protein-coding genes including COX1-COX2, ND1-ND2, ND4-ND6 and ATPase6. Control region 1 contains 4 consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings and a 26-nt repetitive string in control region 2 is repeated 3.8 times in both lampreys. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.62%) implies the Korean lamprey and American brook lamprey are very close relatives and should be assigned into the same taxonomic genus. PMID:25319284

  10. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Królikowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of nineteen comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semimajor axes between 50 and 150 thousand au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as nearly two-year long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star)-measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star)-measurements, and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for originally used reference stars. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction of orbital elements uncertainties. Based on the most preferred orbital s...

  11. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  12. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  13. Liquid effluent discharges to Rivacre Brook, Capenhurst: an evaluation and radiological assessment of some monitoring data on environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the radiological impact of past and current discharges of liquid radioactive effluents to the Rivacre Brook demonstrated that critical group doses are less than 0.001 mSv/a, with contributions from isotopes of uranium, Tc-99 and Np-237. (Author)

  14. The Stories of Nico and Brooke Revisited: Toward a Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2008-01-01

    In "A tale of two cases: Lessons for education from the study of two boys living with half their brains" (M. H. Immordino-Yang, 2007), I showed that Nico (missing his right cerebral hemisphere) and Brooke (missing his left) had compensated for basic neuropsychological skills to previously unexpected degrees and argued that the ways they had…

  15. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  16. Black Autobiography and the Dilemma of Western Artistic Tradition (A Look at Gwen Brooks'"Report From Part One")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Saundra

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the black autobiography as a unique literary genre, highlighting Gwen Brooks'"Report From Part One," as indicative of such an autobiography which goes beyond customary literary traditions in its conception of the artist as an activist. (EH)

  17. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  18. Growth of a Science Center: The Center for Science and Mathematics Education (CESAME) at Stony Brook University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafney, Leo; Bynum, R. David; Sheppard, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the origin and development of CESAME (The Center for Science and Mathematics Education) at Stony Brook University. The analysis identifies key ingredients in areas of personnel, funding, organizational structures, educational priorities, collaboration, and institutionalization. After a discussion of relevant issues in…

  19. Drought-induced stomatal closure probably cannot explain divergent white spruce growth in the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Annalis H; Sullivan, Patrick F; Csank, Adam Z; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Ellison, Sarah B Z

    2016-01-01

    Increment cores from the boreal forest have long been used to reconstruct past climates. However, in recent years, numerous studies have revealed a deterioration of the correlation between temperature and tree growth that is commonly referred to as divergence. In the Brooks Range of northern Alaska, USA, studies of white spruce (Picea glauca) revealed that trees in the west generally showed positive growth trends, while trees in the central and eastern Brooks Range showed mixed and negative trends during late 20th century warming. The growing season climate of the eastern Brooks Range is thought to be drier than the west. On this basis, divergent tree growth in the eastern Brooks Range has been attributed to drought stress. To investigate the hypothesis that drought-induced stomatal closure can explain divergence in the Brooks Range, we synthesized all of the Brooks Range white spruce data available in the International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and collected increment cores from our primary sites in each of four watersheds along a west-to-east gradient near the Arctic treeline. For cores from our sites, we measured ring widths and calculated carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), and needle intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) from δ13C in tree-ring alpha-cellulose. We hypothesized that trees exhibiting divergence would show a corresponding decline in δ13C, a decline in C(i), and a strong increase in iWUE. Consistent with the ITRDB data, trees at our western and central sites generally showed an increase in the strength of the temperature-growth correlation during late 20th century warming, while trees at our eastern site showed strong divergence. Divergent tree growth was not, however, associated with declining δ13C. Meanwhile, estimates of C(i) showed a strong increase at all of our study sites, indicating that more substrate was available for photosynthesis in the early 21st than in the early 20th century. Our

  20. Fungal and mussel protein sources in fish feed

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaković, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Fungal and mussel protein sources in the diet of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their effect on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, intestinal barrier function and post-prandial profiles of plasma amino acids and whole blood parameters were evaluated in this thesis. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, sum of amino acids and gross energy in experiment with Arctic charr decreased with dietary inclusio...

  1. Total mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp, Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in Korean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Eun; Kim, Jung Nyun; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. The short non-coding region (210 bp) between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) may be the good candidate as the molecular marker to discriminate S. leptosequilla from other stomatopods. PMID:26176982

  2. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS: application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Brauer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS is a new parametric (conceptual rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater–surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014. Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on one year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious. Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  3. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  4. Environmental impacts of groundwater extraction at the Drentsche Aa brook valley. Vegetation development and greenhouse gas emission reductions of rewetting measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoetz, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Drentsche Aa brook valley contains various valuable ecosystems and harbours many rare species. Groundwater is extracted in the area to produce drinking water. This affects the local ecosystems by reducing groundwater exfiltration, which can c

  5. Growth, age at metamorphosis, and sex ratio of northern brook lamprey in a tributary of southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Harold A.

    1970-01-01

    Growth was studied of five year classes of the northern brook lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, collected from the Sturgeon River during intervals between treatment of the stream with a lampricide. Growth varied considerably among year classes. Larvae of the 1963 year class were slightly longer at age II and 30% longer at age III than the III-group larvae of the 1960 year class. About 6% of 558 III-group lampreys of the 1963 year class had metamorphosed by 17 August 1966. Although the sex ratio of larvae was about 1:1, 97% of the metamorphosed lampreys were males. The distribution of pigmentation on the caudal fin and upper lip in ammocoetes less than 40 mm long permitted accurate and rapid separation of northern brook lampreys from the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

  6. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  7. Analysis of reinjection problems at the Stony Brook ATES field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supkow, D. J.; Shultz, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is one of several energy storage technologies being investigated by the DOE to determine the feasibility of reducing energy consumption by means of energy management systems. The State University of New York, (SUNY) Stony Brook, Long Island, New York site was selected by Battelle PNL for a Phase 1 investigation to determine the feasibility of an ATES demonstration to seasonally store chill energy by injecting chilled water in the winter and recovering it at a maximum rate of 100 MBTU/hr (30 MW) in the summer. The Phase 1 study was performed during 1981 by Dames & Moore under subcontract to Batelle PLN. The pumping and injection tests were performed using two wells in a doublet configuration. Well PI-1 is a previously existing well and PI-2 was installed specifically for this investigation. Both wells are screened in the Upper Magothy aquifer from approximately 300 to 350 feet below ground surface. Nine observation wells were also installed as a portion of the investigation to monitor water level and aquifer temperature changes during the test.

  8. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  9. Soil chemical and physical properties at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanClements, Michael D; Fernandez, Ivan J; Norton, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Acidic deposition leads to the acidification of waters and accelerated leaching and depletion of soil base cations. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine has used whole-watershed chemical manipulations to study the effects of elevated N and S on forest ecosystem function on a decadal time scale. The objectives of this study were to define the chemical and physical characteristics of soils in both the reference and treated watersheds after 17 years of treatment and assess evidence of change in soil chemistry by comparing soil studies in 1998 and 2006. Results from 1998 confirmed depletion of soil base cation pools and decreased pH due to elevated N and S within the treated watershed. However, between 1998 and 2006, during a period of declining SO4(2-) deposition and continued whole-watershed experimental acidification on the treated watershed, there was little evidence of continued soil exchangeable base cation concentration depletion or recovery. The addition of a pulse of litterfall and accelerating mineralization from a severe ice storm in 1998 may have had significant effects on forest floor nutrient pools and cycling between 1998 and 2006. Our findings suggest that mineralization of additional litter inputs from the ice storm may have obscured temporal trends in soil chemistry. The physical data presented also demonstrate the importance of coarse fragments in the architecture of these soils. This study underscores the importance of long-term, quantitative soil monitoring in determining the trajectories of change in forest soils and ecosystem processes over time. PMID:20559716

  10. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  11. Frozen debris lobe morphology and movement: an overview of eight dynamic features, southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Margaret M.; Gyswyt, Nora L.; Simpson, Jocelyn M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Hubbard, Trent D.

    2016-05-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are elongated, lobate permafrost features that mostly move through shear in zones near their bases. We present a comprehensive overview of eight FDLs within the Dalton Highway corridor (southern Brooks Range, Alaska), including their catchment geology and rock strengths, lobe soil characteristics, surface movement measurements collected between 2012 and 2015, and analysis of historic and modern imagery from 1955 to 2014. Field mapping and rock strength data indicate that the metasedimentary and metavolcanic bedrock forming the majority of the lobe catchments has very low to medium strength and is heavily fractured, thus easily contributing to FDL formation. The eight investigated FDLs consist of platy rocks typical of their catchments, organic debris, and an ice-poor soil matrix; massive ice, however, is present within FDLs as infiltration ice, concentrated within cracks open to the surface. Exposure of infiltration ice in retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) and associated debris flows leads to increased movement and various stages of destabilization, resulting in morphological differences among the lobes. Analysis of historic imagery indicates that movement of the eight investigated FDLs has been asynchronous over the study period, and since 1955, there has been an overall increase in movement rates of the investigated FDLs. The formation of surface features, such as cracks, scarps, and RTSs, suggests that the increased movement rates correlate to general instability, and even at their current distances, FDLs are impacting infrastructure through increased sediment mobilization. FDL-A is the largest of the investigated FDLs. As of August 2015, FDL-A was 39.2 m from the toe of the Dalton Highway embankment. Based on its current distance and rate of movement, we predict that FDL-A will reach the Dalton Highway alignment by 2023.

  12. Streamflow variability and hydroclimatic change at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Suk; Jain, Shaleen; Norton, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal variations in streamflow and the associated hydrologic extremes impart significant temporal structure to watershed-scale chemical fluxes. Consequently, a careful characterization of the episodic-to-seasonal and longer-term streamflow variations is a first step toward developing a comprehensive view of the temporal dynamics of watershed processes in a changing climate. Here we analyze a nearly two-decade-long streamflow record for the East Bear subwatershed within the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) (USA) to understand the envelope of streamflow variability by season, with a particular focus on the high flow events that have a disproportionately large impact on the biogeochemical processes and fluxes. Interannual and longer-term variations in a number of derived statistical metrics of hydrologic variability are examined. Our analysis shows substantial interannual and longer-term variability in seasonal flow volumes and peak flows. Furthermore, a long, unimpaired streamflow record for the Narraguagus River (a proximate watershed to the BBWM) is examined with a view to understand the relative coherence in hydrologic variability, as well as quantifying the decadal and longer-term hydrologic variations in this region. We find that the streamflow variability in the two watersheds shows similarity in all seasons. A moving window analysis to assess the changing flood potential over time indicates upward trends in the recent decades. Spring season (March-May) flood estimates show a near-monotonic trend over the 1949-2008 record. Finally, empirical relationships between streamflow and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns highlight the regional and global climatic drivers of hydrologic extremes in this region, including impacts from remnants of Atlantic hurricanes. PMID:20577798

  13. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  14. Meteoroid stream of 12P/Pons-Brooks, December κ-Draconids, and Northern June Aquilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, D.; Neslušan, L.

    2016-08-01

    Context. It was found that some parent bodies of meteoroid streams can be related to more than one meteor shower observable in the atmosphere of Earth. The orbits of the members of such showers must evolve to the locations, which are far from the orbit of their parent, to cross the orbit of the Earth. An extensive simulation of the stream evolution is necessary to reveal such a complex of showers of the given parent body. Aims: We continue the investigation of the evolution of the theoretical stream originating from the comet 12P/Pons-Brooks to understand its meteor-shower complex in more detail. Methods: We model a theoretical comet stream assuming an ejection of 10 000 particles, representing the meteoroids, from its nucleus in several past perihelion passages. Adding to our previous work, here we also consider the Poynting-Robertson drag in our study of the particles' dynamics. The orbits currently occurring in a vicinity of the Earth's orbit are used to predict the showers associated with comet 12P. Results: Two nighttime and two daytime showers are predicted to originate from 12P. The showers must consist of only relatively large particles, which are influenced to only a small extent by the Poynting-Robertson drag, because in this case, it deflects the particles from the collisional course with the Earth when efficient. The shower predicted to have the most particles is the nighttime shower, which can clearly be identified to the December κ-Draconids, No. 336 in the IAU MDC list. Another predicted nighttime shower has no counterpart in the considered observational data. Some characteristics of this shower are vaguely similar to those of Northern June Aquilids, No. 164. The observed counterparts of two predicted daytime showers were not found in the observational data we used or in the IAU MDC list.

  15. Distinguishing wild vs. stocked lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Ontario: Evidence from carbon and oxygen stable isotope values of otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaner, T.; Patterson, W.P.; Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the potential for using carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate as a method to distinguish naturally produced (wild) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Ontario. We determined δ 13C(CaCO3) and δ 18O(CaCO3) values of otoliths from juvenile fish taken from two hatcheries, and of otoliths from wild yearlings. Clear differences in isotope values were observed between the three groups. Subsequently we examined otoliths from large marked and unmarked fish captured in the lake, determining isotope values for regions of the otolith corresponding to the first year of life. Marked (i.e., stocked) fish showed isotope ratios similar to one of the hatchery groups, whereas unmarked fish, (wild fish or stocked fish that lost the mark) showed isotope ratios similar either to one of the hatchery groups or to the wild group. We interpret these data to suggest that carbon and oxygen isotope values can be used to determine the origin of lake trout in Lake Ontario, if a catalogue of characteristic isotope values from all candidate years and hatcheries is compiled.

  16. Determination of Brooks-Corey soil hydraulic parameters through vertical infiltration experiments%确定Brooks-Corey土壤水力特性模型参数的垂直入渗方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东豪; 张佳宝; 黄平

    2011-01-01

    A new method is proposed for estimating soil hydraulic parameters in the Brooks-Corey model. The method uses only one-dimensional vertical infiltration experiments, thus, measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is not required. The method is tested in two soil textures in Fengqiu County. The result shows that the Brooks-Corey soil parameters estimated by the new method are quite comparable to those of using the horizontal absorption method when the gravitational potential is balanced by the matric potential (capillary potential) and the soil stays wet long enough.Using the estimated parameters, the infiltration process simulated by the Brooks-Corey model is in good agreement with the observation. The new method saves time and effort, and can help to avoid the numerical dispersion problems as well as multiple solutions compared to other methods such as the horizontal absorption method and the inverse parameter method.%在水平入渗方法的基础上,提出了一种不需测定饱和导水率,仅利用一维垂直入渗试验即可确定Brooks-Co-rey模型参数的新方法.利用封丘县两种质地土壤的入渗资料,对所提出的方法进行了检验.结果表明,只要入渗历时足够长,基质势和重力势作用相当,垂直入渗方法确定的土壤水力参数与水平吸渗方法的预测结果相近;利用预测的参数,数值解和提出的近似解均能很好模拟土壤水分入渗过程.相对于水平吸渗方法和反推参数法,垂直入渗方法省时省力,且能避免数值弥散和参数不唯一问题.

  17. Use of the E. J. Brooks 'Multi-Lok' for material safeguards at the Y- 12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has begun using the E. J. Brooks 'Multi-Lok' as the replacement of the cup seal. The cup seal in previous years of usage has proved to be difficult to apply and verify, along with easily broken during handling. Replacement of the cup seal with the Multi-Lok has resulted in operations satisfaction in ease of application and verification. Inadvertent breakage of the previous fragile seal has been completely eliminated. Cost savings are abundant. The final result is customer satisfaction with optimum product performance

  18. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    New interpretations of the frontal part of the Brooks Range orogen beneath the foothills and coastal plain in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) are based on reprocessed regional seismic reflection data, recent geologic field observations, and new apatite fission-track analyses. Three long north-south transects illustrate the configuration of thrust faulting above a basal detachment that, within the southern part of NPRA, steps up from the Triassic Shublik Formation, to the Jurassic Kingak Shale, and finally into Cretaceous Torok mudstones. This thrust system represents the youngest recognized pulse of major shortening, about 60 Ma.

  19. Simulation of Daily Soil Moisture Content and Reconstruction of Drought Events from the Early 20th Century in Seoul, Korea, using a Hydrological Simulation Model, BROOK

    OpenAIRE

    Eun-Shik Kim

    2010-01-01

    To understand day-to-day fluctuations in soil moisture content in Seoul, I simulated daily soil moisturecontent from 1908 to 2009 using long-term climatic precipitation and temperature data collected at the Surface SynopticMeteorological Station in Seoul for the last 98 years with a hydrological simulation model, BROOK. The output data setfrom the BROOK model allowed me to examine day-to-day fluctuations and the severity and duration of droughts in theSeoul area. Although the soil moisture co...

  20. HUWE1 mutations in Juberg-Marsidi and Brooks syndromes: the results of an X-chromosome exome sequencing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friez, Michael J; Brooks, Susan Sklower; Stevenson, Roger E; Field, Michael; Basehore, Monica J; Adès, Lesley C; Sebold, Courtney; McGee, Stephen; Saxon, Samantha; Skinner, Cindy; Craig, Maria E; Murray, Lucy; Simensen, Richard J; Yap, Ying Yzu; Shaw, Marie A; Gardner, Alison; Corbett, Mark; Kumar, Raman; Bosshard, Matthias; van Loon, Barbara; Tarpey, Patrick S; Abidi, Fatima; Gecz, Jozef; Schwartz, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Background X linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes account for a substantial number of males with ID. Much progress has been made in identifying the genetic cause in many of the syndromes described 20–40 years ago. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the rapid discovery of XLID genes and identifying novel mutations in known XLID genes for many of these syndromes. Methods 2 NGS approaches were employed to identify mutations in X linked genes in families with XLID disorders. 1 involved exome sequencing of genes on the X chromosome using the Agilent SureSelect Human X Chromosome Kit. The second approach was to conduct targeted NGS sequencing of 90 known XLID genes. Results We identified the same mutation, a c.12928 G>C transversion in the HUWE1 gene, which gives rise to a p.G4310R missense mutation in 2 XLID disorders: Juberg-Marsidi syndrome (JMS) and Brooks syndrome. Although the original families with these disorders were considered separate entities, they indeed overlap clinically. A third family was also found to have a novel HUWE1 mutation. Conclusions As we identified a HUWE1 mutation in an affected male from the original family reported by Juberg and Marsidi, it is evident the syndrome does not result from a mutation in ATRX as reported in the literature. Additionally, our data indicate that JMS and Brooks syndromes are allelic having the same HUWE1 mutation. PMID:27130160

  1. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.

  2. A comparative assessment of the Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks pubic aging methods on a North American sample, .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Julie M

    2013-03-01

    Accurately estimating the age-at-death of adult human skeletons is fundamental in forensic anthropology. This study evaluates the accuracy of two pubic bone age estimation methods-Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks. Specimens were obtained from a known collection of modern pubic bones curated at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. A sample of 296 left male pubic bones of European ancestry was statistically evaluated via bias, absolute mean error, and intra- and inter-observer error. Results indicate that the two methods are similar; the Suchey-Brooks method is the most accurate for aging young adults (error c. 7 years), while the Revised Chen et al. method is most accurate for aging middle-age adults (error c. 6 years). Thus, the Chen et al. method is an important contribution to forensic anthropology for aging older adult skeletal remains. There are, however, some limitations such as subjectivity and the intricate scoring system of Chen et al. method. PMID:23425207

  3. Results of the radiological survey at Interstate 80, North Right of Way at Lodi Brook, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ077)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and oil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, on the North Right of Way of Interstate 80 at Lodi Brook, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ077), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    Prior to 1978, bull trout were commonly known as dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) and were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) described the interior form as a distinct species, classifying it as Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1994). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from latitude 41{sup o}N to 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette subbasins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is likely that bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. McKenzie River bull trout were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls prior to 1963. Three populations were isolated following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs which include the mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir, mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls, and the South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. On June 10, 1998 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act and Buchanan et al. (1997) listed the bull trout population in the mainstem McKenzie as ''of special concern'', the South Fork McKenzie population as ''high risk of extinction,'' and the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as ''high risk of

  5. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  6. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  8. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  9. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  10. Network analysis highlights complex interactions between pathogen, host and commensal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boutin

    Full Text Available Interactions between bacteria and their host represent a full continuum from pathogenicity to mutualism. From an evolutionary perspective, host-bacteria relationships are no longer considered a two-component system but rather a complex network. In this study, we focused on the relationship between brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis and bacterial communities developing on skin mucus. We hypothesized that stressful conditions such as those occurring in aquaculture production induce shifts in the bacterial community of healthy fish, thus allowing pathogens to cause infections. The results showed that fish skin mucus microbiota taxonomical structure is highly specific, its diversity being partly influenced by the surrounding water bacterial community. Two types of taxonomic co-variation patterns emerged across 121 contrasted communities' samples: one encompassing four genera well known for their probiotic properties, the other harboring five genera mostly associated with pathogen species. The homeostasis of fish bacterial community was extensively disturbed by induction of physiological stress in that both: 1 the abundance of probiotic-like bacteria decreased after stress exposure; and 2 pathogenic bacteria increased following stress exposure. This study provides further insights regarding the role of mutualistic bacteria as a primary host protection barrier.

  11. GPU-Accelerated Stony-Brook University 5-class Microphysics Scheme in WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system. Microphysics plays an important role in weather and climate prediction. Several bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the WRF, with different numbers of simulated hydrometeor classes and methods for estimating their size fall speeds, distributions and densities. Stony-Brook University scheme (SBU-YLIN) is a 5-class scheme with riming intensity predicted to account for mixed-phase processes. In the past few years, co-processing on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) has been a disruptive technology in High Performance Computing (HPC). GPUs use the ever increasing transistor count for adding more processor cores. Therefore, GPUs are well suited for massively data parallel processing with high floating point arithmetic intensity. Thus, it is imperative to update legacy scientific applications to take advantage of this unprecedented increase in computing power. CUDA is an extension to the C programming language offering programming GPU's directly. It is designed so that its constructs allow for natural expression of data-level parallelism. A CUDA program is organized into two parts: a serial program running on the CPU and a CUDA kernel running on the GPU. The CUDA code consists of three computational phases: transmission of data into the global memory of the GPU, execution of the CUDA kernel, and transmission of results from the GPU into the memory of CPU. CUDA takes a bottom-up point of view of parallelism is which thread is an atomic unit of parallelism. Individual threads are part of groups called warps, within which every thread executes exactly the same sequence of instructions. To test SBU-YLIN, we used a CONtinental United States (CONUS) benchmark data set for 12 km resolution domain for October 24, 2001. A WRF domain is a geographic region of interest discretized into a 2-dimensional grid parallel to the ground. Each grid point has

  12. State University of New York, University of Stoney Brook, University and Clinical Practice Management Plan Space Leasing Practices. Report 96-S-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This audit report assesses the propriety and economy of space leasing practices of the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY-SB) for the period July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1996, specifically those related to a health center that includes five professional schools, a 536-bed teaching hospital, and a 350-bed veterans' home. Some of…

  13. Shall Our Leadership Preparation Programs Be Focused on Proactive Leadership for Social Justice? A Rejoinder to Jean-Marie, Normore, and Brooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2009-01-01

    A dominant conjecture underlying the literature about leadership for social justice brought up in Jean-Marie, Normore, and Brooks' (2009) paper suggests that leadership preparation programs (LPPs) need to prepare school leaders to promote a broader and deeper understanding of social justice, democracy, and equity, as well as to struggle with forms…

  14. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Nelson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 23-45. ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * precipitation chemistry * stream chemistry * seasonality * long-term trends Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year : 2010

  15. ACIDIFICATION TRENDS AND THE EVOLUTION OF NEUTRALIZATION MECHANISMS THROUGH TIME AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE (BBWM), U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paired catchment study at the forested Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) U.S.A. documents interactions among short- to long-term processes of acidification. In 1987-1989, runoff from the two catchments was nearly identical in quality and quantity. Ammonium sulfate has been...

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8, (MANCTH00060008) on Town Highway 6, crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MANCTH00060008 on Town Highway 6 crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  17. KAYNAK ALABALIĞI (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS)’NIN SPERMATOLOJİK ÖZELLİKLERİ VE SPERMANIN KISA SÜRELİ MUHAFAZASI

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Temel; Köse, Özay

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the spermatologic characteristics and to develop an extender for the short-term storage of semen from brook trout. Four different extenders were tested in the study: a) 8.75 g/l NaCl, 0.20 g/l KCl, 0.20 CaCl2, 0.30 g/l NaHCO3 (S1), b) 8.75 g/l NaCl, 0.20 g/l KCl, 0.20 MgCl2, 0.40 g/l NaHCO3 (S2), c) 7.25 g/l NaCl, 0.40 g/l KCl, 0.80 g/l NaHCO3, 2.0 g/l glucose (S3), d) 8.75 g/l NaCl, 0.20 g/l KCl, 0.10 CaCl2, 0.10 g/l MgCl2, 0.40 g/l NaHCO3 (S4). In the...

  18. Technical Note: Reliability of Suchey-Brooks and Buckberry-Chamberlain methods on 3D visualizations from CT and laser scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Buckberry, Jo; Cattaneo, Cristina;

    2013-01-01

    -Brooks and the Buckberry-Chamberlain methods on 3D visualizations based on CT-scans and, for the first time, on 3D visualizations from laser scans. We examined how the bone features can be evaluated on 3D visualizations and whether the different modalities (direct observations of bones, 3D visualization from CT......-scan and from laser scans) are alike to different observers. We found the best inter-observer agreement for the bones versus 3D visualizations, with the highest values for the auricular surface. Between the 3D modalities, less variability was obtained for the 3D laser visualizations. Fair inter....... In conclusion, these methods were developed for dry bones, where they perform best. The Suchey-Brooks method can be applied on 3D visualizations from CT or laser, but with less accuracy than on dry bone. The Buckberry-Chamberlain method should be modified before application on 3D visualizations. Future...

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of a "Bora-Brook Rearrangement": The Ambident Reactivity of Boryl-Substituted Alkoxide Including the Carbon-to-Oxygen Migration of a Boryl Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Haruki; Sakaino, Hirotoshi; Ito, Fumihiro; Yamashita, Makoto; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2016-03-16

    A bora-Brook rearrangement, i.e., the migration of boryl group from a carbon to an oxygen atom in an isolated α-boryl-substituted alkoxide, was examined, and decisive factors for the acceleration of this reaction are disclosed. In this rearrangement, the boryl-substituted alkoxide exhibited ambiphilic reactivity toward electrophiles to afford two types of products, which are electrophiles bound either at the oxygen or at the carbon atom. Using polar solvents, a saturated backbone of the boron-containing heterocycle, or larger alkali metal cations resulted in a significantly increased reaction rate of base-catalyzed isomerization of α-borylbenzyl alcohol including the bora-Brook rearrangement. PMID:26907676

  20. Rapid movement of frozen debris-lobes: implications for permafrost degradation and slope instability in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Daanen, R.P.; G. Grosse; M. M. Darrow; Hamilton, T. D.; Jones, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a reconnaissance investigation of unusual debris mass-movement features on permafrost slopes that pose a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska. For the purpose of this paper, we describe these features as frozen debris-lobes. We focus on the characterisation of frozen debris-lobes as indicators of various movement processes using ground-based surveys, remote sensing, field and laboratory measurements, and time-lapse observations of...

  1. Density-Dependent Regulation of Brook Trout Population Dynamics along a Core-Periphery Distribution Gradient in a Central Appalachian Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Huntsman, Brock M.; Petty, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution...

  2. Frozen debris lobes, permafrost slope instability, and a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, R. P.; Darrow, M.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Here we report on investigations carried out at unusual debris mass-movement features (frozen debris lobes) on permafrost slopes in the south central portion of the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. The features under investigation are located in mountainous terrain near the southern border of continuous permafrost. The frozen debris lobes consist mainly of boulders, cobles, platy gravel sand and silt frozen debris derived from weathering mountain tops. The general dimensions of these lobes are either lobate or tongue shaped with widths up to 500 m and lengths up to 1200 m. In accumulation zones where slopes converge, the debris slowly moves as solifluction lobes, mud flows and potentially sliding toward the valley. These features were previously referred to as stable rock glaciers in the past, as evidenced by a dense cover of vegetation, and exhibiting no known downslope movement. Our investigations however, have shown that these features are indeed moving downslope as a result of creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines in the summer; and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008-2010) revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day-1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. Current observations , through lidar, ifsar, insar and ground based measurements using boreholes, geophysics and repeat photography of these features show an increase in movement activity that could be the result of rising summer temperatures in the region. Warming of ice rich permafrost slopes and frozen debris lobes in the Brooks Range pose a direct threat to the

  3. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 24 (MANCUS00070024) on U.S. Route 7, crossing Lye Brook, Manchester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MANCUS00070024 on U.S. Route 7 crossing Lye Brook, Manchester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Taconic section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 8.13-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the primary surface cover consists of brush and trees. In the study area, Lye Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 66 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 90.0 mm (0.295 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 6, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. Although, the immediate reach is considered stable, upstream of the bridge the Lye Brook valley is very steep (0.05 ft/ft). Extreme events in a valley this steep may quickly reveal the instability of the channel. In the Flood Insurance Study for the Town of Manchester (Federal Emergency Management Agency, January, 1985), Lye Brook’s overbanks were described as “boulder strewn” after the August 1976 flood. The U.S. Route 7 crossing of Lye Brook is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 25-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, September

  5. Patterns of δ13C and δ15N in wolverine Gulo gulo tissues from the Brooks Range, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik DALERUM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of carnivore diets is essential to understand how carnivore populations respond demographically to variations in prey abundance. Analysis of stable isotopes is a useful complement to traditional methods of analyzing carnivore diets. We used data on d13C and d15N in wolverine tissues to investigate patterns of seasonal and annual diet variation in a wolverine Gulo gulo population in the western Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. The stable isotope ratios in wolverine tissues generally reflected that of terrestrial carnivores, corroborating previous diet studies on wolverines. We also found variation in d13C and d15N both between muscle samples collected over several years and between tissues with different assimilation rates, even after correcting for isotopic fractionation. This suggests both annual and seasonal diet variation. Our results indicate that data on d13C and d15N holds promise for qualitative assessments of wolverine diet changes over time. Such temporal variation may be important indicators of ecological responses to environmental perturbations, and we suggest that more refined studies of stable isotopes may be an important tool when studying temporal change in diets of wolverines and similar carnivores [Current Zoology 55(3: 188–192, 2009].

  6. Patterns of δ13 C and δ15 N in wolverine Gulo gulo tissues from the Brooks Range, Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fredrik DALERUM; Anders ANGERBJ(O)RN; Kyran KUNKEL; Brad S.SHULTS

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of carnivore diets is essential to understand hew carnivore populations respond demographically to variations in prey abundance. Analysis of stable isotopes is a useful complement to traditional methods of analyzing carnivore diets. We used data on δ13 C and δ15 N in wolverine tissues to investigate patterns of seasonal and annual diet variation in a wolverine Gulo gulo population in the western Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. The stable isotope ratios in wolverine tissues generally reflected that of terrestrial carnivores, corroborating previous diet studies on wolverines. We also found variation in δ13 C and δ15 N both between muscle samples collected over several years and between tissues with different assimilation rates, even after correcting for isotopic fractionation. This suggests both annual and seasonal diet variation. Our results indicate that data on δ13 C and δ15 N holds promise for qualitative assessments of wolverine diet changes over time. Such temporal variation may be important indicators of ecological responses to environmental perturbations, and we suggest that more refined studies of stable isotopes may be an important tool when studying temporal change in diets of wolverines and similar carnivores.

  7. Feasibility of Conducting J-2X Engine Testing at the Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station B-2 Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Charles F.; Cheston, Derrick J.; Worlund, Armis L.; Brown, James R.; Hooper, William G.; Monk, Jan C.; Winstead, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A trade study of the feasibility of conducting J-2X testing in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) B-2 facility was initiated in May 2006 with results available in October 2006. The Propulsion Test Integration Group (PTIG) led the study with support from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jacobs Sverdrup Engineering. The primary focus of the trade study was on facility design concepts and their capability to satisfy the J-2X altitude simulation test requirements. The propulsion systems tested in the B-2 facility were in the 30,000-pound (30K) thrust class. The J-2X thrust is approximately 10 times larger. Therefore, concepts significantly different from the current configuration are necessary for the diffuser, spray chamber subsystems, and cooling water. Steam exhaust condensation in the spray chamber is judged to be the key risk consideration relative to acceptable spray chamber pressure. Further assessment via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other simulation capabilities (e.g. methodology for anchoring predictions with actual test data and subscale testing to support investigation.

  8. The food niche overlap of five fish species in the Úpoř brook (Central Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlach P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet and food niche overlap of five fish species in the Úpoř brook was evaluated. The supply of food represented by benthos was studied, and the proportion of total food particles in the intestine of brown trout Salmo trutta L., chub Squalius cephalus (L., dace Leuciscus leuciscus (L., bullhead Cottus gobio (L. and stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L. was measured. Evaluations were performed using a new index (Mtotp. All fish species except stone loach exhibited a balanced consumption of the food supply. The food components were systematically grouped, but no differences in the ingestion of these groups were found. However, a new approach in the evaluation of food competition based on observation of species-specific preferences/avoidance in ingestion of food particles was applied. The particles were divided into four ecological categories according to their availability for fish. Brown trout concentrated on easily accessible sources of benthos or that hiding below stones, and also distinctly preyed on terrestrial insects. Chub displayed a similar feeding habit, though concentrating more on drift and allochthonous sources. The food spectrum of dace was mostly composed of easily accessible benthic organisms, consuming fewer hidden benthos and terrestrial insects. The food of bullhead and stone loach was similar, both preferring benthos. Bullhead consumed hidden species while stone loach consumed more accessible species rather than hidden ones.

  9. Contributions of separate reactions to the acid-base buffering of soils in brook floodplains (Central Forest State Reserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Rusakova, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    The acid-base buffering of gleyic gray-humus soils developed in brook floodplains and undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes has been characterized by the continuous potentiometric titration of soil water suspensions. During the interaction with an acid, the major amount of protons (>80%) is consumed for the displacement of exchangeable bases and the dissolution of Ca oxalates. In the O and AY horizons, Mn compounds make the major contribution (2-15%) to the acid buffering. The buffer reactions with the participation of Al compounds make up from 0.5 to 1-2% of the total buffering capacity, and the protonation of the surface OH groups of kaolinite consumes 2-3% of the total buffering capacity. The deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of Fe hydroxides (9-43%), the deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of illite crystals (3-19%), and the dissolution of unidentified aluminosilicates (9-14%) are the most significant buffer reactions whose contributions have been quantified during the interaction with a base. The contribution of the deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of kaolinite particles is lower (1-5%) because of the small specific surface area of this mineral, and that of the dissolution of Fe compounds is insignificant. In the AY horizon, the acid and base buffering of soil in the rhizosphere is higher than beyond the rhizosphere because of the higher contents of organic matter and nonsilicate Fe and Al compounds.

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses of rainbow trout and brook trout exposed to elevated selenium from coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since selenium (Se) is an element that bioaccumulates, anthropogenic activities in areas that already have high Se in parent rock can result in an increase in Se in aquatic systems. Se causes reproductive deformities in rainbow trout (RT), at lower concentrations than for brook trout (BT). This presentation reported on a study conducted at coal mines in northeastern Alberta in which juvenile hatchery-reared RT and BT were stocked into 2 reference and 2 Se contaminated end pit lakes. Fish were sampled at 0, 6, and 12 months after stocking, and will be sampled at 18 and 24 months. Water Se levels were found to be high in contaminated lakes. Selenite, the more toxic form of Se, was the highest in Pit C4. Liver glutathione levels were similar in the 2 fish species, and cellular damage in the fish was beginning to increase. At 6 months, liver glycogen levels were higher in the BT than in the RT, but no tangible site specific patterns emerged. At all sites except Pit C4, the RT were in better condition than BT. BT from Pit C4 also had a lower ability to secrete cortisol, suggesting that the elevated selenite levels may negatively affect fish. Se accumulation results from 28 fish sampled at 12 months were also discussed.

  11. Density-dependent regulation of brook trout population dynamics along a core-periphery distribution gradient in a central Appalachian watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock M Huntsman

    Full Text Available Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2 and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to

  12. Density-dependent regulation of brook trout population dynamics along a core-periphery distribution gradient in a central Appalachian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd

    2014-01-01

    Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2) and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to competition for

  13. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CHLORDANE TO FISH AND INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute and chronic toxicity of technical chlordane to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Daphnia magna, Hyallela azteca, and Chironomus No. 51 were determined with flow-through conditions. The purpose was ...

  14. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  15. 75 FR 38768 - Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness-Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Forest Service Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness--Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat...) proposes to restore genetically pure Colorado River cutthroat trout (CRCT; Onchorhynchus clarki pleuriticus... District. Nonnative fish species to be removed are primarily brook trout (Salvelinus...

  16. Simulation of temporal and spatial soot evolution in an automotive diesel engine using the Moss–Brookes soot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Numerical models were validated against experimental data of two diesel engines. ► Soot model constant values were calibrated to predict in-cylinder soot processes. ► Effects of split-main injection parameters on soot distributions were determined. ► Soot cloud was distributed towards cylinder wall when using large dwell period. ► Greater soot deposition expected with large dwell period and retarded injection. - Abstract: In this reported work, computational study on the formation processes of soot particles from diesel combustion is conducted using an approach where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is coupled with a chemical kinetic model. A multi-step soot model which accounts for inception, surface growth, coagulation and oxidation was applied. Model constant values in the Moss–Brookes soot formation and Fenimore–Jones soot oxidation models were calibrated, and were validated against in-cylinder soot evolution and exhaust soot density of both heavy- and light-duty diesel engines, respectively. Effects of various injection parameters such as start of injection (SOI) timing, split-main ratio and dwell period of the split-main injection strategy on in-cylinder temporal/spatial soot evolution in a light-duty diesel engine were subsequently investigated. The spatial soot distributions at each crank angle degree after start of injection were found to be insensitive to the change of values in SOI and split-main ratio when close-coupled injection was implemented. Soot cloud was also observed to be distributed towards the cylinder wall when a large separation of 20° was used, even with an advanced SOI timing of −6° after top dead centre (ATDC). The use of large separation is hence not desired for this combustion system as it potentially leads to soot deposition on surface oil film and greater tailpipe soot emissions.

  17. How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2015-04-01

    How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic Lukáš Vlček, Jan Kocum, Bohumír Janský, Luděk Šefrna Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech Republic Runoff formation is a very important issue within a flood protection and drought prevention. To solve this topic a lot of parameters, which affect the outflow, need to be known. Especially it is necessary to find out which part of a catchment contributes mostly to discharge during flood events or during drought periods. Optimal conditions for such a research are provided by our study in Šumava Mts., where a number of former floods has been created. In near future this area can play role within the water storage enhancement in SW Czech Republic during drought periods. Central part of Šumava Mts. is covered with peat bogs and other peaty soil types which are mostly supplied by rain water. This study takes place in the small catchment (1 km²) in Šumava Mts. It is created by 2 main slopes with different vegetation and soil coverage. First slope is covered by well-developed peat bog where 3 springs were found, the second slope is covered by dead spruce forest and soil type of entic Podzol, where one spring was found. Each specific part of the catchment was mapped and equipped by devices such as water level probe or tensiometers. Spring discharges and outflow have been observed. For consecutive analyses water silica, stable isotopes and temperature observations have been carried out as well. Results of this research should help to better understand the runoff process taking place in the core zone of Šumava Mts. Moreover it should improve a flood forecasting and the knowledge about retention ability of Czech mountains.

  18. Structural and metamorphic evidence for the mechanism of exhumation of the schist belt, south-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinklage, W.S.; Patrick, B.E. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geologic Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The mid to late mesozoic Brookian orogeny involved southward subduction underneath an island arc and subsequent burial of a passive continental margin. Field mapping, petrography, and geochronology of blueschist-bearing metasedimentary rocks in the Walker Lake region of the southern Brooks Range enables correlation of fabrics with crustal movements that are responsible for their burial and exhumation. Observed early ductile fabrics in the schist belt are consistent with north-vergent transport. These fabrics include (1) S[sub D] (dominant foliation), a south-dipping transposed crenulation cleavage which formed under blueschist facies conditions; (2) outcrop-scale north-vergent folds and an associated mesoscopic south-dipping crenulation cleavage, S[sub D+1]; (3) kilometer-scale gentle warps and north-vergent, open monoclinal folds. Small north-vergent folds (fabric 2) fold an earlier mineral stretching lineation associated with S[sub D]. The similarity of orientation of the three fabrics and their evolution in time from small and isoclinal to large and open suggests that they are the product of progressive deformation. S[sub D] is likely a burial fabric; later fabrics may be related to uplift along a regionally penetrative system of ductile, north-vergent south-dipping thrusts. A metamorphic overprint, dated at 105--110 Ma, increases to amphibolite facies toward the north and outlasts north-vergent fabrics. Retrograde helicitic albite is commonly rotated by later minor extensional crenulation cleavages. Discrete, narrow zones of ductile deformation in the southernmost schist belt, parallel to S[sub D] but postdating blueschist facies conditions, locally exhibit top-to-the-south sense of shear. This evidence suggest that north-vergent contraction continued during exhumation of the schist belt from deep to mid-crustal levels and that extension may have been responsible for exhumation from middle to shallow crustal levels.

  19. Effect of Nutrient Management Planning on Crop Yield, Nitrate Leaching and Sediment Loading in Thomas Brook Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Ahmad, Nafees H. M.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob; Burton, David; Madani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower leaching ( P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.

  20. Diel and seasonal patterns of habitat use by fish in a natural salmonid brook : an approach to the functional role of the riffle-pool sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Roussel, J.M.; A. Bardonnet

    1997-01-01

    The spatio-temporal use of the riffle-pool sequence in a natural salmonid brook was studied by day and night for one year on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), bullhead (Cottus gobio L.), European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus L.) and stone loach (Barbatula barbatula L.). Young-of-the-year brown trouts were more numerous in riffles in spring, whereas older trouts chose pools. A diel pattern of habitat use between riffle and pool was observed for one-year-old individuals, who moved towards riffle duri...

  1. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  2. Final-Independent Confirmatory Survey Report For The Reactor Building, Hot Laboratory, Primary Pump House, And Land Areas At The Plum Brook Reactor Facility, Sandusky, Ohio DCN:2036-SR-01-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  3. A VRML-Based Data Portal: Hydrology of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and Mirror Lake Sub-Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. W.; Bursik, M. I.; Schuetz, J. W.

    2001-05-01

    The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) of Central New Hampshire has been a focal point for collaborative hydrologic research for over 40 years. A tremendous amount of data from this area is available through the internet and other sources, but is not organized in a manner that facilitates teaching of hydrologic concepts. The Mirror Lake Watershed Interactive Teaching Database is making hydrologic data from the HBEF and associated interactive problem sets available to upper-level and post-graduate university students through a web-based resource. Hydrologic data are offered via a three-dimensional VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) interface, that facilitates viewing and retrieval in a spatially meaningful manner. Available data are mapped onto a topographic base, and hot spots representing data collection points (e.g. weirs) lead to time-series displays (e.g. hydrographs) that provide a temporal link to the spatially organized data. Associated instructional exercises are designed to increase understanding of both hydrologic data and hydrologic methods. A pedagogical module concerning numerical ground-water modeling will be presented as an example. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow involves choosing the combination of hydrogeologic parameters (e.g. hydraulic conductivity, recharge) that cause model-predicted heads to best match measured heads in the aquifer. Choosing the right combination of parameters requires careful judgment based upon knowledge of the hydrogeologic system and the physics of ground-water flow. Unfortunately, students often get caught up in the technical aspects and lose sight of the fundamentals when working with real ground-water software. This module provides exercises in which a student chooses model parameters and immediately sees the predicted results as a 3-D VRML object. VRML objects are based upon actual Modflow model results corresponding to the range of model input parameters available to the student. This way, the

  4. VEGETATION MEDIATED THE IMPACTS OF POSTGLACIAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON FIRE REGIMES IN THE SOUTHCENTRAL BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Hu, F S; Brown, T A

    2008-10-28

    We examine direct and indirect impacts of millennial-scale climatic change on fire regimes in the southcentral Brooks Range, Alaska, using four lake-sediment records and existing paleoclimate interpretations. New techniques are introduced to identify charcoal peaks semi-objectively and detect statistical differences in fire regimes. Peaks in charcoal accumulation rates (CHARs) provide estimates of fire return intervals (FRIs) which are compared between vegetation zones described by fossil pollen and stomata. Climatic warming from ca 15-9 ka BP (calendar years before CE 1950) coincides with shifts in vegetation from herb tundra to shrub tundra to deciduous woodlands, all novel species assemblages relative to modern vegetation. Two sites cover this period and show increased CHARs and decreased FRIs with the transition from herb to shrub tundra ca 13.3-14.3 ka BP. Short FRIs in the Betula-dominated shrub tundra (mean [m] FRI 144 yr; 95% CI 119-170) primarily reflect the effects of flammable, continuous fuels on the fire regime. FRIs increased significantly with the transition to Populus-dominated deciduous woodlands ca 10.5 ka BP (mFRI 251 yr [158-352]), despite evidence of warmer- and drier-than-present summers. We attribute reduced fire activity under these conditions to low flammability of deciduous fuels. Three sites record the mid to late Holocene, when cooler and moister conditions allowed Picea glauca forest-tundra and P. mariana boreal forests to establish ca 8 and 5.5 ka BP. Forest-tundra FRIs did not differ significantly from the previous period (mFRIs range from 131-238 yr), but FRIs decreased with the transition to boreal forest (mFRI 145 yr [129-163]). Overall, fire-regime shifts in the study area showed greater correspondence with vegetation characteristics than with inferred climate, and we conclude that vegetation mediated the impacts of millennial-scale climatic change on fire regimes by modifying landscape flammability. Our findings emphasize the

  5. Analysis of floods, including the tropical storm Irene inundation, of the Ottauquechee River in Woodstock, Bridgewater, and Killington and of Reservoir Brook in Bridgewater and Plymouth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District for a 25-mile reach of the Ottauquechee River and a 2-mile reach of Reservoir Brook in Vermont. The reach of the Ottauquechee River that was studied extends from River Road Bridge in Killington, Vt., to the Taftsville Dam in the village of Taftsville, in the town of Woodstock, Vt., and the reach of Reservoir Brook extends from a location downstream from the Woodward Reservoir in Plymouth, Vt., to its confluence with the Ottauquechee River in Bridgewater, Vt. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood (also referred to as the 100-year flood) and the peak of the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011, which was greater than the 0.2-percent AEP flood (also referred to as the 500-year flood), as referenced to the USGS Ottauquechee River near West Bridgewater, Vt. streamgage (station 01150900).

  6. Flood-Inundation maps for the Hohokus Brook in Waldwick Borough, Ho-Ho-Kus Borough, and the Village of Ridgewood, New Jersey, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Niemoczynski, Michal J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6-mile reach of the Hohokus Brook in New Jersey from White's Lake Dam in Waldwick Borough, through Ho-Ho-Kus Borough to Grove Street in the Village of Ridgewood were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The flood inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Hohokus Brook at Ho-Ho-Kus, New Jersey (station number 01391000). Stage data at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01391000 or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?gage=hohn4&wfo=okx.

  7. Diel and seasonal patterns of habitat use by fish in a natural salmonid brook : an approach to the functional role of the riffle-pool sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUSSEL J. M.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal use of the riffle-pool sequence in a natural salmonid brook was studied by day and night for one year on brown trout (Salmo trutta L., bullhead (Cottus gobio L., European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus L. and stone loach (Barbatula barbatula L.. Young-of-the-year brown trouts were more numerous in riffles in spring, whereas older trouts chose pools. A diel pattern of habitat use between riffle and pool was observed for one-year-old individuals, who moved towards riffle during daylight in summer and early fall. Seasonal variations in trout densities were related to movements at a large spatial scale before and after the spawning period. Bullhead preferred riffles to pools, especially young-of-the-year individuals, even if this preference decreased during ontogenesis. On the contrary, minnow chose pools throughout the year and seemed to leave the riffle-pool sequence for spawning, whereas no preference was observed for loach except for riffle during the spawning period. Results and an approach to the functional role of the riffle-pool sequence in lowland salmonid brooks are discussed.

  8. Assessment of aquifer properties, evapotranspiration, and the effects of ditching in the Stoney Brook watershed, Fond du Lac Reservation, Minnesota, 2006-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Tomasek, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, assessed hydraulic properties of geologic material, recharge, and evapotranspiration, and the effects of ditching on the groundwater resources in the Stoney Brook watershed in the Fond du Lac Reservation. Geologic, groundwater, and surface-water data were collected during 2006–9 to estimate hydrologic properties in the watershed. Streamflow and groundwater levels in the shallow glacial deposits in the Stoney Brook watershed were analyzed to estimate groundwater-flow directions, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration within the watershed and to assess the effect of ditches on surrounding groundwater resources. Groundwater, streamflow, and precipitation data collected during the study (2006–9) can be used to update the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service and Fond du Lac Resource Management Division surface-water models, which are used to evaluate the effect of proposed adjustments to the ditching system on streamflow on wild rice production and aquatic habitats.

  9. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trufant, Joshua; Robinson, Maria; Patel, Rishi

    2012-12-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented with a long history of multiple, flesh-colored papules and nodules on her central face, neck, and upper shoulders, as well as pink papules on her scalp. They were neither pruritic nor tender, but the patient desired treatment for cosmesis. Histopathologic examination of a representative facial lesion was consistent with a trichoepithelioma and an upper forehead papule was consistent with cylindroma. She reported a positive family history of similar lesions. PMID:23286806

  10. No Quantum Brooks' Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Steven

    2014-01-01

    First, I introduce quantum graph theory. I also discuss a known lower bound on the independence numbers and derive from it an upper bound on the chromatic numbers of quantum graphs. Then, I construct a family of quantum graphs that can be described as tropical, cyclical, and commutative. I also define a step logarithm function and express with it the bounds on quantum graph invariants in closed form. Finally, I obtain an upper bound on the independence numbers and a lower bound on the chromat...

  11. Energy at Stony Brook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visich, Marian, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses strategies used in a course for nonengineering students which consists of case studies of such sociotechnological problems as automobile safety, water pollution, and energy. Solutions to the problems are classified according to three approaches: education, government regulation, and technological fix. (BC)

  12. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity, and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Egeland, Torvald B.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Nordeide, Jarle T.; Folstad, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker male...

  13. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Torvald Blikra Egeland; Geir eRudolfsen; Jarle Tryti Nordeide; Ivar eFolstad

    2015-01-01

    How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often ...

  14. Caractérisation de l'adaptation comportementale des téléostéens en élevage : plasticité et effets de la domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Benhaïm, David

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at a better understanding of the adaptation to farming conditions through a behavioural approach based on the comparison between wild vs. domesticated populations of three species: a marine species, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), two freshwater species, arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). The thesis is divided into two parts which objectives were : 1) to test the impact of biotic and abiotic factors selected based on their importance in aq...

  15. Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Kate L.; Carolyn M. Rosten; Guttorm Christensen; Martyn C. Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Temporal differences in habitat use and foraging specialisms between ecomorphs represent aspects of behavioural phenotype that are poorly understood with regard to the origin and maintenance of ecological diversity. We tested the role of behaviour in resource use divergence of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) phenotypes, a slim, putatively pelagic-dwelling morph and a robust, putatively littoral-dwelling generalist morph, over an annual cycle, using biotelemetry and stable isotopes. Pela...

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in parasite communities of freshwater fish in the subarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Jesper Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Parasite communities are complicated systems believed to be affected by multiple ecological and environmental factors, both in time and space. These communities might be disrupted by anthropogenic host introductions which unfortunately appear to be a common practice e.g. in freshwater fish management. By addressing parasite occurrences in three of the most common freshwater fish species in subarctic lakes of Northern Europe; brown trout (Salmo trutta), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and th...

  17. Quantifying Uncertainty in the Net Hydrologic Flux of Calcium at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. L.; Yanai, R. D.; Green, M.; Likens, G. E.; Buso, D. C.; See, C.; Barr, B.

    2013-12-01

    Small watersheds are hydrologically distinct ecological units that integrate chemical, physical and biological processes. The basic premise of the small watershed approach is that the flux of chemical elements in and out of watersheds can be used to evaluate nutrient gains or losses. In paired watershed studies, following a pre-treatment calibration period, a treated watershed is compared with a reference watershed enabling evaluation of the treatment on nutrient flux and cycling. This approach has provided invaluable insight into how ecosystems function and respond to both natural and human disturbances. Despite the great advances that have been made using this approach, the method is often criticized because the treatments are usually not replicated. The reason for this lack of replication is that it is often difficult to identify suitable replicate watersheds and is expensive due to the large scale of these studies. In cases where replication is not possible, traditional statistical approaches cannot be applied. Uncertainty analysis can help address this issue because it enables reporting of statistical confidence even when replicates are not used. However, estimating uncertainty can be challenging because it is difficult to identify and quantify sources of uncertainty, there are many different possible approaches, and the methods can be computationally challenging. In this study, we used uncertainty analysis to evaluate changes in the net hydrologic flux (inputs in precipitation minus outputs in stream water) of calcium following a whole-tree harvest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. In the year following the harvest, there was a large net loss of calcium (20 kg/ha/yr) in the treated watershed compared to the reference (5 kg/ha/yr). Net losses in the treated watershed have declined over the 26 years after the harvest, but still remain elevated compared to the reference. We used uncertainty analysis to evaluate whether the

  18. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater...

  19. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater...

  20. Flood inundation maps and water-surface profiles for tropical storm Irene and selected annual exceedance probability floods for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River in Roxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Lombard, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Flint Brook, a tributary to the Third Branch White River in Roxbury, Vermont, has a history of flooding the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department’s Roxbury Fish Culture Station (the hatchery) and surrounding infrastructure. Flooding resulting from tropical storm Irene on August 28–29, 2011, caused widespread destruction in the region, including extensive and costly damages to the State-owned hatchery and the transportation infrastructure in the Town of Roxbury, Vermont. Sections of State Route 12A were washed out, and several bridges and culverts on Oxbow Road, Thurston Hill Road, and the New England Central Railroad in Roxbury were heavily damaged. Record high peak-discharge estimates of 2,140 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 4,320 ft3/s were calculated for Flint Brook at its confluence with the Third Branch White River and for the Third Branch White River at about 350 feet (ft) downstream from the hatchery, respectively. The annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of the peak discharges for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River were less than 0.2 percent (less than a one in 500 chance of occurring in a given year). Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River were done to investigate flooding at the hatchery in Roxbury and support efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to assist State and local mitigation and reconstruction efforts. During the August 2011 flood, the majority of flow from Flint Brook (97 percent or 2,070 ft3/s) diverged from its primary watercourse due to a retaining wall failure immediately upstream of Oxbow Road and inundated the hatchery. Although a minor amount of flow from the Third Branch White River could have overtopped State Route 12A and spilled into the hatchery, the Third Branch White River did not cause flood damages or exacerbate flooding at the hatchery during the August 2011 flood. The Third Branch White River which flows adjacent to the hatchery does not flood the hatchery

  1. U-Pb geochronology of Permian plutonic rocks, Longwood Range, New Zealand : implications for Median Batholith-Brook Street Terrane relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon ages from gabbros and associated intrusive rocks of the Longwood Range, Southland. U-Pb zircon ages of 257.6 ± 2.5 Ma, 256.5 ± 1.8 Ma and 251.6 ± 2.0 Ma (2σm) have been obtained from the layered, platiniferous Hekeia Gabbro. These are 5-10 Ma older than cooling ages previously obtained by Ar-Ar dating of hornblendes. A revised U-Pb zircon age of 252.8 ± 2.7 Ma is reported for a sample of western Pourakino Trondhjemite [previously dated at 292 ± 8 Ma by multicrystal 207Pb/206Pb thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) methods] and a dike of the trondhjemite that cuts the Hekeia Gabbro is dated at 254.8 ± 2.6 Ma. Our new zircon ages show that the Hekeia Gabbro and Pourakino Trondhjemite were intruded within the same, relatively narrow interval from 261 to 252 Ma. This age range is substantially younger than Early Permian (c. 276-288 Ma) ages inferred from fossil evidence of major Takitimu Group volcanism in the adjacent Brook Street Terrane. We make the novel suggestion that the Hekeia and Pourakino bodies, along with plutons at Bluff and Oraka Point, constitute a new Longwood Suite of the Median Batholith that is spatially and temporally distinct from allochthonous Brook Street Terrane volcanic magmatism. A U-Pb zircon age of 232.3 ± 1.5 Ma from a western Longwood Range granodiorite is the oldest Darran Suite pluton so far recognized and represents the start of a major, isotopically more evolved, pulse of the Median Batholith. (author)

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-08-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-08-25...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-11...

  4. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 9 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-23 to 2010-06-25, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Brooks McCall, Cruise 09 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18 to 2010-05-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-25...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-04 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-04 to 2010-07-08...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-10 to 2010-06-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-10 to 2010-06-14...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-14 to 2010-05-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-14 to 2010-05-18...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-22 to 2010-06-26 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-22 to 2010-06-26...

  11. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-02...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-04 to 2010-06-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-04 to 2010-06-08...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-16 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-16 to 2010-06-20...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-07...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-09 to 2010-08-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-09 to 2010-08-12...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-15 to 2010-08-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-15 to 2010-08-19...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-20...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-01...

  20. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-09 to 2010-05-11, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Brooks McCall Cruise 01 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  1. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmbhatt Sonal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total, 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is

  2. Stream-water chemistry, nutrients, and pesticides in Town Brook, a headwater stream of the Cannonsville Reservoir Watershed, Delaware County, New York, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    Stream-water chemistry was monitored from January 1 through December 31, 1999, in the Town Brook watershed (TBW) in Delaware County, N.Y. to provide a basis for future evaluation of the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in decreasing agricultural nutrient and pesticide leaching to receiving waters. Total runoff from the watershed during 1999 was 664 millimeters (mm). Annual nutrient export (in kilograms per hectare) values were: ammonia (NH3), 0.25; nitrate (NO3-), 4.3; total nitrogen (TN), 10.6; orthophosphate (OP), 0.26; total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), 0.30; and total phosphorus (TP), 1.2 during 1999. Streamwater samples were collected during baseflow, elevated baseflow, and stormflow conditions. Stormflow, which produced the greatest flowweighted mean nutrient concentrations, represented only 41 percent of the annual runoff but accounted from 49 to 68 percent of the annual nutrient export. The highest seasonal flow-weighted mean concentrations were measured during the summer; the highest concentrations occurred during a large storm on July 4, 1999 with a recurrence interval greater than 100 years. The greatest seasonal export of dissolved nutrients (NH3, NO3-, OP, and TDP) occurred during the winter, whereas the greatest export of TN and TP was during the summer. Most of the TN and TP export during the summer occurred during the July 4 storm. That storm, together with a second large storm on September 16, 1999, accounted for the following percentages of annual export: ammonia, 17 percent; NO3-, 21 percent; TN, 45 percent; OP, 21 percent; TDP, 21 percent; and TP, 56 percent. Although these results provide information on the quantity and timing of nutrient export, they do not indicate the nutrient source nor the transport mechanisms by which nutrients are delivered to the stream. Baseflow and stormflow samples were collected for pesticide analyses at the Town Brook watershed outlet from January through July 1999. Eight pesticides and pesticide

  3. The Identification of Metallophytes in the Fe and Cu enriched Environments of Brookes Point, Palawan and Mankayan, Benguet and their Implications to Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene R. Claveria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the potential of plants in the remediation or rehabilitation of areas affectedby mining as well as their capability of absorbing metals in anomalous amounts which could be analternative to traditional mining. Phytoremediation is an innovative way of addressing theenvironmental impacts of mining. Studies on metallophytes have identified some plant species thatthrive in nickeliferous laterites and in cupriferous soils. It has been of interest as to how these plantsaccumulate the heavy metals the soil contains, and specifically how much of the available metals arebeing taken up by these plants. In Brookes Point, Palawan, some of the identified plants that thrive innickeliferous laterites, were Sapotaceae planchonella, Apocynaceae alstonia macropylla andCunoniaceae weinmannia sp. Results showed similar responses among the plant species in terms ofthe total Fe content in their leaves, stems and roots. The positive relationship between the soil andplant components was observed manifesting the characteristics of indicator plants for Fe.Apocynaceae alstonia macrophylla specifically had high Fe contents in the root system making it alsoan accumulator and phytostabilizer for Fe. In Mankayan, Benguet, four native fern species that cantolerate the Cu enriched soils were identified and analyzed for Cu using the root-stem-leafcomponents. These species were Pteridium aquilinum, Dicranopteris linearis, Pteris sp. andNephrolepis hirsutula. The results showed Nephrolepis hirsutala and Pteris sp. to be the best Cutolerant species. These plants were not only considered as indicator plants for Cu manifested by thepositive correlation between soil and plant components but also as accumulators and phytostabilizersfor Cu due to the high Cu content in their roots. These are characteristics of metallophytes and thussuch plants may be used for phytoremediation.

  4. Rapid movement of frozen debris-lobes: implications for permafrost degradation and slope instability in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, R. P.; Grosse, G.; Darrow, M. M.; Hamilton, T. D.; Jones, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    We present the results of a reconnaissance investigation of unusual debris mass-movement features on permafrost slopes that pose a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska. For the purpose of this paper, we describe these features as frozen debris-lobes. We focus on the characterisation of frozen debris-lobes as indicators of various movement processes using ground-based surveys, remote sensing, field and laboratory measurements, and time-lapse observations of frozen debris-lobe systems along the Dalton Highway. Currently, some frozen debris-lobes exceed 100 m in width, 20 m in height and 1000 m in length. Our results indicate that frozen debris-lobes have responded to climate change by becoming increasingly active during the last decades, resulting in rapid downslope movement. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. The type and diversity of observed indicators suggest that the lobes likely consist of a frozen debris core, are subject to creep, and seasonally unfrozen surface sediment is transported in warm seasons by creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines, and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008-2010) revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day-1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. We discuss how climate change may further influence frozen debris-lobe dynamics, potentially accelerating their movement. We highlight the potential direct hazard that one of the studied frozen debris-lobes may pose in the coming years and decades to the nearby Trans Alaska Pipeline System and the Dalton Highway, the main artery for transportation

  5. Recovery from chronic and snowmelt acidification: Long-term trends in stream and soil water chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Colin B.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Campbell, John L.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition of sulfate and nitrate has declined markedly in the northeastern United States due to emissions controls. We investigated long-term trends in soil water (1984-2011) and stream water (1982-2011) chemistry along an elevation gradient of a forested watershed to evaluate the progress of recovery of drainage waters from acidic deposition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, USA. We found slowed losses of base cations from soil and decreased mobilization of dissolved inorganic aluminum. Stream water pH at the watershed outlet increased at a rate of 0.01 units yr-1, and the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) gained 0.88 µeq L-1 yr-1. Dissolved organic carbon generally decreased in stream water and soil solutions, contrary to trends observed at many North American and European sites. We compared whole-year hydrochemical trends with those during snowmelt, which is the highest-flow and lowest ANC period of the year, indicative of episodic acidification. Stream water during snowmelt had long-term trends of increasing ANC and pH at a rate very similar to the whole-year record, with closely related steady decreases in sulfate. A more rapid decline in stream water nitrate during snowmelt compared with the whole-year trend may be due, in part, to the marked decrease in atmospheric nitrate deposition during the last decade. The similarity between the whole-year trends and those of the snowmelt period is an important finding that demonstrates a consistency between recovery from chronic acidification during base flow and abatement of snowmelt acidification.

  6. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (Pcold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health. PMID:18381266

  7. Quando il teatro si mise in cammino. Il viaggio di Peter Brook e del Centre International de Recherches Théâtrales negli anni Settanta, in compagnia del poema persiano Il verbo degli uccelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gandolfi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La dimensione del viaggio in zone altre del mondo acquistò particolare intensità per le compagnie teatrali occidentali degli anni Sessanta e Settanta: qui si ricostruisce in dettaglio uno di questi percorsi, il nomadismo dell'ensemble di Peter Brook in Africa, in Medio Oriente e nelle Americhe, discutendone le valenze in termini di ricerca teatrale e drammaturgica. Si interroga in particolare l'uso della epopea sufi di Farid od-Din 'Attar come testo-incontro, atto a favorire la costruzione di comuni immaginari simbolici con vari pubblici e a sviluppare originali forme di training attorico.

  8. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  9. Rapid movement of frozen debris-lobes: implications for permafrost degradation and slope instability in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Daanen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a reconnaissance investigation of unusual debris mass-movement features on permafrost slopes that pose a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska. For the purpose of this paper, we describe these features as frozen debris-lobes. We focus on the characterisation of frozen debris-lobes as indicators of various movement processes using ground-based surveys, remote sensing, field and laboratory measurements, and time-lapse observations of frozen debris-lobe systems along the Dalton Highway. Currently, some frozen debris-lobes exceed 100 m in width, 20 m in height and 1000 m in length. Our results indicate that frozen debris-lobes have responded to climate change by becoming increasingly active during the last decades, resulting in rapid downslope movement. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. The type and diversity of observed indicators suggest that the lobes likely consist of a frozen debris core, are subject to creep, and seasonally unfrozen surface sediment is transported in warm seasons by creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines, and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008–2010 revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day−1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. We discuss how climate change may further influence frozen debris-lobe dynamics, potentially accelerating their movement. We highlight the potential direct hazard that one of the studied frozen debris-lobes may pose in the coming years and decades to the nearby Trans Alaska Pipeline System and the Dalton Highway, the

  10. Effects of lake warming on behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a cold-water stenothermic fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Goyer

    Full Text Available Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time.

  11. Revision of Potamotrygonocotyle Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Monocotylidae), with descriptions of four new species from the gills of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon spp. (Rajiformes: Potamotrygonidae) from the La Plata river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Marques, Fernando P L

    2007-07-01

    The only known monocotylid genus to parasitise Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) is Potamotrygonocotyle Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981, a monotypic genus erected to accommodate P. tsalickisi Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981. For more than 20 years, no other species has been recognised in this genus, but new efforts to survey the diversity of parasites inhabiting potamotrygonids have revealed the existence of new species and the need to redefine the genus. Here, the generic diagnosis of Potamotrygonocotyle is amended, P. tsalickisi is redescribed and four new species are recognised and described based on samples collected from the gills of freshwater potamotrygonids from the La Plata river basin: Potamotrygonocotyle chisholmae n. sp. and P. dromedarius n. sp. from Potamotrygon motoro; Potamotrygonocotyle eurypotamoxenus n. sp. from Potamotrygon cf. motoro (type-host), P. castexi, P. falkneri and P. histrix; and Potamotrygonocotyle uruguayensis n. sp. from Potamotrygon brachyura. Potamotrygonocotyle is characterised by species possessing: (1) slightly sinuous sclerotised ridges on all septa; (2) two pairs of the dorsal haptoral accessory structures associated with the four posterior peripheral loculi and with anterior dorsal haptoral accessory structure bilobate or semicircular; and (3) male copulatory organ without an accessory piece. PMID:17464482

  12. Beckett elab edasi / Richard Brooks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brooks, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Dublini Gate Theatre, Blue Angel Films, RTE ja Channel 4 on jäädvustanud üheks telesarjaks kõik 19 Samuel Becketi näidendit. Mõnest filmist pikemalt, näiteks John Gielgudi kuu aega enne surma tehtud rollist David Mameti lavastatud "Katastroofis"

  13. Delineation and Characterization of Furnace Brook Watershed in Marshfield, Massachusetts: A Study of Effects upon Conjunctive Water Use within a Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, E. D.; Enright, R.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of conjunctive use between surface and ground water is essential to resource management both for sustained public use and watershed conservation practices. The Furnace Brook watershed in Marshfield, Massachusetts supplies a coastal community of 25,132 residents with nearly 50% of the town water supply. As with many other coastal communities, development pressure has increased creating a growing demand for freshwater extraction. It has been observed, however, that portions of the stream and Furnace Pond disappear entirely. This has created a conflict between protection of the designated wetland areas and meeting public pressure for water resources, even within what is traditionally viewed as a humid region. Questions have arisen as to whether the town water extraction is influencing this losing behavior by excessively lowering water-table elevations and potentially endangering the health of the stream. This study set out to initially characterize these behaviors and identify possible influences of anthropogenic and natural sources acting upon the watershed including stream flow obstructions, water extraction, and geologic conditions. The initial characterization was conducted utilizing simple, low-cost and minimally intrusive methods as outlined by Lee and Cherry (1978), Rosenberry and LaBaugh (2008) and others during a six week period. Five monitoring stations were established along a 3.0 mile reach of the basin consisting of mini-piezometers, seepage meters, survey elevation base-lines, and utilizing a Marsh-McBirney flow velocity meter. At each station stream discharge, seepage flux rates and hydraulic gradients were determined to develop trends of stream behavior. This methodology had the benefit of demonstrating the efficacy of an intrinsically low-expense, minimally intrusive initial approach to characterizing interactions between surface and ground water resources. The data was correlated with town pumping information, previous geologic

  14. Searching for a Relationship Between Forest Water Use and Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Concentration with Long-Term Hydrologic Data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthor, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Increases in atmospheric C02 concentration from mid-1956 through mid-1997 were compared with hydrologic records from five forested, gaged watersheds in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, U.S.A. The purpose of the comparison was to assess whether a relationship between increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and whole-ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) could be determined. The HBEF is particularly well suited to this type of study because of the length of the hydrologic record and the physical properties of the watersheds. This analysis is based on HBEF water years (which begin 1 June and end the following 31 May) rather than calendar years. Hydrologic records from individual watersheds used in this analysis ranged from 28 to 41 water years. During the full 41-water-year period, it is estimated that water-year mean atmospheric CO2 concentration increased more than 15% (from about 314 to 363 ppm). In one south-facing watershed (i.e., HBEF watershed 3), there was a statistically significant negative relationship between atmospheric C02 concentration and ET. This translated into a nearly 77 rnndyear reduction in ET as a result of a 50 ppm increase in atmospheric C02 concentration, a result of practical significance. Evapotranspiration from the other watersheds was also negatively related to atmospheric CO2 concentration, but with smaller (and statistically insignificant) magnitudes. Evapotranspiration from the three south-facing (but not the two north-facing) watersheds included in the analysis was "abnormally" low during the most recent 2 years (i.e., water years beginning in 1995 and 1996), and this affected the trends in ET. This recent and abrupt, reduction in ET deserves further analysis, most importantly by an extension of the hydrologic record through continued long-term monitoring in the HBEF (which is ongoing). If ET remains relatively low during the coming years in south-facing watersheds, studies of the physical and/or biological

  15. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-07 to 2010-05-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-07 to 2010-05-12 in...

  17. The Movements of Ferox Trout, Salmo trutta, in a Scottish Highland Freshwater Loch

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Alastair; MacDonald, Alisdair; Thorley, Joseph; Johnstone, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Ferox trout (Salmo trutta) are the top fish predators in many Scottish lochs feeding on smaller trout and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) – their main prey species. Although once considered a separate species, ferox trout are brown trout which have switched to a mainly piscivorous diet. The diet switch not only boosts growth (the current UK rod caught record weight is 14.4kg), but also adds to longevity (the oldest confirmed UK ferox was 23 years old). The main aim of the study d...

  18. Lake bathymetry and species occurrence predict the distribution of a lacustrine apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M R; Dodd, J A; Maitland, P S; Adams, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the abiotic and biotic characteristics of ecosystems that allow expression of a life history called ferox trout, the colloquial name given to brown trout Salmo trutta adopting a piscivorous life history strategy, an apex predator in post-glacial lakes in northern Europe. One hundred and ninety-two lakes in Scotland show evidence of currently, or historically, supporting ferox S. trutta; their presence was predicted in logistic models by larger and deeper lakes with a large catchment that also support populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. PMID:26899559

  19. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  20. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium (137Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and 137Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations (137Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of 137Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • 137Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • 137Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of 137Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat

  1. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  2. Brooks and Olmo List 45, Prunus Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  3. Brooks and olmo list 46, Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CYLD is essential for deubiquitinase activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Mar;128(3):587-93. Epub 2007 ... trichoepithelioma: lack of genotype-phenotype correlation. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 May;124(5):919-20. Citation on ...

  5. Autor pole kapten Corelliga rahul / Richard Brooks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brooks, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Menuromaani "Kapten Corelli mandoliin" autori Louis de Bernieres'i hinnanguid samanimelise filmi kohta : "Captain Corelli's Mandolin" : režissöör John Madden : Suurbritannia-Prantsusmaa-Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001

  6. Playboy Hefner meenutab ja naeratab / Brooks Barnes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barnes, Brooks

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi meediaettevõte Playboy Enterprises on rahalistes raskustes, kärpides ka reklaamijatele lubatud levinumbrit 2,6 miljonilt eksemplarilt 1,5 miljonile, väidab ettevõtte asutaja Hugh Hefner, et Playboy ei ole kokkukukkumise äärel

  7. Differences between white and red muscle fibers diameter in three salmon fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Karahmet E.; Vileš A.; Katica A.; Mlaćo N.; Toroman A.

    2014-01-01

    Because of skeletal muscle is the main contributor to body weight in most fish, it is probable that the species of the fish is limited by the growth of this tissue. Several aspects of both somatic size and skeletal muscle growth was investigated in this research work included a total of 20 brown trout (Salmo truta m. fario Lineus), 20 brook trout (Salvelinus alpinus) and 20 rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykkis Walbaum), the average weight of 200 grams. Gathere...

  8. Movement and Habitat Use of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus Clarki Utah): A Case Study In the Temple Fork Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lokteff, Ryan L.

    2014-01-01

    Movement patterns and habitat use of Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki utah) in tributaries of the Logan River watershed are greatly aected by habitat alterations created by North American Beaver (Castor canadensis). Evaluation of cutthroat trout habitat use in these watersheds is also complicated by biotic interactions with invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). My objectives in this thesis were to 1.) Evaluate the passage of beaver dams by...

  9. Geosmin causes off-flavour in arctic charr in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “earthy” and “muddy” off-flavors in pond-reared fish are due to the presence of geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the flesh of the fish. Similar off-flavors have been reported in fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS); however, little information is available regarding the ...

  10. Short-and long term niche segregation and individual specialization of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in species poor Faroese lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Jakob; Malmquist, Hilmar J.; Landkildehus, Frank;

    2012-01-01

    Trophic niche divergence is considered to be a major process by which species coexistence is facilitated. When studying niche segregation in lake ecosystems, we tend to view the niche on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. In reality, however, the niche use may be more complex and individual...... living in allopatry or in sympatry with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Diet analyses revealed, however, that niche-segregation may be more complex than described on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. Trout from both littoral and offshore benthic habitats had in the presence of sticklebacks a...... fidelity to a niche may be variable both between and within populations. In order to study this complexity, relative simple systems with few species are needed. In this paper, we study how competitor presence affects the resource use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in 11 species-poor Faroese lakes by...

  11. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout in streams using electrofishing. Although the success of electrofishing removal projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. We evaluated the effectiveness of a three-year removal project in reducing brook trout and enhancing native salmonids in 7.8 km of an Idaho stream and looked for brook trout compensatory responses such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, or earlier maturation. Due to underestimates of the distribution of brook trout in the first year and personnel shortages in the third year, the multiagency watershed advisory group that performed the project fully treated the stream (i.e. multipass removals over the entire stream) in only one year. In 1998, 1999, and 2000, a total of 1,401, 1,241, and 890 brook trout were removed, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, an estimated 88 and 79% of the total number of brook trout in the stream were removed. For the section of stream that was treated in all years, the abundance of age-1 and older brook trout decreased by 85% from 1998 to 2003. In the same area, the abundance of age-0 brook trout decreased 86% from 1998 to 1999 but by 2003 had rebounded to near the original abundance. Abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss decreased for age-1 and older fish but did not change significantly for age-0 fish. Despite high rates of removal, total annual survival rate for brook trout increased from 0.08 {+-} 0.02 in 1998 to 0.20 {+-} 0.04 in 1999 and 0.21 {+-} 0.04 in 2000. Growth of age-0 brook trout was significantly higher in 2000 (the year after their abundance was lowest) compared to other years, and growth of age-1 and age-2 brook trout was significantly lower following the initial removal

  12. Morfologicko-fyziologické rozdíly sivena amerického Salvelinus fontinalis a jeho hybrida Salvelinus alpinus x Salvelinus fontinalis chovaných v recirkulačních systémech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Vítek, T.; Mareš, J.

    Brno : Tribun EU, 2012 - (Soukalová, K.). s. 12 ISBN 978-80-263-0307-7. [Česká ichtyologická konference /13./. 24.10.2012-26.10.2012, Červená nad Vltavou] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Aquaculture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroney, Joseph; Donley, Christopher; Scott, Jason; Lockwood, Jr., Neil

    1997-06-01

    In 1995 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) in conjunction with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) initiated the implementation of a habitat and population enhancement project for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Habitat and population assessments were conducted in seven tributaries of the Box Canyon reach of the Pend Oreille River. Assessments were used to determine the types and quality of habitat that were limiting to native bull trout and cutthroat trout populations. Assessments were also used to determine the effects of interspecific competition within these streams. A bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) hybridization assessment was conducted to determine the degree of hybridization between these two species. Analysis of the habitat data indicated high rates of sediment and lack of wintering habitat. The factors that contribute to these conditions have the greatest impact on habitat quality for the tributaries of concern. Population data suggested that brook trout have less stringent habitat requirements; therefore, they have the potential to outcompete the native salmonids in areas of lower quality habitat. No hybrids were found among the samples, which is most likely attributable to the limited number of bull trout. Data collected from these assessments were compiled to develop recommendations for enhancement measures. Recommendations for restoration include riparian planting and fencing, instream structures, as well as, removal of non-native brook trout to reduce interspecific competition with native salmonids in an isolated reach of Cee Cee Ah Creek.

  14. Experimental and natural host specificity of Loma salmonae (Microsporidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R W; Kent, M L; Brown, A M; Whipps, C M; Adamson, M L

    2000-03-14

    The microsporidian Loma salmonae (Putz, Hoffman & Dunbar, 1965) Morrison & Sprague, 1981 has caused significant gill disease in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. Host specificity of the parasite was examined experimentally by per os challenge of selected salmonids and non-salmonids with infective chinook salmon O. tshawytscha gill material. Pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta, brown Salmo trutta and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and chinook salmon (controls) were positive, whereas Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus were negative. In addition, no non-salmonids were susceptible to experimental exposure. Wild Pacific salmon species in British Columbia, Canada, were examined for L. salmonae during their freshwater life history stages (smolts, prespawning, spawning). All stages were infected, although infections in smolts were only detectable using a L. salmonae-specific PCR test. Many previous Loma spp. described from Oncorhychus spp. are likely L. salmonae based on host, parasite morphology, and site of infection. PMID:10782347

  15. Evaluation and Development Tactics of Artificial Ecological Recreation Site Based on Perception of Object Taking Huanhua Brook of Chengdu as the Case%基于客体感知的人工生态游憩地评价及开发策略——以成都市浣花溪为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈兴菊; 蒋莉

    2011-01-01

    人工生态游憩地建设的成功与否基于其对游憩者吸引力大小,吸引力大小取决于游憩地本身的品质和能否符合游憩者需求.选择成都市的浣花溪作为人工生态游憩地样本,采用问卷调查分析方法,进行基于客体感知的人工生态游憩者评价.结果表明:游憩动机体现游憩者效益最大化原则;活动感知表明主体与客体具有相对一致性;吸引力因素中感知偏好最强烈是环境品质;满意度感知影响购买意愿;重游率是感知评价的结果.以此为依据,提出了了解游憩者动机,重视环境质量、稳定客源市场、克服游憩障碍、重视游憩者满意度评价等人工生态游憩地可持续发展的开发策略.%Whether construction of artificial ecological recreation site is successful is based upon its attraction to tourist, and the attraction lies on quality of recreation site and whether it meets the demand of tourists. Huanhua Brook of Chengdu is taken as the sample of artificial ecological recreation site in this paper, method of analysis of questionnaire survey is adopted, and evaluation on artificial ecological tourist based on perception of object is conducted. The result shows that motive of recreation incarnates maximization principle of benefit, perception of activity manifests relative uniformity between subject and object, the strongest preference of perception among factors of attraction is environmental quality, perception of degree of satisfaction impacts purchase intention and revisit rate are the results of assessment of perception. Based on them, development tactics of sustainable development in artificial ecological recreation site such as finding out motive of tourist, attaching importance to environmental quality, leveling off tourist source market, overcoming barrier of recreation and paying attention to evaluation on satisfaction degree of tourist are put forward.

  16. Vliv alternativních krmiv na růst, výtěžnost a senzorické vlastnosti masa lososovitých ryb.

    OpenAIRE

    PFLUG, Róbert

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis evaluates the impact of alternative feed on growth, yield and sensory evaluation of flesh of salmonids. The technology "finishing feeding" and its impact on these indicators was evaluated by a feeding test conducted in trout farm in Annin (Klatovské rybářství a.s.). The experimental species was brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis L.) with average weight of 156 ? 4,91 g. The test was carried out for 135 days and there were 2 diets. Diet A (rapeseed oil, RO) or B (fish oil, F...

  17. A Brooks type theorem for the maximum local edge connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiebitz, Michael; Toft, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    For a graph $G$, let $\\cn(G)$ and $\\la(G)$ denote the chromatic number of $G$ and the maximum local edge connectivity of $G$, respectively. A result of Dirac \\cite{Dirac53} implies that every graph $G$ satisfies $\\cn(G)\\leq \\la(G)+1$. In this paper we characterize the graphs $G$ for which $\\cn(G)...

  18. Making quark matter at brook haven's new collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarks are believed to come in 6 flavours, only the lightest of which, the up and down quarks, are found in protons and neutrons. Isolated quarks have never been observed. As quarks are brought closer together, the force between them decreases dramatically, vanishing as the separation becomes very small. This suggests that quarks may become unbound if the density of quarks could be increased by squeezing a nucleus. The nucleus would have melted their constituent quarks, now free to roam the extended volume of the compressed nucleus. This situation would make a significant change in the structure of matter corresponding to a change of phase, rather like the transition from solid to liquid, but in this case from quark confined matter, to a quark gluon plasma (QGP). This new state of matter is thought to have been the natural phase of matter until 10 micro-seconds after the big-bang, and also to exist today in the core of neutron stars. Calculations show that the energy density needed to observe the phase transition is around 1 GeV/fm3, approximately 8 times that of normal nuclear matter. Attempts to recreate QGP have been underway at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and at the CERN by colliding heavy-ion beams at the maximal energy possible. Between 4000 and 5000 charged particles are produced in the most violent events. The experimental challenge is to establish the existence of QGP from all this wealth of data. (A.C.)

  19. Brooks under colliery heaps in the Walloon Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies are presently under progress in the Walloon Region so as to assess the long term environmental impact caused by the closing of coal mines. Among the effects on water resources management, mining wastes deposits in the major bed of small rivers becomes a concern since the lack of maintenance of the works leads to difficulties of drainage in period of storm and to situations at risk for the vicinity. A first characterization carried out by the IGRETEC at the request of the Walloon Region leads to the selection of nine spoil heaps for more detailed investigations. The purpose is to update the administrative data by establishing the profile and cross sections of the works, to collect hydrological data and to evaluate measures to be proposed according to the risks and to the dimensioning of the works. The in situ investigations called upon specialized speleologists and the use of video cameras. (authors)

  20. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BROOKS COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  1. Galaxies of Redshift z > 5 The View from Stony Brook

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Pascarelle, S; Yahata, N; Yahil, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of our efforts to establish properties of the extremely faint galaxy population by applying our photometric redshift technique to the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields. We find that cosmological surface brightness dimming effects play a dominant role in setting what is observed at redshifts z > 2, that the comoving number density of high intrinsic surface brightness regions increases monotonically with increasing redshift, and that previous estimates neglect a significant or dominant fraction of the ultraviolet luminosity density of the universe due to surface brightness effects. The ultraviolet luminosity density of the universe plausibly increases monotonically with increasing redshift to redshifts beyond z = 5.

  2. Galaxies of Redshift z > 5: The View from Stony Brook

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of our efforts to establish properties of the extremely faint galaxy population by applying our photometric redshift technique to the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields. We find that cosmological surface brightness dimming effects play a dominant role in setting what is observed at redshifts z > 2, that the comoving number density of high intrinsic surface brightness regions increases monotonically with increasing redshift, and that previous estimates neglect a si...

  3. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.

  4. Plastic resource polymorphism: effects of resource availability on Arctic char ( Salvelinus alpinus ) morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Andersson; P. Bystrom; L. Persson; A.M. de Roos

    2005-01-01

    6. Abstract (optional): Resource polymorphism has been suggested to be a platform for speciation. In some cases resource polymorphism depends on phenotypic plasticity but in other cases on genetic differences between morphotypes, which in turn has been suggested to be the ongoing development of a sp

  5. In vitro immune functions in thiamine-replete and -depleted lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the impacts of in vivo thiamine deficiency on lake trout leukocyte function measured in vitro. When compared outside the context of individual-specific thiamine concentrations no significant differences were observed in leukocyte bactericidal activity or in concanavalin A (Con A), and phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) stimulated leukocyte proliferation. Placing immune functions into context with the ratio of in vivo liver thiamine monophosphate (TMP – biologically inactive form) to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP – biologically active form) proved to be the best indicator of thiamine depletion impacts as determined using regression modeling. These observed relationships indicated differential effects on the immune measures with bactericidal activity exhibiting an inverse relationship with TMP to TPP ratios, Con A stimulated mitogenesis exhibiting a positive relationship with TMP to TPP ratios and PHA-P stimulated mitogenesis exhibiting no significant relationships. In addition, these relationships showed considerable complexity which included the consistent observation of a thiamine-replete subgroup with characteristics similar to those seen in the leukocytes from thiamine-depleted fish. When considered together, our observations indicate that lake trout leukocytes experience cell-type specific impacts as well as an altered physiologic environment when confronted with a thiamine-limited state.

  6. Teleost reproduction: Aspects of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) oocyte growth and maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Håkan

    2003-01-01

    In all vertebrate species, reproduction is a hormonally controlled process, important for growth and maturation of gonads and germ cells. Production of functional germ cells is of outmost importance to secure the survival of a species. Fish comprises 50% of the known vertebrates and are found in aquatic habitats all over the world. Even though fish have evolved a wide variety of morphological and physiological characteristics, due to large differences in the living environment, the growth an ...

  7. Do low-mercury terrestrial resources subsidize low-mercury growth of stream fish? Differences between species along a productivity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Ward

    Full Text Available Low productivity in aquatic ecosystems is associated with reduced individual growth of fish and increased concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg in fish and their prey. However, many stream-dwelling fish species can use terrestrially-derived food resources, potentially subsidizing growth at low-productivity sites, and, because terrestrial resources have lower MeHg concentrations than aquatic resources, preventing an increase in diet-borne MeHg accumulation. We used a large-scale field study to evaluate relationships among terrestrial subsidy use, growth, and MeHg concentrations in two stream-dwelling fish species across an in-stream productivity gradient. We sampled young-of-the-year brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, potential competitors with similar foraging habits, from 20 study sites in streams in New Hampshire and Massachusetts that encompassed a wide range of aquatic prey biomass. Stable isotope analysis showed that brook trout used more terrestrial resources than Atlantic salmon. Over their first growing season, Atlantic salmon tended to grow larger than brook trout at sites with high aquatic prey biomass, but brook grew two-fold larger than Atlantic salmon at sites with low aquatic prey biomass. The MeHg concentrations of brook trout and Atlantic salmon were similar at sites with high aquatic prey biomass and the MeHg concentrations of both species increased at sites with low prey biomass and high MeHg in aquatic prey. However, brook trout had three-fold lower MeHg concentrations than Atlantic salmon at low-productivity, high-MeHg sites. These results suggest that differential use of terrestrial resource subsidies reversed the growth asymmetry between potential competitors across a productivity gradient and, for one species, moderated the effect of low in-stream productivity on MeHg accumulation.

  8. New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions.

  9. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Bull trout distribution and abundance in the waters on and bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout occupied pools more frequently than glides, riffles and rapids. However, pools accounted for only a small percentage

  11. A real-time PCR method for the quantification of the two isoforms of metallothionein in Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Julieta; Palace, Vince; Baron, Christopher; Shiu, Robert; Yarmill, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight proteins whose physiologic roles are the regulation of essential metals Cu and Zn, sequestration of heavy metals, and free radical scavenging. Induced production of MTs in a wide variety of organisms exposed to heavy metals has made them popular exposure indicators. While it has been postulated that the three different isoforms of MT play different physiologic roles, methods to discern induction separately have not been available. The development of real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) primers and TaqMan probes to measure the two MT isoforms found in salmonid fish are described. Assuming a high degree of homology between the isoforms and within different groups of salmonids, the sequences for MT-I and MT-II from rainbow trout were used to develop primers and probes for lake trout using the Primer3 program. Two sections of each isoform that varied by only a few nucleotides were targeted. SYBR Green validated the primer specificity, and melt curve analysis further ensured that only one product was amplified. Analysis of archived samples from fish captured in unmanipulated reference lakes or from lakes experimentally treated with cadmium or ethynylestradiol (EE2) afforded an examination of seasonal and contaminant influences on MT-I and MT-II mRNA expression. PMID:17687585

  12. The effects of inbreeding on sperm quality traits in captive‐bred lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1972)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, K.; Butts, I. A. E.; Smith, J. L.;

    2015-01-01

    depression in the studied population, due to purging, low levels of inbreeding or lack of detection at the gametic level, or (ii) relaxed selective pressures due to benign hatchery conditions. The present study provides significant insight into the effects of inbreeding on sperm quality in a captive...

  13. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2014-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing i...

  14. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, Karen A., E-mail: kiddk@unbsj.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G., E-mail: derek.muir@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xioawa, E-mail: xiaowa.wang@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Whittle, Mike [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Swanson, Heidi K., E-mail: heidikswanson@yahoo.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Johnston, Tom, E-mail: tjohnston@laurentian.ca [Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Biology Department, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Guildford, Stephanie, E-mail: sguildfo@d.umn.edu [Department of Biology and Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2205 5th St., Duluth, MN, 55812 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The 'rate' of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 15}N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to {delta}{sup 15}N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N; {delta}{sup 13}C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury biomagnifies through aquatic food webs to toxic levels in top predator fishes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among-system differences in mercury transfer through food webs occur but have not been explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse lakes supporting lake trout were compared to understand the ecosystem processes that affect mercury biomagnification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher biomagnification of mercury was found in larger, higher nutrient lakes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that the food web processing of mercury is related to ecosystem properties.

  15. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The “rate” of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to δ15N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes (δ15N; δ13C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. -- Highlights: ► Mercury biomagnifies through aquatic food webs to toxic levels in top predator fishes. ► Among-system differences in mercury transfer through food webs occur but have not been explained. ► Diverse lakes supporting lake trout were compared to understand the ecosystem processes that affect mercury biomagnification. ► Higher biomagnification of mercury was found in larger, higher nutrient lakes. ► Results show that the food web processing of mercury is related to ecosystem properties.

  16. Snake River sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research: Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. 1997 project objectives included (1) characterization of the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes; (2) fertilization of Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) O.nerka lake population surveys; (4) estimation of kokanee escapement and fry production in Alturas Lake Creek, Stanley Lake Creek, and Fishhook Creek; (5) reduce the number of spawning kokanee in Fishook Creek; (6) evaluate hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O.nerka in Pettit Lake; (7) assess predation from bull trout Salvelinus malma, brook trout S.fontinalis, and northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonsis on lentic O.nerka; (8) establish screw tap and weir sites to monitor smolt emigration

  17. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  18. Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum to salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.; Smith, D.R.; Shatzer, T.

    1997-01-01

    Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates representing five origins was evaluated in eight salmonid hosts; four origins were of Lake Michigan and the fifth was of the Pacific Northwest. The species type strain, ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 33209, was also included. Each isolate was grown in a kidney disease medium (KDM2) supplemented with 1 % ATCC 33209 culture metabolite; serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared, and groups of fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with 0.1 mL of each dilution. A 70-d observation period followed, and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) was diagnosed by the fluorescent antibody technique. Virulence of isolates was quantified as a dose lethal to 50% of fish (LD50) for each host–isolate challenge. In the first set of experiments, 23 isolates were used to challenge groups of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. The mean LD50 was 1.087 x 106 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL; SD = 2.022 x 106), and the LD50 values ranged from 8.457 x 106 to 2.227 x 104 cfu/mL. Analysis of variance to evaluate the effect of isolate origin on virulence in brook trout revealed no significant difference (F = 1.502; P = 0.243). Susceptibilities of the other salmonid hosts were evaluated by challenge with six isolates of R. salmoninarum representing each origin and the species type strain. For many of the host–isolate challenge combinations, time to death was highly dependent on the dilution (number of bacteria) injected. In general, the isolates MCO4M, B26, and A34 (all of Lake Michigan origin) tended to be more virulent. Also, LD50 values were dispersed throughout a wider range among the more susceptible hosts. Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout were relatively resistant to challenge with the strains, whereas coho salmon O. kisutch, domestic Atlantic salmon Saltno salar, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha were relatively susceptible. Another challenge evaluated the effect of

  19. Flavobacterium psychrophilum Infections in Salmonid Broodstock and Hatchery-Propagated Stocks of the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Danielle; Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, threatens wild and propagated salmonids worldwide and leads to substantial economic losses. In addition to being horizontally transmitted, F. psychrophilum can be passed from infected parents to their progeny, furthering the negative impacts of this pathogen. In Michigan, both feral and captive salmonid broodstocks are the gamete sources used in fishery propagation efforts. A 5-year study was initiated to follow the prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in feral broodstocks of four species (steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss [potadromous Rainbow Trout]; Coho Salmon O. kisutch; Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha; and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar) residing in three Great Lakes watersheds. Additionally, captive broodstocks of four species (Rainbow Trout, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) maintained at two facilities were assessed for the presence of F. psychrophilum. The resultant offspring from each broodstock population were sampled for F. psychrophilum infections multiple times throughout hatchery residency. Using selective flavobacterial culture and PCR confirmation, F. psychrophilum was detected in all broodstocks except the captive Lake Trout and Brook Trout. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that among the infected feral broodstocks, Chinook Salmon from the Lake Michigan watershed had the highest prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infection (mean = 63.2%). Among the captive broodstocks, the Gilchrist Creek strain of Brown Trout had the highest infection prevalence (mean = 5%). Collectively, the captive broodstocks were found to have significantly lower infection prevalence than the feral broodstocks. Despite the high prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in many broodstock populations, the bacterium was rarely detected in their progeny during hatchery rearing. However, heavy losses associated

  20. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  1. Sediment samples collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_SedimentSamples)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  2. JPEG bottom photos collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  3. Assessing Restoration Perspectives of Disturbed Brook Valleys: The Gorecht Area, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van Diggelen , Rudy; Grootjans, Ab; Burkunk, Rob

    1994-01-01

    Several landscape restoration alternatives were evaluated in the Gorecht area, a cultivated river plain in the northern part of the Netherlands. A landscape analysis was performed to investigate the hydrological functioning of this area. Groundwater composition in the area was assessed by using distribution patterns of indicative plant species. Results proved to be consistent with an interpolation of actual data of the groundwater composition. Groundwater flow was simulated with hydrological ...

  4. Brook ja viis Nüganeni talves / Eva Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübar, Eva, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    27.-31. dets. Tallinnas toimuva teatrifestivali "Talveöö unenägu" monoetendustest - Peter Brooki "Suurinkvisiitor" Pariisis tegutseva rahvusvahelise teatriuuringute keskuse egiidi all (esitaja briti näitleja Bruce Myers), Berliner Ensemble'i "Artaud meenutab Hitlerit ja romanisches Café'd" (esitaja saksa näitleja Martin Wuttke), Alvis Hermanise "Sonja" Riia Uue Teatri esituses, Jan Jönsoni "Tõelushetked" ja Marie Jones'i "Kivid sinu taskutes" Tallinna Linnateatri esituses ja Jaanus Rohumaa lavastuses

  5. Contaminant survey of Sunkhaze Stream and Baker Brook: Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1993 a screeninglevel contaminant survey of the Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge was conducted by the Maine Field Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  6. The endangered Dama dama mesopotamica Brooke, 1875: genetic variability, allelic loss and hybridization signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-García, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) formerly widespread in the Middle East was described scientifically at the end of the 19th century and considered extinct ever since. In 1956 it was rediscovered in south-western Iran. As a result, several countries have undertaken actions to reintrod

  7. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey’s water retention parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Nasta; J.A. Vrugt; N. Romano

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this stud

  8. Slope 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA ship Hi'ialakai and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  9. Rugosity 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA ship Hi'ialakai and R/V AHI using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  10. Trace element exposure in benthic invertebrates from Grove Pond, Plow Shop Pond, and Nonacoicus Brook

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remedial investigations associated with the Superfund Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found highly elevated levels of several trace...

  11. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  12. Integrating Science and Policy: A Case Study of the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation Science Links Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    Scientists, related professionals, and the public have for decades called for greater interaction among scientists, policymakers, and the media to address contemporary environmental challenges. Practical examples of effective "real-world" programs designed to catalyze interactions and provide relevant science are few. Existing successful models…

  13. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) at 25: manipulation, monitoring, mechanism, and modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Simon, K. S.; Jain, S.

    Northport : University of Maine, 2012 - (Fernandez, I.; Norton, S.; Wilson, T.). s. 177-177 ISBN 978-0-87723-108-0. [BIOGEOMON : international symposium on ecosystem behavior /7./. 15.07.2012-20.07.2012, Northport] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : geochemistry * monitoring * modeling Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  14. Peter Brook tuleb koos etendusega festivalile "Talveöö unenägu" / Raivo Põldmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldmaa, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Teatrikülgede küsimused Eesti teatrijuhtidele sügishooaja loomingulistest plaanidest, majanduslangusest tingitud muudatustest teatris, Kultuurkapitali reisirahastamise teemal, algava sügishooaja põhiteema. Tallinna Linnateatri festivali "Talveöö unenägu" tutvustab Laur Kaunissaare. Artikkel ilmub ajaleherubriigis "Teatriküljed 10/34"

  15. Massachusetts Stony Brook galactic plane CO survey - disk and spiral arm molecular cloud populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary analysis of a new high-resolution CO survey of the galactic disk is presented, which can detect and measure essentially all molecular clouds and cloud components in the inner Galaxy with size greater than 10 pc. In the region of l between 20 and 50 deg approximately 2000 emission centers are identified. Two populations which separate according to temperature are found. The disk population of cold molecular cores contains about three-quarters of the total number of cores, is not confined to any large-scale pattern in longitude-velocity space, and must be widespread in the Galaxy both in and out of spiral arms. The spiral arm population of warm molecular cores contains about one-quarter of the population with one-half of the emission and is very closely associated with radio H II regions. Between longitudes 20 and 50 deg their radial distribution shows two peaks at R = 5 and 7.5 kpc. The warm molecular cloud cores have a nonaxisymmetric galactic distribution, occur in clusters, and are confined to restricted regions and patterns in longitude-velocity space and in the galactic disk. 20 references

  16. The Stony Brook Photometric Redshifts of Faint Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Pascarelle, S; Pütter, R C; Yahata, N; Yahil, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Puetter, Rick; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of the current status of our efforts to establish properties of faint galaxies by applying our photometric redshift technique to faint galaxies in the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields.

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BROOKINGS COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. Biostratigraphy and Palaeoenvironment of the Lower Gosau Subgroup of Eisenbach Brook in Salzkammergut (Upper Austria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradecká, L.; Lobitzer, H.; Ottner, F.; Schlagintweit, F.; Svobodová, Marcela; Szente, I.; Švábenická, L.; Zorn, I.

    Wien : Arbeitstagung 2007 der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Blatt 67 Grünau im Almtal und Blatt 47 Ried im Innkreis: Beiträge zur Geologie Oberösterreichs (Umschlagtitel) (Taschenbuch), 2007 - (Egger, H.; Rupp, C.). s. 166-166 ISBN 978-3-85316-035-0. [Arbeitstagung 2007 der Geologischen Bundesanstalt. 07.05.2007-11.05.2007, Linz] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Lower Gosau Subgroup * Northern Calcareous Alps * Upper Austria Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Brook Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1746 to 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  20. Big Data for Education: Data Mining, Data Analytics, and Web Dashboards. Governance Studies at Brookings

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Darrell M.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve-year-old Susan took a course designed to improve her reading skills. She read short stories and the teacher would give her and her fellow students a written test every other week measuring vocabulary and reading comprehension. A few days later, Susan's instructor graded the paper and returned her exam. The test showed that she did well on…

  1. The Purpose of the Corporation in Business and Law School Curricula. Governance Studies at Brookings

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    For most of American history, businesses were run to provide livelihoods and "reasonable" profit. In the last few decades, though, business and society in general have moved toward emphasizing profit maximization and individual self-interest. The shift from "reasonable profit" to profit maximization has significant implications for corporate…

  2. Community structure influences species' abundance along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloranta, Antti P; Helland, Ingeborg P; Sandlund, Odd T; Hesthagen, Trygve; Ugedal, Ola; Finstad, Anders G

    2016-01-01

    Species' response to abiotic environmental variation can be influenced by local community structure and interspecific interactions, particularly in restricted habitats such as islands and lakes. In temperate lakes, future increase in water temperature and run-off of terrestrial (allochthonous) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are predicted to alter community composition and the overall ecosystem productivity. However, little is known about how the present community structure and abiotic environmental variation interact to affect the abundance of native fish populations. We used a space-for-time approach to study how local community structure interact with lake morphometric and climatic characteristics (i.e. temperature and catchment productivity) to affect brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) yield in 283 Norwegian lakes located in different biogeographical regions. Brown trout yield (based on data from standardized survey gill net fishing; g 100 m(-2) gill net night(-1)) was generally lower in lakes where other fish species were present than in lakes with brown trout only. The yield showed an overall negative relationship with increasing temperature and a positive relationship with lake shoreline complexity. Brown trout yield was also negatively correlated with DOC load (measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a proxy) and lake size and depth (measured using terrain slope as a proxy), but only in lakes where other fish species were present. The observed negative response of brown trout yield to increasing DOC load and proportion of the pelagic open-water area is likely due to restricted (littoral) niche availability and competitive dominance of more pelagic fishes such as Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)). Our study highlights that, through competitive interactions, the local community structure can influence the response of a species' abundance to variation in abiotic conditions. Changes in biomass and niche use of top predators (such as the brown

  3. Kalispel Non-Native Fish Suppression Project 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingert, Michele; Andersen, Todd [Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    2008-11-18

    Non-native salmonids are impacting native salmonid populations throughout the Pend Oreille Subbasin. Competition, hybridization, and predation by non-native fish have been identified as primary factors in the decline of some native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) populations. In 2007, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Kalispel Nonnative Fish Suppression Project. The goal of this project is to implement actions to suppress or eradicate non-native fish in areas where native populations are declining or have been extirpated. These projects have previously been identified as critical to recovering native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout (WCT). Lower Graham Creek was invaded by non-native rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) after a small dam failed in 1991. By 2003, no genetically pure WCT remained in the lower 700 m of Graham Creek. Further invasion upstream is currently precluded by a relatively short section of steep, cascade-pool stepped channel section that will likely be breached in the near future. In 2008, a fish management structure (barrier) was constructed at the mouth of Graham Creek to preclude further invasion of non-native fish into Graham Creek. The construction of the barrier was preceded by intensive electrofishing in the lower 700 m to remove and relocate all captured fish. Westslope cutthroat trout have recently been extirpated in Cee Cee Ah Creek due to displacement by brook trout. We propose treating Cee Cee Ah Creek with a piscicide to eradicate brook trout. Once eradication is complete, cutthroat trout will be translocated from nearby watersheds. In 2004, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) proposed an antimycin treatment within the subbasin; the project encountered significant public opposition and was eventually abandoned. However, over the course of planning this 2004 project, little public

  4. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights to Elicit Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert, P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental tests were conducted using hatchery reared and wild juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (<20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage as well as observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50mm) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10 Hz volume displacement source. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced higher and more consistent movement rates in wild chinook (60% of the tests); hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%) and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable movement or other responses was observed for eastern brook trout. Little if any habituation was observed during repeated exposures to strobe lights. Results from this study indicate that consistent repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility. Because sub-yearling salmonids and resident species are susceptible from becoming entrained at water diversion structures we conducted tests in conjunction with our evaluation of juvenile fish screening

  5. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights for Eliciting Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Neitzel, Duane A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Amidan, Brett G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted using juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (< 20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. The objective of these tests was to determine if juvenile salmonids could be deterred from entrainment at water diversion structures. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species-specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage and by observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm TL) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50 mm TL) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10-Hz volume displacement source of infrasound. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm TL) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Evidence of habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced consistent movement in wild chinook salmon (60% of the tests), hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%), and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable responses were observed for brook trout. Results indicate that consistent, repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high-intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The species specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low-frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility.

  6. Current status, between-year comparisons and maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (Norway)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytingsvik, J., E-mail: jenny.bytingsvik@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Götsch, A.; Heimstad, E.S. [NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research), The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Pb 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-07-15

    High levels of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) have been found in Arctic char from Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya (Svalbard, Norway) compared to char from other arctic lakes. The first aim of the study was to investigate the OHC status, contaminant profile, and partitioning of OHCs between muscle and ovary tissue in spawning female char from the high-polluted Lake Ellasjøen and the low-polluted Lake Laksvatn. The second aim was to investigate if OHC levels in muscle tissue have changed over time. Between-lake comparisons show that the muscle levels (lipid weight) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (∑ CHLs), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (∑ DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑ PCBs) were up to 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn, and confirm that the char from Ellasjøen are still heavily exposed compared to char from neighboring lake. A higher proportion of persistent OHCs were found in Ellasjøen compared to Laksvatn, while the proportion of the less persistent OHCs was highest in Laksvatn. A between-year comparison of OHC levels (i.e., HCB, DDTs, PCBs) in female and male char shows higher levels of HCB in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 compared to in 1999/2001. No other between-year differences in OHC levels were found. Due to small study groups, findings associated with between-year differences in OHC levels should be interpreted with caution. OHCs accumulate in the lipid rich ovaries of spawning females, resulting in up to six times higher levels of OHCs in ovaries compared to in muscle (wet weight). The toxic equivalent (TEQ)-value for the dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-105 and -118) in ovaries of the Ellasjøen char exceeded levels associated with increased egg mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hence, we suggest that future studies should focus on the reproductive health and performance abilities of the high-exposed population of char inhabiting Lake Ellasjøen. - Highlights: • Examine levels, profile, time-trends and maternal transfer of OHCs in Arctic char • Char from Lake Ellasjøen (Bjørnøya, Norway) are known to be highly contaminated. • PCB-levels (2012): 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn (ref.) • Higher HCB levels in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 than in 1999/2001 • OHC-levels were up to six times higher in ovaries than in muscle tissue.

  7. Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Camp, Ariel L; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-08-01

    Quantification of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the function of a musculoskeletal system may yield a detailed understanding of how the organizational levels of morphology, biomechanics, kinematics, and muscle activity patterns (MAPs) influence behavioral diversity. Using separate analyses of these organizational levels in representative study taxa, we sought patterns of congruence in how organizational levels drive behavioral modulation in a novel raking prey-processing behavior found in teleosts belonging to two evolutionarily distinct lineages. Biomechanically divergent prey (elusive, robust goldfish and sedentary, malleable earthworms) were fed to knifefish, Chitala ornata (Osteoglossomorpha) and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Salmoniformes). Electromyography recorded MAPs from the hyoid protractor, jaw adductor, sternohyoideus, epaxialis, and hypaxialis musculature, while sonomicrometry sampled deep basihyal kinesis and contractile length dynamics in the basihyal protractor and retractor muscles. Syntheses of our results with recent analyses of cranial morphology and raking kinematics showed that raking in Salvelinus relies on an elongated cranial out lever, extensive cranial elevation and a curved cleithrobranchial ligament (CBL), and that both raking MAPs and kinematics remain entirely unmodulated-a highly unusual trait, particularly among feeding generalists. Chitala had a shorter CBL and a raking power stroke involving increased retraction of the elongated pectoral girdle during raking on goldfish. The raking MAP was also modulated in Chitala, involving an extensive overlap between muscle activity of the preparatory and power stroke phases, driven by shifts in hypaxial timing and recruitment of the hyoid protractor muscle. Sonomicrometry revealed that the protractor hyoideus muscle stored energy from retraction of the pectoral girdle for ca. 5-20 ms after onset of the power stroke and then hyper-extended. This mechanism of elastic

  8. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  9. Locations of bottom photographs collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_BottomPhotos)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  10. Re-Os sulfide geochronology of the Red Dog sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, R.M.; Creaser, R.A.; Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; King, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog sediment-hosted deposit in the De Long Mountains of northern Alaska is the largest Zn producer in the world. Main stage mineralization is characterized by massive sulfide ore and crosscutting subvertical veins. Although the vein mineralization is clearly younger than the massive ore, the exact temporal relationship between the two is unclear. Re-Os geochronology of pyrite is used to determine the absolute age of main stage ore at Red Dog. A 10-point isochron on both massive and vein pyrite yields an age of 338.3 ?? 5.8 Ma and is interpreted to represent the age of main stage ore. The Re-Os data indicate that both massive and vein ore types are coeval within the resolution of the technique. Formation of the Red Dog deposit was associated with extension along a passive continental margin, and therefore the Re-Os age of main stage ore constrains the timing of rifting as well as the age of the host sedimentary rocks. Sphalerite from both massive and vein ore yields imprecise ages and shows a high degree of scatter compared to pyrite. We suggest that the Re-Os systematics of sphalerite can be disturbed and that this mineral is not reliable for Re-Os geochronology. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  11. Late Quaternary paleomagnetic secular variation, relative paleointensity, and environmental magnetism from Cascade Lake, Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, D. P.; Kaufman, D. S.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Two sediment cores from Cascade Lake (68.38°N, 154.60°W), Arctic Alaska were selected for paleomagnetic analysis to compare 14C age control with paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) age control derived from field models and other local sedimentary records. Rock magnetic experiments were performed to quantify variability in magnetic properties and to infer sediment sourcing during the late Quaternary. U-channels were studied through AF demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization, and laboratory-induced magnetizations including anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) acquisition, ARM demagnetization, and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM). Maximum angular deviation values average coercivity component that increases up core. Average inclinations are within 4° of the expected geocentric axial dipole, and major inclination features can be correlated across the two cores. Correlation of inclination changes with the Burial Lake record, 200 km to the west (Dorfman, 2013, unpub. thesis), indicates that the Cascade Lake sedimentary sequence overlying the basal diamicton likely spans at least 16 ka. Cascade Lake sediments may be suitable for RPI estimation using the ARM or IRM as a normalizer, following a more detailed examination of magnetic properties. A systematic offset between the Cascade Lake 14C chronology and PSV and RPI chronologies wiggle-matched to field models suggests a hard-water effect of ~1000 yr, although we cannot rule out the possibility that at least some of the age offset represents a post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in effect at Cascade Lake. S-ratios (IRM0.3T/SIRM) and ARM-ratios (ARM/SIRM) show a sharp decrease in low-coercivity material across the transition from clastic sediments to organic-rich sediments, followed by an increase in the concentration of fine-grained magnetic material and fining of the magnetic grain size up core, along with an increase in organic matter after ~10 ka. Cascade Lake has no significant inflow, therefore this trend in magnetic mineralogy may represent decreasing input of local material from hillslope processes superposed on a persistent eolian input through the Holocene.

  12. RB_SVP: Locations of sound velocity profiles collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  13. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 20 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  14. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  15. Rainfall-runoff processes modelling using Sacramento and Brook models in the Cal Rodó catchment (Pyrenees, Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtele, Josef; Buchtelová, Marie; Gallart, F.; Llorens, P.; Salvary, C.; Herrmann, A.

    Paříž : UNESCO, 2000, s. 15-22. [Catchment Hydrological and Biochemical Processes in Changing Environment. Liblice (CZ), 22.09.1998-24.09.1998] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  16. Higher Education Spending: The Role of Medicaid and the Business Cycle. The Brookings Institution Policy Brief #124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Thomas J.; Orszag, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, many public colleges and universities around the country have announced double-digit increases in tuition. The recession and the resulting squeeze on state revenues are the immediate causes. However, the short-term crisis should not be allowed to obscure a longer-term shift in state financing of higher education, which began more…

  17. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 20 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Brooks Banks, Hawaii, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  18. Secondary soil phases controlling surface water chemistry during experimental acidification at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Diehl, M.

    Santa Cruz : University of Santa Cruz, 2006 - (Crow, S.). s. 158-158 [BIOGEOMON. 25.6.2006-30.6.2006, Santa Cruz, California] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : experimental acidification * streamwater * chemistry * aluminum * sulfate Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  19. Spatial and temporal changes in aluminum, iron, and base cations for an acidic episode at East Bear Brook, Maine USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laird, M. K.; Norton, S. A.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    Santa Cruz : University of Santa Cruz, 2006 - (Crow, S.). s. 128-128 [BIOGEOMON. 25.6.2006-30.6.2006, Santa Cruz, California] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : streamwater * episode * chemistry * manipulated * watershed Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  20. Pesticide exposure assessment in flowing waters – results for predicted environmental concentrations in some brooks in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, M.T.; Guerniche, D.G.; Bach, M.B.; Trapp, Stefan; Kubiak, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The “Georisk”- project of the German Federal Environmental Agency forms the scientific basis for an integration of more realistic landscape based scenarios into the process of pesticide registration. Here, first results of geodata-based simulations are presented. The objective of the simulations...... was to predict initial environmental concentrations in flowing water bodies after spray drift exposure. Based on this the downstream development of these concentrations over space and time with regard to dispersion processes was simulated (PECtwa, Time over Threshold). An adequate GIS-based software...

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Sterling Brook Custom Homes — Village Park Eco Home, Double Park, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder won a Custom Builder honor in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for this showcase home that serves as an energy-efficient model home for the custom home builder: 1,300 visitors toured the home, thousands more learned about the home’s advanced construction via the webpage, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest.

  2. Searching for Natural Resistance to the Northern Corn Rootworm at the USDA/ARS Lab in Brookings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms and their management costs US farmers over 1 billion dollars annually. In recent years companies have developed corn hybrids with resistance to corn rootworms by inserting bacterial genes into the corn genome. These hybrids are often called GMOs (genetically modified organisms) and a...

  3. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E.; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  4. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  5. Intraspecific growth variation among rainbow trout and brook trout: Impact of initial body weight and feeding level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Ostenfeld, T.

    2010-01-01

    close to satiation (H) or half of this ration (L). Four experimental groups (RT-H, RT-L, BT-H, BT-L) were studied with regard to their propensity to increase weight in accord with their initial weight. The slope of the regression line between initial weights (g) and weight increases for individuals in...... RT-L (5.91) than for all other groups (RT-H: 1.50, P <0.01; BT-H: 1.76, P <0.01 and BT-L: 2.88, P <0.05), indicating the particular propensity of large RT to gain weight when feed was restricted. Overall, ration level had large impact on slopes (H: 1.63, L: 4.39, P <0.01), while this was not the case....... RT had larger body weight (BW) CVs compared to BT (0.257 vs. 0.206, P <0.01) indicating more uneven feed share among RT than among BT in general. RT-L had significantly higher BW CVs than all other groups (0.300 vs. 0.184–0.229, P <0.01). The observed differences in weight gains enhance size...

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics affect the spatial distribution of pesticide and transformation product loss to an agricultural brook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, M; Olsson, O; Stamm, C; Weiler, M; Kümmerer, K

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse entry of pesticide residues from agriculture into rivers is spatially unevenly distributed. Therefore, the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) may support water quality management in agricultural catchments. In contrast to former studies, we followed the hypothesis that not only hydrological and topographical characteristics but also physico-chemical properties of pesticide residues have a major influence on their loss to rivers and on corresponding formation of CSAs. We designed a virtual experiment, i.e. a numerical experiment as close as possible to environmental conditions, in a headwater catchment where pronounced spatial differences in hydrological transport processes were identified in the past. 144 scenarios with different combinations of adsorption coefficients (KOC = 10-1000 ml/g) and transformation half-lives (DT50 = 3-60 days) for pesticide parent compounds (PCs) and their transformation products (TPs) were simulated using the catchment-scale spatially distributed reactive transport model ZIN-AgriTra. Export fractions of substances in the virtual experiment ranged from 0.001-15% for pesticides and 0.001-1.8% for TPs. The results of the scenario investigations suggest that more of the calculated export mass variability could be attributed to KOC than to DT50 for both PCs and TPs. CSAs for TPs were spatially more equally distributed in the catchment than for PC export which was likely an effect of changing physico-chemical properties during transformation. The ranking of highest export fields was different between PCs and TPs for most of the investigated scenarios but six fields appeared among the top ten export fields in 95% of the scenarios, which shows the influence of site characteristics such as tile drains or soil properties in the catchment. Thus, the highest export fields were determined by a combination of site characteristics and substance characteristics. Therefore, despite the challenge of widely differing physico-chemical characteristics of pesticides on the market, these characteristics are an important consideration when delineating pesticide residue CSAs. PMID:26119387

  7. Rainfall interception modelling with the Brook model in a Mediterranean mountainous catchmant with spontaneous afforestation by Pinus sylvestris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Llorens, P.; Buchtele, Josef

    Paříž : UNESCO, 2000, s. 125-129. [Catchment Hydrological and Biochemical Processes in Changing Environment. Liblice (CZ), 22.09.1998-24.09.1998] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  8. Rainfall interception modelling with BROOK model in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment with spontaneous afforestation by Pinus sylvestris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Llorens, P.; Buchtele, Josef

    Praha : UHJ, 1998 - (Bucek, J.; Šír, M.; Tesař, M.), s. 71-74 [Conference ERB. Liblice (CZ), 22.09.1998-24.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3060605; GA ČR GA103/96/1327 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  9. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.M.; Welsh, S.A.; Turk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (prefer fine sand habitat. Hence, availability of fine sand habitat may limit distributions and population sizes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Frequency and Severity of Trauma in Fishes Subjected to Multiple-pass Depletion Electrofishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank; Densmore, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and severity of trauma associated with multiple-pass electrofishing and the effects on short-term (30-d) survival and growth of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and five representative co-inhabiting nontarget or bycatch species were examined. Fish were held in four rectangular fiberglass tanks (190 × 66 cm) equipped with electrodes, a gravel–cobble stream substrate, and continuous water flow. Fish were exposed to one, two, or three electroshocks (100-V, 60-Hz pulsed DC) spaced 1 h apart or were held as a control. The heterogeneous field produced a mean (±SD) voltage gradient of 0.23 ± 0.024 V/cm (range = 0.20–0.30 V/cm) with a duty cycle of 30% and a 5-s exposure. Radiographs of 355 fish were examined for evidence of spinal injuries, and necropsies were performed on 303 fish to assess hemorrhagic trauma in soft tissue. Using linear regression, we demonstrated significant relationships between the number of electrical shocks and the frequency and severity of hemorrhagic and spinal trauma in each of the nontarget species (Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, and Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides). Most of the injuries in these species were either minor or moderate. Rainbow Trout and Brook Trout generally sustained the highest incidence and severity of injuries, but those injuries were generally independent of the number of treatments. The 30-d postshock survival for the trout species was greater than 94%; survival for the bycatch species ranged from 80% (Fathead Minnow) to 100% (Green Sunfish and Channel Catfish). There were no significant differences in 30-d postshock condition factors despite observations of altered feeding behavior lasting several days to 1 week posttreatment in several of the study species.

  11. Effect of dominance status on sex hormone levels in laboratory and wild-spawning male trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, J R; Sorensen, P W; Van der Kraak, G J; Liley, N R

    1996-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between male social status and hormone levels in salmonids spawning under laboratory and field conditions. In small groups of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) spawning in the laboratory, dominant males had higher plasma levels of testosterone (T) and 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) compared with subordinates. Steroid levels increased in subordinate males that became dominant after dominant males were experimentally removed; higher steroid levels in dominant males appears to be a result rather than a cause of their social status. In free-ranging brown trout (Salmo trutta) sampled in the field, we found higher levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) but not T in dominant males. No significant differences in levels of either androgen were found between dominant and subordinate male brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) sampled at the same field location. Furthermore, in marked contrast with the laboratory fish, there were no significant differences in plasma 17,20 beta-P between dominant and subordinate males in either species of fish in the wild. The different findings in the laboratory and field may indicate species differences in behavioral endocrinology among brook, brown, and rainbow trout. Alternatively, the greater differential in hormonal profile of dominant and subordinate males in the laboratory may reflect the relative uniformity of the laboratory environment; this simple environment may allow competitively superior males to more completely dominate less competitive tank-mates and to exclude them from female sexual cues. In any case, these results suggest that the relationship between steroid hormones and spawning behavior in male salmonids is likely more complex than suggested by experiments conducted solely on laboratory-held rainbow trout. PMID:8729943

  12. Seasonal Change in Trophic Niche of Adfluvial Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Coexisting Fishes in a High-Elevation Lake System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Anderson, Michelle L.; Reese, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of non-native species is a leading threat to global aquatic biodiversity. Competition between native and non-native species is often influenced by changes in suitable habitat or food availability. We investigated diet breadth and degree of trophic niche overlap for a fish assemblage of native and non-native species inhabiting a shallow, high elevation lake system. This assemblage includes one of the last remaining post-glacial endemic populations of adfluvial Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the contiguous United States. We examined gut contents and stable isotope values of fish taxa in fall and spring to assess both short- (days) and long-term (few months) changes in trophic niches. We incorporate these short-term (gut contents) data into a secondary isotope analysis using a Bayesian statistical framework to estimate long-term trophic niche. Our data suggest that in this system, Arctic grayling share both a short- and long-term common food base with non-native trout of cutthroat x rainbow hybrid species (Oncorhynchus clarkia bouvieri x Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). In addition, trophic niche overlap among Arctic grayling, hybrid trout, and brook trout appeared to be stronger during spring than fall. In contrast, the native species of Arctic grayling, burbot (Lota lota), and suckers (Catostomus spp.) largely consumed different prey items. Our results suggest strong seasonal differences in trophic niche overlap among Arctic grayling and non-native trout, with a potential for greatest competition for food during spring. We suggest that conservation of endemic Arctic grayling in high-elevation lakes will require recognition of the potential for coexisting non-native taxa to impede well-intentioned recovery efforts. PMID:27205901

  13. Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Moira M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT(Oncorhynchus mykiss, Arctic charr (AC(Salvelinus alpinus, and Atlantic salmon (AS(Salmo salar mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling. Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh, regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2, regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs are located in other life-history QTL regions within

  14. Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Skaar, D.; Nimick, D.A.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.

    2003-01-01

    Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources: however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects - those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals) - to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

  15. Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

  16. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  17. Water striders (family Gerridae): mercury sentinels in small freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To circumvent some of the previous limitations associated with contaminant-monitoring programs, we tested the suitability of the water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) as a mercury sentinel by comparing total mercury concentrations in water striders and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a variety of stream sites in New Brunswick, Canada. There was a strong association between the two variables across sites (r2 = 0.81, P < 0.001) in systems where both atmospheric deposition and a point source (an abandoned gold mine) were likely contributing to ambient mercury levels. In a small stream draining the gold mine tailings pile, water striders had mercury concentrations an order of magnitude higher than those from reference locations. Temporal variation at three southern New Brunswick stream sites was non-significant. These results suggest that water strider mercury levels accurately quantify food chain entry of the element. The use of sentinel species holds great potential for expanding contaminant-monitoring programs. - Water striders accurately reflect the entry of mercury in food chains of small freshwater systems

  18. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  19. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I know you've started using your Braille skills. MRS. BROOKS: Oh, yes. Good thing I learned ... BROOKS: I just heard it. INSTRUCTOR: Okay, good job. MRS. BROOKS: Oh, what a marvelous invention! INSTRUCTOR: ...

  20. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available INSTRUCTOR: Mrs. Brooks, let me show you our cutting board. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: Right now, we have two ... light background would probably be better for you. MRS. BROOKS: I agree with you and I need ...

  1. 75 FR 8398 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    .... ALASKA Dillingham Borough-Census Area Brooks Camp Boat House, (Tourism and Early Park Development... Katmai National Park and Preserve, King Salmon, 10000071 Brooks River Historic Ranger Station,...

  2. Scientific communications: Re-Os sulfide (bornite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite) systematics of the carbonate-hosted copper deposits at ruby creek, southern brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Hitzman, M.W.; Zieg, J.

    2009-01-01

    New Re-Os data for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the carbonate-hosted Cu deposit at Ruby Creek (Bornite), Alaska, show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the carbonate-hosted Ruby Creek Cu-(Co) deposit and demonstrate that the Re-Os systematics of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite are unaffected by greenschist metamorphism. The Re-Os data show that the main phase of Cu mineralization pre dominantly occurred at 384 ?? 4.2 Ma, with an earlier phase possibly at ???400 Ma. The Re-Os data are consistent with the observed paragenetic sequence and coincide with zircon U-Pb ages from igneous rocks within the Ambler metallogenic belt, some of which are spatially and genetically associated with regional volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. The latter may suggest a temporal link between regional magmatism and hydrothermal mineralization in the Ambler district. The utility of bornite and chalcopyrite, in addition to pyrite, contributes to a new understanding of Re-Os geochronology and permits a refinement of the genetic model for the Ruby Creek deposit. ?? 2009 Society of Economices Geologists, Inc.

  3. JPEG formatted images of Knudsen 3202 chirp seismic-reflection profiles collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  4. Water Tanks, Water Tanks in Brooks County, GA, Published in 1999, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1999. It is described as 'Water...

  5. Watching the Detectives: Mark Haddon's "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time" and Kevin Brooks' "Martyn Pig"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Mark Haddon's "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time" was the crossover publishing sensation of 2003. It has been the subject of widespread critical and commercial acclaim and has won prestigious UK prizes including the Whitbread Book of the Year and the Guardian's Children's Fiction Prize. It is still enjoying considerable commercial…

  6. RB_BathyBackscatterTrackline: Survey lines along which interferometric sonar data were collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  7. Comma delimited text files and JPEG images of sound velocity profiles collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  8. Raw navigation files logged with HYPACK Survey software during a geophysical survey conducted by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  9. GeoTIFF image of interferometric backscatter data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_Backscatter_1m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods...

  10. Knudsen 3202 seismic-reflection data trackline navigation collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_SeismicTrackline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  11. GeoTIFF image of interferometric backscatter data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_Backscatter_5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods...

  12. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zone in Quitman, Brooks County, GA, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is...

  13. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  14. Exploring crowded trophic niche space in a novel reservoir fish assemblage: how many predators is too many?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Lisa K.; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    In highly managed reservoir systems, species interactions within novel fish assemblages can be difficult to predict. In high-elevation Scofield Reservoir in Utah the unintentional introduction of Utah Chub Gila atraria and subsequent population expansion prompted a shift from stocking exclusively Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to include tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah, which composed a novel suite of top predators and potential competitors. We examined the interspecific interactions among Scofield Reservoir piscivores using a multifaceted approach including gut analyses, stable isotopes, and gape limitation. Large Cutthroat Trout consumed 50–100% Utah Chub and tiger trout consumed 45–80%. In contrast, small and large Rainbow Trout consumed primarily invertebrate prey and exhibited significant overlap with small tiger trout, Cutthroat Trout, and Utah Chub. Large Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout occupy a top piscivore trophic niche and are more littoral, while Rainbow Trout occupy an omnivore niche space and are more pelagic. Both Cutthroat and tiger trout varied in niche space with respect to size-class, demonstrating an ontogenetic shift to piscivory at approximately 350 mm TL. Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout are capable of consuming prey up to 50% of their own size, which is larger than predicted based on their theoretical gape limit. Because it appears food resources (Utah Chub) are not limited, and performance metrics are high, competition is unlikely between Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout. In contrast, apparent survival of Rainbow Trout has recently declined significantly, potentially due to shared food resources with Utah Chub or negative behavioral interactions with other members of the community. Collectively, this research aids in understanding biotic interactions within a top-heavy and novel fish community and assists towards developing

  15. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  16. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in central and northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured

  17. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  18. David Brooke, William Mackenzie. International Railway Builder and Civil Engineer. Londres, The Newcomen Society, 2004, 200 p. ISBN : 0-904685-14-4. 28,50 livres sterling.David Brooke (ed.), The Diary of William Mackenzie, the First Inter

    OpenAIRE

    Bensimon, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Les Britanniques ont inventé le chemin de fer moderne, cela est connu. Ce qui l’est moins est le rôle qu’ils ont joué dans la gestation du réseau français. Pourtant, dans sa première phase, la construction ferroviaire hexagonale a largement bénéficié du savoir-faire anglais. La première ligne qui relia Paris à la mer, Paris-Rouen-Le Havre, qui fut aussi la première grande ligne avec celle du Paris-Orléans, était largement britannique. C’était, en son temps, une prouesse technique, avec de nom...

  19. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤

    2014-01-01

    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  20. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, J.; Vojtek, L.; Adámek, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2012), s. 1487-1493. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ichthyophthirius multifiliis * Channel catfish * Crowding stress * Arctic charr * Fish * Susceptibility * Monogeneans Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  1. 基于细胞色素b基因序列分析我国鲑亚科鱼类系统发育关系和不同虹鳟养殖群体遗传变异%Phylogenetic Relationships among Members in Salmoninae and Genetic Variation amongDifferent Populationsof Rainbow Trout Farmedin China Basedon Cytb Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟伟

    2015-01-01

    采用PCR技术扩增了中国不同虹鳟群体的细胞色素b基因,对虹鳟不同养殖群体进行了遗传多样性分析,并与鲑亚科中其他5属11个物种的细胞色素b基因进行同源性比较,建立了主要养殖鲑亚科鱼类的系统关系。试验结果显示,虹鳟种内本地虹鳟群体遗传距离最小(0.001),道氏群体最高(0.004)。种间遗传距离以哲罗鲑与马苏大麻哈鱼的遗传距离最大(0.127),其次为哲罗鲑与银大麻哈鱼(0.123),以远东红点鲑和美洲红点鲑的最近(0.003)。聚类分析表明,同属的鱼均能单独聚类,哲罗鱼属和细鳞鱼属聚在一起,鲑属与红点鲑属聚在一起。虹鳟不同群体间并没有单独聚类,提示不同虹鳟群体间没有发生明显的遗传分化。%The Cytb sequences were amplified by PCR technique ,and genetic diversity was analyzed in different populations of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in China . The phylogenetic relationships among members in Salmoninae were established by comparing with the sequences from eleven other species representing five genera in subfamily Salmoninae .The results showed that the local rainbow trout population (0 .001 ) had the minimal intraspecies genetic distance ,and Donaldsons population the maximal (0 .004) .In the interspecies ,however ,there was the maximal genetic distance (0 .127) between taimen Hucho taimen and masou salmon O . masou ,followed by between taimen and coho salmon O . kisutch(0 .123)and the minimal genetic distances between Siberian char Salvelinus leucomaenis and brook trout S .fontinalis (0 .003) .Clustering analysis revealed that fish in the same genus was separately clustered ,lenok Brachymystax and H ucho being clustered together ,and Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus being clustered together .No clustering was observed in the individuals of different rainbow trout populations ,indicating that different populations of rainbow

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships among Members in Salmoninae and Genetic Variation amongDifferent Populationsof Rainbow Trout Farmedin China Basedon Cytb Sequence%基于细胞色素b基因序列分析我国鲑亚科鱼类系统发育关系和不同虹鳟养殖群体遗传变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟伟

    2015-01-01

    采用PCR技术扩增了中国不同虹鳟群体的细胞色素b基因,对虹鳟不同养殖群体进行了遗传多样性分析,并与鲑亚科中其他5属11个物种的细胞色素b基因进行同源性比较,建立了主要养殖鲑亚科鱼类的系统关系。试验结果显示,虹鳟种内本地虹鳟群体遗传距离最小(0.001),道氏群体最高(0.004)。种间遗传距离以哲罗鲑与马苏大麻哈鱼的遗传距离最大(0.127),其次为哲罗鲑与银大麻哈鱼(0.123),以远东红点鲑和美洲红点鲑的最近(0.003)。聚类分析表明,同属的鱼均能单独聚类,哲罗鱼属和细鳞鱼属聚在一起,鲑属与红点鲑属聚在一起。虹鳟不同群体间并没有单独聚类,提示不同虹鳟群体间没有发生明显的遗传分化。%The Cytb sequences were amplified by PCR technique ,and genetic diversity was analyzed in different populations of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in China . The phylogenetic relationships among members in Salmoninae were established by comparing with the sequences from eleven other species representing five genera in subfamily Salmoninae .The results showed that the local rainbow trout population (0 .001 ) had the minimal intraspecies genetic distance ,and Donaldsons population the maximal (0 .004) .In the interspecies ,however ,there was the maximal genetic distance (0 .127) between taimen Hucho taimen and masou salmon O . masou ,followed by between taimen and coho salmon O . kisutch(0 .123)and the minimal genetic distances between Siberian char Salvelinus leucomaenis and brook trout S .fontinalis (0 .003) .Clustering analysis revealed that fish in the same genus was separately clustered ,lenok Brachymystax and H ucho being clustered together ,and Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus being clustered together .No clustering was observed in the individuals of different rainbow trout populations ,indicating that different populations of rainbow

  3. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... turn it up to two. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. [ sound of microwave] INSTRUCTOR: We also have labeled five. ... BROOKS: Amazing! INSTRUCTOR: Yep, you'll have that sound-- that buzzing sound--will go off as soon ...

  4. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BROOKS: I agree with you and I need one of these. [ laughs ] Okay. INSTRUCTOR: All right, let's ... bumps. MRS. BROOKS: I feel it there. INSTRUCTOR: One on the dial and one on the actual ...

  5. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cutting board. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: Right now, we have two sides to it. For a low ... MRS. BROOKS: Oh, I do. INSTRUCTOR: Okay, now we're going to turn the stove on. So ...

  6. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it. INSTRUCTOR: Okay, good job. MRS. BROOKS: Oh, what a marvelous invention! INSTRUCTOR: I want to show you some other things. Now, I know you take medication for your diabetes. MRS. BROOKS: Yes. INSTRUCTOR: So a good ...

  7. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... INSTRUCTOR: It protects your arms all the way up to the elbow. MRS. BROOKS: Yeah. INSTRUCTOR: Put ... turn it on--go ahead and turn it up to two. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. [ sound of microwave] ...

  8. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the week. Each day-- and you're set. MRS. BROOKS: Great. INSTRUCTOR: These are organizers and ... put it in the cabinet and you're set. MRS. BROOKS: Good. INSTRUCTOR: Now, hold on to ...

  9. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the water level. And then we have the temperature of the water. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: And ... BROOKS: Amazing! INSTRUCTOR: Yep, you'll have that sound-- that buzzing sound--will go off as soon ...

  10. Biological Agents Influencing Physical Process in a Stream: A Case Study in Response to Human-Induced Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondossi, H. A.; Bienz, C.

    2013-12-01

    ample depth variability. Water quality has improved to the point that it supports a healthy and expanding population of redband trout alongside introduced eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). There have been no sightings of Oregon spotted frog yet, but the habitat is deemed suitable.

  11. Cellular and molecular evidence for a role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the ovulatory mechanism of trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobe Julien

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relevance of immune-endocrine interactions to the regulation of ovarian function in teleosts is virtually unexplored. As part of the innate immune response during infection, a number of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha and other immune factors, are produced and act on the reproductive system. However, TNF alpha is also an important physiological player in the ovulatory process in mammals. In the present study, we have examined for the first time the effects of TNF alpha in vitro in preovulatory ovarian follicles of a teleost fish, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. Methods To determine the in vivo regulation of TNF alpha expression in the ovary, preovulatory brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. In control and recombinant trout TNF alpha (rtTNF alpha-treated brown trout granulosa cells, we examined the percentage of apoptosis by flow cytometry analysis and cell viability by propidium iodide (PI staining. Furthermore, we determined the in vitro effects of rtTNF alpha on follicle contraction and testosterone production in preovulatory brown trout ovarian follicles. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of control and rtTNF alpha-treated ovarian tissue by microarray and real-time PCR (qPCR analyses. Results LPS administration in vivo causes a significant induction of the ovarian expression of TNF alpha. Treatment with rtTNF alpha induces granulosa cell apoptosis, decreases granulosa cell viability and stimulates the expression of genes known to be involved in the normal ovulatory process in trout. In addition, rtTNF alpha causes a significant increase in follicle contraction and testosterone production. Also, using a salmonid-specific microarray platform (SFA2.0 immunochip we observed that rtTNF alpha induces the expression of genes known to be involved in inflammation, proteolysis and tissue remodeling

  12. Nuclear theory group progress report and renewal proposal, December 1, 1980-November 30, 1981. [Dept. of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, proposal for 12/1/80-11/30/81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. E.; Jackson, A. D.; Kuo, T. T.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear physics, intermediate energy physics, and nuclear astrophysics. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the nature of the nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon interactions and on related questions regarding the structure of baryons. A number of these questions are addressed with the aid of the chiral bag model. Starting from the free interaction, many-body techniques are used to construct the effective interaction between nucleons in nuclei and nuclear media and optical potentials for the description of the scattering of nucleons by nuclei. A wide range of nuclear phenomena are amenable to analysis using such effective interactions. Among the most interesting are nuclear giant resonances, for which are offered both new semiclassical insight and a new dynamical theory of nuclear vibrations that emphasizes the importance of the energy dependence of the effective interaction. The extension of Jastrow/hypernetted chain techniques and a better understanding of their content has led to a better description of the ground-state correlations in nuclear matter and a variety of other condensed systems. The equation of state of nuclear matter at densities of astrophysical interest is discussed. It is possible to understand the properties of pulsars given the interactions between their constituents. A description of pulsar formation and of the effects of the shock wave generated in the collapse of large stars is given. Heavy-ion reactions, quasimolecular states, and energy dissipation are studied through the excitation of collective excitations within a semiclassical framework. Items in this report are of the nature of extended abstracts. References to complete papers are given.

  13. Color-shaded relief GeoTIFF image of interferometric sonar data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (RB_BathyShadedRelief_5m, 5-meter cell size)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods...

  14. RB_SeismicShot_500: Shot point navigation at even 500 shot intervals for Knudsen 3202 seismic-reflection data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  15. RB_BathyShadedRelief_1m: Color-shaded relief GeoTIFF image of interferometric sonar data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (1-meter cell size)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods...

  16. Book Review of “Human Behaviour and the Social Environment: Models, Metaphors, and Maps for Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Practice”. 640 pages, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007, by James A. Forte

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This voluminous book which draws on almost 1000 references provides an important theoretical base for practice. After an informative introduction about models, maps and metaphors, Forte provides an impressive presentation of several perspectives for use in practice; applied ecological theory, applied system theory, applied biology, applied cognitive science, applied psychodynamic theory, applied behaviourism, applied symbolic interactionism, applied social role theory, applied economic theory...

  17. Evaluation of high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEMs through topographic metric extraction, field slope comparison, and total station surveys; Topographic metrics to predict soil spatial patterns at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gillin, Cody Palmer

    2013-01-01

    Topographic analysis using digital elevation models (DEMs) has become commonplace in soil and hydrologic modeling and analysis and there has been considerable assessment of the effects of grid resolution on topographic metrics using DEMs of 10 m resolution or coarser. However, examining fine-scale (i.e., 1-10 m) soil and hydrological variability of headwater catchments may require higher-resolution data that has only recently become available, and both DEM accuracy and the effects of differen...

  18. Cities, Towns and Villages, City limit boundaries for all municipalities in Ben Hill, Brooks, Cook, Echols, Lanier, Irwin, Lowndes, Tift and Turner Counties., Published in 2010, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It...

  19. Book Review of “Human Behaviour and the Social Environment: Models, Metaphors, and Maps for Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Practice”. 640 pages, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007, by James A. Forte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This voluminous book which draws on almost 1000 references provides an important theoretical base for practice. After an informative introduction about models, maps and metaphors, Forte provides an impressive presentation of several perspectives for use in practice; applied ecological theory, applied system theory, applied biology, applied cognitive science, applied psychodynamic theory, applied behaviourism, applied symbolic interactionism, applied social role theory, applied economic theory, and applied critical theory. Finally he completes his book with a chapter on “Multi theory practice and routes to integration.”

  20. Esri Binary floating point GRID containing bathymetry from interferometric sonar data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (rb_bathy_1m, 1-meter cell size)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods...

  1. Esri Binary floating point GRID containing bathymetry from interferometric sonar data collected by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009 (rb_bathy_5m, 5-meter cell size)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods...

  2. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Lampreys inhabit temperate regions in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Typically, lampreys spawn in fresh water streams where, after hatching, larval lampreys (ammocoetes) burrow into soft substrate and spend an extended larval period filtering particulate matter from the water column. During this larval period, lampreys are characterized by greatly reduced subcutaneous eyes, reduced fins, unidirectional flow of water from the mouth through the gill pores for filter feeding, and the absence of tooth-like keratin plates (the structure most often used to differentiate lamprey species). After approximately three to seven years (Hardisty and Potter 1971a) lampreys go through a metamorphosis marked by drastic physiological and morphological changes. The resulting juvenile lampreys exhibit fully developed eyes, fins, and characteristic dentition patterns.

  3. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-08-01

    Despite the substantial declines in distribution and abundance that the Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri has experienced over the past century, quantitative evaluations of existing population sizes over broad portions of its historical range have not been made. In this study, we estimate trout abundance throughout the Upper Snake River basin in Idaho (and portions of adjacent states), based on stratified sample extrapolations of electrofishing surveys conducted at 961 study sites, the vast majority of which (84%) were selected randomly. Yellowstone cutthroat trout were the most widely distributed species of trout (caught at 457 study sites), followed by brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (242 sites), rainbow trout O. mykiss and rainbow x cutthroat hybrids (136 sites), and brown trout Salmo trutta (70 sites). Of the sites that contained cutthroat trout, more than half did not contain any other species of trout. Where nonnative trout were sympatric with cutthroat trout, brook trout were most commonly present. In the 11 Geographic Management Units (GMUs) where sample size permitted abundance estimates, there were about 2.2 million trout {ge}100 mm, and of these, about one-half were cutthroat trout. Similarly, we estimated that about 2.0 million trout <100 mm were present, of which about 1.2 million were cutthroat trout. The latter estimate is biased low because our inability to estimate abundance of trout <100 mm in larger-order rivers negated our ability to account for them at all. Cutthroat trout were divided into approximately 70 subpopulations but estimates could be made for only 55 subpopulations; of these, 44 subpopulations contained more than 1,000 cutthroat trout and 28 contained more than 2,500 cutthroat trout. Using a logistic regression model to predict the number of spawning cutthroat trout at a given study site, we estimate that an average of about 30% of the cutthroat trout {ge}100 mm are spawners. We compared visually

  4. HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SEDIMENT AND FRESHWATER FISH IN U.S. ARCTIC LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]} were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated...

  5. A Comparative Assessment of Hydroponically Grown Cereal Crops for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater and the Production of Fish Feed

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly

    2008-01-01

    Hydroponically grown wheat, barley and oats were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. Wheat, barley and oats seeds were germinated in water in a hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency although fungal growth was evident. The average crop heights and yields at harvest were 19....

  6. Calcium titanate dielectrics prepared by plasma spraying and thermal post-treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Homola, P.; Nehasil, V.; Hájková, Zuzana; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    Stony Brook: Stonz Brook University, 2014. s. 104. ISBN N. [First International Conference on Mechanics of Composites. 09.06.2014-12.06.2014, Stony Brook] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : dielectrics * plasma spray * calcium titanate * impedance Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials (UACH-T) http://me.eng.sunysb.edu/mechcomp2014.pdf

  7. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Leloudas, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marco...

  8. Autogrammid, oma aja märk / Mike Lawrence

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lawrence, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Autogrammide kogumisest, nende ehtsusest, sportlastele kuulunud esemete kollektsioneerimisest. Lisatud: Kollektsionääride maiuspalu. Autor Mike Lawrence on oksjonifirma Bonhams/Brooks konsultant, ajakirjanik

  9. SoundScapes: non-formal learning potentials from interactive VEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Non-formal learning is evident from an inhabited information space that is created from non-invasive multi-dimensional sensor technologies that source human gesture. Libraries of intuitive interfaces empower natural interaction where the gesture is mapped to the multisensory content. Large screen...... and international bodies have consistently recognized SoundScapes which, as a research body of work, is directly responsible for numerous patents. Please note that my full name is Anthony Lewis Brooks. I publish with Anthony Brooks: A. L. Brooks; Tony Brooks.  ...

  10. Acid rain publications by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, Rita F.

    1989-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems has been a concern to society since the burning of fossil fuels began in the industrial revolution. In the past decade or so, this concern has been heightened by evidence that chemical transformation in the atmosphere of combustion by-products and subsequent long-range transport can cause environmental damage in remote areas. The extent of this damage and the rates of ecological recovery were largely unknown. "Acid rain" became the environmental issue of the 1980's. To address the increasing concerns of the public, in 1980 the Federal government initiated a 10-year interagency research program to develop information that could be used by the President and the Congress in making decisions for emission controls. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been an active participant in acid precipitation research. The Service provided support to a number of scientific conferences and forums, including the Action Seminar on Acid Precipitation held in Toronto, Canada, in 1979, an international symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Fishery Impacts in Northeastern North America in 1981, and a symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Atmospheric Deposition: A Western Perspective in 1982. These meetings as well as the growing involvement with the government's National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program placed the Service in the lead in research on the biological effects of acidic deposition. Research projects have encompassed water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Water quality surveys have been conducted to help determine the extent of acid precipitation effects in the northeast, Middle Atlantic, and Rocky Mountain regions. In addition to lake and stream studies, research in wetland and some terrestrial habitats has also been conducted. Specific projects have addressed important sport species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and striped bass (Morone

  11. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... right? MRS. BROOKS: I hope I don't go over the top! INSTRUCTOR: Let's see what happens. I don't think that' ... with low vision, like yourself, so you can go ahead and fill that check out. MRS. BROOKS: Well, let's see--I believe today is the sixth. And ...

  12. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  13. 78 FR 65728 - Medley Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... meaning of section 2(a)(19) of the Act (the ``Independent Directors''). Each of Andrew Fentress, Brooke...'') currently consists of five members, three of whom are Independent Directors. Two of the Principals, Brook... condition will ensure that the Independent Directors will act independently in evaluating the Co-...

  14. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... would probably be better for you. MRS. BROOKS: I agree with you and I need one of these. [ laughs ] Okay. INSTRUCTOR: All ... feel a bump on it? MRS. BROOKS: Oh, I do. INSTRUCTOR: Okay, now we're going to ...

  15. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And usually, you're using it to warm things up so that should fit your needs perfectly. All right? Okay, good. And Mrs. Brooks, this is our washer and dryer. On the right side of our panel here-- MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: ...

  16. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... And usually, you're using it to warm things up so that should fit your needs perfectly. All right? Okay, good. And Mrs. Brooks, this is our washer and dryer. On the right side of our panel here-- MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: ...

  17. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we have the center, where we have the water level. And then we have the temperature of the water. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: And Mrs. Brooks, I' ... to your cup. And as you pour some water, I want you to pour it into the ...

  18. Mass balances of mercury and nitrogen in burned and unburned forested watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.J.; Johnson, K.B.; Kahl, J.S.; Haines, T.A.; Fernandez, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation and streamwater samples were collected from 16 November 1999 to 17 November 2000 in two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, and analyzed for mercury (Hg) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, nitrate plus ammonium). Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a 1947 fire that destroyed vegetation and soil organic matter. We hypothesized that Hg deposition would be higher at Hadlock Brook (the reference watershed, 10.2 ??g/m2/year) than Cadillac (9.4 ??g/m2/year) because of the greater scavenging efficiency of the softwood vegetation in Hadlock. We also hypothesized the Hg and DIN export from Cadillac Brook would be lower than Hadlock Brook because of elemental volatilization during the fire, along with subsequently lower rates of atmospheric deposition in a watershed with abundant bare soil and bedrock, and regenerating vegetation. Consistent with these hypotheses, Hg export was lower from Cadillac Brook watershed (0.4 ??g/m2/year) than from Hadlock Brook watershed (1.3 ??g/m2/year). DIN export from Cadillac Brook (11.5 eq/ ha/year) was lower than Hadlock Brook (92.5 eq/ha/year). These data show that ??50 years following a wildfire there was lower atmospheric deposition due to changes in forest species composition, lower soil pools, and greater ecosystem retention for both Hg and DIN. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006.

  19. Los pronombres demostrativos de la lengua chaná (Entre Ríos, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas Barros, J. Pedro

    2012-01-01

    La categoría de los pronombres demostrativos es universal en las lenguas naturales, pero las características funcionales, formales, sintácticas y pragmáticas de estos elementos varían considerablemente de una a otra lengua. El propósito de este trabajo es describir las características funcionales, formales, sintácticas y pragmáticas de los demostrativos en la lengua indígena obsolescente chaná, perteneciente a la familia charrúa, que cuenta actualmente con un último semi-hablante terminal res...

  20. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2009-05-01

    The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N = 10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata (N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765

  1. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  2. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2005-06-01

    In 2004 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) implemented a new enhancement monitoring project for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River.

  3. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd (Kalispel Natural Resource Department, Usk, WA)

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) monitored its current enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in East River and several of its tributaries.

  4. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.

  5. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Leloudas, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks......, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was...

  6. Saturable triiodothyronine-binding sites in the pituitary nuclei of salmonid teleost fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-affinity, limited-capacity, 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-binding sites were established by in vitro saturation analysis in cell nuclei of the pituitary gland of arctic charr. The sites were extracted from the purified nuclei using 0.4 M NaCl and incubated with [125I]T3 in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. T3 saturable binding attained equilibrium after 18-24 hr of incubation at 4 degrees. The association constant ranged from 6.7 to 20.1 liters.mol-1 x 10(9), indicating a T3 affinity greater than that for T3-binding sites in rainbow trout liver. The maximal binding capacity ranged from 0.93 to 2.05 10(-13) mol.mg DNA-1, representing a mean site abundance corresponding to 60% of that for nuclei from trout liver. Thyroxine (T4) completely displaced [125I]T3 in the pituitary nuclei of arctic charr and T3 completely displaced [125I]T4 in the pituitary nuclei of rainbow trout, suggesting that in salmonids both T4 and T3 bind to the same single class of sites. However, the site affinity for T4 was approximately 20-50x less than that for T3. The possible roles of these sites in pituitary function as well as their relationship to other nuclear T3-binding sites in salmonid fish are discussed

  7. An Engel Condition with Derivation for Multilinear Polynomials in Prime Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo De Filippis; Onofrio Mario Di Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    Let R be a prime algebra without non-zero nil right ideals over a commutative ring K, f(x1,..., xn) a multilinear polynomial in n variables over K, and d a non-zero derivation of R such that for any r1,..., rn ∈ R, there exists k = k(r1, ... ,rn)≥1 such that [d(f(r1,...,rn)),f(r1,... ,rn)]k = 0. If char(R)= 0, then f(x1,..., xn) is a polynomial central-valued on R. If char(R) = p > 2and f(x1,..., xn) is not a polynomial identity in p × p matrices of characteristic p, then R satisfies Sn+2(x1,... ,xn+2), and for any r1,... ,rn ∈ R, there exists t = t(r1,...,rn) ≥1 such that fpt (r1,...,rn) ∈ Z(R). Moreover, if Z(R) is finite, then f(x1,...., xn) is central-valued on R.

  8. Validating methods for measuring delta18O and delta13C in otoliths from freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguer, K R R A; Drimmie, R; Power, M

    2003-01-01

    The ability of the phosphoric acid digestion technique to extract carbon dioxide from biogenic carbonates and reliably reproduce delta(18)O and delta(13)C signatures from standard reference materials (NBS-18, NBS-19) was tested and shown to produce accurate, unbiased measurements of non-biologic materials. The effects of roasting preparation methods commonly reported when analyzing biogenic carbonates were also tested in a series of experiments using reference standards and otoliths obtained from aquacultured Arctic charr and rainbow trout. Roasting had no effect on the isotope measurement of reference standards. No significant differences between mean oxygen isotope signatures from paired experiments with roasted and non-roasted fish otoliths were found. However, otolith oxygen isotope measurements were significantly enriched in comparison to rearing water-based measurements for both species. Agreement between expected isotopic equilibrium and measured otolith delta(18)O values varied as a function of roasting temperature and between species. Criteria for the selection of appropriate roasting temperatures are suggested and favour 350 degrees C in freshwater fish where unbiased estimates of average rearing water temperatures and known differences in rearing temperatures were obtained. Carbon isotopic disequilibria were observed for both species. A mixing model analysis established differences in the percentage of metabolically derived carbon in studied otoliths, with Arctic charr deriving a greater proportion of otolith delta(13)C from metabolism as a result of higher metabolic rates. PMID:12590395

  9. Field and experimental tainting of arctic freshwater fish by crude and refined petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crude oil spill and a diesel fuel spill in Arctic rivers both resulted in complaints from downstream populations that fish were tainted with an oily taste. Laboratory exposures of fish confirmed the ability of the spilled materials to produce taints in fish. These experiments led to a more systematic study of the relationship between exposure of fish to oil in the water and sensory responses of taste panels. Rainbow trout and arctic charr were exposed to three mixtures of Norman Wells crude oil in water over a 72 h period and then transferred to clean holding tanks for a further 600-840 h. Three fish were removed from each tank at intervals over both the uptake and clearance phases so that rates of production and clearance of the oily taste could be estimated. All panelists were able to discriminate between treated and untreated fish during the uptake and early clearance phases. Some continued to detect tainting in the fish even by the end of the clearance phase. The implication of these taste panel results is that oil tainting is sensitive to dosage of oil, duration of exposure, and duration of post-exposure time in clean water. Arctic charr can be expected to become tainted after an exposure of only a few hours, and to remain tainted for over a month following cessation of exposure. 7 refs., 4 figs

  10. Genetics Home Reference: trichothiodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DNA repair deficiency disorders in western Europe: Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008 ... Schiffmann R, Brooks BP, Tamura D, DiGiovanna JJ. Xeroderma pigmentosum, trichothiodystrophy and Cockayne syndrome: a complex genotype-phenotype ...

  11. 1988 Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge Contaminant Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides partial lists of both freshwater algae and benthic invertebrates found at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and in Black Brook, a...

  12. 78 FR 70319 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Mine Brook Rd., Bernardsville, 13000946 NEW YORK Orange County Adams-Chadeayne-Taft Estate, 1-2.... 5th St., Mebane, 13000933 Lincoln County Eureka Manufacturing Company Cotton Mill, 414 E. Water...

  13. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: Right now, we have two sides to it. For a low vision person ... okay. INSTRUCTOR: Usually, we encourage people to use two, especially if you're going to be taking ...

  14. New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two together," recalls Arie Kaufman, chairman of the computer science department at New York's Stony Brook University. Dr. ... system for the prostate. Read More "Colorectal Cancer" Articles Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer / A Conversation ...

  15. Õnn peitub selles, kui teenid naabrist rohkem / Kertu Ruus, Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    USA mõttekoja Brookings Institution teadurid leiavad, et õnn ei peitu ainult rahas ja kiire majanduskasv tekitab inimestes ängistust. Lisa: Mida uurib õnneökonoomika. Kommenteerivad Jaan Manitski ja Jana Ots

  16. 75 FR 15668 - Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... other forms of information technology. Comments may be sent to: Michele L. Brooks, Director, Program... development, education, health, and safety of rural Americans. To further this objective, RUS provides...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Information Collection Activity; Comment Request...

  17. 75 FR 48384 - Texas Disaster #TX-00361

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... a result of the President's major disaster declaration on 08/03/2010, applications for disaster... Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Texas: Brooks, Crockett, Dimmit Duval, Edwards, Kenedy, Kinney...

  18. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... INSTRUCTOR: Good. We also have our microwave. And this is a very simple microwave--it has a ... perfectly. All right? Okay, good. And Mrs. Brooks, this is our washer and dryer. On the right ...

  19. Enabling Technologies for Fabrication of Large Area Flexible Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MesoScribe Technologies, a high tech start-up from SUNY-Stony Brook, proposes to apply a breakthrough new direct writing technology to meet the objectives set-forth...

  20. This will the world what will be the biggest experiment in ... and we don't really know happen when we turn it on!

    CERN Multimedia

    Leighton, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Jim Brooke gazed admiringly at the 12'500 tonne time machine which is slowly taking shape in an eerie subterranean vault and declared: "This is the biggest physics experiment ever and will be for years to come. (2pages)

  1. Risk Factors for Late Diagnosis of Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-01-01

    Investigators at Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Stony Brook, New York; University of California, San Diego; and other centers determined the type of physician who makes the Rett syndrome (RTT) diagnosis and identified risk factors for delayed diagnosis.

  2. Comment and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College English, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Includes: (1) "A Comment on 'Lacan, Transferences, and Writing Instruction'," Janet Hiller and Barbara Osburg; (2) "Robert Brooke Responds"; (3) "A Comment on 'Writing (with) Cixous'," Debra Raschke; and (4) "Clara Juncker Responds." (RAE)

  3. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it. INSTRUCTOR: Okay, good job. MRS. BROOKS: Oh, what a marvelous invention! INSTRUCTOR: I want to show ... t go over the top! INSTRUCTOR: Let's see what happens. I don't think that'll happen. [ ...

  4. Trans-Pacific Partnership Provisions in Intellectual Property, Transparency, and Investment Chapters Threaten Access to Medicines in the US and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2016-03-01

    Brook Baker describes the potential harms to global health from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement and its failure to balance the interests of patients and the public with those of industry. PMID:26954325

  5. A water quality assessment of four intermittent streams in Los Alamos County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996 and 1997, the U.S. Fish where taxa richness was one-fourth of that from the reference site. Habitat suitability models for brook trout indicated...

  6. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  7. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  8. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you our cutting board. MRS. BROOKS: Okay. INSTRUCTOR: Right now, we have two sides to it. For ... need one of these. [ laughs ] Okay. INSTRUCTOR: All right, let's move on to the stove. Our stove ...

  9. Disease: H00829 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00829 Multiple familial trichoepithelioma Multiple familial trichoepithelioma is a benign epide ... r follicles. It is inherited in autosomal dominant fashion ... and is related to Brooke-Spiegler syndrome and Fam ...

  10. 32 CFR 806.26 - Addressing FOIA requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFCEE/MSI, 3207 North Road, Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5363. (4) Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.26 Addressing FOIA requests. (a) FOIA requests concerning...

  11. Mlýnský potok Restoration: 5 year Evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Hakrová, P.; Hartvich, P.; Pokorný, Jan; Pechar, Libor

    Leiden: Backhuys Publishers, 2005 - (Vymazal, J.), s. 82-90 ISBN 90-5782-153-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : brook trout * fish * Glyceria fluitans * macrophytes * stream restoration Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  12. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from UNKNOWN From Long Island Sound from 19710809 to 19710814 (NODC Accession 8900019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains two versions of a Long Island Sound Data Set collected between August 9-14, 1971. Data was originally collected by SUNY at Stony Brook and automated...

  13. Un atlas d'algues calcaires. Carbonifère, Alaska arctique [An atlas of calcareous algae. Carboniferous algae of the Arctic Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Mamet Bernard; Préat Alain

    2010-01-01

    An atlas illustrating 54 genera of marine algae and some microproblematica. They are observed in the field and in boreholes of the Lisburne Group throughout the Alaskan Arctic Cordillera (Brooks Range).

  14. 76 FR 77846 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... on December 7, 2011, under Section 107(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation... Brook, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources...

  15. 76 FR 52350 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and... Section 107(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (``CERCLA... Consent Decree Library at the address given above. Robert Brook, Assistant Chief,...

  16. Intelligentsuse jälile pole saadud ka IQ-testide abil / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2009-01-01

    Uus-Meremaa teadlased, Otago ülikooli professor James R. Flynn ja William W. Dickens Brookings Institutionist on välja selgitanud, et keskkonnafaktorid avaldavad intelligentsusele märkimisväärset mõju

  17. Low Vision Devices for the Home

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This particular one has some raised letters as well as the Braille for the seven days of ... ahead and fill that check out. MRS. BROOKS: Well, let's see--I believe today is the sixth. ...

  18. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  19. Disease: H00337 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , drug) Ernst ME, Klepser ME, Fouts M, Marangos MN Tetanus: pathophysiology and management.... Ann Pharmacother 31:1507-13 (1997) PMID:18588497 (env_factor) Brook I Current concepts in the management

  20. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: TM Juke "Forward", Miljoonasade "Kasvukipuja 20 vuotta", JJ Cale & Eric Clapton "The Road to Escondido", Xiu Xiu "The Air Force", Leo Abrahams "Scene Memory", Michael Brook "RockPaperScissors", PJ Harvey "The Peel Sessions 1991-2004"