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Sample records for brooders

  1. Housing: plastered versus un-plastered brooder walls in poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to study the health impact of inadequate brooder house with poor make-up on chicks. Two brooder houses were constructed with a mixture of sand and cementitious materials consisting of lime and/or gypsum to form concrete blocks. Brooder 1 was plastered with cement (cemented) and ...

  2. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    . Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking...... and on locomotion (p ¤ 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing (p ¤ 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 (p ¤ 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages (p = 0.0032), moved closer...

  3. Penggunaan Brooder dengan Berbagai Jenis Energi pada Pemeliharaan Ayam Kampung Fase Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Rido

    2017-01-01

    120306044 Pada pemeliharaan ayam kampung fase stater, brooder sebagai pemanas yang sangat berperan untuk mengurangi kematian anak ayam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas berbagai jenis sumber energi dalam periode brooding pada pemeliharaan ayam kampung fase stater. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Biologi Ternak, Program Studi Peternakan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara dari bulan Oktober - November 2016. Rancangan yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini...

  4. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (10...

  5. Effects of dark brooders and overhangs on free-range use and behaviour of slow-growing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Reubens, B; Ampe, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-12-04

    Broiler chickens often make limited use of the free-range area. Range use is influenced by type of shelter available. Range use may possibly be improved by a more gradual transition from the house to the range and by using dark brooders (secluded warm, dark areas in the home pen) that mimic aspects of a broody hen and possibly reduce fearfulness. The aim of this study was to assess effects of dark brooders on fearfulness, free-range use and behaviour later in life. Another aim was to test the chickens' preference for shelter type and the effects of overhangs outside of the pop holes to provide a gradual transition to the range. Three production rounds, each with 440 Sasso broiler chickens (110/group), were completed. Chicks were housed indoors from days 0 to 25; per round, two groups had access to a dark brooder, whereas the other two groups had conventional IR lamps. Fearfulness was assessed by the open field (OF) and tonic immobility (TI) tests on days 22 to 24 on 25 chicks/group per round. Birds were then moved to four mobile houses from which they could access both grassland with artificial shelter (AS) and short rotation coppice (SRC). Two of the houses had overhangs extending from the pop holes; these were switched between the four houses weekly. Free-range use and behaviour were observed three times daily from Monday to Friday. Dark brooders did not affect results from the OF or TI test, except for jumps in the OF test which tended to occur less often in brooded chicks. Neither dark brooders (34.9% without v. 31.7% with brooder) nor overhangs (32.5% without v. 34.1% with overhangs) influenced the percentage of chickens outside. Chickens showed a clear preference for SRC, range use increased over time in SRC, and more birds ranged farther from the house in SRC. Behaviours of chickens observed outside were mainly influenced by shelter type, age of the birds and distance from the house. Locomotion tended to occur more in the presence of overhangs. Overall

  6. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  7. Effects of dark brooders and overhangs on free-range use and behaviour of slow-growing broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, L.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Reubens, B.; Ampe, B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler chickens often make limited use of the free-range area. Range use is influenced by type of shelter available. Range use may possibly be improved by a more gradual transition from the house to the range and by using dark brooders (secluded warm, dark areas in the home pen) that mimic aspects

  8. Effects of different types of dark brooders on injurious pecking damage and production-related traits at rear and lay in layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, A B; Guzman, D A

    2017-01-01

    Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective...... plumage condition throughout the experiment (P wounds during lay (P

  9. Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mérigot, Bastien; Valière, Sophie; Chenuil, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Closely related species with divergent life history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographi...

  10. Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A A-T; Mérigot, B; Valière, S; Chenuil, A

    2015-12-01

    Closely related species with divergent life history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographic distribution of the broadcasters (Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic), we sequenced the mitochondrial marker COI and genotyped an intron (i51) for 788 individuals. In addition, we sequenced 10 nuclear loci newly developed from transcriptome sequences, for six sympatric populations of brooders and broadcasters from Greece. At the large scale, we found a high genetic structure within the brooders (COI: 0.07 < F(ST) < 0.65) and no polymorphism at the nuclear locus i51. In contrast, the broadcasters displayed lower genetic structure (0 < F(ST) < 0.14) and were polymorphic at locus i51. At the regional scale, the multilocus analysis confirmed the contrasting genetic structure between species, with no structure in the broadcasters (global F(ST) < 0.001) and strong structure in the brooders (global F(ST) = 0.49), and revealed a higher genetic diversity in broadcasters. Our study showed that the lecithotrophic larval stage allows on average a 50-fold increase in migration rates, a 280-fold increase in effective size and a threefold to fourfold increase in genetic diversity. Our work, investigating complementary genetic markers on sympatric and syntopic taxa, highlights the strong impact of the larval phase on connectivity and genetic diversity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The dark side of self-focus: brain activity during self-focus in low and high brooders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freton, Maxime; Lemogne, Cédric; Delaveau, Pauline; Guionnet, Sophie; Wright, Emily; Wiernik, Emmanuel; Bertasi, Eric; Fossati, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    There are two distinct modes of self-focus: analytical self-focus is abstract, general and evaluative whereas experiential self-focus is concrete, specific and non-evaluative. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural bases of these two modes of self-focus in relation with brooding, the maladaptive form of rumination. Forty-one French-speaking right-handed healthy young adults (10 men, mean age ± s.d.: 21.8 ± 2.3 years) engaged in analytical and experiential self-focus triggered by verbal stimuli during fMRI. Brooding was measured with the 22-item Rumination Response Style scale. Individuals with lower brooding scores showed greater activation of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus during analytical than experiential self-focus, whereas individuals with higher brooding scores did not. This is consistent with the hypothesis that brooding is associated with less control over the nature of the self-focus engaged. These findings may help to refine our understanding of how rumination promotes depression through maladaptive self-focus. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of maturation degree on fatty acid profile of different tissues in wild and farmed rohu (Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem, Shahid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding season, lots of physiological changes occur in the bodies of fish which lead to other phenotypical, anatomical and behavioral changes. To evaluate the impact of breeding on the bodily composition of fish, tests were conducted to determine the fatty acid profile of the brooder and Non-brooder wild and farmed fish. Samples were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector.There are non significant differences in the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in wild and farmed nonbrooder fish whereas in case of brooder there are significant differences. Brooder farmed fish contained more saturates in gonads approximately twice that of wild fish with C16:0 as the dominating fatty acid. C18:2n-6 and C20:5n-6 were the dominating unsaturated fatty acids in the gonads. Non-brooder fish contained more unsaturated fatty acids in the meat as compared to the brooder fish and farmed fish contained higher amounts of saturated fatty acids as compared to wild fish. C18:1n-9 and C20:4n-6 fatty acids were found in higher quantities and among the saturated acids, C16:0 is the dominating one. More or less similar results were found in the case of the liver fatty acid profile of breeding and nonbreeding fish. Fish of lower weight categories contained more unsaturated fatty acids and so better for consumption to leave the brooders of higher weight categories for the breeding of future generation.Durante la época de reproducción numerosos cambios fisiológicos ocurren en el cuerpo de los peces que guían a cambios anatómicos y de comportamiento. Para evaluar el impacto de la etapa de reproducción en la composición de los peces, ensayos para determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos fueron conducidos en peces salvajes y criados, en dos categorías de peso, maduro (booder o inmaduro (non-brooder. Las muestras fueron analizadas por cromatografía de gases usando un detector de ionización de llama. No hubo

  13. The prevalence of poultry coccidiosis and the anticoccidials in use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty brooder houses were sampled from (our States in the southern part of Nigeria, namely: Oyo, Lagos, Imo and Anambra States, to identify the species of coccidia. Five species of Eimeria were isolated including Eimeria tenella,· E. necatrix; E. maxima and E. mivati/E. mitis. Using the McMaster count, the number of oocyst ...

  14. The effects of brood stock size on the economy of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fry and maximum return on investment, female brooders of body weights ranging between 400 599 g are recommended for hormone induced natural breeding exercises. (International exchange rate: N129.00/US$1.00 as at 01 April, 2006) Keywords: Clarias anguillaris, brood stock size, induced breeding, fry production

  15. Genetic data, reproduction season and reproductive strategy data support the existence of biological species in Ophioderma longicauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexandra Anh-Thu; Stöhr, Sabine; Chenuil, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Cryptic species are numerous in the marine environment. The brittle star Ophioderma longicauda is composed of six mitochondrial lineages, encompassing brooders, which form a monophyletic group, and broadcasters, from which the brooders are derived. To clarify the species limits within O. longicauda, we compared the reproductive status of the sympatric lineages L1 and L3 (defined after sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial gene COI) during the month of May in Greece. In addition, we genotyped a nuclear marker, intron i51. Each L3 female was brooding, whereas all L1 specimens displayed full gonads, suggesting temporal pre-zygotic isolation between brooders and broadcasters. Statistical differences were found among lineages in morphology and bathymetric distribution. Finally, the intron i51 was polymorphic in L1 (60 individuals), but monomorphic in L3 (109 individuals), confirming the absence of gene flow between brooders and broadcasters. In conclusion, the broadcasting lineage L1 and the brooding lineage L3 are different biological species. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of population density on the growth and egg-laying capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the population density of adult African giant land snail, Archachatina marginata on the egg-laying capacity and the growth of the brooders and hatchlings were investigated for 9 months. Ten culture pens were stocked with snails at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% capacity with each group in 2 replicates.

  17. evaluation of a modified passive solar housing system for poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    lector and storage media of the heat energy from the sun. The fibre glass serves as a cover material to the collector. The description of the passive solar poultry chick brooder. The poultry brooding house by Ahiaba (2009). Nwakonobi et al. 51 consists of rectangular shape clay brick ma- sonry wall with internal dimension ...

  18. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol. 17 (1) June, 2013 ISSN 1119 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onyii Ogbonna

    Poultry has become a popular industry for the small holders that have great contribution to the economy of the ... temperatures lead to diseases infection while wind may serve as agent for spread of air-borne diseases that affects ..... requirement of a passive solar energy poultry chick brooder in Nigeria. Journal of Renewal ...

  19. Attitudes of Ostrich Producers to Factors Influencing Ostrich Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training workers and daily egg monitoring were considered important, as was the need to herd chicks, scrub their pens and heat them at night. The majority agreed on the use of rough floors and rubber mate in brooder houses to prevent chicks slipping. Most agreed on quarantining birds prior to slaughter, developing the ...

  20. Factor Productivity and Efficiency in Poultry Farming: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the research was to compare resource use productivity in broiler production looking at the two distinct activities of brooding and selling after four weeks and rearing the brooded to maturity before selling. In order to achieve this, a random sample of 180 broiler farmers of 90 brooders and 90 who rear ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 14, No 1 (2015), Comparison of fatty acid profile of wild and farm reared freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) brooders for broodstock diet ... Vol 9, No 49 (2010), Comparison of α, β and total ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-ά,β- diamino propionic acid) contents in winter- and springsown grasspea (Lathyrus ...

  2. Optimum Dietary Protein Level for Growth and Gonadal Maturation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulated diets of varying crude protein levels (20 to 50% at 5% protein intervals) were fed to “spent” female brooders of Heterobranchus longifilis (236.0 - 243.3 g body weight) stocked in concrete tanks at ten fish per tank in order to determine the most appropriate dietary protein level for their survival, growth and egg ...

  3. Influence of different yeast cell wall preparations and their components on broiler performance and immune and metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance, and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 day-of-hatch chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; ...

  4. Stress hormones in relation to breeding status and territory location in colonial king penguin: a role for social density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Stier, Antoine; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2014-07-01

    Because glucocorticoid (stress) hormones fundamentally affect various aspects of the behaviour, life history and fitness of free-living vertebrates, there is a need to understand the environmental factors shaping their variation in natural populations. Here, we examined whether spatial heterogeneity in breeding territory quality affected the stress of colonial king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We assessed the effects of local climate (wind, sun and ambient temperature) and social conditions (number of neighbours, distance to neighbours) on the baseline levels of plasma total corticosterone (CORT) in 77 incubating and 42 chick-brooding birds, breeding on territories of central or peripheral colony location. We also assessed the oxidative stress status of a sub-sample of central vs. peripheral chick-brooders to determine whether chronic stress arose from breeding on specific territories. On average, we found that brooders had 55% higher CORT levels than incubators. Regardless of breeding status, central birds experienced greater social density (higher number of neighbours, shorter distance between territories) and had higher CORT levels than peripheral birds. Increasing social density positively explained 40% of the variation in CORT levels of both incubators and brooders, but the effect was more pronounced in brooders. In contrast, climate was similar among breeding territories and did not significantly affect the CORT levels of breeding birds. In brooders, oxidative stress status was not affected by local density or weather conditions. These results highlight that local heterogeneity in breeding (including social) conditions may strongly affect the stress levels of breeding seabirds. The fitness consequences of such variation remain to be investigated.

  5. Choice Feeding and Amino Acid Requirements for Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Indarsih; R.A.E. Pym

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement todetermine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth andcarcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicateseach of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. Allg...

  6. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Alexander M; Baird, Andrew H; Hughes, Terry P

    2011-01-07

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage.

  7. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Alexander M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Hughes, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage. PMID:20659935

  8. Dataset on the importation of the exotic shrimp Penaeus vannamei broodstock (Boone, 1931) to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remany, M C; Kirubagaran, R; Cyriac, Daly; Varadaraju, P Krishnakanth; Prem O C, Sruthi; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep

    2017-04-01

    Penaeus vannamei is an exotic shrimp species that has gained high culture momentum, since its introduction to India [1]. Currently, the culture of the species in the Country is being done by the shrimp farmers by importation of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) vannamei broodstock from approved suppliers, which are located overseas. The value of one brooder normally ranges from 50 to 61 US $, excluding the custom duty, processing fee and other charges for the transboundary shipment of the stock to India. The P. vannamei stock are permitted to be imported to the Country by the hatchery operators only through the single declared port of entry, i.e. Chennai in Tamil Nadu in the Country. The imported parent shrimps are then to be quarantined at the Aquatic Quarantine Facility before being transported to the vannamei hatcheries [2]. This article reports the data available on import of vannamei broodstock to India since its importation to India in 2009. The dataset presented here contains information on transit and quarantine mortality of the brooders following the shipment of the stock by the various broodstock suppliers from the overseas.

  9. Norethindrone-induced masculinization and progeny testing in guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraja, N; Chandrashekhara, B H; Ahamad, Rather Mansoor

    2014-03-01

    Norethindrone(NE) was evaluated for its efficacy on alteration of sex ratio of P. reticulata. Either the young fry or the brooders and the resultant fry were fed a commercial diet incorporated with NE at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet (ppm) for 30-40 d in rectangular glass aquaria; this was followed by 40-60 d rearing on NE-free diet in out-door concrete tanks. In general, the androgen treatment altered sex ratio, leading to the production of a dose dependent increase in the percentage of males. The oral administration of the steroid at 75 ppm for 40 d or 100 ppmfor 30 or 40 d to first feeding fry, yielded 100% males. On the other hand, NE administration to brooders before parturition and the resultant fry also produced an all-male population of guppy. The sex ratio of the untreated control was almost 1:1. The survival of fish in all the trials was high, ranging between 67 and 100%. Mating masculinized males ("XX" male) with normal female resulted in an all-female progeny, while crossing normal male (XY) from treatment groups with normal female sired normal sex ratio (1:1), elucidating XX-XY sex determination system in the guppy.

  10. Growth Comparison of Israeli Carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Different Breeding Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ju-ae; Goo, In Bon; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Myung Hun; Kim, Do Hee; Im, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hye-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the improvement of growth in Israeli carp (Cyprinus carpio), and the cross experiment was carried out with two strains of Israeli carp. Four combinations of Israeli carp from Jeonbuk fisheries farm and Songpu mirror carp from Heilong Jiang, China (KK; Jeonbuk ♀ × Jeonbuk ♂, KC; Jeonbuk ♀ × China ♂, CC; China ♀ × China ♂ and CK; China ♀ × Jeonbuk ♂) were developed and reared. Body length, body weight and condition factor were determined at 20, 40, 60 and 170 days post-hatch (DPH). The results showed that there were differences in growth rate of the four groups. Body length of four groups were CK > CC > KC > KK and body weight were CC > CK > KC > KK at 170 DPH. The growth perfomance of four groups were statistically significant difference (P<0.05). During the rearing, CC group had longer length and higher weight at 170 DPH compared to other three groups and also condition factor was highest in the CC group, but there was no significant difference in a survival rate. These results indicated that the growth performance mainly depended upon brooder combination but survival rate could not significantly affect brooder. PMID:28144632

  11. Effect of artificial rearing of piglets on the volume densities of M cells in the tonsils of the soft palate and ileal Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prims, S; Pintens, N; Vergauwen, H; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C; Casteleyn, C

    2017-02-01

    The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies. The present study focused on the M cells in the tonsil of the soft palate and in the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP). These epithelial cells are specialized in antigen sampling and play a pivotal role in the induction of adaptive immune responses. The volume densities of the M cells were assessed by stereological analysis of tissue samples from piglets of 0, 3, 8 and 19days of age. During the first three days, piglets suckled the sow, permitting them to ingest colostrum. At the third day, the piglets were either allowed to continue to suckle the sow or were transferred to brooders. The six experimental groups, each containing six piglets, thus consisted of newborn piglets, 3-day-old sow-suckled piglets, and conventionally and artificially reared piglets of 8 and 19days of age. To identify M cells, tissue samples were immersed in 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde and paraffin sections were immunohistochemically stained against cytokeratin 18. The volume densities of M cells in both the crypt epithelium of the tonsils of the soft palate and the follicle-associated epithelium of the iPPs did not show any difference between the various age groups of conventionally reared piglets. However, values were twice as high in the iPPs compared to the tonsils of the soft palate. In contrast, a decrease in volume densities of M cells was observed in the iPPs of piglets after they had been transferred to commercial brooders (P=0.05), resulting in

  12. Broadcast spawning by Pocillopora species on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Miller, Karen J; Woolsey, Erika; Gerlach, Gabriele; Baird, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    The coral genus Pocillopora is one of the few to include some species that broadcast spawn gametes and some species that brood larvae, although reports of reproductive mode and timing vary within and among species across their range. Notably, the ubiquitous Pocillopora damicornis has been described as both a brooder and spawner, although evidence of broadcast spawning is rare. Here, we report observations of broadcast-spawning in four species of Pocillopora on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), including P. damicornis. All species spawned predictably during the early morning, two days following the full moon, and spawning was observed in multiple months over the summer period (November to February). Eggs and sperm were free-spawned concurrently. Eggs were negatively buoyant and contained Symbiodinium. This newfound knowledge on the mode, timing and regularity of broadcast spawning in Pocillopora spp. on the GBR brings us one step closer to elucidating the complex reproductive ecology of these species.

  13. The history of avian medicine in the United States. IV. Some milestones in American research of poultry parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E E

    1977-01-01

    Most of the major contributions of Americans to knowledge of poultry parasites have been made in the last 100 years. Factors responsible for this tardiness differed somewhat according to the disease. The first parasitic diseases to receive attention were usually those with distinctive characteristics as well as serious consequences, such as "gapes" and lousiness. Since helminths could usually be readily observed, whereas protozoa could be observed only by persons skilled in microscopy, disorders attributable to the former usually received attention earlier than did protozoan diseases. The control of ectoparasites, before the use of modern insecticides, became vastly simplified as mechanical incubators and brooders replaced the hen, and as the birds were provided with better housing. The major contributions of Americans to our understanding of parasitic diseases of poultry are detailed for five disorders attributable to helminths, and two attributable to protozoa. The latter are histomoniasis of turkeys and coccidiosis of chickens. No attempt has been made to evaluate the impact of contemporary research.

  14. Age-dependent QTL affecting body weight in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.

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    D. LOUKOVITIS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined 24 maternal half-sib families of gilthead seabream to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with body weight at four time points during a production cycle. 57 brooders and 637 offspring were genotyped for 14 informative microsatellite markers, spanning linkage groups 1 and 21. The QTL detection method was based on half-sib interval mapping analysis through a linear regression approach. One QTL was found significant at all time points in linkage group 1, with its effect having different profile across time, and one QTL in linkage group 21 that seems to impact body weight at a later growth stage of the species. Current results verified previously published QTL for growth in the above linkage groups, using a different genetic background of seabream. These QTL can be considered as valuable candidates for use in marker-assisted selective breeding programs, aiming at high rates of genetic improvement for growth in S. aurata.

  15. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  16. Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasindh Hangsapreurke

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs, the brooders in each salinity were separately transferred to the hatching tank with 15 ppt saline water for the second part of the study. After hatching, the healthy larvae from the brooders which were previously incubated in 3 levels of salinity were collected for the larviculture experiment. The closed recirculating water system with trickling filter unit packed with fiberglass and bioballs was used as incubation and larviculture units. The metamorphosis period and survival rate were examined. The rearing water from each larviculture aquarium was collected for determination of sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. The result showed that the percentage of ripe berried females (with heart beating stage embryos were not significantly different (p>0.05 between 5 and 15 ppt salinity but their values were significantly higher (p0.05 in the survival rate of post larvae and metamorphosis period among the treatments. The first post larvae stage occurred on the 26th day. During 30 days of larviculture, the survival rate of all treatments was 100% until the 19th day, after which it suddenly decreased. When the concentrations of the ions in the rearing water were determined in all treatments, it was found that the concentration of magnesium ions rapidly declined (p0.05. The low survival rate during the final stage of larviculture might be due to the depletion of the previously mentioned ions especially that of magnesium.

  17. Polytetrafluoroethylene toxicosis in recently hatched chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Katherine A; Brock, Kristie L; Dysko, Robert C; DiRita, Victor J; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2012-02-01

    Two groups of chickens (Gallus domesticus; White Leghorn; age, 4 d and 2 wk) housed in a university research vivarium were found dead or moribund without prior signs of illness. The overall mortality rates were 92.3% (60 of 65 birds) for the 4-d-old birds and 80% (8 of 10) for the 2-wk-old birds. All chicks were housed in brooders with heat lamps in a temperature- and humidity-controlled room. Primary gross findings were mild to moderate dehydration and hepatic lipidosis. The most consistent histologic findings were pulmonary hemorrhage and edema in all 7 of the 4-d-old birds evaluated and in all 4 of the 2-wk-old birds assessed. In addition, 1 of the 4-d-old birds had multifocal centrilobular hepatic necrosis. These findings suggested an inhaled toxicant and hypoxia, respectively. Inspection of the animal room revealed that approximately 50% of the heat lamp bulbs in the brooder cage were coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Two published case reports detail similar experiences in birds exposed to PTFE-coated heat-lamp bulbs. Birds are highly sensitive to inhaled toxicants owing to the high efficiency of their respiratory systems, and PTFE toxicosis is known to cause pulmonary edema and hemorrhage in pet birds after exposure to overheated nonstick cookware. In the present case, the bulbs were replaced, and no similar problems subsequently have been noted. This case illustrates the sensitivity of avian species to respiratory toxicants and serves as a reminder that toxicosis can be encountered even in the controlled environment of a laboratory vivarium.

  18. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  19. Divergence between Antarctic and South American marine invertebrates: What molecular biology tells us about Scotia Arc geodynamics and the intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Elie; González-Wevar, Claudio; Díaz, Angie; Gérard, Karin; Hüne, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    Continental drift processes such as major gateway openings have been historically advocated to explain the distribution of marine benthic taxa in the Southern Ocean (SO). The separation between Antarctic Peninsula and the southern tip of South America together with the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) represent the final step for the complete isolation of the Antarctic region. However, there is still controversy concerning the timing and mode of this process, and especially about the role of the Scotia Arc geodynamics in the development of a fully deep and intensified ACC circulation. Based on mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) sequences obtained from different taxa, we performed molecular comparisons between Antarctic and South American relatives to provide independent time estimations of Antarctica's isolation. We include in the analyses congeneric Antarctic and Patagonian near-shore marine benthic invertebrates including indirect developers (Nacella, Yoldia, Sterechinus, and Parbolasia) and brooders (Xymenopsis and Trophonella). Considering the levels of genetic differentiation between relatives from both regions and assuming the molecular clock hypothesis, we estimated the onset of their respective divergence. On one hand, similar levels of genetic distance in broadcast-spawners (7%-8.3%) support the hypothesis that the development of an effective barrier between Antarctica and South America occurred almost simultaneously for these groups. Divergence time estimations based on specific substitution rates indicate that the separation occurred near the Mio-Pliocene transition, long after the physical separation of both continents. Genetic distance and divergence time estimation in direct developers indicate an older separation time, close to the mid-Miocene. Even when the analyzed groups included both broadcast-spawners and brooder organisms, the divergence between Antarctic and South America lineages rather than being related to

  20. Implications of coral harvest and transplantation on reefs in northwestern Dominica

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    Andrew W Bruckner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the coral culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID, a coral farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals for restoration and commercial sales. We assessed the culture facilities of OID, the condition of reefs, potential impacts of coral collection and benefits of coral transplantation. Coral reefs (9 reefs, 3-20m depth were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian corals and a live coral cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all corals, P. porites (14.8%, Meandrina meandrites (14.7% and Agaricia agaricites (9.1% were the most abundant corals, but colonies were mostly small (mean=25cm diameter. Montastraea annularis (complex was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all corals and colonies were larger (mean=70cm. Corals (pooled species were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. Coral diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%, Douglas Bay (12.2% and Coconut Outer reef (20.7%. White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex, with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the reefs appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OID were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-reef builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium that monopolize substrates and overgrow corals. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these species

  1. Influence of genetic strain and season on back scratch lesions in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pilecco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the influence of genetic strain, sex, and season on the incidence of back scratches during the rearing period. Male and female broilers of two genetic strains reared during the hot or cold season were evaluated. This meta-analysis included 894 samplings in 351 broiler houses of contracted farms located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in 2010. Broilers of all ages (1 to 43 days were sampled, capturing 2% of the birds in the house at each sampling. Each flock was evaluated twice, in 21-day intervals. Broilers were reared as single-sex flocks; there were no straight-run flocks. Scratch lesions were classified as present or absent. Strain A broilers presented lower scratch rates (p < 0.05 than strain B birds. During the starter period (1 a 21 days, males presented higher scratch rates (p < 0.05 than females, and the incidence of these lesions was lower during the hot season compared with the cold season. It was concluded that different management practices can be adopted to minimize back scratches in broilers of different sexes and strains during hot and cold seasons, such as reducing weight control frequency and the period of chick containment in brooder circles.

  2. If I only knew why: the relationship between brooding, beliefs about rumination, and perceptions of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Yaakov; Mor, Nilly

    2014-07-01

    People who tend to engage in brooding, the maladaptive subtype of rumination, are at risk to develop depression. Brooders often endorse metacognitive beliefs that self-focused ruminative thinking is beneficial. In the current study, we examined whether brooding and positive beliefs about rumination are associated with perceptions of and preferences for treatments for depression. Participants (N=118) read descriptions of two different clusters of treatments for depression, Insight-Oriented (IO) treatments and Activation-Oriented (AO) treatments. They then rated treatment efficacy and credibility and completed self-report measures of rumination (including brooding and reflection subscales), beliefs about rumination, and depression. Brooding and metacognitive positive beliefs about rumination were associated with positive perceptions of IO (but not AO) treatments. Positive beliefs about rumination contributed to the prediction of perceptions of IO treatments (but not AO treatments) beyond the effect of brooding. We discuss the implications of these findings for individuals' decision-making processes regarding which type of treatment to seek. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. To brood or not to brood: Are marine invertebrates that protect their offspring more resilient to ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Noelle Marie; Lombardi, Chiara; Demarchi, Lucia; Schulze, Anja; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Calosi, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed by seawater resulting in increasingly acidic oceans, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). OA is thought to have largely deleterious effects on marine invertebrates, primarily impacting early life stages and consequently, their recruitment and species’ survival. Most research in this field has been limited to short-term, single-species and single-life stage studies, making it difficult to determine which taxa will be evolutionarily successful under OA conditions. We circumvent these limitations by relating the dominance and distribution of the known polychaete worm species living in a naturally acidic seawater vent system to their life history strategies. These data are coupled with breeding experiments, showing all dominant species in this natural system exhibit parental care. Our results provide evidence supporting the idea that long-term survival of marine species in acidic conditions is related to life history strategies where eggs are kept in protected maternal environments (brooders) or where larvae have no free swimming phases (direct developers). Our findings are the first to formally validate the hypothesis that species with life history strategies linked to parental care are more protected in an acidifying ocean compared to their relatives employing broadcast spawning and pelagic larval development.

  4. DNA barcoding: A molecular tool to identify Antarctic marine larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Karen E.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clark, Melody S.; Bowden, David A.

    2006-04-01

    To begin to understand overall patterns and processes influencing marine populations, communities and ecosystems, it is important to determine the timing, duration, mode and dispersal of larvae. However, few studies of the spatial and temporal variation in abundance of larvae have been undertaken at any locality, other than for a few commercially important species. In Antarctic seas the abundance and species-richness of marine larvae are key to a number of concepts (such as the validity of Thorson's rule and ecological versus evolutionary success of brooders compared to spawning species). Traditionally, marine larval identification (using microscopy), even to order level, is a time-consuming, labour-intensive and inexact process. Ontogenic changes during larval life make identification difficult and require high levels of expertise, and identification is generally confirmed only by laboratory spawning experiments. New molecular genetic methods enable faster direct identification of marine larvae to a higher resolution. Our preliminary results show that it is possible to identify larvae of Antarctic species using DNA barcoding techniques, but that the resolution is currently limited by the availability of comparative adult sequences in the DNA sequence databases.

  5. A new species of brooding Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from deep-sea off Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mariano I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a new species of Psolus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), P. lawrencei sp. nov., (19 specimens) found in the deep sea (308-1398 m) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWAO) (around 38°S-54°W) with brooders (up to 3.15 mm) in the tentacles of females and a penis-like genital papilla on males. The presence of dorsal scales, the concave shape of the ossicles with a bridge, the distribution of podia on the dorsal side and the absence of large and conspicuous oral and anal valves are unique for this species. Furthermore, this is the first species of this genus found outside Antarctica that broods between its tentacles. The paper also reviews the reproductive, brooding development and morphological characteristics of P. lawrencei sp. nov. and compares them with those of several members of the family Psolidae. Finally, a possible connectivity between the deep-sea populations in the SWAO and in Antarctica is considered based on the appearance of a similar reproductive pattern in populations found in both areas, which suggests a past or present connection between these regions.

  6. Genetic population structure in the Antarctic benthos: insights from the widespread amphipod, Orchomenella franklini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Phoenix Baird

    Full Text Available Currently there is very limited understanding of genetic population structure in the Antarctic benthos. We conducted one of the first studies of microsatellite variation in an Antarctic benthic invertebrate, using the ubiquitous amphipod Orchomenella franklini (Walker, 1903. Seven microsatellite loci were used to assess genetic structure on three spatial scales: sites (100 s of metres, locations (1-10 kilometres and regions (1000 s of kilometres sampled in East Antarctica at Casey and Davis stations. Considerable genetic diversity was revealed, which varied between the two regions and also between polluted and unpolluted sites. Genetic differentiation among all populations was highly significant (F(ST = 0.086, R(ST = 0.139, p<0.001 consistent with the brooding mode of development in O. franklini. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed that the majority of the genetic subdivision occurred across the largest geographical scale, with N(em≈1 suggesting insufficient gene flow to prevent independent evolution of the two regions, i.e., Casey and Davis are effectively isolated. Isolation by distance was detected at smaller scales and indicates that gene flow in O. franklini occurs primarily through stepping-stone dispersal. Three of the microsatellite loci showed signs of selection, providing evidence that localised adaptation may occur within the Antarctic benthos. These results provide insights into processes of speciation in Antarctic brooders, and will help inform the design of spatial management initiatives recently endorsed for the Antarctic benthos.

  7. Sexual reproduction in the Caribbean coral genus Isophyllia (Scleractinia: Mussidae

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    Derek Soto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000–2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I. sinuosa and from August through June in I. rigida. Oocytes began development 7–8 months prior to spermaries but both sexes matured simultaneously. Zooxanthellate planulae were observed in I. sinuosa during April and in I. rigida from June through September. Higher polyp and mesenterial fecundity were found in I. rigida compared to I. sinuosa. Larger oocyte sizes were found in I. sinuosa than in I. rigida, however larger planula sizes were found in I. rigida. Hermaphroditism is the exclusive sexual pattern within the Mussidae while brooding has been documented within the related genera Mussa, Scolymia and Mycetophyllia. This study represents the first description of the sexual characteristics of I. rigida and provides an updated description of I. sinuosa.

  8. Application of the filial imprinting phenomenon to broiler chicks at a commercial farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaryahu, G; Snapir, N; Robinzon, B

    1987-09-01

    Ten thousand broiler chicks on commercial farms in Israel were imprinted to blue and red plastic boxes (20 x 20 x 40 cm) containing loud speakers (8 omega, 12 W) equipped with a tape recorder, in which a classical music cassette had been placed. Upon reaching 3 wk of age, an attempt was made to move these chicks from the training area (A) to a new area (B) using the imprinting objects. This experiment was repeated four times: May, August and November of 1985, and in January 1986. During the warm months of May and August 30 to 60% of the experimental chicks followed the imprinting objects toward Area B. During the cold months and in all four repetitions with the controls, less than 5% of the flocks moved from Area A to Area B. Winter chicks may have been imprinted on brooder heaters. In all repetitions, most of the imprinted chicks distributed themselves equally over Area B 1 h after the doors between Areas B and A were closed. Controls, however, crowded around the door between Areas A and B resulting in the death of many chicks by asphyxiation. This study has shown that thousands of heavy strain chicks can be easily attached to an imprinting stimulus and it may be possible to apply this phenomenon for commercial purposes.

  9. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P Origanum genus in broilers. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement to determine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth and carcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to 48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates each of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. All groups were fed free choice of summit and dilution diets. The estimated dietary level of crude protein at day-old was 240 g/kg and the level at 42 d was either 120, 150 or 180 g/kg for females or 130, 160 and 190 g/kg for males. At 43 d of age, all birds from each dietary treatment were slaughtered for measurement of body composition. Results reveal that lysine requirement for maximum gain in this study was higher than NRC recommendation. The free choice-fed bird was significantly higher, in terms of growth and body composition than that obtained on the low dietary protein regimen.Keyword

  11. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement todetermine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth andcarcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicateseach of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. Allgroups were fed free choice of summit and dilution diets. The estimated dietary level of crude protein atday-old was 240 g/kg and the level at 42 d was either 120, 150 or 180 g/kg for females or 130, 160 and190 g/kg for males. At 43 d of age, all birds from each dietary treatment were slaughtered formeasurement of body composition. Results reveal that lysine requirement for maximum gain in thisstudy was higher than NRC recommendation. The free choice-fed bird was significantly higher, in termsof growth and body composition than that obtained on the low dietary protein regimen.

  12. Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers reveals no genetic differentiation between wild and hatchery populations of Pacific threadfin in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Gang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2010-12-15

    Pacific threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, is popular fish in recreational fishing, as well as aquaculture in Hawaii. Its natural population has been continuously declining in the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are useful DNA-based tool for monitoring Pacific threadfin populations. In this study, fifteen Microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic Pacific threadfin DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and six highly-polymorphic microsatellite loci were employed to analyze genetic similarity and differences between the wild population and hatchery population in Oahu Island. A total of 37 alleles were detected at the six MS loci in the two populations. Statistical analysis of fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no genetic differentiation between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.001, CI(95%) = -0.01-0.021). Both high genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.664-0.674 and H(e) = 0.710-0.715) and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in the wild and hatchery populations. Results of genetic bottleneck analysis indicated that the hatchery was founded with sufficient numbers of brooders as inbreeding coefficient is very low (F(IS) = 0.052-0.072) in both wild and hatchery populations. Further studies are needed for comprehensive determinations of genetic varieties of primary founder broodstocks and successive offspring of the hatchery and wild populations with increased number of Pacific threadfin sample collections.

  13. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  14. Contrasting reproductive strategies in three deep-sea octocorals from eastern Canada: Primnoa resedaeformis, Keratoisis ornata, and Anthomastus grandiflorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, A.; Hamel, J.-F.

    2011-06-01

    Various aspects of reproduction were studied in three deep-sea octocorals belonging to the order Alcyonacea that co-occur at bathyal depths on the continental edge and the slope of eastern Canada. The main goals were to expand knowledge of deep-water heterotrophic corals and ascertain whether reproductive strategies could explain the known patterns of occurrence. Anthomastus grandiflorus is a gonochoric species with a female-biased sex ratio that exhibits internal fertilization and brooding of planula larvae. Conversely, Primnoa resedaeformis and Keratoisis ornata rely on broadcast spawning and external fertilization; their sexuality remains undetermined as spermatocysts were not found. In P. resedaeformis, the presence of mixed size classes of oocytes in samples from all months, depths, and locations studied suggests continuous oogenesis or overlapping development of oocyte cohorts, indicative of a gametogenic cycle spanning more than a year. No evidence of periodicity was found in this species, although it could have been masked by the striking bathymetric variation in potential relative fecundity (oocytes polyp-1). The two other octocorals displayed a clear annual breeding pattern. Spawning in K. ornata and larval release in A. grandiflorus occurred in late summer and fall, respectively, possibly in response to environmental factors, as supported by shifts in the reproductive peak of A. grandiflorus across latitudes. The three species are presumed to share a nonfeeding larval mode, and data on their reproductive potential do not present any striking disparities. Published data on bycatches and video surveys in Atlantic Canada indicate that the gonochoric brooder A. grandiflorus is more widely distributed than the two free spawners, P. resedaeformis and K. ornata, which is contrary to common dispersal potential paradigms.

  15. Linking demographic processes of juvenile corals to benthic recovery trajectories in two common reef habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Ward, Selina; Roff, George; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Tropical reefs are dynamic ecosystems that host diverse coral assemblages with different life-history strategies. Here, we quantified how juvenile (coral demographics influenced benthic coral structure in reef flat and reef slope habitats on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Permanent plots and settlement tiles were monitored every six months for three years in each habitat. These environments exhibited profound differences: the reef slope was characterised by 95% less macroalgal cover, and twice the amount of available settlement substrata and rates of coral settlement than the reef flat. Consequently, post-settlement coral survival in the reef slope was substantially higher than that of the reef flat, and resulted in a rapid increase in coral cover from 7 to 31% in 2.5 years. In contrast, coral cover on the reef flat remained low (~10%), whereas macroalgal cover increased from 23 to 45%. A positive stock-recruitment relationship was found in brooding corals in both habitats; however, brooding corals were not directly responsible for the observed changes in coral cover. Rather, the rapid increase on the reef slope resulted from high abundances of broadcast spawning Acropora recruits. Incorporating our results into transition matrix models demonstrated that most corals escape mortality once they exceed 50 mm, but for smaller corals mortality in brooders was double those of spawners (i.e. acroporids and massive corals). For corals on the reef flat, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that growth and mortality of larger juveniles (21-50 mm) highly influenced population dynamics; whereas the recruitment, growth and mortality of smaller corals (coral cover following large-scale perturbation in reef slope environments.

  16. Reproductive biology of the deep brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix: Implications for shallow reef recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Hashizume, Kaito; Harii, Saki

    2017-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs, between 30 and 150 m depth) are hypothesized to contribute to the recovery of degraded shallow reefs through sexually produced larvae (referred to as Deep Reef Refuge Hypothesis). In Okinawa, Japan, the brooder coral Seriatopora hystrix was reported to be locally extinct in a shallow reef while it was found abundant at a MCE nearby. In this context, S. hystrix represents a key model to test the Deep Reef Refuge Hypothesis and to understand the potential contribution of mesophotic corals to shallow coral reef recovery. However, the reproductive biology of mesophotic S. hystrix and its potential to recolonize shallow reefs is currently unknown. This study reports for the first time, different temporal scales of reproductive periodicity and larval settlement of S. hystrix from an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa. We examined reproductive seasonality, lunar, and circadian periodicity (based on polyp dissection, histology, and ex situ planula release observations) and larval settlement rates in the laboratory. Mesophotic S. hystrix reproduced mainly in July and early August, with a small number of planulae being released at the end of May, June and August. Compared to shallow colonies in the same region, mesophotic S. hystrix has a 4-month shorter reproductive season, similar circadian periodicity, and smaller planula size. In addition, most of the planulae settled rapidly, limiting larval dispersal potential. The shorter reproductive season and smaller planula size may result from limited energy available for reproduction at deeper depths, while the similar circadian periodicity suggests that this reproductive aspect is not affected by environmental conditions differing with depth. Overall, contribution of mesophotic S. hystrix to shallow reef rapid recovery appears limited, although they may recruit to shallow reefs through a multistep process over a few generations or through random extreme mixing such as typhoons.

  17. THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE ON RESPONSE IN BODY COMPOSITION TO VARIATION IN DIETARY PROTEIN : ENERGY RATIOS

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    B. Indarsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 480 day-old chicks of four commercial strains was conducted to study theeffect of genotype on response in body composition to variation in dietary protein: energy ratios. Thechicks were randomly allocated into 4x2x4 factorial and fed on a commercial starter diet (250 g CP and12.5 MJ of ME /kg from hatching to 5 d of age and divided into two groups with three replicationseach of 16 birds and given either the such starter diet (S or a finisher diet (F containing 190 g CP and13.0 MJ of ME /kg. The birds were reared in strain-and sex-intermingled groups in brooders and followoncages until they reached the target body weight of 600-650 g (females or 650-700 g (males andtransferred to single cages and fed S or F diet until 1200-1300 g (females or 1300-1400 g (males. Thelighting program was 23 h light for the first two days, and reduced to 18 h/d for the remainder of theexperiment. There were considerable variations in relative growth performance, FCR, carcass fat andabdominal fat due to genotypes and dietary regimen. Although birds tend to response in similar waywhen dealing with the excesses and insufficient supply, the nutrient requirements in relation to theprotein: energy ratios should be designed according to genetic background.The accumulation of fatduring the growing period was primarily due to the genetic variation whereas beyond this age, variationin abdominal fat was due principally to dietary effects.

  18. Life history and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Bivalvia:Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Mair, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The reproduction, demography, and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Lea, 1834) were studied in the Clinch and Powell rivers, Tennessee. Viable populations of the dromedary pearlymussel now occur only in the Clinch and Powell rivers; the species has been extirpated from the remaining portions of its range in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages. Females are long-term winter brooders, and they are gravid from October to June. Glochidia are contained in conglutinates that are red to white and resemble freshwater leeches or flatworms. Conglutinates are 20 to 40 mm long and are released through the excurrent aperture. Estimates of fecundity based on 7 gravid females collected from the Clinch River were 55,110 to 253,050 glochidia/mussel. The ages of 66 valves of D. dromas were determined by thin-sectioning and ranged from 3 to 25 y. Annual growth averaged 5 mm/y until age 10 and decreased to ???1.2 mm/ y thereafter. Nineteen fish species were tested for suitability as hosts for glochidia. Ten were confirmed as hosts through induced infestations of glochidia: black sculpin (Cottus baileyi), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), fantail darter (Etheostoma flabellare), snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterum), tangerine darter (Percina aurantiaca), blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni), logperch (Percina caprodes), channel darter (Percina copelandi), gilt darter (Percina evides), and Roanoke darter (Percina roanoka). Juveniles produced from these hosts were cultured in dishes held in nonrecirculating aquaculture systems containing fine sediment (Nannochloropsis oculata every 2 d. Survival of 2810 newly metamorphosed juveniles was 836 (29.7%) after 1 to 2 wk.

  19. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzón, Jorge H C

    2013-04-05

    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  20. Improving the lipid nutritive value of poultry meat through the incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, P I P; Prates, J A M; Crespo, J P; Crespo, D G; Mourão, J L; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Chaveiro-Soares, M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A

    2008-08-01

    Dehydrated forages are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds (vitamin E homologs and beta-carotene). The effects of including a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in a typical diet for broiler chicken, on performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition were evaluated. One hundred sixty 1-d-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) were housed in 20 battery brooders. During the 28-d growth period, the animals were fed ad libitum with a typical maize-soybean high-energy feed having access or not to a dehydrated leguminous-based forage provided in a separate feeder. The results revealed that dehydrated forage intake (which was 11.1% of the total intake) had no impact in broiler performance (P > 0.05). The capacity of ingested forage to modulate broiler meat fatty acid profile and the meat content in total cholesterol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and beta-carotene was investigated in broiler chicks slaughtered at d 28. Dehydrated forage consumption had no effect on the lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds and cholesterol contents of broiler meat but had a significant effect on meat fatty acid profile. Although forage intake did not affect the linoleic acid and ALA contents in poultry meat, the levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic (P = 0.004), docosapentaenoic (P = 0.010), and docosahexaenoic (P = 0.007)] in breast meat were significantly higher in animals consuming leguminous biomass, which suggest a higher conversion of ALA into its derivatives in these birds. Overall, the data confirms that incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks results in more favorable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 nutritional ratios for animals slaughtered at earlier stages of grow.

  1. Resurrecting a subgenus to genus: molecular phylogeny of Euphyllia and Fimbriaphyllia (order Scleractinia; family Euphyllidae; clade V

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    Katrina S. Luzon

    2017-12-01

    dichotomy better. Species in a genus are distinguished by combining polyp morphology and colony form. The cluster of E. glabrescens of the Euphyllia group is a hermaphroditic brooder with long, tubular tentacles with knob-like tips, and a phaceloid colony structure. The Fimbriaphyllia group, with F. paraancora, F. paradivisa, F. ancora, F. divisa, and F. yaeyamaensis, are gonochoric broadcast spawners with short polyps, mixed types of tentacle shapes, and a phaceloid or flabello-meandroid skeleton. Soft-tissue morphology of G. fascicularis and Ctenella chagius were found to be consistent with the dichotomy. Conclusions The paraphyly of the original members of the previous subgenera justify recognizing Fimbriaphyllia as a genus. The integrated approach demonstrates that combining polyp features, reproductive traits, and skeletal morphology is of high systematic value not just to Euphyllia and Fimbriaphyllia but also to clade V; thus, laying the groundwork for resolving the phylogeny of clade V.

  2. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a 'universal' egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is

  3. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P broilers fed the CD. In experiment II, BMG was not affected (P > 0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P broiler fed organic Zn, Se and Cr compared to the CD-fed group. The dietary concentrations of Zn, Se and Cr did not influence (P > 0.05) the immune responses (Newcastle disease titre and cell-mediated immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P) in both the experiments. Based on the results, it is concluded that supplementation of organic form of Se, Cr and

  4. The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid and urea concentrations in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2009-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of Gly, TSAA, and Lys in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. All experiments were conducted with female Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers in brooder batteries from 0 to 18 d posthatching. Treatments had 5 to 8 replications with 5 or 6 broilers per replicate pen. Diets in all experiments were fed without or with Gly (2.32% total Gly + Ser). All diets contained 0.25% l-Lys.HCl except in experiment 1, where no crystalline Lys was added. In experiment 1, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.72 and 0.76. Increasing TSAA:Lys increased (P urea N concentrations. Also, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly and quadratically (P < 0.02) increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F. In experiment 4, broilers were fed 2 levels of total dietary Lys (1.26 and 1.35%), 3 levels of TSAA:Lys (0.72, 0.76, and 0.80), and without or with Gly supplementation up to a total of 2.32% Gly + Ser. Glycine addition increased ADG (P < 0.02) and G:F (P < 0.01). The increase in G:F with Gly was not the same for all TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.07). Increasing Lys increased (P < 0.01 to 0.10) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Glycine addition increased ADG and ADFI more in broilers fed 1.35% Lys than in those fed 1.26% Lys (Lys x Gly, P < 0.09). Glycine addition increased SUA in broilers fed 1.26% Lys but decreased SUA in broilers fed 1.35% Lys (P < 0.01). Glycine addition decreased SUA in broilers fed the TSAA:Lys of 0.80 but not at the other TSAA:Lys (P < 0.08). These data indicate that Gly increased G:F and decreased SUA in diets with 1.35% Lys and excess TSAA.

  5. Releasing captive-reared masked bobwhite for population recovery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Gee, G.; Brennan, L.A.; Palmer, W.E.; Burger, L.W.; Pruden, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to it's former southern Arizona range have been ongoing since establishment of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Pre-release conditioning techniques developed prior to Refuge establishment continued to be utilized in an effort to improve post-release survival of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks. Foremost among these techniques was the use of wild Texas bobwhite (C. v. texanus) males as foster parents which were paired with all broods released on the Refuge. The efficacy of this technique was evaluated using radio telemetry in 1994, and the results indicated that the use of foster Texas males was not as effective as had been presumed because post-release chick survival was poor. Therefore, in 1995 pre-release conditioning protocol were modified in an effort to improve post-release survival. The primary intent of these modifications was to emphasize wild behavior among chicks prior to release. Modifications to established protocol included imprinting chicks to adult bobwhites immediately after eggs hatched and exposing 1-to-2 day old chicks to natural foods (insects and seeds) while they were in brooder units. Foster parents and their respective broods were then placed in flight pens that mimicked the natural conditions that would confront broods upon release. Family groups were held in flight pens for several weeks for acclimatization purposes and then transported to temporary enclosures erected at release sites where they were held for a week and then released. Finally all releases were conducted during fall after covey formation was apparent to ensure that foster parents and released chicks remained with a group of birds. Preliminary results indicated that post-release chick survival was higher than what was observed in 1994. Pre-conditioning research will continue in an effort to further quantify post-release survival of masked bobwhite chicks. Although the

  6. Large-scale coral recruitment patterns on Mona Island, Puerto Rico: evidence of a transitional community trajectory after massive coral bleaching and mortality

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    Edwin A. Hernández-Delgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have largely declined across the northeastern Caribbean following the 2005 massive bleaching event. Climate change-related sea surface warming and coral disease outbreaks of a white plague-like syndrome and of yellow band disease (YBD have caused significant coral decline affecting massive reef building species (i.e., Orbicella annularis species complex which show no apparent signs of recovery through larval sexual recruitment. We addressed coral recruit densities across three spur and groove reef locations along the western shelf of remote Mona Island, Puerto Rico: Punta Capitán (PCA, Pasa de Las Carmelitas (PLC, and Las Carmelitas-South (LCS. Data were collected during November 2012 along 93 haphazard transects across three depth zones (<5m, 5-10m, 10-15m. A total of 32 coral species (9 octocorals, 1 hydrocoral, 22 scleractinians were documented among the recruit community. Communities had low densities and dominance by short-lived brooder species seven years after the 2005 event. Mean coral recruit density ranged from 1.2 to 10.5/m2 at PCA, 6.3 to 7.2/m² at LCS, 4.5 to 9.5/m² at PLC. Differences in coral recruit community structure can be attributed to slight variation in percent macroalgal cover and composition as study sites had nearly similar benthic spatial heterogeneity. Dominance by ephemeral coral species was widespread. Recovery of largely declining massive reef-building species such as the O. annularis species complex was limited or non-existent. The lack of recovery could be the combined result of several mechanisms involving climate change, YBD disease, macroalgae, fishing, urchins and Mona Island’s reefs limited connectivity to other reef systems. There is also for rehabilitation of fish trophic structure, with emphasis in recovering herbivore guilds and depleted populations of D. antillarum. Failing to recognize the importance of ecosystem-based management and resilience rehabilitation may deem remote coral reefs

  7. Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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    O.O Komolafe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637. The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gonadosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637, y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos.

  8. Response surface and neural network models for performance of broiler chicks fed diets varying in digestible protein and critical amino acids from 11 to 17 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H; Golian, A

    2011-09-01

    Central composite design (CCD; 5 levels and 4 factors), response surface methodology (RSM), and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used to evaluate the response of broiler chicks [ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR)] to dietary standardized ileal digestible protein (dP), lysine (dLys), total sulfur amino acids (dTSAA), and threonine (dThr). A total of 84 battery brooder units of 5 birds each were assigned to 28 diets of CCD containing 5 levels of dP (18-22%), dLys (1.06-1.30%), dTSAA (0.81-1.01%), and dThr (0.66-0.86%) from 11 to 17 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with the quadratic and artificial neural network models. A ridge analysis (for RSM models) and a genetic algorithm (for ANN-GA models) were used to compute the optimal response for ADG and FCR. For both ADG and FCR, the goodness of fit in terms of R(2) and MS error corresponding to ANN-GA and RSM models showed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction for ANN models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.99; FCR model: R(2) = 0.97) compared with RSM models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.70; FCR model: R(2) = 0.71). The ridge maximum analysis on ADG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum ADG may be obtained with 18.5, 1.10, 0.89, and 0.73% dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be obtained with 19.44, 1.18, 0.90, and 0.75% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The optimization results of ANN-GA models showed the maximum ADG may be achieved with 19.93, 1.06, 0.90, and 0.76% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be achieved with 18.63, 1.26, 0.84, and 0.69% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The results of this study revealed that the platform of CCD (for conducting growth trials with minimum treatments), RSM model, and ANN-GA (for experimental data modeling and optimization) may be used to describe the relationship between dietary nutrient concentrations and broiler

  9. Implications of coral harvest and transplantation on reefs in northwestern Dominica

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    Andrew W Bruckner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the coral culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID, a coral farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals for restoration and commercial sales. We assessed the culture facilities of OID, the condition of reefs, potential impacts of coral collection and benefits of coral transplantation. Coral reefs (9 reefs, 3-20m depth were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian corals and a live coral cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all corals, P. porites (14.8%, Meandrina meandrites (14.7% and Agaricia agaricites (9.1% were the most abundant corals, but colonies were mostly small (mean=25cm diameter. Montastraea annularis (complex was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all corals and colonies were larger (mean=70cm. Corals (pooled species were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. Coral diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%, Douglas Bay (12.2% and Coconut Outer reef (20.7%. White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex, with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the reefs appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OID were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-reef builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium that monopolize substrates and overgrow corals. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these species

  10. Some aspects in early life stage of snake head fish, Channa striatus larvae

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    Thumronk Amornsakun1*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sexual maturity of female snake head fish, Channa striatus was studied by determining fecundity and gonadosomaticindex (GSI. It was found that the size at sexual maturity of female snake head fish was 26.45±3.07 cm (mean ± SD,n=10 in total length and 167.4±48.09 g in body weight. The eggs were floating and rounded. The fertilized eggs had a diameterof 588±20.43 m. The fecundity was 10,279.1±2,527.9 ova/fish and gonadosomatic index (GSI was 5.07±1.04 %.Newly hatched larvae of snake head fish were produced by induced spawning using chemical injection (Suprefactand Motilium. The sexually mature fishes were cultured in a fiber-glass tank (water volume 300 liters with the ratio of maleand female brooders 1:1. The fertilization rate, hatching out and hatching rate experiments were carried out using 3 15-literglass aquaria (water volume 10 liters each containing 1,000 eggs. It was found that the average fertilization rate was 76.50%,hatching out occurred of 28 hr 40 min and average hatching rate was 60.26 % at a water temperature of 26.5-29.0°C. Samplingof the newly-hatched larvae was done at 2-hour intervals, when 20 of them were randomly taken and preserved in 10%buffered formalin for later determination of yolk absorption time. Observation using a microscope revealed that newlyhatched larvae were 3.18±0.11 mm in total length and had yolk sacs of 1,279.71±196.10 m3 in volume. The yolk sacs werecompletely absorbed within 80 hr after hatching at a water temperature of 26.5-29.0°C. Up until full mouth development (startof feeding, 2-hourly samplings of twenty newly hatched larvae were taken from an aquarium for observation of the size ofmouth opening. All the larvae had open mouths about 52 hr after hatching (5.48±0.16 mm TL, and measured 324.30±144.60m in mouth opening.The feeding experiments were carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 1,000larvae aged 1.5 days post-hatching (just before

  11. Some aspects in early life stage of Siamese gourami, Trichogaster pectoralis (Regan Larvae

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    Ponpanom Promkaew

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The sexual maturity of female Siamese gourami, Trichogaster pectoralis was studied by determining fecundity and gonadosomatic index (GSI. It was found that the size at sexual maturity of female Siamese gourami was 18.07±1.10 cm (mean±SD in average total length and 94.20±13.39 g in average body weight. The fecundity was 26,261±5,215.81 ova/fish and gonadosomatic index (GSI was 10.9±2.1%.Newly hatched larvae of Siamese gourami were produced by induced spawning using chemical injection (Suprefact and Motilium. The sexually mature fishes were cultured in fiber-glass tank (water volume 300 liters with the ratio of male and female brooders 1:1. The fertilization rate, hatching out and hatching rate experiments were carried out using a 15-liter aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 1,000 eggs. It was found that the eggs were floating and rounded. The fertilized eggs had a diameter of 908.25±39.13 μm. The average fertilization rate was 91.12%, hatching out was 22 hr 10 min and average hatching rate was 83.03% at a water temperature of 27.0-30.5ºC. Sampling of the newly-hatched larvae was done at 2-hour intervals, when 20 of them were randomly taken and preserved in 10% buffered formalin for later analysis to determine the time of final yolk absorption. Observation using a microscope revealed that newly hatched larvae were 2.73±0.02 mm in total length and had yolk sacs of 153.76±2.49 μm3 in volume. The yolk sacs were completely absorbed within 110 hr after hatching at a water temperature of 27.0-30.5ºC. Up until full mouth development (start of feeding, 2-hourly samplings of twenty newly hatched larvae were taken from an aquarium for observation of the size of mouth opening. All the larvae had open mouths about 60 hr after hatching (3.56±0.04 mm TL, with the mouths measuring 443.64±24.26 μm in height.The feeding experiments were carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 1,000 larvae aged 1.5 days

  12. Asociación del color de la concha de reproductores de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 con la supervivencia, crecimiento y desarrollo larval de sus progenies Association between shell color of breeds (Lamarck, 1819 and the survival, growth and larval development of their progenies

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    Ricardo M García

    2012-07-01

    most frequent shell colors. Knowing that Argopecten purpuratus shell color variation is under genetic control, in this work we test the hypothesis that loci that control shell color variation also affect larvae's growth rate, survival and/or development rate. Survival, growth and development rates were estimated in larvae produced in different crosses between brooders of A. purpuratus having low frequency shell colors (white or orange and "normal" (brown color. Results showed no significant differences in growth rates between larvae produced by crosses that involved brown shell parents, or orange by white parents. However, progenies of self fertilized orange and white parents showed significant differences in growth among them, and a lower growth rate than the remaining crosses. Results suggest that genes that control shell color variation in juvenile and adult A. purpuratus could affect the growth rates of their larvae, but not the development rate or survival.

  13. PEMIJAHAN DAN PEMBESARAN ANAK IKAN KARDINAL BANGGAI (Pterapogon kauderni

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    Ketut Sugama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan kardinal banggai (Pterapogon kauderni adalah ikan yang hanya terdapat di perairan kepulauan Banggai-Sulawesi Tengah dan diperjualbelikan di dunia sebagai ikan hias dalam akuarium. Ikan ini hampir punah dikarenakan penangkapan yang sangat intensif, sehingga diusulkan untuk dimasukkan kedalam CITES. Di Indonesia sampai saat ini belum ada laporan tentang penelitian perbenihannya. Makalah ini memaparkan hasil pengamatan pendahuluan tentang pemijahan dan pembesaran anak ikan. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa ikan ini aktif di malam hari (nokturnal, makan udang kecil (jembret, membentuk pasangan yang setia dan dapat dengan mudah memijah dalam bak. Pemijahan terjadi pada malam hari pukul 19.30--21.00. Jumlah telur yang dipijahkan berkisar antara 32--38 butir dengan diameter 240--308 mikron. Telur yang telah dibuahi dieram dalam mulut ikan jantan (mouth brooder dan akan menetas setelah 18--19 hari dieram. Anak ikan baru dilepas ke alam setelah 3--4 hari menetas, dan langsung dapat makan rotifer atau nauplii Artemia. Dalam penelitian ini jumlah anak ikan yang dihasilkan dari tiga pasangan induk antara 12--32 ekor (rataan 21 ekor dengan ukuran panjang tubuh rata-rata 1,16 cm. Dari hasil pengamatan ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ikan kardinal banggai dapat dengan mudah dibenihkan dan memijah beberapa kali pertahun dengan tenggang waktu 42--50 hari. Penelitian yang diarahkan pada perbaikan mutu pakan induk dan anak serta penanganan penyakit sangat urgent dilakukan dalam rangka meningkatkan produksi telur dan anak yang sehat. The banggai cardinal fish (Pterapogon kauderni, endemic to the Banggai Island of Central Sulawesi in Indonesia, is extensively traded in the International aquarium market. This fish is very close to being placed on the endangered species (CITES list because of over collection. In Indonesia, no report on breeding study of this fish being reporting. Present report dealing with spawning and growth of fish reared in concrete tanks. This

  14. Acondicionamiento de reproductores, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae Broodstock conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae

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    Avelino Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen resultados sobre acondicionamiento reproductivo, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata". Peces adultos silvestres se recolectaron y se utilizaron como reproductores, los que al final del período de acondicionamiento alcanzaron el estado de maduración gonadal y desovaron en forma natural y espontánea. Los huevos fueron recolectados y después de 36 h de incubación eclosionaron, con una tasa de eclosión promedio de 60%. Las larvas recién eclosionadas midieron 2,9 ± 0,23 mm y alcanzaron el día 50 post-eclosión (PE una longitud total de 12,6 ± 0,37 mm. La sobrevivencia larval posterior a la eclosión fue entre 50,9 y 79,1% y al día 30 PE fue de 12,1%. El cultivo larval se desarrolló en estanques con suministro de agua de mar filtrada y esterilizada. Después de la reabsorción del saco vitelino se produjo el desarrollo del tracto digestivo y las larvas se alimentaron con dieta viva enriquecida con emulsión de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados. A los 35 días de cultivo se ofreció alimento artificial a las larvas cuyo tamano fue aumentando progresivamente a medida que progresó su desarrollo ontogénico. Se describe la evolución anatómica de las larvas y las relaciones morfométricas que representan su desarrollo; se caracteriza el patrón de crecimiento de las larvas hasta los 50 días post-eclosión y se discuten aspectos relacionados con la sobrevivencia larval y la introducción de mejoras para optimizar la producción de larvas y juveniles.In this study results related to reproductive conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata" are given. Wild adult fishes were collected and used as brooders which at the end of the conditioning period reached gonadal maturation state and spawned naturally and spontaneously. Eggs were collected and after 36 hours of incubation they hatched at average rate of 60%. The hatched larvae measured 2.9 ± 0.23 mm and at day 50

  15. Deshabituación alimentaria y crecimiento de juveniles de Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 en condiciones de cultivo Wearing and growth of juveniles Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 under culture conditions

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    Avelino Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El pez de roca Graus nigra, comúnmente llamado "mulata" o "vieja negra" es un recurso importante a lo largo de la costa centro y norte de Chile. Debido a la gran aceptación como pescado para consumo humano, han sido intensamente extraídos por lo cual es necesario el desarrollo de su producción por medio de técnicas de acuicultura. En este estudio se reportan los resultados de crecimiento y alimentación de juveniles producidos en laboratorio. Los peces juveniles se obtuvieron a partir de reproductores silvestres, a quienes se les aplicó técnicas estándar de criadero. El cultivo de peces juveniles se desarrolló en estanques con suministro de agua de mar sin filtrar y con aireación constante. El proceso de deshabituación se extendió por 23 días y entre los 70 y 205 días post-eclosión (PE, los juveniles experimentan un crecimiento alométrico, con una sobrevivencia de 10,2%, con una tasa específica de crecimiento (SGR en longitud total de 1,02%/día y en peso total de 3,07%/día, con una conversión de alimento aparente (CAa y biológica (CAb de 3,02 y 2,69 respectivamente para el último periodo en estudio (190 a 205 PE. Este primer intento de producir juveniles fue prometedor y abre las posibilidades de un cultivo futuro.The rocky fish (Graus nigra commonly named "mulata" is an important resource along the coast of central and northern Chile. Due to great acceptation as fish for human consumption have been intensively fished so as it's needed develop its production by means of aquaculture techniques. First attempts for culturing this species have given promising results with regard to production of larvae and juvenile fish. In this study results of growth and feeding of hatchery produced juveniles are reported. Fish juveniles were generated using wild brooders by means of application standard techniques of hatchery. Cultivation of juvenile fish was developed in tanks supplied with not filtered seawater and provided with constant

  16. Desempenho produtivo e bioeconômico de frangos de corte criados em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento Productive and bioeconomical performance of broiler chicks grown under different heating systems

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    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2000-02-01

    plate with plastic sheet cover, and brooder heating gas. Heating was maintained up to the 21st days of age, beginning with the temperature of 35ºC in the first week with a reducing of 3ºC by each week. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio and mortality were evaluated. The electric energy and gas expenditures were recorded during all bird heating period in order to compare the different heating systems cost. The heat electric system with mortar structure plate and plastic sheet cover was the most indicated, by promoting good thermal conditions and higher gross margin at the end of the growing period.

  17. Some aspects in early life stage of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus larvae

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    Ponpanom Promkaew

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The sexual maturity of female climbing perch, Anabas testudineus was studied by determining fecundity and gonadosomatic index (GSI. It was found that the size at sexual maturity of female climbing perch was 15.20±1.24 cm (mean±SD in total length and 61.10±17.32 g in body weight. The eggs were floating and rounded. The fertilized eggs had a diameter of 830±39 μm. The fecundity was 24,120.5±3,328.24 ova/ fish and gonadosomatic index (GSI was 10.4±2.5%. Newly hatched larvae of climbing perch were produced by induced spawning using chemical injection (Suprefact and Motilium. The sexually mature fishes were cultured in fiber-glass tank (water volume 300 liters with the ratio of male and female brooders 2:1. The fertilization rate, hatching out and hatching rate experiments were carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 7,000-9,000 eggs. It was found that the eggs were floating and rounded. The fertilized eggs had a diameter of 830±39 μm. The average fertilization rate was 92.67%, hatching out was 20 hr 30 min and average hatching rate was 87.44% at a water temperature of 27.0-30.5ºC. Sampling of the newly-hatched larvae was done at 2-hour intervals, when 20 of them were randomly taken and preserved in 10% buffered formalin for later deter-mination of yolk absorption time. Observation using a microscope revealed that newly hatched larvae were 2.02±0.20 mm in total length and had yolk sacs of 111.33±46.19 mm3 in volume. The yolk sacs were completely absorbed within 92 hr after hatching at a water temperature of 27.0-30.5ºC. Up until full mouth development (start of feeding, 2-hourly samplings of twenty newly hatched larvae were taken from an aquarium for observation of the size of mouth opening. All the larvae had open mouths about 28 hr after hatching (2.95±0.59 mm TL, with the mouths measuring 328.42±32.23 mm in height. The feeding experiments were carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water

  18. Qualitative feed restriction on productive performance and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens Restrição alimentar qualitativa sobre o desempenho produtivo e o metabolismo lipídico em frango de corte

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    S. Cornejo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of qualitative restriction at different rearing phases on liver fatness and plasma triglycerides without impairing the productive performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and seventy-six male chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments and reared in battery brooders (16 pens with 11 birds each from 1 to 49-day-old. In the control group, chicks were fed a starter diet (1 to 28-day-old with 3,300kcal ME/kg of diet and 22.5% CP; grower diet (29 to 42-day-old 3,300kcal ME/kg of diet and 18.2% CP; and the finisher diet (43 to 49-day-old 3,300kcal ME/kg and 18.2% CP. Three restrict groups were fed a low 2,800kcal ME/kg of diet and 24% CP from 7 to 14-day-old (treatment 1; from 7 to 21-day-old (treatment 2; and from 22 to 35-day-old (treatment 3. All treatments were fed control diet before and after the feed restriction period. Feed intake was not affected during the feed restriction period; nevertheless, weight gain was lower (PAplicou-se restrição alimentar qualitativa em frangos de corte, em diferentes fases do crescimento, para reduzir a infiltração gordurosa do fígado e os triglicerídeos plasmáticos, sem influir nas respostas produtivas. Distribuíram-se aleatoriamente 176 pintos machos em quatro tratamentos. As aves foram alojados em baterias (16 gaiolas com 11 aves cada e foram criados de 1 a 49 dias de idade. No grupo controle as aves foram alimentadas com dieta inicial (1-28 dias com 3.300kcal EM/kg/dieta e 22,5% de proteína bruta (PB; dieta de crescimento (29-42 dias com 3.300kcal EM/kg/dieta e 20,9% de PB; dieta de acabamento (43-49 dias de idade 3.300kcal EM/kg/dieta e 18,2% de PB. As aves nos três grupos sob restrição foram alimentadas com dieta com 2.800kcal de EM/kg/dieta e 24% de PB de 7 aos 14 dias de idade (tratamento 2, de 7 aos 21 dias de idade (tratamento 2 e de 22 aos 35 dias de idade (tratamento 3. Todas as aves dos tratamentos sob restrição foram alimentadas

  19. Diferentes fontes de proteína na dieta pré-inicial de frangos de corte Different sources of protein in the diet of newly hatched chicks

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    Flavio Alves Longo

    2005-02-01

    development. In the metabolism trial, 288 male chicks from 4 to 7 days were allotted to a completely randomized design with six treatments (a reference diet and five diets with inclusion of the test ingredients and four replicates of 12 birds. The ingredients evaluated were: isolated soy protein (IS, dried whole eggs (OP, blood plasma (PS, corn gluten meal (GM and dried sugar cane yeast (LS. To evaluate the performance and TGI, 624 birds were allocated in brooder batteries with six treatments and four replicates of 26 birds. The treatments were: 1 - corn and soybean meal diet, 2 - corn and soybean meal diet + IS, 3 - corn and soybean meal diet + OP, 4 - corn and soybean meal diet + PS, 5 - corn and soybean meal diet + GM and 6 - corn and soybean meal diet + LS. The birds received the treatments only from 1 to 7 days. Birds were sampled at 1, 4 and 7 days of age in order to evaluate the TGI organs. The EMAn of the ingredients determined for chicks in the first week were 2,110; 5,095; 3,831; 3,374 and 2,037 kcal/kg (as-fed basis for IS, OP, PS, GM and LS, respectively. In general, the performance of the birds from 1 to 7 days was affected by the different treatments, but this effect was not maintained up to 21 days. The different protein sources affected the TGI development, but these effects did not explain broiler performance.