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Sample records for brood rearing behaviors

  1. Division of labor associated with brood rearing in the honey bee: how does it translate to colony fitness?

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    Ramesh R Sagili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor is a striking feature observed in honey bees and many other social insects. Division of labor has been claimed to benefit fitness. In honey bees, the adult work force may be viewed as divided between non-foraging hive bees that rear brood and maintain the nest, and foragers that collect food outside the nest. Honey bee brood pheromone is a larval pheromone that serves as an excellent empirical tool to manipulate foraging behaviors and thus division of labor in the honey bee. Here we use two different doses of brood pheromone to alter the foraging stimulus environment, thus changing demographics of colony division of labor, to demonstrate how division of labor associated with brood rearing affects colony growth rate. We examine the effects of these different doses of brood pheromone on individual foraging ontogeny and specialization, colony level foraging behavior, and individual glandular protein synthesis. Low brood pheromone treatment colonies exhibited significantly higher foraging population, decreased age of first foraging and greater foraging effort, resulting in greater colony growth compared to other treatments. This study demonstrates how division of labor associated with brood rearing affects honey bee colony growth rate, a token of fitness.

  2. Microhabitat selection of brood-rearing sites by greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

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    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojcik

    2015-01-01

    Declines in Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) populations could be attributed to low chick survival, which may be influenced by the availability of food and cover at sites used by females rearing broods. Habitat attributes important to broods may vary regionally; thus, it is necessary to understand factors affecting...

  3. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico

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    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  4. Pathway profiles based on gene-set enrichment analysis in the honey bee Apis mellifera under brood rearing-suppressed conditions.

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    Kim, Kyungmun; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Ho; Hong, Seong-Eui; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2018-01-01

    Perturbation of normal behaviors in honey bee colonies by any external factor can immediately reduce the colony's capacity for brood rearing, which can eventually lead to colony collapse. To investigate the effects of brood-rearing suppression on the biology of honey bee workers, gene-set enrichment analysis of the transcriptomes of worker bees with or without suppressed brood rearing was performed. When brood rearing was suppressed, pathways associated with both protein degradation and synthesis were simultaneously over-represented in both nurses and foragers, and their overall pathway representation profiles resembled those of normal foragers and nurses, respectively. Thus, obstruction of normal labor induced over-representation in pathways related with reshaping of worker bee physiology, suggesting that transition of labor is physiologically reversible. In addition, some genes associated with the regulation of neuronal excitability, cellular and nutritional stress and aggressiveness were over-expressed under brood rearing suppression perhaps to manage in-hive stress under unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

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    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  6. Productive characteristics of age-3 brood brown trout (Salmo trutta reared in the conditions industrial aquaculture

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    L. Haloyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study and analysis of productive and reproductive parameters of brood brown trout reared in the conditions of industrial aquaculture with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Methodology. Fish rearing was performed using a technology traditional for rainbow trout. Biological evaluation of fish was performed on live material according to the scheme developed by I.F. Pravdin (1966 for salmonids. Fish were anesthetized with “Propiscin”. Metric parameters were measured with the aid of a ruler and caliper. Fish weight was determined on electronic balances. Eggs were preserved in a 4% formalin solution, weight of individual eggs was determined with the aid of torsion balances, egg diameter with a caliper. The duration of spermatozoid motility in males was determined under a microscope under 10X40 magnification with the aid of a stopwatch, sperm concentration was determined in a Goriaev chamber. Multiple regression analysis was performed in JMP IN 4 (SAS Institute. The factor was considered significant if р <0.05. Findings. Brood brown trout reared on specialized artificial feeds had following productive parameters: mean body weight of age-3 fish was 458 g in males and 453 g in females. Mean working fecundity of age-3 fish as 1847 eggs, mean relative working fecundity was 3971 eggs, the mean qualitative parameters of which were: weight of 61.5 g, diameter of 74.7 mm. The reproductive characteristics of age-3 males was high – mean fecundity was 1391 million sperm cells, their motility was 35 sec. Originality. For the first time we reared a stock of brood brown trout in industrial conditions with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Practical value. The obtained results are a component of the development of a complex technology of salmonid fish rearing with an objective to broad the assortment of valuable gourmet products and to justify the measures on artificial reproduction of brown trout in rivers of

  7. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse Selection of Brood-Rearing Habitat Using Remotely-Sensed Imagery: Can Readily Available High-Resolution Imagery Be Used to Identify Brood-Rearing Habitat Across a Broad Landscape?

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    Westover, Matthew; Baxter, Jared; Baxter, Rick; Day, Casey; Jensen, Ryan; Petersen, Steve; Larsen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse populations have decreased steadily since European settlement in western North America. Reduced availability of brood-rearing habitat has been identified as a limiting factor for many populations. We used radio-telemetry to acquire locations of sage-grouse broods from 1998 to 2012 in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Using these locations and remotely-sensed NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery, we 1) determined which characteristics of brood-rearing habitat could be used in widely available, high resolution imagery 2) assessed the spatial extent at which sage-grouse selected brood-rearing habitat, and 3) created a predictive habitat model to identify areas of preferred brood-rearing habitat. We used AIC model selection to evaluate support for a list of variables derived from remotely-sensed imagery. We examined the relationship of these explanatory variables at three spatial extents (45, 200, and 795 meter radii). Our top model included 10 variables (percent shrub, percent grass, percent tree, percent paved road, percent riparian, meters of sage/tree edge, meters of riparian/tree edge, distance to tree, distance to transmission lines, and distance to permanent structures). Variables from each spatial extent were represented in our top model with the majority being associated with the larger (795 meter) spatial extent. When applied to our study area, our top model predicted 75% of naïve brood locations suggesting reasonable success using this method and widely available NAIP imagery. We encourage application of our methodology to other sage-grouse populations and species of conservation concern.

  8. A meta-analysis of lesser prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing habitats: implications for habitat management

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    Hagen, Christian A.; Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and range of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been reduced by >90% since European settlement of the Great Plains of North America. Currently, lesser prairie-chickens occupy 3 general vegetation communities: sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia), sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii), and mixed-grass prairies juxtaposed with Conservation Reserve Program grasslands. As a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act, there is a need for a synthesis that characterizes habitat structure rangewide. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood habitats to determine whether there was an overall effect (Hedges' d) of habitat selection and to estimate average (95% CI) habitat characteristics at use sites. We estimated effect sizes (di) from the difference between use (nests and brood sites) and random sampling sites for each study (n = 14), and derived an overall effect size (d++). There was a general effect for habitat selection as evidenced by low levels of variation in effect sizes across studies and regions. There was a small to medium effect (d++) = 0.20-0.82) of selection for greater vertical structure (visual obstruction) by nesting females in both vegetation communities, and selection against bare ground (d++ = 0.20-0.58). Females with broods exhibited less selectivity for habitat components except for vertical structure. The variation of d++ was greater during nesting than brooding periods, signifying a seasonal shift in habitat use, and perhaps a greater range of tolerance for brood-rearing habitat. The overall estimates of vegetation cover were consistent with those provided in management guidelines for the species.

  9. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

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    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994–1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993–1996 than during 1985–1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling

  10. Brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from fish reared in captivity

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    S.D. KLAOUDATOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of brood stock is considered to be one of the most important operations in order to acquire eggs and fry from any promising candidate finfish species for aquaculture production. The sex reversal observed in hermaphrodite species adds to confusion and creates additional complications in forming a brood stock. The present study describes the efforts and the results of the brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from individuals aged between 4 and 5 years (TL>300mm reared in floating cages. Six groups were formed (50 fish/group in all of which females were present comprising 20 to 40% of the population. The presence of females was in contrast to the literature, which reported that sex reversal of the common Pandora is complete in naturally occurring populations with the absence of females in sizes of a total length greater than 220mm, indicating that in captivity sex reversal is not complete for this species. Four of the groups formed spawned under natural environmental conditions without hormonal treatment and the other two groups were administered a different dosage (250 and 500 IU/kg of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG to induce spawning. The reproductive period started in the middle of May and ended at the beginning of July and spontaneous spawning occurred in all groups. Egg release lasted for a mean period of one month for the groups that spawned without hormonal treatment with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between groups. The groups that spawned under hormonal treatment released eggs for a period of six and seven days, for the group that spawned under the high and low hormonal treatment, respectively, with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between them. The hormonal induced spawning resulted in egg release within a short period of time ideal for a hatchery. However, the number of viable eggs produced was significantly lower

  11. Influence of behavior and mating success on brood-specific contribution to fish recruitment in ponds.

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    Parkos, Joseph J; Wahl, David H; Philipp, David P

    2011-10-01

    One source of uncertainty in predicting the response of populations to exploitation is individual differences within a population in both vulnerability to capture and contribution to population renewal. For species with parental care, individuals engaged in nesting behavior are often targeted for exploitation, but predicting outcomes of this nonrandom vulnerability will depend in part on an understanding of how parental traits are related to potential for brood contribution to the population. Variation in brood-specific contribution to recruitment of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a fish species with extended parental care, was quantified to determine if differences in mating success, parental care behaviors, and timing of reproduction influenced offspring recruitment. Dependence of these relationships on brood predation was tested in communities that differed in the presence of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, an important nest predator. Daily snorkel surveys were conducted in experimental ponds during spring to monitor male spawning and parental care behaviors in populations of largemouth bass. Tissue samples collected from larvae in nests were used to develop brood-specific DNA fingerprints for determining nest origins of fall recruits. Largemouth bass spawning period in bluegill ponds was longer and more variable in duration, with lower, more variable mating success, than in ponds without bluegill. In all populations, only one or two broods provided the majority of recruits, and these were broods produced during the earliest days of spawning by the oldest, largest males. In bluegill ponds, brood contribution from earliest nests also increased with brood size. Earliest nesters were the oldest males, and recruits from these nests were often above average in body size. Offspring needed to be guarded to at least swim-up larval stage to contribute any recruits. Termination of parental protection before offspring were free swimming mainly occurred with broods

  12. Disc size regulation in the brood cell building behavior of leaf-cutter bee, Megachile tsurugensis.

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    Kim, Jong-yoon

    2007-12-01

    The leaf-cutter bee, Megachile tsurugensis, builds a brood cell in a preexisting tunnel with leaf discs that she cuts in decreasing sizes and assembles them like a Russian matryoshka doll. By experimentally manipulating the brood cell, it was investigated how she regulates the size of leaf discs that fit in the brood cell's internal volume. When the internal volume was artificially increased by removing a bulk of leaf discs, she decreased the leaf disc size, although increasing it would have made the leaf disc more fitting in the increased internal volume. As a reverse manipulation, when the internal volume was decreased by inserting a group of inner layers of preassembled leaf discs to a brood cell, she decreased the leaf disc size, so that the leaf disc could fit in the decreased internal volume. These results suggest that she uses at least two different mechanisms to regulate the disc size: the use of some internal memory about the degree of building work accomplished in the first and of sensory feedback of dimensional information at the construction site in the second manipulation, respectively. It was concluded that a stigmergic mechanism, an immediate sensory feedback from the brood cell changed by the building work, alone cannot explain the details of the bee's behavior particularly with respect to her initial response to the first manipulation. For a more complete explanation of the behavior exhibited by the solitary bee, two additional behavioral elements, reinforcement of building activity and processing of dimensional information, were discussed along with stigmergy.

  13. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REPLACEMENT-BROOD STOCK OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS (WALBAUM, 1792 REARED IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE INDUSTRIAL FISH FARM "SLOBODA-BANYLIV”

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    P. Mendrishora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of morphometric measurements and dates of aquaculture-biological characteristics of the young-of-the-year and age-1+ rainbow trout reared under industrial technology at instable conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda-Banyliv”. Methodology. The study has been performed at the industrial fish farm “Sloboda-Banyliv”, Chernivtsi region. The materials for the study were young-of-the-year and age-1+ rainbow trout obtained from the eggs of autumn-spawning form rainbow trout. The young-of-the-year were reared in a 216 m2 tank with stocking density of 255 ind./m2, age-1+ fish were reared in 108 m2 tank with a stocking density of 33 ind./m2 according to generally accepted methods in trout culture. Morphometric measurements of fish were performed according to I.F. Pravdin. Statistical processing of data was carried out in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. The analysis of values was done in the system of absolute values. The analyzed criteria of the measured parameters were their mean values and standard errors (M±m, deviation (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with the artificial feed with high protein content manufactured by “Biomar” (Denmark. Findings. The studies on rainbow trout rearing under industrial conditions showed that fish body proportions did not change with age, however, the length of their fins decreased. The slenderness coefficient in age-1+ fish decreased insignificantly that is typical with increasing body depth. Despite instable rearing conditions, both young-of-the-year and age-1+ fish were characterized by moderate growth rate and high feed-conversion efficiency. Originality. For the first time, in conditions of Ukraine, a study on the formation of rainbow trout brood stocks in a fish farm with instable rearing conditions was performed with the use of the analysis of phenotypical and productive features. Practical value. The results of the performed work will provide an opportunity to

  14. Evaluation of 1991--1992 brood overwinter-reared coho released from net pens in Youngs Bay, Oregon. Final completion report

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    Hirose, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Funding from Bonneville Power Administration was provided to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Clatsop County Economic Development Council's Fisheries Project to identify and develop terminal fishing opportunities. The 1991 and 1992 brood fingerling coho from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries were successfully reared during the winter period to smolt stage in Youngs Bay utilizing floating net pens. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries during 1991--93 from 2-week net-pen acclimation releases, total accountability of coho adults averaged 40,540 fish, with the Youngs Bay commercial harvest accounting for 39%. With reduced ocean harvest impacts during 1994 and 1995, 92% of 51,640 coho in 1994 and 68% of 23,599 coho in 1995 (based on coded-wire-tag recoveries) were accounted for in the Youngs Bay commercial fishery for combined 2-week and overwinter acclimation net-pen releases. Overwinter net-pen acclimation coho accounted for 35,063 and 15,775 coho adults in 1994 and 1995 with 93% and 68% accountable in the Youngs Bay commercial harvest. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries, less than 1% of the adults resulting from releases at Youngs Bay net pens strayed to hatcheries, while none were recovered on spawning ground surveys during 1991--95. The highest survival rates were observed for 1991 and 1992 brood overwinter coho released in early May. Time of release, not rearing strategy, appears to be the determining factor affecting survival in Youngs Bay

  15. Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites.

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    Keith S Delaplane

    Full Text Available A honey bee queen mates on wing with an average of 12 males and stores their sperm to produce progeny of mixed paternity. The degree of a queen's polyandry is positively associated with measures of her colony's fitness, and observed distributions of mating number are evolutionary optima balancing risks of mating flights against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of this behavior that can be expected to confer colony benefit. In this study we used instrumental insemination to create three classes of queens with exaggerated range of polyandry--15, 30, or 60 drones. Colonies headed by queens inseminated with 30 or 60 drones produced more brood per bee and had a lower proportion of samples positive for Varroa destructor mites than colonies whose queens were inseminated with 15 drones, suggesting benefits of polyandry at rates higher than those normally obtaining in nature. Our results are consistent with two hypotheses that posit conditions that reward such high expressions of polyandry: (1 a queen may mate with many males in order to promote beneficial non-additive genetic interactions among subfamilies, and (2 a queen may mate with many males in order to capture a large number of rare alleles that regulate resistance to pathogens and parasites in a breeding population. Our results are unique for identifying the highest levels of polyandry yet detected that confer colony-level benefit and for showing a benefit of polyandry in particular toward the parasitic mite V. destructor.

  16. Do brooding and polygamy behaviors exist on Cretaceous oviraptoroid dinosaurs of China: a paleobiological perspective

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    Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative

  17. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat in Nevada and California—Spatial variation in selection and survival patterns

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    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Dudko, Jonathan E.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2017-08-10

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse") are highly dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) dominated vegetation communities for food and cover from predators. Although this species requires the presence of sagebrush shrubs in the overstory, it also inhabits a broad geographic distribution with significant gradients in precipitation and temperature that drive variation in sagebrush ecosystem structure and concomitant shrub understory conditions. Variability in understory conditions across the species’ range may be responsible for the sometimes contradictory findings in the scientific literature describing sage-grouse habitat use and selection during important life history stages, such as nesting. To help understand the importance of this variability and to help guide management actions, we evaluated the nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat factors that influence selection and survival patterns in the Great Basin using a large dataset of microhabitat characteristics from study areas spanning northern Nevada and a portion of northeastern California from 2009 to 2016. The spatial and temporal coverage of the dataset provided a powerful opportunity to evaluate microhabitat factors important to sage-grouse reproduction, while also considering habitat variation associated with different climatic conditions and areas affected by wildfire. The summary statistics for numerous microhabitat factors, and the strength of their association with sage-grouse habitat selection and survival, are provided in this report to support decisions by land managers, policy-makers, and others with the best-available science in a timely manner.

  18. Disruption of behavior and brain metabolism in artificially reared rats.

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    Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; Porras, Mercedes G; Parra, Leticia; González-Ríos, Jacquelina; Garduño-Torres, Dafne F; Albores-García, Damaris; Avendaño, Arturo; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Melo, Angel I; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Mendoza-Garrido, Ma Eugenia; Toriz, César; Diaz, Daniel; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Early adverse life stress has been associated to behavioral disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial rearing on the open field and burial behavioral tests and on GFAP, c-Fos immunoreactivity, and glucose metabolism measured in anxiety-related brain areas. Artificial rearing of male rats was performed by supplying artificial milk through a cheek cannula and tactile stimulation, mimicking the mother's licking to rat pups from the fourth postnatal day until weaning. Tactile stimulation was applied twice a day, at morning and at night, by means of a camel brush on the rat anogenital area. As compared to mother reared rats, greater aggressiveness, and boldness, stereotyped behavior (burial conduct) was observed in artificially reared rats which occurred in parallel to a reduction of GFAP immunoreactivity in somatosensory cortex, c-Fos immunoreactivity at the amygdala and primary somatosensory cortex, and lower metabolism in amygdala (as measured by 2-deoxi-2-[ 18 fluoro]-d-glucose uptake, assessed by microPET imaging). These results could suggest that tactile and/or chemical stimuli from the mother and littermates carry relevant information for the proper development of the central nervous system, particularly in brain areas involved with emotions and social relationships of the rat. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1413-1429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

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    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  20. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors.

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    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

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    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  2. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

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    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  3. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

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    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  5. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  6. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  7. Energy expenditure, nestling age, and brood size : an experimental study of parental behavior in the great tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ; Tinbergen, JM

    1999-01-01

    A brood manipulation experiment on great tits Parus major was performed to study the effects of nestling age and brood size on parental care and offspring survival. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of females feeding nestlings of 6 and 12 days of age was measured using the doubly-labeled water

  8. The Relationship between Parental Rearing Behavior, Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Ryoung Moon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.

  9. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  10. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  11. The influence of maternal child-rearing attitudes and teaching behaviors on preschoolers' delay of gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, C F; Harris, Y R

    2000-09-01

    This study was an exploratory examination of the influence of mothers' teaching behaviors, strategies, and child-rearing attitudes on their children's ability to delay gratification. In an externally imposed delay of gratification situation, 30 mothers from a rural university community taught their children strategies that could help them refrain from touching a brightly wrapped present when the mothers left the room. Results showed that mothers of children who did not delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with a permissive parenting style, whereas mothers of children who did delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with an authoritative parenting style. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the development of children's self-control and self-regulatory abilities.

  12. Movements and habitat use of mallard broods in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, D.M.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    To increase recruitment of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wildlife managers must understand the habitat and space needs of mallard broods. During 1989-90, we examined the movements, home range, and habitat use of 27 radio-marked mallard broods on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, California. Twelve of the 27 broods made 22 relocation movements (>1,000 m in 24 hr) in the first week (n = 6) and after the fourth (n = 16) week of life. Mean home range size was 0.93 km2 (SE = 0.25) and did not differ between years (P = 0.26). Brood-rearing females selected seasonally flooded wetlands with a cover component and avoided open or permanently flooded habitats. In 1989, broods hatched in permanent wetlands were less successful in fledging (P = 0.006) radio-marked ducklings than broods from seasonal wetlands, suggesting habitat availability or movement to preferred habitats may affect duckling survival.

  13. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  14. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  15. A Synthesis of Behavioral and Communication Approaches to Child Rearing for Parenting Skills Classes. Practicum II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marvin

    This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…

  16. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  17. On the link between perceived parental rearing behaviors and self-conscious emotions in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, C.M.G.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Dibbets, P.; Cima, M.; Lemmens, L.H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11-18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument

  18. On the link between perceived parental rearing behaviors and self-conscious emotions in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Cor; Muris, Peter; Dibbets, Pauline; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Lotte H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11–18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument

  19. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  20. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  1. Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Roman, Roman; Sagili, Ramesh R.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important to social insects for the allocation of its working members into coordinated suites of behaviors. We tested effects of long-term treatment with brood pheromone on suites of honey bee brood rearing and foraging behaviors. Pheromone-treated colonies reared significantly greater brood areas and more adults than controls, while amounts of stored pollen and honey remained statistically similar. Brood pheromone increased the number of pollen foragers and the pollen load weights they returned. It appeared that the pheromone-induced increase in pollen intake was directly canalized into more brood rearing. A two-way pheromone priming effect was observed, such that some workers from the same age cohorts showed an increased and extended capacity to rear larvae, while others were recruited at significantly younger ages into pollen-specific foraging. Brood pheromone affected suites of nursing and foraging behaviors allocating worker and pollen resources associated with an important fitness trait, colony growth.

  2. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  3. Panic disorder and perceived parental rearing behavior investigated by the Japanese version of the EMBU scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, T; Kitamura, H; Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Kaiya, H; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-01-01

    Although recent studies have found dysfunctional parental rearing behaviour is associated with certain aspects of psychopathology of panic disorder (PD), the results are not in complete agreement. By using a translated Japanese version of the EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran), we investigated the parental rearing behavior perceived by 103 normal subjects, 71 PD patients with agoraphobia, and 32 PD patients without agoraphobia. The PD patients scored both parents as more rejecting and overprotective than did the controls. However, subgroup analysis showed that the patients with agoraphobia reported significantly more rejection from both parents and less emotional warmth from mothers, while the patients without agoraphobia, by contrast, reported more overprotection from both parents and more favouring subject from fathers than did the controls. Interestingly, these results were consistent with those documented in the Western literature, which reported "affectionless control" as a parenting style in PD, and, furthermore, indicated a cross-cultural similarity of parental rearing factor. In addition, it was suggested that a lack of care might be associated with the development of agoraphobia in Japan.

  4. Brood size and immunity costs in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, S; Riedstra, B; Wiersma, P

    Birds rearing experimentally enlarged broods have lower antibody responses to a novel antigen, and we tested three hypotheses that could explain this result. We used zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata inoculated with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as a study system, for which this trade-off was

  5. Effects of growth pattern and dietary protein level during rearing on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth patterns (GP) and dietary crude protein levels (CP) during rearing (2–22 weeks of age) on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing

  6. Damaging biting behaviors in intensively kept rearing gilts: the effect of jute sacks, and relations with production characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, W.W.; Wijnen, H.J.; Bartels, A.C.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Pigs may display biting behavior directed at pen mates, resulting in body damage such as tail wounds. We assessed the suitability of jute sacks (hung vertically at wall) to reduce biting behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts. Additionally, we assessed several characteristics of different types

  7. Begging and cowbirds : brood parasites make hosts scream louder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Saino, Nicola; Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.

    2009-01-01

    Avian brood parasites have evolved striking begging ability that often allows them to prevail over the host progeny in competition for parental resources. Host young are therefore selected by brood parasites to evolve behavioral strategies that reduce the cost of parasitism. We tested the prediction

  8. Relationships between child-rearing styles and child behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, R W

    1978-02-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that "authoritarian" styles of child rearing will lead to more home and school problems than will "accommodative" styles. One hundred thirty-five children have been followed up from age 2 into first grade. Follow-up observations show no significant differences between groups on any of the scores indicating malfunctioning for boys or girls at home or school. However, the home behavior of boys being raised with accommodative styles was described in more positive terms by their mothers than those raised with authoritarian styles. The accommodatively raisded girls were described in more positive terms by their first grade teachers. We found no evidence in this study that the permissive style is producing large numbers of "spoiled brats" nor that the authoritarian styles are producing large numbers of overly aggressive or inhibited children. The way parents handle authority relationships is not sufficientyl predictive of later problems to warrant any widespread attempts by physicians to change them. The physician should respect individual differences in child-rearing syle and only intervene where there is substantial evidence that a particular approach is having a harmful effect.

  9. Brood size and its importance for nestling growth in the Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata, Aves: Apodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pichorim

    Full Text Available Many Apodidae, including Streptoprocne biscutata (Sclater, 1866, drop eggs from their nests during incubation. This is interpreted as nest site competition or accident. We provide evidence that egg ejection is deliberate and that this behaviour controls the brood size. Brood sizes were manipulated and nestling growth was measured to test the hypothesis that pairs can regulate brood size during incubation based on current ability to rear nestlings. Natural (control broods with one, two and three nestlings, and manipulated (experimental broods reduced to one and increased to two and three young were monitored. Growth rates were measured based on weight, and wing, tail and tarsus lengths of natural and manipulated broods. We compared the slopes of each measure's regression lines of the nestlings of each brood size by t-test. Nestling growth of control nests was similar and relatively little associated with brood size. In broods reduced to one nestling, weight, wing and tail had greater growth rates, and in broods increased to three nestlings growth rates were lower. Weight was most, and tarsus length least influenced by brood size. In general, nestling growth of manipulated nests was inversely proportional to brood size. The results suggest that pairs with larger clutches are in better physical conditions than others. Thus, in experimental broods, pairs are over or under-loaded because feeding activities increase or decrease and these changes affect the growth rate of the nestlings. The present study suggests that egg ejection can control brood size. This behaviour is probably stimulated by physical changes in the adult birds during incubation.

  10. In-depth analysis of drivers' merging behavior and rear-end crash risks in work zone merging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Xue, Shan; Yang, Ying; Yan, Xuedong; Qu, Xiaobo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the drivers' merging behavior and the rear-end crash risk in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the merging traffic data from a work zone site in Singapore, a mixed probit model is developed to describe the merging behavior, and two surrogate safety measures including the time to collision (TTC) and deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) are adopted to compute the rear-end crash risk between the merging vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. Results show that the merging vehicle has a bigger probability of completing a merging maneuver quickly under one of the following situations: (i) the merging vehicle moves relatively fast; (ii) the merging lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle; and (iii) there is a sizable gap in the adjacent through lane. Results indicate that the rear-end crash risk does not monotonically increase as the merging vehicle speed increases. The merging vehicle's rear-end crash risk is also affected by the vehicle type. There is a biggest increment of rear-end crash risk if the merging lead vehicle belongs to a heavy vehicle. Although the reduced remaining distance to work zone could urge the merging vehicle to complete a merging maneuver quickly, it might lead to an increased rear-end crash risk. Interestingly, it is found that the rear-end crash risk could be generally increased over the elapsed time after the merging maneuver being triggered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  12. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  13. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  14. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Croston

    Full Text Available Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius, hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater. We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  15. Carbon dioxide sensing in the social context: Leaf-cutting ants prefer elevated CO2 levels to tend their brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2018-05-18

    Social insects show temperature and humidity preferences inside their nests to successfully rear brood. In underground nests, ants also encounter rising CO 2 concentrations with increasing depth. It is an open question whether they use CO 2 as a cue to decide where to place and tend the brood. Leaf-cutting ants do show CO 2 preferences for the culturing of their symbiotic fungus. We evaluated their CO 2 choices for brood placement in laboratory experiments. Workers of Acromyrmex lundii in the process of relocating brood were offered a binary choice consisting of two interconnected chambers with different CO 2 concentrations. Values ranged from atmospheric to high concentrations of 4% CO 2 . The CO 2 preferences shown by workers for themselves and for brood placement were assessed by quantifying the number of workers and relocated brood in each chamber. Ants showed clear CO 2 preferences for brood placement. They avoided atmospheric levels, 1% and 4% CO 2 , and showed a preference for levels of 3%. This is the first report of CO 2 preferences for the maintenance of brood in social insects. The observed preferences for brood location were independent of the workers' own CO 2 preferences, since they showed no clear-cut pattern. Workers' CO 2 preferences for brood maintenance were slightly higher than those reported for fungus culturing, although brood is reared in the same chambers as the fungus in leaf-cutting ant nests. Workers' choices for brood placement in natural nests are likely the result of competing preferences for other environmental factors more crucial for brood survival, aside from those for CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, E.B.; McInnis, D.O.; Lance, D.R.; Carvalho, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  17. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, David L.; Peterson, Christy J.; Cain, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression. PMID:26154768

  18. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Arndt

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC, standard (SC, or isolated (IC conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  19. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  20. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  1. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  3. Xiaochaihutang attenuates depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of social isolation-reared mice by regulating monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and BDNF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Fang; Yang, Jingyu; Dong, Yingxu; Su, Guangyue; Zhang, Kuo; Pan, Xing; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Tingshuo; Wu, Chunfu

    2017-08-17

    Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), as a classical herbal formula for the treatment of "Shaoyang syndrome" has been demonstrated to exert an antidepressant effect in multiple animal models of depression as shown in our previous studies. However, the effects of XCHT on social isolation (SI)-reared mice have not been investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice, and its implicated mechanisms, including alterations in the monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression. Male C57 BL/6J mice (aged 4 weeks after weaning) were reared isolatedly for 8 weeks and XCHT (0.8, 2.3, 7.0g/kg) were given by gavage once a day. Forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze test (EPM) and intruder-induced aggression test were used to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice after administration of XCHT for 6 weeks. HPLC-MS/MS was performed to quantify the levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus by in vivo microdialysis, while western immunoblotting was used to evaluate the action of XCHT on the synthesis, transport and degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters. Immunofluorescence was used to study the effects of XCHT on neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression, including Ki-67, DCX, BrdU and BDNF. Our results showed that administration of XCHT (0.8, 2.3 and 7.0g/kg) for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the increase in immobility time in TST and FST, improved the anxiety-like behaviors in OFT and EPM, and improved the aggressive behaviors of SI-reared mice. XCHT significantly elevated monoamine neurotransmitters levels and inhibited 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in hippocampal microdialysates of SI-reared mice. In addition, we found XCHT enhanced monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis enzymes (TPH2 and TH) expressions, inhibited serotonin transporter (SERT) expression and decreased monoamine neurotransmitter

  4. Effects of a Mechanical Response-Contingent Surrogate on the Development of Behaviors in Nursery-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Rebecca L; Blake, Jennifer; Willits, Neil; Rommeck, Ina; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Nursery-reared infants have several behavioral and physiologic differences from their mother-reared counterparts. We investigated whether a response-contingent surrogate mitigated some of those differences by decreasing fearfulness and partner-clinging and increasing environmental exploration in nursery-reared infants continuously paired with a peer. Six nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (in pairs) were given a mechanical responsive surrogate (RS), and 6 (in pairs) were given an identical but nonresponsive surrogate (NRS). The 2 treatment groups were compared and then combined into a single group of all 12 of surrogate-exposed animals (CS) that was compared with a nonsurrogate control group (NS) of 10 nursery-reared infants. Results showed significant differences between CS and NS infants but no significant differences between the RS and NRS infants. As compared with NS infants, CS infants showed less partner-clinging, less affiliation directed toward only partner, and more foraging and tactile–oral exploration of the environment. These advantageous effects support additional research to develop improved surrogate and the implementation of surrogate programs for nursery-reared infants. PMID:25255068

  5. Sexual imprinting misguides species recognition in a facultative interspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Michael D; Hauber, Mark E; Derrickson, Scott R

    2010-10-22

    Sexual reproduction relies on the recognition of conspecifics for breeding. Most experiments in birds have implicated a critical role for early social learning in directing subsequent courtship behaviours and mating decisions. This classical view of avian sexual imprinting is challenged, however, by studies of megapodes and obligate brood parasites, species in which reliable recognition is achieved despite the lack of early experience with conspecifics. By rearing males with either conspecific or heterospecific brood mates, we experimentally tested the effect of early social experience on the association preferences and courtship behaviours of two sympatrically breeding ducks. We predicted that redheads (Aythya americana), which are facultative interspecific brood parasites, would show a diminished effect of early social environment on subsequent courtship preferences when compared with their host and congener, the canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Contrary to expectations, cross-fostered males of both species courted heterospecific females and preferred them in spatial association tests, whereas control males courted and associated with conspecific females. These results imply that ontogenetic constraints on species recognition may be a general impediment to the initial evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Under more natural conditions, a variety of mechanisms may mitigate or counteract the effects of early imprinting for redheads reared in canvasback broods.

  6. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Purcell

    Full Text Available Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  7. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  8. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth-brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.E.REARDON; L.J.CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a) examine response (size and survival) to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers) and (b) explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced.Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations.In the laboratory,first generation (F1) broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO.Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size,egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2) offspring.The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO,and juvenile size and survival were quantified.In the field survey,across stages,embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations.In the laboratory experiment,F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother's mouth did not differ in mass,length,survival regardless of development DO environment.However,juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother's mouth,exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO.Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother's mouthsupport predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia.There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months.Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development.This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes.

  9. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth- brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. REARDON, L.J. CHAPMAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a examine response (size and survival to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers and (b explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced. Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations. In the laboratory, first generation (F1 broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO. Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size, egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2 offspring. The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO, and juvenile size and survival were quantified. In the field survey, across stages, embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations. In the laboratory experiment, F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother’s mouth did not differ in mass, length, survival regardless of development DO environment. However, juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother’s mouth, exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO. Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother’s mouth support predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia. There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months. Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development. This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes [Current Zoology 58 (3: 401-412, 2012].

  10. Tricks of the trade: Mechanism of brood theft in an ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bishwarup; Annagiri, Sumana

    2018-01-01

    Thievery is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, social insects not being an exception. Brood is invaluable for the survival of social insect colonies and brood theft is well documented in ants. In many species the stolen brood act as slaves in the thief colony as they take up tasks related to foraging, defence and colony maintenance. Slave-making (dulotic) ants are at an advantage as they gain workforce without investing in rearing immature young, and several slave-making species have been recorded in temperate regions. In the current study we investigate brood theft in a primitively eusocial ponerine ant Diacamma indicum that inhabits the tropics. In the context of colony relocation we asked how thieves steal brood and what victim colonies do to prevent theft. While exposed nests increased colonies' vulnerability, the relocation process itself did not enhance the chances of theft. Various aggressive interactions, in particular immobilization of intruders helped in preventing theft. Thieves that acted quickly, stayed furtive and stole unguarded brood were found to be successful. This comprehensive study of behavioural mechanism of theft reveals that these are the 'tricks' adopted by thieves.

  11. The influence of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of Japanese flounder reared for stock enhancement: Burying, feeding, and threat response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle L.; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    Flatfish reared for stock enhancement often exhibit irregular behavioral patterns compared with wild conspecifics. These “deficits”, mostly attributed to the unnatural characteristics of the hatchery environment, are assumed to translate to increased predation risk. Initially releasing fish in predator-free conditioning cages may help flatfish adjust to the wild environment, establish burial skills, begin pigment change, recover from transport stress, and experience natural (live) food sources before full release into the wild. However, the impact of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of flatfish has yet to be fully assessed. We conducted video trials with 10-cm, hatchery-reared Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in sand-bottomed aquaria to assess four treatments of flounder: (1) reared fish cage conditioned for 7 d in the shallow coast, (2) reared fish directly from hatchery tanks, (3) wild fish, and (4) reared fish released directly from hatchery tanks into the wild and then recaptured after 6 d at large. Burying ability, predation, and threat response to a model predator were examined. Wild fish buried most, followed by cage conditioned, and released-then-recaptured and non-conditioned (directly from tank) fish. Wild and conditioned fish revealed much lower variation in total movement duration, which corresponded with lower levels and variation in prey vertical movement. Fish of all condition types exhibited a lower number of attacks and off-bottom swimming events, and a lower movement duration when the model predator was in motion versus when it was still. This study is the first to evaluate the behavioral mechanisms of hatchery-reared flatfish that have been cage-conditioned or released-then-recaptured. In addition, we provide evidence that cage conditioning can enhance the performance of released flatfish.

  12. Recognition of mite-infested brood by honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers may involve thermal sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel; Wegener, Jakob; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2018-05-01

    Hygienic behavior, i.e. the removal of diseased or damaged brood by worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), is seen as one of the principal behavioral elements of this species' social immunity. Identification of the stimuli that trigger it would be helpful in searching for biochemical and molecular markers of this important breeding trait. While many studies at the genomic, transcriptomic, and behavioral level have pointed to the implication of chemical cues, we here hypothesized that thermal cues are alternatively/additionally involved. To test this hypothesis, we first measured whether infestation by the mite Varroa destructor (a condition known to induce hygienic behavior) leads to a thermal gradient between affected and unaffected brood. We found that infested brood cells were between 0.03 and 0.19 °C warmer than uninfested controls. Next, we tested whether artificially heating an area of a brood comb would increase the removal of infested or uninfested brood as compared to an unheated control area, and found that this was not the case. Finally, we investigated whether the heating of individual brood cells, as opposed to comb areas, would influence brood removal from cells adjacent to the heated one. This was the case for uninfested, though not for infested cells. We conclude that infestation by V. destructor leads to a heating of brood cells that should be perceivable by bees, and that small-scale temperature gradients can influence brood removal. This makes it appear possible that thermal cues play a role in triggering hygienic behavior of honey bees directed at varroa-infested larvae/pupae, although our results are insufficient to prove such an involvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Meat quality characteristics of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...

  14. Evidence for foraging -site fidelity and individual foraging behavior of pelagic cormorants rearing chicks in the gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzerka, J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Garthe, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) is the most widespread cormorant in the North Pacific, but little is known about its foraging and diving behavior. However, knowledge of seabirds' foraging behavior is important to understanding their function in the marine environment. In 2006, using GPS dataloggers, we studied the foraging behavior of 14 male Pelagic Cormorants rearing chicks on Middleton Island, Alaska. For foraging, the birds had high fidelity to a small area 8 km north of the colony. Within that area, the cormorants' diving activity was of two distinct kinds-near-surface dives (1-6 m) and benthic dives (28-33 m). Individuals were consistent in the depths of their dives, either mostly shallow or mostly deep. Few showed no depth preference. Dive duration, time at maximum depth, and pauses at the water surface between consecutive dives were shorter for shallow dives than for deep dives. The cormorants made dives of both types throughout the day, but the frequency of deep dives increased toward evening. Maximum foraging range was 9 km; maximum total distance traveled per trip was 43.4 km. Trip durations ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 hr. Maximum depth of a dive was 42.2 m, and duration of dives ranged from 4 to 120 sec. We found that Pelagic Cormorants at Middleton Island were faithful to one particular foraging area and individuals dived in distinct patterns. Distinct, specialized foraging behavior may be advantageous in reducing intra- and interspecific competition but may also render the species vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  15. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  16. No evidence that environmental enrichment during rearing protects against cocaine behavioral effects but as an intervention reduces an already established cocaine conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaj, E; Shukur, A; Manuszak, M; Newman, K; Ranaldi, R

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether the timing of EE exposure - during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determining factor. In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP. In Experiment 2, locomotor activity in response to repeated injections of saline or cocaine was measured in rats raised with EE or non-EE. In Experiment 3 we measured the effects of EE or non-EE during rearing on food-based conditioned approach learning. In Experiment 4, rats were exposed to cocaine CPP conditioning then underwent 60days of EE or non-EE treatment after which they were tested for cocaine CPP. Our results show that rearing in EE did not reduce cocaine CPP or cocaine-induced locomotor activity (Experiments 1 and 2) but significantly facilitated conditioned approach learning (Experiment 3). On the other hand, EE treatment introduced after cocaine conditioning significantly reduced the expression of cocaine CPP (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that EE does not protect against cocaine's rewarding and stimulant effects but can reduce already established cocaine effects, suggesting that EE might be an effective treatment for cocaine addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rearing in enriched environment increases parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the amygdala and decreases anxiety-like behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouich; Hori, Etsuro; Sakai, Natsuko; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-01-25

    Early life experiences including physical exercise, sensory stimulation, and social interaction can modulate development of the inhibitory neuronal network and modify various behaviors. In particular, alteration of parvalbumin-expressing neurons, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal subpopulation, has been suggested to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether rearing in enriched environment could modify the expression of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the basolateral amygdala and anxiety-like behavior. Three-week-old male rats were divided into two groups: those reared in an enriched environment (EE rats) and those reared in standard cages (SE rats). After 5 weeks of rearing, the EE rats showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in an open field than the SE rats. Under another anxiogenic situation, in a beam walking test, the EE rats more quickly traversed an elevated narrow beam. Anxiety-like behavior in the open field was significantly and negatively correlated with walking time in the beam-walking test. Immunohistochemical tests revealed that the number of parvalbumin-positive neurons significantly increased in the basolateral amygdala of the EE rats than that of the SE rats, while the number of calbindin-D28k-positive neurons did not change. These parvalbumin-positive neurons had small, rounded soma and co-expressed the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67). Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin-positive small cells in the basolateral amygdala tended to positively correlate with emergence in the center arena of the open field and negatively correlated with walking time in the beam walking test. Rearing in the enriched environment augmented the number of parvalbumin-containing specific inhibitory neuron in the basolateral amygdala, but not that of calbindin-containing neuronal phenotype. Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the basolateral amygdala was negatively correlated with walking time in the

  18. Rearing in enriched environment increases parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the amygdala and decreases anxiety-like behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouich; Hori, Etsuro; Sakai, Natsuko; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Background Early life experiences including physical exercise, sensory stimulation, and social interaction can modulate development of the inhibitory neuronal network and modify various behaviors. In particular, alteration of parvalbumin-expressing neurons, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal subpopulation, has been suggested to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether rearing in enriched environment could modify the expression of parvalbumin-positive ...

  19. Periodical Cicada--Brood V (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    Three separate species of periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim (L.), M. cassini (Fisher), and M. septendecula (Alexander and Moore), will appear this spring over large portions of Ohio and West Virginia during the scheduled Brood V emergence. This brood is the largest that occurs in either state and was last seen in 1982. It will also emerge in the southwest...

  20. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  2. Spatial patterns, ecological niches, and interspecific competition of avian brood parasites: inferring from a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Noh, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yunkyoung; Kwon, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Hoe; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2014-09-01

    Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So far, however, few studies have demonstrated whether the interspecific competition really occurs in the system of avian brood parasitism and how the nature of brood parasitism is related to their niche evolution. Using the occurrence data of five avian brood parasites from two sources of nationwide bird surveys in South Korea and publically available environmental/climatic data, we identified their distribution patterns and ecological niches, and applied species distribution modeling to infer the effect of interspecific competition on their spatial distribution. We found that the distribution patterns of five avian brood parasites could be characterized by altitude and climatic conditions, but overall their spatial ranges and ecological niches extensively overlapped with each other. We also found that the predicted distribution areas of each species were generally comparable to the realized distribution areas, and the numbers of individuals in areas where multiple species were predicted to coexist showed positive relationships among species. In conclusion, despite following different coevolutionary trajectories to adapt to their respect host species, five species of avian brood parasites breeding in South Korea occupied broadly similar ecological niches, implying that they tend to conserve ancestral preferences for ecological conditions. Furthermore, our results indicated that contrary to expectation interspecific competition for host availability between avian brood parasites seemed to be trivial, and thus, play little role in shaping their spatial distributions and ecological niches. Future studies, including the complete ranges of avian brood

  3. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y; Sharma, Dhruv B; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  4. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  5. The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we cross-fostered eggs originating from single-queen (= monogynous) or multiple-queen (= polygynous) colonies into experimental groups of workers from each social structure to investigate whether differences in offspring survival, development time and body size are shaped by the genotype and/or prefoster maternal effects present in the eggs, or by the social origin of the rearing workers. Eggs produced by polygynous queens were more likely to survive to adulthood than eggs from monogynous queens, regardless of the social origin of the rearing workers. However, brood from monogynous queens grew faster than brood from polygynous queens. The social origin of the rearing workers influenced the probability of brood survival, with workers from monogynous colonies rearing more brood to adulthood than workers from polygynous colonies. The social origin of eggs or rearing workers had no significant effect on the head size of the resulting workers in our standardized laboratory conditions. Overall, the social backgrounds of the parents and of the rearing workers appear to shape distinct survival and developmental traits of ant brood. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  7. Captive rearing technologies and survival of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L. after release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have repeatedly emphasized the limited survival of pheasants reared using traditional methods compared to the wild one. For this reason we performed a field trial to compare survival rates, home ranges and habitat uses of pheasants artificial hatched and reared (traditional method with pheasants artificial hatched and reared by fostering mothers (hens. A total of 117 artificially hatched pheasants, 57 artificially brooded after hatch and 60 brooded by fostering hens, were equipped with a radio necklace tag or a poncho tag. Both groups were localized two-three times a week after their release in the wild. The survival rates of the brooded-by-hen pheasants showed an improvement of survival rates, either poncho or radio tagged (Pvs 57.1% and 35.0% vs 21.1%, respectively. The average maximum dispersion was 390 and 426 m and the home range were 12.0 and 11.6 ha in artificially brooded and brooded-by-hen pheasants, respectively. The land use showed that the woods were less represented than the available in the home range of every pheasant. For this reason the woods can be reduced in the agricultural areas interspersed with natural Mediterranean vegetation.

  8. Hypopharyngeal Gland Activity in Task-Specific Workers Under Brood and Broodless Conditions in Apis Cerana Indica (Fab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Seydur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypopharyngeal gland (HPG is the principal organ of protein synthesis in honey bees. It is involved in larval rearing. We examined the fresh head weight, HPG acini diameter, and HPG protein content in worker bees engaged in different tasks and under brood and broodless conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the HPG acini diameter of worker bees was related to their task. The highest HPG volume was found in nurse bees, and the volume regressed when the task changed from guarding to foraging. The fresh head weight was positively correlated with HPG acini diameter. Although, there was no positive correlation between HPG acini diameter and protein concentration, the glandular protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees and declined in guard and forager bees. Histochemistry revealed similar results. Despite displaying significantly larger glands, guard bee protein secretion was similar to that of the foragers. Brooding had a significant effect on HPG activity. Only worker bees from the colony with an intact brood showed elevated rates of protein synthesis; thus, it is possible that a signal was emitted by the brood, which stimulated protein synthesis in the HPG. However, the size of the HPG was similar in both brood and broodless conditions.

  9. An ultra-short screening version of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE-US and its factor structure in a representative German sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2] assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions.

  10. An evaluation of the possible adaptive function of fungal brood covering by attine ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    species, but to varying degrees, and appears to have evolved shortly after the origin of fungus farming, but was partly or entirely abandoned in some genera. To understand the evolution of the trait we used quantitative phylogenetic analyses to test whether brood-covering behavior covaries among attine...... ant clades and with two hygienic traits that reduce risk of disease: mycelial brood cover did not correlate with mutualistic bacteria that the ants culture on their cuticles for their antibiotics, but there was a negative relationship between metapleural gland grooming and mycelial cover. A broader...

  11. Current brood size and residual reproductive value predict brood desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R. J. S.; Cotter, S. C.; Kilner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that offspring desertion can be an adaptive reproductive strategy, in which parents forgo the costly care of an unprofitable current brood to save resources for future reproduction. In the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, parents commonly abandon their offspring to the care of others, resulting in female-only care, male-only care, brood parasitism, and the care of offspring sired by satellite males. Furthermore, when there is biparental care, males routin...

  12. Description age-3 brood rainbow trout bred in the conditions of the industral fish farm "Sloboda Banyliv"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mendryshora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of cultivation and give fish-breeding and biological characteristics of age-3 brood rainbow trout grown using industrial technology in the conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv." Methodology. Fish cultivation was carried in tank conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv". The material for the study were age-3 brood rainbow trout obtained from eggs of the fall-spawning form of rainbow trout. Cultivation was carried out in a 216 m2 tank, stocking density of 255 fish/m2, using standard trout culture methods. Statistical analysis of the material was performed in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. Analysis of the variables was performed in the system of absolute values. The analysis criteria were their mean values mean deviations (M±m, standard error (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with specialized feed manufactured by “BioMar” (Denmark with a high protein content (more than 40%. Findings. Based on the performed selective-breeding works aimed at creating brood stocks of rainbow trout, it was found that brood fish reared in the industrial conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv”, despite instable culture conditions, were characterized by a moderate growth rate and had high values of productive and reproductive features. Mean weight of age-3 rainbow trout females was 1282.5 g, fecundity — 3.48 thousand eggs. Mean weight of produced eggs was 239.17 g, while individual parameters were 70.4 mg for the weight and 4.58 mm for the diameter. Originality. For the first time a study aimed at the formation of brood stocks of rainbow trout with analysis of phenotypic and productive features in the conditions of a fish farm with instable temperature and water regimes has been conducted. Practical value. The results of the performed work will allow selecting and forming a brood stock with high values of productive and reproductive features.

  13. The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.

  14. Straight-run vs. sex separate rearing for 2 broiler genetic lines Part 1: Live production parameters, carcass yield, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Zaragoza-Santacruz, S; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of raising broilers under sex separate and straight-run conditions for 2 broiler strains. Day-old Ross 308 and Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,344) were separated by sex and placed in 48 pens according to the rearing type: sex separate (28 males or 28 females) or straight-run (14 males + 14 females). There were 3 dietary phases: starter (zero to 17 d), grower (17 to 32 d), and finisher (32 to 48 d). Birds' individual BW and feed intakes were measured at 12, 17, 25, 32, 42, and 48 d to evaluate performance. At 33, 43, and 49 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Additionally, from 06:00 to 06:30, 13:00 to 13:30, and 22:00 to 22:30, video records were taken to assess behavior at 45 days. Data were analyzed as CRD with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments over time. Throughout the experiment Ross 308 were heavier than the 708, and after 17 d, male pens had the heavier birds, followed by straight-run and then females. Straight-run pens had higher BW CV in comparison with sex separate pens. Sex separate male BW was negatively impacted from 17 to 32 days. On the other hand, females raised sex separate were heavier than females raised straight-run with lower CV from 25 to 41 days. Post 25 d, FCR was the lowest in male pens whereas feed intake was the highest for these pens after 17 days. Overall, males had total carcass cut-up weights higher than straight-run and females at the 3 processing times. The Ross 708 had higher white meat yields, whereas 308 had higher yields for dark meat. Feeding behavior results were not consistent over time. However, from 13:00 to 13:30, birds in female pens spent more time eating, followed by straight-run and then males. In conclusion, raising females in a straight-run system negatively impacted performance and CV, whereas males benefited from straight-run rearing, with the differences being possibly related to feeder space competition. © 2017

  15. Effect of Population Density on Timing of Oviposition and Brood Size Reduction in the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus pustulatus Herschel (Coleoptera: Silphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Rauter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp. bury small carcasses to feed their larvae. Carcasses are a limited, high-quality resource and contests over carcasses become more frequent with increasing population density. Successful beetles kill eggs and larvae present on carcass. In response, females should accelerate oviposition, while offspring development should increase to minimize mortality. Both value of a carcass and frequency of contests decrease as larvae develop. If overproduction of offspring is an insurance against high mortality, females should reduce brood size as carcass value declines. Testing our predictions, we reared female burying beetles, Nicrophorus pustulatus, at high and low densities and compared oviposition and brood reduction. High-density females delayed oviposition, suggesting that high population density imposes nutritional and/or physiological stress. Females responded to the physiological constraints and the potentially high mortality rates of eggs and newly hatched larvae by lengthening oviposition period and changing brood reduction rate.

  16. Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Mozos, J; García-Ruiz, A I; den Hartog, L A; Villamide, M J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk). Time eating was measured at 7, 11, and 19 weeks. A feeding rate test was performed after 11 weeks. Behavior was observed at 9 and 15 wk, by visual scan. At 6, 13, and 19 wk of age, one bird/pen was slaughtered for weighing different organs and analyzing the composition of empty whole bodies. Treatments did not affect BW uniformity; relative weights of the ovary, oviduct, or gizzard; or protein content of empty BW. Time eating varied with the growth curve at 19 wk (P motivation. Behavior was affected by the age and by the time of the d measured, but it did not change with the treatments. Birds spent most time pecking objects (50%), feeding (28%), and drinking (17%). Pullets fed DIL had 8% lower breast yield at different ages and higher empty digestive tracts at 6 weeks. Body composition varied with age; fat content increased from 12.7 to 15.9 to 19.8% for 6, 13, and 19 wk, respectively. The lowest body fat was observed for RBW pullets fed DIL (P = 0.003) at 19 weeks. Feeding DIL diets to HBW pullets could be done to increase the time spent eating and reduce their feeling of hunger without negative effects on body composition. However, its influence on behavior and BW uniformity was not proved. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  17. Brood size modifications affect plumage bacterial assemblages of European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Françoise S; Moureau, Benoit; Jourdie, Violaine; Heeb, Philipp

    2005-02-01

    During reproduction, birds face trade-offs between time and energy devoted to parental effort and traits associated with self-maintenance. We manipulated brood sizes to investigate the effects of such trade-offs on feather bacterial densities and the structure of bacterial assemblages on feathers in adult European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, and in vitro feather degradation. As predicted by a trade-off between parental effort and self-maintenance, we found that birds with enlarged broods had more free-living bacteria on their feathers than birds with reduced broods. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between brood manipulation and original brood size on free-living bacterial densities suggesting that the trade-off is mediated by the adults' initial reproductive investment. In contrast, brood size manipulations had no significant effect on densities of attached bacteria. Using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), we demonstrated that brood manipulations significantly modified the structure (band pattern) of feather-degrading bacterial assemblages, but had no significant effect on their richness (number of bands) or the in vitro feather degradation. In vitro feather degradation varied in relation to the premanipulation brood size and positively with the richness of the feather degrading bacterial community. Besides brood manipulation effect, we found that ecological factors and individual traits, such as the age, the nest location or the capture date, shaped bacterial assemblages and feather degradation capacities.

  18. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    2000-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  20. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

  1. Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

  2. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  3. Variation in selection of microhabitats by Merriam's turkey brood hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    We studied microhabitats of Merriam‘s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) brood hens in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystem in South Dakota from 1986 to 1988. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of microhabitats, open-shrub, open-grasslforb and forest, based on vegetation characteristics at sites selected by brood...

  4. First evidence for slave rebellion: enslaved ant workers systematically kill the brood of their social parasite protomognathus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Alexandra; Foitzik, Susanne

    2009-04-01

    During the process of coevolution, social parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to exploit the brood care behavior of their social hosts. Slave-making ant queens invade host colonies and kill or eject all adult host ants. Host workers, which eclose from the remaining brood, are tricked into caring for the parasite brood. Due to their high prevalence and frequent raids, following which stolen host broods are similarly enslaved, slave-making ants exert substantial selection upon their hosts, leading to the evolution of antiparasite adaptations. However, all host defenses shown to date are active before host workers are parasitized, whereas selection was thought to be unable to act on traits of already enslaved hosts. Yet, here we demonstrate the rebellion of enslaved Temnothorax workers, which kill two-thirds of the female pupae of the slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus. Thereby, slaves decrease the long-term parasite impact on surrounding related host colonies. This novel antiparasite strategy of enslaved workers constitutes a new level in the coevolutionary battle after host colony defense has failed. Our discovery is analogous to recent findings in hosts of avian brood parasites where perfect mimicry of parasite eggs leads to the evolution of chick recognition as a second line of defense.

  5. Effects of predation risk on site selection of barnacle geese during brood-rearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, J; Loonen, MJJE; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis breed on small islands in the Kongsfjorden area, Spitsbergen. Shortly after hatching, families approach feeding sites at the mainland coast in the close surroundings of the village Ny-Alesund. The goslings are subject to predation by arctic foxes Alopex lagopus

  6. Effect of the presence of brood and fungus on the nest architecture and digging activity of Acromyrmex subterraneus Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Magno dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the stimuli that trigger digging behavior in Acromyrmex subterraneus during nest building. The hypothesis was that the presence of the fungus garden and/or brood triggers the excavation of tunnels and chambers. For the experiment, the excavation rate of individually marked workers kept in plastic cylinders filled with soil was recorded. Four treatments were applied: (1 30 medium-sized workers, 5 g fungus garden and 30 brood items (larvae and pupae; (2 30 medium-sized workers and 5 g fungus garden; (3 30 medium-sized workers and 30 brood items; (4 30 medium-sized workers without fungus and brood. After 24 h, morphological parameters of nest structure (length and width of the chambers and tunnels in cm and the volume of excavated soil were recorded. In contrast to the expected findings, no change in morphological structure, rate of excavation by workers, or volume of excavated soil was observed between treatments, except for tunnel width, which was greater, when no brood or fungus garden was present. Thus, the results do not support the hypothesis that the fungus garden and/or brood are local stimuli for nest excavation or that they mold the internal architecture of the nest. Although this hypothesis was confirmed for Acromyrmex lundii and Atta sexdens rubropilosa, the same does not apply to A. subterraneus. The digging behavior of workers is probably the result of adaptation during nest building in different habitats.

  7. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival: an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P M; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2009-03-01

    1. An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. 2. In sexual size dimorphic species, two main contradictory mechanisms are proposed regarding sex-specific effects of competition on nestling performance assuming that parents do not feed their chicks differentially: (i) the larger sex requires more resources to grow and is more sensitive to a deterioration of the rearing conditions ('costly sex hypothesis'); (ii) the larger sex has a competitive advantage in intra-brood competition and performs better under adverse conditions ('competitive advantage hypothesis'). 3. In the present study, we manipulated the level of sex-specific sibling competition in a great tit population (Parus major) by altering simultaneously the brood size and the brood sex ratio on two levels: the nest (competition for food among nestlings) and the woodlot where the parents breed (competition for food among adults). We investigated whether altered competition during the nestling phase affected nestling growth traits and survival in the nest and whether the effects differed between males, the larger sex, and females. 4. We found a strong negative and sex-specific effect of experimental brood size on all the nestling traits. In enlarged broods, sexual size dimorphism was smaller which may have resulted from biased mortality towards the less competitive individuals i.e. females of low condition. No effect of brood sex ratio on nestling growth traits was found. 5. Negative brood size effects on nestling traits were stronger in natural high-density areas but we could not confirm this experimentally. 6. Our results did not support the 'costly sex hypothesis' because males did not suffer from higher mortality under harsh conditions. The 'competitive advantage hypothesis' was

  8. Success of cuckoo catfish brood parasitism reflects coevolutionary history and individual experience of their cichlid hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polačik, Matej; Smith, Carl; Honza, Marcel; Reichard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Obligate brood parasites manipulate other species into raising their offspring. Avian and insect brood parasitic systems demonstrate how interacting species engage in reciprocal coevolutionary arms races through behavioral and morphological adaptations and counteradaptations. Mouthbrooding cichlid fishes are renowned for their remarkable evolutionary radiations and complex behaviors. In Lake Tanganyika, mouthbrooding cichlids are exploited by the only obligate nonavian vertebrate brood parasite, the cuckoo catfish Synodontis multipunctatus. We show that coevolutionary history and individual learning both have a major impact on the success of cuckoo catfish parasitism between coevolved sympatric and evolutionarily naïve allopatric cichlid species. The rate of cuckoo catfish parasitism in coevolved Tanganyikan hosts was 3 to 11 times lower than in evolutionarily naïve cichlids. Moreover, using experimental infections, we demonstrate that parasite egg rejection in sympatric hosts was much higher, leading to seven times greater parasite survival in evolutionarily naïve than sympatric hosts. However, a high rejection frequency of parasitic catfish eggs by coevolved sympatric hosts came at a cost of increased rejection of their own eggs. A significant cost of catfish parasitism was universal, except for coevolved sympatric cichlid species with previous experience of catfish parasitism, demonstrating that learning and individual experience both contribute to a successful host response.

  9. Patch size and edge proximity are useful predictors of brood parasitism but not nest survival of grassland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J; Chiavacci, Scott J; Ward, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    Declines of migratory birds have led to increased focus on causative factors for these declines, including the potential adverse effects of habitat fragmentation on reproductive success. Although numerous studies have addressed how proximity to a habitat edge, patch size, or landscape context influence nest survival or brood parasitism, many have failed to find the purported effects. Furthermore, many have sought to generalize patterns across large geographic areas and habitats. Here, we examined evidence for effects of edge proximity, patch size, and landscape context on nest survival and brood parasitism of grassland birds, a group of conservation concern. The only consistent effect was a positive association between edge proximity and brood parasitism. We examined effects of patch size on nest survival (37 studies) and brood parasitism (30 studies) representing 170 and 97 different estimates, respectively, with a total sample size of > 14000 nests spanning eastern North America. Nest survival weakly increased with patch size in the Great Plains, but not in the Midwestern or Eastern United States, and brood parasitism was inversely related to patch size and consistently greater in the Great Plains. The consistency in brood parasitism relative to nest survival patterns is likely due to parasitism being caused by one species, while nest survival is driven by a diverse and variable suite of nest predators. Often, studies assume that predators responsible for nest predation, the main driver of nest success, either are the same or exhibit the same behaviors across large geographic areas. These results suggest that a better mechanistic understanding of nest predation is needed to provide meaningful conservation recommendations for improving grassland bird productivity, and that the use of general recommendations across large geographic areas should only be undertaken when sufficient data are available from all regions.

  10. The Evolution of Clutch Size in Hosts of Avian Brood Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E; Lanfear, Robert; Kokko, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Coevolution with avian brood parasites shapes a range of traits in their hosts, including morphology, behavior, and breeding systems. Here we explore whether brood parasitism is also associated with the evolution of host clutch size. Several studies have proposed that hosts of highly virulent parasites could decrease the costs of parasitism by evolving a smaller clutch size, because hosts with smaller clutches will lose fewer progeny when their clutch is parasitized. We describe a model of the evolution of clutch size, which challenges this logic and shows instead that an increase in clutch size (or no change) should evolve in hosts. We test this prediction using a broad-scale comparative analysis to ask whether there are differences in clutch size within hosts and between hosts and nonhosts. Consistent with our model, this analysis revealed that host species do not have smaller clutches and that hosts that incur larger costs from raising a parasite lay larger clutches. We suggest that brood parasitism might be an influential factor in clutch-size evolution and could potentially select for the evolution of larger clutches in host species.

  11. Rear end collision: Causes and avoidance techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nekovee, Maziar; Bie, Jing; Naja, Rola

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collision is one of the most frequent accidents occurring on roadways. This chapter investigates how vehicle’s local parameters in a platoon of cars (i.e., perception and information collection, vehicle speed, safe distance, braking parameters) affect the global behavior of the traffic

  12. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    1998-01-01

    1. We tested for costs of chick rearing in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) by removing entire clutches from 149 of 405 randomly selected nests, in which one or both mates was colour-banded. After the manipulation, we monitored adult nest attendance and body condition at unmanipulated and manipulated nests, and measured the survival and fecundity of these adults the following year.2. Late in the chick-rearing period, adults from unmanipulated nests (i.e. with chicks) went on significantly longer foraging trips, and were significantly lighter for their size, than adults from manipulated nests (i.e. without chicks).3. Adults from unmanipulated nests also survived to the following nesting season at a significantly lower rate than those from the manipulated nests (0·898 vs. 0·953), suggesting that attempting to raise chicks can reduce life expectancy by 55%.4. There was a tendency for adults from nests that were unmanipulated in year one to have lower reproductive success in year two, primarily because of reduced fledging success, and a higher incidence of non-breeding.5. These findings suggest that mass loss in kittiwakes during chick rearing may not be adaptive. Raising chicks can lead to reproductive costs, and the causal mechanism appears to be a reduction in body condition.6. We compare our results with previous brood (or clutch) size manipulation experiments that have measured adult body condition, survival and/or future fecundity. Although the empirical evidence suggests that long-lived species are more likely to experience survival costs than short-lived species, we believe the opposite may be true. We suggest that shifting the experimental protocol of cost of reproduction studies from brood enlargements (an approach taken in most prior studies) to brood reductions will provide more accurate quantifications of naturally occurring costs.7. The cost of reproduction is one mechanism proposed to explain the reduced survival rates reported

  14. Costs and Benefits to Pregnant Male Pipefish Caring for Broods of Different Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs between brood size and offspring size, offspring survival, parental condition or parental survival are classic assumptions in life history biology. A reduction in brood size may lessen these costs of care, but offspring mortality can also result in an energetic gain, if parents are able to utilize the nutrients from the demised young. Males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) care for the offspring by brooding embryos in a brood pouch. Brooding males can absorb nutrients that emanate from embryos, and there is often a reduction in offspring number over the brooding period. In this study, using two experimentally determined brood sizes (partially and fully filled brood pouches), we found that full broods resulted in larger number of developing offspring, despite significantly higher absolute and relative embryo mortality, compared to partial broods. Male survival was also affected by brood size, with males caring for full broods having poorer survival, an effect that together with the reduced embryo survival was found to negate the benefit of large broods. We found that embryo mortality was lower when the brooding males were in good initial condition, that embryos in broods with low embryo mortality weighed more, and surprisingly, that males in higher initial condition had embryos of lower weight. Brood size, however, did not affect embryo weight. Male final condition, but not initial condition, correlated with higher male survival. Taken together, our results show costs and benefits of caring for large brood sizes, where the numerical benefits come with costs in terms of both embryo survival and survival of the brooding father, effects that are often mediated via male condition.

  15. Costs and Benefits to Pregnant Male Pipefish Caring for Broods of Different Sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Sagebakken

    Full Text Available Trade-offs between brood size and offspring size, offspring survival, parental condition or parental survival are classic assumptions in life history biology. A reduction in brood size may lessen these costs of care, but offspring mortality can also result in an energetic gain, if parents are able to utilize the nutrients from the demised young. Males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle care for the offspring by brooding embryos in a brood pouch. Brooding males can absorb nutrients that emanate from embryos, and there is often a reduction in offspring number over the brooding period. In this study, using two experimentally determined brood sizes (partially and fully filled brood pouches, we found that full broods resulted in larger number of developing offspring, despite significantly higher absolute and relative embryo mortality, compared to partial broods. Male survival was also affected by brood size, with males caring for full broods having poorer survival, an effect that together with the reduced embryo survival was found to negate the benefit of large broods. We found that embryo mortality was lower when the brooding males were in good initial condition, that embryos in broods with low embryo mortality weighed more, and surprisingly, that males in higher initial condition had embryos of lower weight. Brood size, however, did not affect embryo weight. Male final condition, but not initial condition, correlated with higher male survival. Taken together, our results show costs and benefits of caring for large brood sizes, where the numerical benefits come with costs in terms of both embryo survival and survival of the brooding father, effects that are often mediated via male condition.

  16. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  17. Early life stress predicts negative urgency through brooding, depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype: A pilot study with 6-month follow-up examining suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the interaction between early life stress and 5-HTT genotypes in predicting two risk factors for suicidal behavior - the brooding subtype of rumination and impulsivity, in the form of negative urgency - over time. Furthermore, we examined early life stress, brooding, and impulsivity as predictors of suicidal ideation over time. Participants with and without a history of early life stress were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and completed assessments assessing brooding and negative urgency at baseline and 6-month follow up. Early life emotional abuse was associated with negative urgency at follow-up. We found an indirect effect of early life emotional abuse on negative urgency through brooding among individuals with 5-HTT low expressing genotypes but not among individuals with 5-HTT high expressing genotypes. Further, a logistic regression analysis revealed that negative urgency was associated with higher odds (O.R. = 16.2) of reporting suicide ideation (versus no ideation) at follow-up. Our findings suggest that brooding and negative urgency may result from the interaction between early life emotional abuse and 5-HTT low expressing genotypes. Further research is necessary to understand how early life stress interacts with 5-HTT genotypes to confer risk for suicidal behavior through psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social learning of a brood parasite by its host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

  19. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  20. Tucannon River spring chinook salmon captive brood program, FY 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  1. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  2. Costs of reproduction in the Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata : Manipulation of brood size in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH; Overkamp, GFJ

    1996-01-01

    Brood size of Zebra Finches Taeniopygia guttata was manipulated in an attempt to identify a trade-off between current and subsequent reproduction in a laboratory situation with ad libitum food availability. The birds were able to raise a larger brood than the most frequent brood size under the same

  3. Standard methods for Apis mellifera brood as human food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Evans, Joshua David; Jonas-Levi, Adi

    2018-01-01

    methods and techniques from related fields of research. In this paper, we provide recommendations and research protocols centered on production of worker and drone brood for human consumption, on brood harvesting, including hygienic considerations, on nutritional aspects of brood, on sensory analyses...

  4. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  5. Mitochondrial DNA variation in brood stocks of the lake trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewe, P.M.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to restore lake trout populations in the Great Lakes from hatchery stocks. In most cases, plantings include a variety of brood stocks that originated from different portions of the Great Lakes. Members of the various stocks can be differentially fin clipped to permit comparison of their survival success, but this does not allow assessment of their reproductive capability in the wild. Assessment of reproductive success requires the existence of genetic markers between brook stocks which will ideally persist over many generations. Efforts to identify allozyme differences between brood stocks have met with little success. The present investigation has employed an alternative technique to identify genetic markers--the restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondiral DNA analysis of 7 lake trout brood stocks has revealed the existence of 10 mitochondrial clones falling into 3 major groups. The results indicate that mt-DNA markers have great potential for brood stock management. Genetic variability in the nuclear genome of each stock can be maintained by utilizing a large number of male parents, while restricting female parents to members of a single mitochondrial clone. Genetically marked fry could then be produced with only minor shifts in hatchery management

  6. Partial brood release in woodlice: A bet- hedging tactic?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-06

    Jun 6, 1994 ... spring survival or reduce Lhe variance in juvenile mortality ... Offspring re- leased in advance of their siblings amounted to around. 30,9% of the total brood and occurred in females with a wide range of size (11,14-31,58 mg) and fertility (8-36 ... limited parental care by the female as it will delay \\he onset.

  7. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated

  9. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1774 (2014), s. 20132665 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg coloration * egg mimicry * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  10. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009-2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717309507

  11. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  12. Honey bees consider larval nutritional status rather than genetic relatedness when selecting larvae for emergency queen rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N; Lucas, Hannah M; Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Breece, Carolyn R

    2018-05-16

    In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments manipulating the nutritional status of one day old larvae by depriving them of brood food for a four-hour period, and then allowing workers to choose larvae for rearing queens from nutritionally deprived and non-deprived larvae. We simultaneously investigated the role of genetic relatedness in selection of larvae for queen rearing. In all the experiments, significantly greater numbers of non-deprived larvae than deprived larvae were selected for queen rearing irrespective of genetic relatedness. Our results demonstrate that honey bees perceive the nutritional state of larvae and use that information when selecting larvae for rearing queens in the natural emergency queen replacement process.

  13. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  14. CROSS-NATIONAL TRANSFERABILITY OF THE 2-FACTOR MODEL OF PARENTAL REARING BEHAVIOR - A CONTRAST OF DATA FROM CANADA, THE FEDERAL-REPUBLIC-OF-GERMANY, HUNGARY, JAPAN, SINGAPORE AND VENEZUELA WITH DUTCH TARGET RATINGS ON THE EMBU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; PERRIS, C; EISEMANN, M; DEALDAZ, EG; VANDERENDE, J; GUAN, DKS; RICHTER, J; GASZNER, P; IWAWAKI, S; BARON, P; JOUBERT, N; PRUDHOMME, L

    In order to contribute to the cross-cultural study of child-rearing practices and psychopathology, this pilot study sought to examine the cross-national generalizability of parental rearing constructs by analyzing self-report data on the EMBU, an instrument designed to assess memories of parental

  15. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  16. Honeybee Colony Vibrational Measurements to Highlight the Brood Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bencsik

    Full Text Available Insect pollination is of great importance to crop production worldwide and honey bees are amongst its chief facilitators. Because of the decline of managed colonies, the use of sensor technology is growing in popularity and it is of interest to develop new methods which can more accurately and less invasively assess honey bee colony status. Our approach is to use accelerometers to measure vibrations in order to provide information on colony activity and development. The accelerometers provide amplitude and frequency information which is recorded every three minutes and analysed for night time only. Vibrational data were validated by comparison to visual inspection data, particularly the brood development. We show a strong correlation between vibrational amplitude data and the brood cycle in the vicinity of the sensor. We have further explored the minimum data that is required, when frequency information is also included, to accurately predict the current point in the brood cycle. Such a technique should enable beekeepers to reduce the frequency with which visual inspections are required, reducing the stress this places on the colony and saving the beekeeper time.

  17. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. Rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A few attempts were conducted to establish basic needs, materials, conditions and procedures for artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. A brief summary will be presented based on published and personal information. (author)

  19. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones-Toledo, Daniela A; Montory, Jaime A; Joyce, Alyssa; Thompson, Raymond J; Diederich, Casey M; Pechenik, Jan A; Mardones, Maria L; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2015-01-01

    Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG) to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps) and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor energy balance

  20. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Mardones-Toledo

    Full Text Available Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor

  1. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  2. Behavior, performance and physiological parameters of pigs reared in deep bedding Comportamento, desempenho e parâmetros fisiológicos de suínos criados em cama sobreposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana R. Caldara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the behavior, performance and physiological parameters of pigs in different production systems. Twenty four animals in the growth phase were distributed in a randomized block design in three treatments: T1 - concrete floor, T2 - deep bedding with wood shaving, and T3 - deep bedding with coffee husks. The behavioral study was carried out by observing the animal behavior for an uninterrupted period of eight hours throughout seven weeks. The proportions of time spent in each behavior were characterized using the frequency histogram composition. Environmental (IBGTH, physiological (rectal and skin temperature and respiratory rate and performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion parameters were measured in animals during the period. The production systems of deep bedding showed higher values of IBGTH. There was no effect of production systems evaluated on the performance parameters. Rectal temperature was higher in animals reared on deep bedding with coffee husks in relation to the concrete floor. The use of deep bedding benefited the behavior of piglets in the growth phase and it reduced the agonistic behavior among individuals.Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar o comportamento, desempenho e parâmetros fisiológicos de suínos, em diferentes sistemas de produção. Foram utilizados 24 suínos em crescimento, distribuídos em delineamento casualizado, nos tratamentos: T1 - piso de concreto; T2 - cama sobreposta com maravalha; T3 - cama sobreposta com casca de café. Realizou-se observação do comportamento animal, por oito horas ininterruptas, ao longo de sete semanas. Foram caracterizadas as proporções de tempo dedicadas a cada comportamento, utilizando a composição de histograma de frequência. Foram mensurados parâmetros ambientais (ITGU, fisiológicos (temperatura retal e de superfície e frequência respiratória e de desempenho dos animais (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e

  3. Vasodilatory effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the brood patch of the Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Södergren, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In birds like the Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) the female, but not the male develop a brood patch upon incubation of eggs. The brood patch functions to increase heat exchange between the bird and the eggs. Development of the brood patch includes de-feathering, increased vascularization and edema formation. The increased vascularization is due to the development of arteriovenous anastomoses, AVA. The AVA are thermoregulatory vessels involved in cold induced vasodilation, CIVD, demonstrate...

  4. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    The ˜430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines. A short telson bears long parallel cerci. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the new arthropod as a stem-group mandibulate. The evidence suggests that the tethered individuals are juveniles and the association represents a complex brooding behavior. Alternative possibilities—that the tethered individuals represent a different epizoic or parasitic arthropod—appear less likely.

  6. Social makes smart: rearing conditions affect learning and social behaviour in jumping spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, J; Schneider, J M

    2017-11-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.

  7. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the oviposition and typically seal the brood cell. It is usually assumed that there is no regular contact between the adult(s) and brood. Here, we show that the bee, Megalopta genalis, expresses a form of...

  8. Bacterial Respiration and Growth Rates Affect the Feeding Preferences, Brood Size and Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Yan, Xiaomei; Ye, Chenglong; Zhao, Haiyan; Chen, Xiaoyun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria serve as live food and nutrients for bacterial-feeding nematodes (BFNs) in soils, and influence nematodes behavior and physiology through their metabolism. Five bacterial taxa (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JX1, Variovorax sp. JX14, Bacillus megaterium JX15, Pseudomonas fluorescens Y1 and Escherichia coli OP50) and the typical BFN Caenorhabditis elegans were selected to study the effects of bacterial respiration and growth rates on the feeding preferences, brood size and lifespan of nematodes. P. fluorescens Y1 and E. coli OP50 were found to be more active, with high respiration and rapid growth, whereas B. amyloliquefaciens JX1 and B. megaterium JX15 were inactive. The nematode C. elegans preferred active P. fluorescens Y1 and E. coli OP50 obviously. Furthermore, worms that fed on these two active bacteria produced more offspring but had shorter lifespan, while inactive and less preferred bacteria had increased nematodes lifespan and decreased the brood size. Based on these results, we propose that the bacterial activity may influence the behavior and life traits of C. elegans in the following ways: (1) active bacteria reproduce rapidly and emit high levels of CO2 attracting C. elegans; (2) these active bacteria use more resources in the nematodes’ gut to sustain their survival and reproduction, thereby reducing the worm's lifespan; (3) inactive bacteria may provide less food for worms than active bacteria, thus increasing nematodes lifespan but decreasing their fertility. Nematodes generally require a balance between their preferred foods and beneficial foods, only preferred food may not be beneficial for nematodes. PMID:26222828

  9. Neural activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices of freely moving rats during social interaction: Effect of isolation rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Chihiro; Shimizu, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Sociability promotes a sound daily life for individuals. Reduced sociability is a central symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying reduced sociability remain unclear. The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) have been suggested to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying sociability because isolation rearing in rats results in impairment of social behavior and structural changes in the PL and IL. One possible mechanism underlying reduced sociability involves dysfunction of the PL and IL. We made a wireless telemetry system to record multiunit activity in the PL and IL of pairs of freely moving rats during social interaction and examined the influence of isolation rearing on this activity. In group-reared rats, PL neurons increased firing when the rat showed approaching behavior and also contact behavior, especially when the rat attacked the partner. Conversely, IL neurons increased firing when the rat exhibited leaving behavior, especially when the partner left on its own accord. In social interaction, the PL may be involved in active actions toward others, whereas the IL may be involved in passive relief from cautionary subjects. Isolation rearing altered social behavior and neural activity. Isolation-reared rats showed an increased frequency and decreased duration of contact behavior. The increased firing of PL neurons during approaching and contact behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was preserved in isolation-reared rats, whereas the increased firing of IL neurons during leaving behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was suppressed in isolation-reared rats. This result indicates that isolation rearing differentially alters neural activity in the PL and IL during social behavior. The differential influence of isolation rearing on neural activity in the PL and IL may be one of the neural bases of isolation rearing-induced behavior. PMID:28459875

  10. Neural activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices of freely moving rats during social interaction: Effect of isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Chihiro; Shimizu, Tomoko; Mitani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Sociability promotes a sound daily life for individuals. Reduced sociability is a central symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying reduced sociability remain unclear. The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) have been suggested to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying sociability because isolation rearing in rats results in impairment of social behavior and structural changes in the PL and IL. One possible mechanism underlying reduced sociability involves dysfunction of the PL and IL. We made a wireless telemetry system to record multiunit activity in the PL and IL of pairs of freely moving rats during social interaction and examined the influence of isolation rearing on this activity. In group-reared rats, PL neurons increased firing when the rat showed approaching behavior and also contact behavior, especially when the rat attacked the partner. Conversely, IL neurons increased firing when the rat exhibited leaving behavior, especially when the partner left on its own accord. In social interaction, the PL may be involved in active actions toward others, whereas the IL may be involved in passive relief from cautionary subjects. Isolation rearing altered social behavior and neural activity. Isolation-reared rats showed an increased frequency and decreased duration of contact behavior. The increased firing of PL neurons during approaching and contact behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was preserved in isolation-reared rats, whereas the increased firing of IL neurons during leaving behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was suppressed in isolation-reared rats. This result indicates that isolation rearing differentially alters neural activity in the PL and IL during social behavior. The differential influence of isolation rearing on neural activity in the PL and IL may be one of the neural bases of isolation rearing-induced behavior.

  11. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  12. Waptia and the Diversification of Brood Care in Early Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Vannier, Jean

    2016-01-11

    Brood care, including the carrying of eggs or juveniles, is a form of parental care, which, like other parental traits [1], enhances offspring fitness with variable costs and benefits to the parents [2]. Attempts to understand why and how parental care evolved independently in numerous animal groups often emphasize the role of environmental pressures such as predation, ephemeral resources, and, more generally, the harshness of environment. The fossil record can, in principle, provide minimum age constraints on the evolution of life-history traits, including brood care and key information on the reproductive strategies of extinct organisms. New, exceptionally preserved specimens of the weakly sclerotized arthropod Waptia fieldensis from the middle Cambrian (ca. 508 million years ago) Burgess Shale, Canada, provide the oldest example of in situ eggs with preserved embryos in the fossil record. The relatively small clutch size, up to 24 eggs, and the relatively large diameter of individual eggs, some over 2 mm, contrast with the high number of small eggs-found without preserved embryos-in the bivalved bradoriid arthropod Kunmingella douvillei from the Chengjiang biota (ca. 515 million years ago). The presence of these two different parental strategies suggests a rapid evolution of a variety of modern-type life-history traits, including extended investment in offspring survivorship, soon after the Cambrian emergence of animals. Together with previously described brooded eggs in ostracods from the Upper Ordovician (ca. 450 million years ago), these new findings suggest that the presence of a bivalved carapace played a key role in the early evolution of parental care in arthropods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brood parasitic cowbird nestlings use host young to procure resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Madden, Joah R; Hauber, Mark E

    2004-08-06

    Young brood parasites that tolerate the company of host offspring challenge the existing evolutionary view of family life. In theory, all parasitic nestlings should be ruthlessly self-interested and should kill host offspring soon after hatching. Yet many species allow host young to live, even though they are rivals for host resources. Here we show that the tolerance of host nestlings by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater is adaptive. Host young procure the cowbird a higher provisioning rate, so it grows more rapidly. The cowbird's unexpected altruism toward host offspring simply promotes its selfish interests in exploiting host parents.

  14. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the

  15. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, A E; Wcislo, W T

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the oviposition and typically seal the brood cell. It is usually assumed that there is no regular contact between the adult(s) and brood. Here, we show that the bee, Megalopta genalis , expresses a form of cryptic brood care, which would not be observed during normal development. Following experimental injections of different provisioning materials into brood cells, foundresses reopened manipulated cells and the brood were aborted in some cases, implying that the foundresses assessed conditions within the cells. In aborted cells, foundresses sometimes laid a second egg after first removing dead larvae, previously stored pollen and contaminants. Our results show that hygienic brood care can be cryptic and hence may be more widespread than previously believed, lending support to the hypothesis that extended parental care is a preadaptation toward eusociality.

  16. Brooding Rumination and Risk for Depressive Disorders in Children of Depressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Grassia, Marie; Stone, Lindsey B.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the role of brooding rumination in children at risk for depression. We found that children of mothers with a history of major depression exhibited higher levels of brooding rumination than did children of mothers with no depression history. Examining potential mechanisms of this risk, we found no…

  17. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  18. Influence of habitat and number of nestlings on partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (

  19. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... not leave but stayed and significantly increased their courtship rate and mate guarding. Unexpectedly, they also increased their food provisioning to the nestlings, even though loaded females did not reduce their nestling-feeding rate. The increase in male feeding rate may be explained as a way for the male...... to reduce the female's propensity to switch mate and desert or to increase her propensity to copulate with the male to obtain paternity in her next brood. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the perception of the risk of being deserted by the female does not necessarily induce males to desert first...

  20. Drone brood production in Danish apiaries and its potential for human consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Foley, Kirsten; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2018-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the practice of drone brood removal is an effective measure of varroa mite control when combined with chemical treatment as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. This has led to a widespread adoption of the method in Denmark and other European countries....... Recently, there has been growing interest in the value of insects as a sustainable and highly nutritious food item. To examine the potential use of drone brood as a food source on a commercial scale, we gathered data from nine Danish apiaries. The weight of drone brood comb removed from each colony...... was recorded and from one apiary, the edible biomass was determined. The total weight of the drone brood comb removed from each colony over the season was highly variable ranging from 0.184 kg to 4.035 kg with an average of 1.776 kg and the average total drone brood biomass extracted was 1.064 kg per colony...

  1. Positive Child Rearing Practices: Parents training for reduce bullying

    OpenAIRE

    González, Brenda; Cabrera, Francisco; Martínez, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a positive child rearing program with parents for reducing bullying and incrementing pro-social behavior of their children. Participants were eight couples and two single parents of 10 children identified as bullies. Half of the parents were assigned to a control group and the other half were trained to identify aggressive and pro-social behaviors of their children, as well as their antecedents and consequences. During eight weekly sessions pa...

  2. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain......Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46...

  3. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  4. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  5. Duckling survival, fecundity, and habitat selection of mottled duck broods on the upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the western Gulf Coast have exhibited a steep population decline since the mid 1990s. Low rates of breeding incidence and nest success have been implicated in this decline, but duckling survival and the habitat needs of broods have not been previously investigated in this region. We fitted mottled duck ducklings and adult females with radio transmitters and tracked broods to estimate duckling survival and brood habitat selection on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Duckling survival to 30 days was high (range among models 0.354–0.567) compared to other dabbling duck species. Estimated fecundity was low, (range among models 0.398–0.634) however, indicating that overall reproductive output is low. Within coastal marsh, broods selected home ranges with more water cover and less upland and fresh marsh landcover than was available in the study area. Within coastal marsh home ranges, broods selected for water cover relative to other landcover types, and there was some evidence that broods avoided unvegetated landcover. Although high quality brood habitat is undeniably important, management efforts to increase mottled duck population growth on the western Gulf Coast may best be spent on increasing nesting habitat quality to increase nest success and breeding incidence.

  6. Morphology of brood pouch formation in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Okubo, Ryohei; Harada, Akari; Miyasaka, Kazuki; Takada, Kensuke; Hiroi, Junya; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structure called a 'brood pouch'. The brood pouch is formed along the ventral midline of the tail. The lumen of the brood pouch is surrounded by loose connective tissue, called pseudoplacenta, and dermis. We visualized and evaluated the morphology of brood pouch formation in Hippocampus abdominalis to gain generalizable insights into this process in seahorses. First, we employed several staining methods to characterize the pseudoplacenta and dermis of the brood pouch of mature male seahorses. The pseudoplacenta is composed mainly of reticular fibers, while the dermis is composed mainly of collagenous fibers. Further observations showed that pouch formation is initiated by linear projections of epithelia on both ventrolateral sides of the body. These projections elongated toward the ventral midline, eventually fused together, and then formed a baggy structure composed of a single dermis layer with neither smooth muscle nor pseudoplacenta. Finally, the pseudoplacenta was formed, together with two layers of dermis and smooth muscle. Thus, a fully developed brood pouch was established. The morphology of the luminal epithelium also changed during pouch formation. We analyzed the localization of C-type lectins as markers; haCTL II was localized in both the outer and luminal epithelia of the brood pouch throughout development in the male seahorse, whereas haCTL IV, which was not detected in the early stage of seahorse development, became localized only in the luminal epithelium as development proceeded. We categorized the processes of brood pouch formation during male seahorse development into three stages: (1) the early stage, characterized by formation of a baggy structure from the primordium; (2) the middle stage, characterized by the differentiation and establishment of

  7. Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C; Feeney, William E; Hauber, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Following nest destruction, the laying of physiologically committed eggs (eggs that are ovulated, yolked, and making their way through the oviduct) in the nests of other birds is considered a viable pathway for the evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism. While intraspecific brood parasitism in response to nest predation has been experimentally demonstrated, this pathway has yet to be evaluated in an interspecific context. We studied patterns of egg laying following experimental nest destruction in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a frequent intraspecific brood parasite. We found that zebra finches laid physiologically committed eggs indiscriminately between nests containing conspecific eggs and nests containing heterospecific eggs (of Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata vars. domestica), despite the con- and heterospecific eggs differing in both size and coloration. This is the first experimental evidence that nest destruction may provide a pathway for the evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds.

  8. The influence of brood on the pollen consumption of worker bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrassnigg, Norbert; Crailsheim, Karl

    1998-05-01

    (1) In midgut dry weight (tissue plus contents) of worker bees we found a representative parameter for pollen consumption. Midguts of bees of successive ages were analyzed and correlated with various parameters. The relative proportions of sugar, protein and water were either constant or negatively correlated with midgut weight. Only the relative pollen weight (percent of midgut dry weight) increased. (2) To investigate the influence of different levels of brood on pollen consumption of individual bees, midgut dry weights from 2 normally breeding control colonies and 2 brood-reduced experimental colonies were analyzed. In bees from control colonies the pollen consumption increased up to the nursing age (3-10d), remained on an elevated level in middle-aged-bees (10-18d) and decreased relatively sharply towards the foraging ages (>21d). When queens were caged in the experimental colonies, the following decline of brood cells affected the consumption of pollen differently. After 6 days of caging, with a reduction of open brood only, no effect was seen. After 15 days, and even more pronounced after 23 days when no brood was present, the pollen consumption in young and middle-aged (10, 14, 18d) worker bees was significantly reduced, while it was clearly elevated in older bees. We discuss pollen consumption as an adaptation to reduced necessity to nurse brood in young and middle-aged bees, and to enhance life span in older animals.

  9. Mobbing and sitting tight at the nest as methods of avoiding brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A

    2012-04-06

    The arms race between brood parasites and their hosts has led to many different host behaviours for avoiding parasitism. Some of these behaviours are social, and require the presence of conspecifics to work effectively: in response to alarm calls, some species engage in mobbing behaviour where neighbours join nest tenants in attacking and repelling an invading brood parasite. There are risks involved for the neighbours, but it has been demonstrated that social mobbing allows individuals to learn about the presence of brood parasites in the environment, suggesting that social learning is occurring. Here, I consider whether using social signals to alert naive individuals to the presence of brood parasites is a suitable strategy, compared with sitting tight on the nest in response to the signal (which should reduce the chances of being parasitized). I also compare the efficiency of these strategies with the case where individuals fail to change behaviour in response a brood parasite. Using an individual-based simulation model, I demonstrate that both mobbing and sitting tight are effective strategies in response to a signal, and that mobbing is more effective when the chances of being parasitized increase. These results are discussed and compared with known host-brood parasite relationships.

  10. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  11. Parental rearing and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.

  12. Ecological factors regulating brood attendance patterns of the western sandpiper calidris mauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; Keller, J.N.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Parental brood attendance patterns vary greatly among shorebird species. For monogamous calidridine species, biparental care with female-first brood departure is most common. It is believed that adult sandpipers balance potential individual survival costs associated with extended parental care against the benefit gained by their brood of prolonged parental care. These costs and benefits are difficult to quantify and factors affecting the termination of parental brood attendance are unclear. We compared clutch size, nesting phenology, and parental attendance patterns of Western Sandpipers Calidris mauri at Nome and Kanaryarmiut, Alaska, sites separated by three degrees of latitude. The sites differed in breeding density and duration of breeding season, but the distribution of clutch sizes did not differ between sites or between nesting attempts. Parental attendance patterns were similar between sites, suggesting that parental attendance is a highly conserved life-history trait in Western Sandpipers. Male Western Sandpipers attended broods longer than females, and the duration of parental attendance decreased at a similar rate for both sexes as the season progressed. Male and female Western Sandpipers undertake differential migrations to their non-breeding grounds, with males typically settling at more northerly locations and females at more southerly sites, a migration pattern shared by certain other monogamous calidridine species. These same species exhibit similar parental brood attendance patterns, suggesting the strong role of overall migration distance in shaping the expression of parental attendance behaviours. A contrast of more geographically disjunct sites coupled with a better understanding of the migratory connectivity between Western Sandpiper breeding and non-breeding populations would elucidate the role of cross-seasonal effects on parental brood attendance decisions. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  13. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  14. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  15. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  16. Reconhecimento da prole por operárias companheiras e não companheiras de ninho em Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Brood recognition by workers of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danival José de Souza

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de discriminação de formas jovens de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus por operárias adultas da mesma subespécie. Eram oferecidas, na área de forrageamento, larvas e pupas companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, sendo quantificado o comportamento frente a essas formas jovens. Foram utilizadas colônias oriundas do município de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil, mantidas em condições de laboratório. Os resultados evidenciaram que essa subespécie não é capaz de discriminar formas jovens companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, ou seja, transportaram indiscriminadamente as formas jovens oferecidas para o interior do ninho. Também não se observou diferença significativa para o tempo de resposta de aceitação de prole companheira e não companheira de ninho.This study investigated the behavioral response (acception or rejection of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus to their brood and to brood from different colonies of this subespecies. The four colonies used in the bioassays came from Paraopeba, MG, Brazil. Workers accepted either brood from their colonies or from different colonies. There was no significant difference on the time for brood acceptance (transport to the interior of the nest among nestmates and non-nestmates.

  17. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D

    2012-07-01

    Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort.

  18. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  19. Influence of maternal depression on children's brooding rumination: Moderation by CRHR1 TAT haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Mary L; Kudinova, Anastacia Y; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Palmer, Rohan H C; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that brooding rumination plays a key role in the intergenerational transmission of major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be an endophenotype for depression risk. However, less is known about the mechanisms underlying this role. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine levels of brooding in children of mothers with a history of MDD (n = 129) compared to children of never depressed mothers (n = 126) and to determine whether the variation in a gene known to influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning--corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1)--would moderate the link between maternal MDD and children's levels of brooding. We predicted children of mothers with a history of MDD would exhibit higher levels of brooding than children of mothers with no lifetime depression history but that this link would be stronger among children carrying no copies of the protective CRHR1 TAT haplotype. Our results supported these hypotheses and suggest that the development of brooding among children of depressed mothers, particularly children without the protective CRHR1 haplotype, may serve as an important mechanism of risk for the intergenerational transmission of depression.

  20. The Effect of Open Brood and Colony Strength on the Onset of Oviposition by Queen Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąbka Jakub

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In bee colonies without open brood, e.g., after swarming, there is no need for royal jelly, and nurse bees thus do not produce it. According to many beekeepers, adding combs with open brood restarts the production of royal jelly by nurse bees, and the virgin queens then are better fed and start earlier oviposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of open brood and the strength of the colonies affect the onset of oviposition by queen bees. Open brood in colonies with virgins before and during mating flights did not accelerate the initiation of oviposition by the queens. In addition, no differences were identified in starting oviposition by queens in strong colonies of more than 30,000 worker bees, or in weak colonies with up to 1,000 workers. Overall, the results showed that neither open brood in the nests, nor the strength of the colonies affects the onset of oviposition by queen bees.

  1. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter “Snow Geese”) and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese.

  2. Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L M; Hart, A G; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-05-19

    Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both species detected and removed dead brood. However, removal rates differed between species. In M. beecheii colonies, workers took 2-9 days to remove 100% of the dead brood (4.4 +/- 2.0 days, mean +/- SD), while S. pectoralis removed all dead brood in less than 3 days (2.3 +/- 0.6 days, mean +/- SD). We conclude that hygienic behavior is not unique to A. mellifera, and is not solely an adaptation for the reuse of brood cells as occurs in honey bees but not stingless bees. Although stingless bees do not reuse brood cells, space is limited. The removal of dead brood may be necessary to allow new cells to be constructed in the same place.

  3. Using sightability-adjusted brood-pair ratios to estimate waterfowl productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Pieron, Matthew R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kimmel, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, biologists used brood-pair ratios (BPRs) as an index to waterfowl productivity to help guide management decisions and evaluate conservation practices. However, BPRs are biased by imperfect detection probabilities, especially for broods. We conducted roadside surveys for breeding waterfowl pairs on 7–8 study sites in the springs of 2006–2008 in northeastern North Dakota, USA. Later each year, we conducted replicate counts of broods on the same wetlands and used mark–recapture methods to estimate sightability-adjusted BPRs (SA-BPRs). Traditional roadside brood surveys detected only 30–45% of the available broods, depending on species. We explored the potential for using SA-BPRs to measure hen success (i.e., the probability a female hatches ≥1 egg across all nesting attempts) for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other upland-nesting dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). We found that SA-BPRs explained 40% of the variation in hen success over 5 species of dabbling ducks, and we were able to detect an effect of predator reduction on hen success in combined dabblers, but not in mallards alone. However, we found no relationship between SA-BPRs and mallard fledging rates (hen success × initial brood size × duckling survival). Our results suggest that SA-BPRs can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional measures of productivity such as nesting success, but not to measures of duckling survival. Nevertheless, SA-BPRs may be useful in areas where traditional measures of waterfowl productivity are logistically or financially challenging.

  4. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development rate and brood production in haplo- and pleometrotic colonies of Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim; Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2012-01-01

    Pleometrosis (colony founding by multiple queens) may improve life history characteristics that are important for early colony survival. When queens unite their initial brood, the number of workers present when incipient colonies open may be higher than for single queen colonies. Further, the time...... until the first worker emerges may shorten. For territorial species and species that rob brood from neighbouring colonies, a faster production of more workers may improve the chance of surviving intraspecific competition. In this study, the time from the nuptial flight to the emergence of the first...

  6. First record of invasive Burmese Python oviposition and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslowe, Emma; Falk, Bryan; Collier, Michelle A. M.; Josimovich, Jillian; Rahill, Thomas; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discovered an adult female Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) coiled around a clutch of 25 eggs in a cement culvert in Flamingo, FL, in Everglades National Park. To our knowledge, this is the first record of an invasive Burmese Python laying eggs and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure in Florida. A 92% hatch-success rate suggests that the cement culvert provided suitable conditions for oviposition, embryonic development, and hatching. Given the plenitude of such anthropogenic structures across the landscape, available sites for oviposition and brooding may not be limiting for the invasive Burmese Python population.

  7. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  8. GROWTH OF CORMORANT PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS CHICKS IN RELATION TO BROOD SIZE, AGE RANKING AND PARENTAL FISHING EFFORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; KOFFIJBERG, K; DUBBELDAM, W

    1995-01-01

    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  9. Varying congruence of hygienic responses to Varroa destructor and freeze-killed brood among different types of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., have been selectively bred for enhanced hygiene (i.e., removal of affected brood from sealed cells) to improve resistance to diseases and parasites. Bees selected for removal of freeze-killed brood (FKB) have protection from several microbial disease...

  10. Crime and Child-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Byron M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the notion that heredity plays a powerful role in criminal behavior, including genetic evidence that can allow for antisocial behavior. Reviews suggestions for reversing rising crime rates in light of the hereditary connection, policy development, family cohesion, and child raising. (GR)

  11. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Tahamtani

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03. Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10. There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000, with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52% compared to cage birds (2.48%. The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  12. Eggshell strength of an obligate brood parasite: a test of the puncture resistance hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonov, A.; Stokke, B. G.; Moksnes, A.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Roskaft, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-18 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:Research Council of Norway(NO) 151641/432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * eggshell thickness * puncture resistance * Acrocephalus * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  13. Automatic Observer Script for StarCraft: Brood War Bot Games (technical report)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Björn Persson; Vajda, Tomáš; Čertický, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This short report describes an automated BWAPI-based script developed for live streams of a StarCraft Brood War bot tournament, SSCAIT. The script controls the in-game camera in order to follow the relevant events and improve the viewer experience. We enumerate its novel features and provide a few implementation notes.

  14. Short Note Brood parasitism in the Green-backed Heron ( Butorides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Note Brood parasitism in the Green-backed Heron (Butorides striatus). R Yosef, P Zduniak. Abstract. Ostrich 2005, 76(1&2): 78–79. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/00306520509485476 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Tests of landscape influence: nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Tewksbury; Lindy Garner; Shannon H. Garner; John D. Lloyd; Victoria A. Saab; Thomas E. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked...

  16. Repeatability of measurements of removal of mite-infested brood to assess Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa Sensitive Hygiene is a useful resistance trait that bee breeders could increase in different populations with cost-effective and reliable tests. We investigated the reliability of a one-week test estimating the changes in infestation of brood introduced into highly selected and unselected co...

  17. Breeding success of a brood parasite is associated with social mating status of its host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Prokop, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2012), s. 1187-1194 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * great reed warbler * polygyny * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2012

  18. SEASONAL-VARIATION IN THE SEX-RATIO OF MARSH HARRIER CIRCUS-AERUGINOSUS BROODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, M; DAAN, S; BRUINENBERGRINSMA, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Analysis of the sexes of 2260 nestlings in 735 marsh harrier broods revealed an overall excess [sex ratio (SR) = 54.8%] of males, and a significant increase in the proportion of males with progressive laying date (d = day of the year): In [SR/(1-SR)] = -1.286 + 0.013 d. 2. We argue that it is

  19. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Consistency in egg rejection behaviour: responses to repeated brood parasitism in the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Tkadlec, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2007), s. 344-351 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * blackcap Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2007

  1. Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Naomi E; Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2003-03-13

    Cuckoo nestlings that evict all other young from the nest soon after hatching impose a high reproductive cost on their hosts. In defence, hosts have coevolved strategies to prevent brood parasitism. Puzzlingly, they do not extend beyond the egg stage. Thus, hosts adept at recognizing foreign eggs remain vulnerable to exploitation by cuckoo nestlings. Here we show that the breach of host egg defences by cuckoos creates a new stage in the coevolutionary cycle. We found that defences used during the egg-laying period by host superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) are easily evaded by the Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis), a specialist fairy-wren brood parasite. However, although hosts never deserted their own broods, they later abandoned 40% of nests containing a lone Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo nestling, and 100% of nests with a lone shining bronze-cuckoo nestling (Chrysococcyx lucidus), an occasional fairy-wren brood parasite. Our experiments demonstrate that host discrimination against evictor-cuckoo nestlings is possible, and suggest that it has selected for the evolution of nestling mimicry in bronze-cuckoos.

  2. Brood parasitism and quasi-parasitism in the European barn swallow Hirundo rustica rustica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Adéla; Michálková, R.; Albrechtová, Jana; Cepák, J.; Honza, Marcel; Kreisinger, J.; Munclinger, P.; Soudková, M.; Tomášek, Oldřich; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 9 (2015), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Altricial birds * Colonial breeding * Conspecific brood parasitism * Egg dumping * Host fitness * Parasite fitness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2015

  3. Chemical defence in avian brood parasites: production and function of repulsive secretions in common cuckoo chicks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Čapek, Miroslav; Honza, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2016), s. 288-293 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * common cuckoo Cuculus canorus * malodorous secretion * nest predation * repellency Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  4. Conspecific brood parasitism and egg quality in blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Oscar; Kingma, Sjouke-Anne; Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Korsten, Peter; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Komdeur, Jan

    Laying eggs in nests of unrelated conspecific pairs to parasitize their parental care is a common phenomenon in birds. In blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus such conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) has never been reported in the literature. However, in a situation where breeding density was extremely

  5. Differences in behaviour and physiology between adult surrogate-reared and mother-reared Cynomolgous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to

  6. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C J; Meyer, Axel

    2003-06-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex

  7. Exposure to increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness and increases use of three-dimensional space in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors, would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160 were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80 in an aviary and the other half (n = 80 in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by ANOVA on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis (PCA. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds had lower levels of fearfulness, compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency towards a more active behavioral response in the aviary- than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform and upper perch compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens.

  8. Caps and gaps: a computer model for studies on brood incubation strategies in honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehler, Manuel; Kleinhenz, Marco; Klügl, Franziska; Puppe, Frank; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-08-01

    In addition to heat production on the comb surface, honeybee workers frequently visit open cells (“gaps”) that are scattered throughout the sealed brood area, and enter them to incubate adjacent brood cells. We examined the efficiency of this heating strategy under different environmental conditions and for gap proportions from 0 to 50%. For gap proportions from 4 to 10%, which are common to healthy colonies, we find a significant reduction in the incubation time per brood cell to maintain the correct temperature. The savings make up 18 to 37% of the time, which would be required for this task in completely sealed brood areas without any gaps. For unnatural high proportions of gaps (>20%), which may be the result of inbreeding or indicate a poor condition of the colony, brood nest thermoregulation becomes less efficient, and the incubation time per brood cell has to increase to maintain breeding temperature. Although the presence of gaps is not essential to maintain an optimal brood nest temperature, a small number of gaps make heating more economical by reducing the time and energy that must be spent on this vital task. As the benefit depends on the availability, spatial distribution and usage of gaps by the bees, further studies need to show the extent to which these results apply to real colonies.

  9. Experimental dissociation of individual quality, food and timing of breeding effects on double-brooding in a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erin L; Dawson, Russell D

    2013-07-01

    Annual reproductive success in many species is influenced by the number of breeding attempts within a season. Although previous studies have shown isolated effects of female quality, food, and timing of breeding on the probability of female birds producing second broods, to our knowledge, none have tested the relative importance of multiple factors and their interactions using simultaneous manipulations within populations of free-living birds. In this study, we show that individual quality and timing of breeding interact to affect the probability of double-brooding in female mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides). High-quality females (those that naturally initiated clutches early in the season) were more likely to double-brood, regardless of whether their hatching date was advanced or delayed, whereas later breeding, lower quality females were much less likely to double-brood when their first attempt was delayed. This indicates that annual fecundity of poorer quality (or younger) female bluebirds may be more sensitive to seasonal variation in environmental conditions. In addition, birds that were provided with supplemental food throughout first breeding attempts were more likely to double-brood in one of the study years, suggesting that female bluebirds may be energetically limited in their capacity to initiate a second brood. Females that had their first brood delayed also had a shorter inter-brood interval and were moulting fewer feathers during second broods compared to controls, while females in better condition showed more advanced moult in second breeding attempts. Taken together, our results demonstrate the combined effects of age- or individual quality-mediated energetic trade-offs between current and future reproduction, and between investments in offspring and self-maintenance, on annual fecundity of female birds.

  10. Wild jackdaws' reproductive success and their offspring's stress hormones are connected to provisioning rate and brood size, not to parental neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; Spencer, Karen A; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Many species show individual variation in neophobia and stress hormones, but the causes and consequences of this variation in the wild are unclear. Variation in neophobia levels could affect the number of offspring animals produce, and more subtly influence the rearing environment and offspring development. Nutritional deficits during development can elevate levels of stress hormones that trigger long-term effects on learning, memory, and survival. Therefore measuring offspring stress hormone levels, such as corticosterone (CORT), helps determine if parental neophobia influences the condition and developmental trajectory of young. As a highly neophobic species, jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are excellent for exploring the potential effects of parental neophobia on developing offspring. We investigated if neophobic responses, alongside known drivers of fitness, influence nest success and offspring hormone responses in wild breeding jackdaws. Despite its consistency across the breeding season, and suggestions in the literature that it should have importance for reproductive fitness, parental neophobia did not predict nest success, provisioning rates or offspring hormone levels. Instead, sibling competition and poor parental care contributed to natural variation in stress responses. Parents with lower provisioning rates fledged fewer chicks, chicks from larger broods had elevated baseline CORT levels, and chicks with later hatching dates showed higher stress-induced CORT levels. Since CORT levels may influence the expression of adult neophobia, variation in juvenile stress responses could explain the development and maintenance of neophobic variation within the adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do male and female cowbirds see their world differently? Implications for sex differences in the sensory system of an avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning of brown-headed cowbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception. Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.

  12. Prolonged Institutional Rearing Is Associated with Atypically Large Amygdala Volume and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Millner, Alexander; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter J.; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are…

  13. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Studies of Rat Behavior: Transient Motor Deficit in Skilled Reaching, Rears, and Activity in Rats After a Single Dose of MnCl

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    Mariam Alaverdashvili

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI has been suggested to be a useful tool to visualize and map behavior-relevant neural populations at large scale in freely behaving rodents. A primary concern in MEMRI applications is Mn 2+ toxicity. Although a few studies have specifically examined toxicity on gross motor behavior, Mn 2+ toxicity on skilled motor behavior was not explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to combine manganese as a functional contrast agent with comprehensive behavior evaluation. We evaluated Mn 2+ effect on skilled reach-to-eat action, locomotion, and balance using a single pellet reaching task, activity cage, and cylinder test, respectively. The tests used are sensitive to the pathophysiology of many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders of the motor system. The behavioral testing was done in combination with a moderate dose of manganese. Behavior was studied before and after a single, intravenous infusion of MnCl 2 (48 mg/kg. The rats were imaged at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days following infusion. The results show that MnCl 2 infusion resulted in detectable abnormalities in skilled reaching, locomotion, and balance that recovered within 3 days compared with the infusion of saline. Because some tests and behavioral measures could not detect motor abnormalities of skilled movements, comprehensive evaluation of motor behavior is critical in assessing the effects of MnCl 2 . The relaxation mapping results suggest that the transport of Mn 2+ into the brain is through the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system with the primary entry point and highest relaxation rates found in the pituitary gland. Relaxation rates in the pituitary gland correlated with measures of motor skill, suggesting that altered motor ability is related to the level of Mn circulating in the brain. Thus, combined MEMRI and behavioral studies that both achieve adequate image enhancement and are also free of motor skills deficits are

  14. Circatrigintan instead of lunar periodicity of larval release in a brooding coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Bart; Huisman, Jef; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2018-04-04

    Larval release by brooding corals is often assumed to display lunar periodicity. Here, we show that larval release of individual Stylophora pistillata colonies does not comply with the assumed tight entrainment by the lunar cycle, and can better be classified as a circatrigintan pattern. The colonies exhibited three distinct reproductive patterns, characterized by short intervals, long intervals and no periodicity between reproductive peaks, respectively. Cross correlation between the lunar cycle and larval release of the periodic colonies revealed an approximately 30-day periodicity with a variable lag of 5 to 10 days after full moon. The observed variability indicates that the lunar cycle does not provide a strict zeitgeber. Other factors such as water temperature and solar radiation did not correlate significantly with the larval release. The circatrigintan patterns displayed by S. pistillata supports the plasticity of corals and sheds new light on discussions on the fecundity of brooding coral species.

  15. Use of geostatistics on broiler production for evaluation of different minimum ventilation systems during brooding phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayla Morandi Ridolfi de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building; Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort.

  16. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  17. Flexible parents: joint effects of handicapping and brood size manipulation on female parental care in Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Tom; Smiseth, Per T

    2018-02-22

    Parental care is highly variable, reflecting that parents make flexible decisions in response to variation in the cost of care to themselves and the benefit to their offspring. Much of the evidence that parents respond to such variation derives from handicapping and brood size manipulations, the separate effects of which are well understood. However, little is known about their joint effects. Here, we fill this gap by conducting a joint handicapping and brood size manipulation in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We handicapped half of the females by attaching a lead weight to their pronotum, leaving the remaining females as controls. We also manipulated brood size by providing each female with 5, 20 or 40 larvae. In contrast to what we predicted, handicapped females spent more time provisioning food than controls. We also found that handicapped females spent more time consuming carrion. Furthermore, handicapped females spent a similar amount of time consuming carrion regardless of brood size, whereas controls spent more time consuming carrion as brood increased. Females spent more time provisioning food towards larger broods, and females were more likely to engage in carrion consumption when caring for larger broods. We conclude that females respond to both handicapping and brood size manipulations, but these responses are largely independent of each other. Overall, our results suggest that handicapping might lead to a higher investment into current reproduction and that it might be associated with compensatory responses that negate the detrimental impact of higher cost of care in handicapped parents. © 2018 Crown copyright. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland. Note: some government agencies may require additional wording and acknowledgement.

  18. The internal-brooding apparatus in the bryozoan genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata: Calloporidae) and its inferred homology to ovicells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-12-01

    We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. spinifer, C. cryptoarmatus, and C. niger. These species all have a brood sac, formed by invagination of the non-calcified distal body wall of the maternal zooid, located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, and a vestigial, maternally budded kenozooidal ooecium. The brood sac comprises a main chamber and a long passage (neck) opening externally independently of the introvert. The non-calcified portion of the maternal distal wall between the neck and tip of the zooidal operculum is involved in closing and opening the brood sac, and contains both musculature and a reduced sclerite that suggest homology with the ooecial vesicle of a hyperstomial ovicell. We interpret the brooding apparatus in Cauloramphus as a highly modified form of cheilostome hyperstomial ovicell, as both types share 1) a brood chamber bounded by 2) the ooecium and 3) a component of the distal wall of the maternal zooid. We discuss Cauloramphus as a hypothetical penultimate stage in ovicell reduction in calloporid bryozoans. We suggest that the internal-brooding genus Gontarella, of uncertain taxonomic affinities, is actually a calloporid and represents the ultimate stage in which no trace of the ooecium remains. Internal brooding apparently evolved several times independently within the Calloporidae.

  19. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  20. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  1. Increased host tolerance of multiple cuckoo eggs leads to higher fledging success of the brood parasite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moskát, C.; Hauber, M. E.; Avilés, J. M.; Bán, M.; Hargitai, R.; Honza, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2009), s. 1281-1290 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Grant - others:OTKA(HU) 48397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * common cuckoo * egg recognition * egg rejection * evictor chick * mimicry * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2009

  2. Brood parasite and host eggshells undergo similar levels of decalcification during embryonic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Igic, B.; Hauber, M. E.; Moskát, C.; Grim, T.; Shawkey, M. D.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2017), s. 165-173 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * decalcification * eggshell thickness * embryonic development * common cuckoo * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2016

  3. Comparative anatomical study of internal brooding in three anascan bryozoans (Cheilostomata) and its taxonomic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Grischenko, Andrei V; Taylor, Paul D; Bock, Phil; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2006-06-01

    The anatomical structure of internal sacs for embryonic incubation was studied using SEM and light microscopy in three cheilostome bryozoans-Nematoflustra flagellata (Waters,1904), Gontarella sp., and Biflustra perfragilis MacGillivray, 1881. In all these species the brood sac is located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, being a conspicuous invagination of the body wall. It consists of the main chamber and a passage (neck) to the outside that opens independently of the introvert. There are several groups of muscles attached to the thin walls of the brood sac and possibly expanding it during oviposition and larval release. Polypide recycling begins after oviposition in Gontarella sp., and the new polypide bud is formed by the beginning of incubation. Similarly, polypides in brooding zooids degenerate in N. flagellata and, sometimes, in B. perfragilis. In the evolution of brood chambers in the Cheilostomata, such internal sacs for embryonic incubation are considered a final step, being the result of immersion of the brooding cavity into the maternal zooid and reduction of the protecting fold (ooecium). Possible reasons for this transformation are discussed, and the hypothesis of Santagata and Banta (Santagata and Banta1996) that internal brooding evolved prior to incubation in ovicells is rejected. J. Morphol. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Low-Temperature Stress during Capped Brood Stage Increases Pupal Mortality, Misorientation and Adult Mortality in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Xu, Xinjian; Zhu, Xiangjie; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Shujing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zhou, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are key pollinators, playing a vital role in ecosystem maintenance and stability of crop yields. Recently, reduced honey bee survival has attracted intensive attention. Among all other honey bee stresses, temperature is a fundamental ecological factor that has been shown to affect honey bee survival. Yet, the impact of low temperature stress during capped brood on brood mortality has not been systematically investigated. In addition, little was known about how low temperature exposure during capped brood affects subsequent adult longevity. In this study, capped worker broods at 12 different developmental stages were exposed to 20°C for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours, followed by incubation at 35°C until emergence. We found that longer durations of low temperature during capped brood led to higher mortality, higher incidences of misorientation inside cells and shorter worker longevity. Capped brood as prepupae and near emergence were more sensitive to low-temperature exposure, while capped larvae and mid-pupal stages showed the highest resistance to low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that prepupae and pupae prior to eclosion are the most sensitive stages to low temperature stress, as they are to other stresses, presumably due to many physiological changes related to metamorphosis happening during these two stages. Understanding how low-temperature stress affects honey bee physiology and longevity can improve honey bee management strategies. PMID:27149383

  5. E-β-ocimene, a volatile brood pheromone involved in social regulation in the honey bee colony (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Maisonnasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In honey bee colony, the brood is able to manipulate and chemically control the workers in order to sustain their own development. A brood ester pheromone produced primarily by old larvae (4 and 5 days old larvae was first identified as acting as a contact pheromone with specific effects on nurses in the colony. More recently a new volatile brood pheromone has been identified: E-β-ocimene, which partially inhibits ovary development in workers. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: Our analysis of E-β-ocimene production revealed that young brood (newly hatched to 3 days old produce the highest quantity of E-β-ocimene relative to their body weight. By testing the potential action of this molecule as a non-specific larval signal, due to its high volatility in the colony, we demonstrated that in the presence of E-β-ocimene nest workers start to forage earlier in life, as seen in the presence of real brood. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this way, young larvae are able to assign precedence to the task of foraging by workers in order to increase food stores for their own development. Thus, in the complexity of honey bee chemical communication, E-β-ocimene, a pheromone of young larvae, provides the brood with the means to express their nutritional needs to the workers.

  6. A comparison of the hygienic response of Africanized and European (Apis mellifera carnica honey bees to Varroa-infested brood in tropical Brazil

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    Pia Aumeier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the significance of hygienic behavior for the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized honey bees, they were compared with non-tolerant Carniolans in tropical Brazil. Capped worker brood cells were artificially infested with living Varroa mites, and inspected some days later. Uncapping, disappearance of the introduced mite and removal of the pupa were recorded in a total of manipulated 3,096 cells during three summer seasons. The hygienic response varied between Africanized and Carniolan colonies, but this difference was significant only in one year, during which Africanized honey bees removed a significantly greater proportion of Varroa mites than European honey bees. A high proportion of the mites disappeared from artificially infested brood cells without damage to the pupae. The opening of the cell and the removal of the bee brood are independent traits of a graded response by adult workers towards mite-infested brood cells. We found a higher between-colony variation in the reaction towards Varroa-infested brood of Africanized honey bees compared to Carniolans. The overall similar response of the two bee types indicates that hygienic behavior is not a key factor in the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized bees in Brazil.Com o intuito de examinar o significado do comportamento higiênico na tolerância à varroose de abelhas africanizadas, elas foram comparadas com as não tolerantes Cárnicas no Brasil tropical. Células de cria de operárias operculadas foram artificialmente infestadas com ácaros Varroa vivos e inspecionadas alguns dias depois. Desoperculação, desaparecimento dos ácaros introduzidos e remoção da pupa foram anotados em um total de 3096 células manipuladas durante três verões. A resposta higiênica variou entre as colônias africanizadas e de Cárnicas, mas esta diferença foi significante apenas em um ano, durante o qual as abelhas africanizadas removeram uma proporção significantemente maior de

  7. Maternal androgens in avian brood parasites and their hosts: responses to parasitism and competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Wingfield, John C.; Fox, David M.; Walker, Brian G.; Thomley, Jill E

    2017-01-01

    In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring. We hypothesized that elevated maternal androgens in host eggs are a defense against brood parasitism. Our second hypothesis was that elevated maternal androgens in cowbird eggs are a defense against intra-specific competition. For host species, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with parasitized nests of small species, those whose nest success is most reduced by cowbird parasitism. For cowbirds, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with eggs in multiply-parasitized nests, which indicate intra-specific competition for nests due to high cowbird density. We propose experimental work to further examine the use of maternal effects by cowbirds and their hosts.

  8. Rumination in migraine: Mediating effects of brooding and reflection between migraine and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Results: Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Conclusions: Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine. PMID:27616579

  9. Expression and Activity of Lysozyme in Apis Mellifera Carnica Brood Infested with Varroa Destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaobidna Ewa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite that attacks the honey bee, and previous studies have suggested that parasitosis caused by this mite is accompanied by immunosuppresion in the host. In this study, the effect of mite infestation on the expression of the lysozyme-1 (lys-1 gene and lysozyme activity in Apis mellifera carnica was determined. The experiment was carried out on the five developmental stages of honey bee workers and drones. Developmental and gender-related differences in gene expression and lysozyme activity were observed in a Varroa destructor-infested brood. The relative expression of the lys-1 gene increased in a infested worker brood and decreased in a drone brood except for P3 pupae. In the final stage of development, the lys-1 gene expression was significantly lower in infested newly emerged workers and drones. Changes in the relative expression of the lys-1 gene in infested individuals was poorly manifested at the level of enzyme activity, whereas at the two final stages of development (P5 and I there was a positive correlation between relative lys-1 expression and lysozyme activity in infested bees of both genders (r=0.988, r=0.999, respectively. The results of this study indicate that V. destructor influences the lysozyme-linked immune response in bees.

  10. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-12-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet undescribed Chikunia sp. Females defended territories and did not engage in cooperative prey capture, but interestingly, both species seemed to provide extended maternal care of young and indiscriminate care for foreign brood. Future studies may reveal whether these species adopt only intra-specific young, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption.

  11. The Antarctic holothurian genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990 (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae): brood pouches, spermatozoa, spermatozeugmata and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jens Michael; Heß, Martin

    2014-07-29

    An examination of seven Antarctic brooding cucumariid and psolid holothurian species revealed a variety of characters all of them have in common: (1) All are gonochoric. (2) A genital papilla is present on the oral disc (permanent and digitiform in males). (3) Females brood their offspring in five anterior interradial brood pouches that are situated at the transition of body to introvert. (4) Multiple spermatozoa are always bundled to bunch-like spermato-zeugmata. (5) The spermatozoa have a fusiform head and a hollow cylinder-like mid-piece encircling the anterior end of the flagellum. This combination of characters so far is unique, and indicates a close relationship based on common origin. As a consequence, we unite all species sharing this set of synapomorphies in the genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990. The herewith included species are: E. acanthocola Gutt, 1990, E. acutus (Massin, 1992) comb. nov., E. charcoti (Vaney, 1906) comb. nov., E. koehleri (Vaney, 1914) comb. nov., E. mollis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) comb. nov., E. parvipes Massin, 1992 and E. splendidus (Gutt, 1990) comb. nov.. Because the current assignment of Echinopsolus to the family Psolidae can not be retained, the genus is tranferred to the family Cucumariidae, as relationships to taxa within this family are obvious. The peculiar spermatozoa and spermato-zeugmata of all Echinopsolus species are described using light- and electron-microscopical techniques and the results are evaluated and discussed concerning their taxonomy and phylogeny. 

  12. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  13. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  14. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  15. Effect of Brood Pheromone on Survival and Nutrient Intake of African Honey Bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démares, Fabien J; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Nicolson, Susan W; Pirk, Christian W W

    2017-05-01

    The influence of pheromones on insect physiology and behavior has been thoroughly reported for numerous aspects, such as attraction, gland development, aggregation, mate and kin recognition. Brood pheromone (BP) is released by honey bee larvae to indicate their protein requirements to the colony. Although BP is known to modulate pollen and protein consumption, which in turn can affect physiological and morphological parameters, such as hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development and ovarian activation, few studies have focused on the effect of BP on nutritional balance. In this study, we exposed newly emerged worker bees for 14 d and found that BP exposure increased protein intake during the first few days, with a peak in consumption at day four following exposure. BP exposure decreased survival of caged honey bees, but did not affect either the size of the HPG acini or ovarian activation stage. The uncoupling of the BP releaser effect, facilitated by working under controlled conditions, and the presence of larvae as stimulating cues are discussed.

  16. Parental energy expenditure during brood rearing in the Great Tit (Parus major) in relation to body mass, temperature, food availability and clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Dietz, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    1. Quantification of the energetic needs of reproducing animals provides a basis for understanding patterns in reproduction. The doubly labelled water technique enables this to be carried out under natural conditions. 2. Daily energy expenditure of 32 female Great Tits (Parus major) tending

  17. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  18. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  19. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  20. Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Members of the family Syngnathidae share a unique reproductive mode termed male pregnancy. Males carry eggs in specialised brooding structures for several weeks and release free-swimming offspring. Here we describe a systematic investigation of pre-release development in syngnathid fishes, reviewing available data for 17 species distributed across the family. This work is complemented by in-depth examinations of the straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion, the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, and the potbellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Results We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods – early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile – which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy. Conclusions Our classification is derived from examinations of species representing the full range of brooding-structure complexity found in the Syngnathidae, including tail-brooding as well as trunk-brooding species, which represent independent evolutionary lineages. We chose conspicuous common traits as diagnostic features of stages to allow for rapid and consistent staging of embryos and larvae across the entire family. In view of the growing interest in the biology of the Syngnathidae, we believe that the classification proposed here will prove useful for a wide range of studies on the unique reproductive biology of these male-brooding fish. PMID:23273265

  1. Brood division in birds in relation to offspring size: sibling rivalry and parental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold

    1997-12-01

    In some altricial birds with biparental care, it is the female, and in others the male, that provides more food to the smallest offspring within the brood. Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for such puzzling patterns of parental care. A parsimonious explanation is that no difference exists between the parents in priority of care but that differences arise simply from sibling rivalry, with dominant chicks trying to position themselves closest to the parent that provides most care (the sibling rivalry hypothesis). A refinement of the idea is that parents use the way they approach the chicks to counter selfish offspring and in this way control allocation of care (the parental approaching hypothesis). A comparison across species suggested that female care of the smallest chick within a brood is the ancestral and most common pattern. However, strong variation exists within single populations. In one species, the American robin, Turdus migratorius the sibling rivalry hypothesis and the parental approaching hypothesis were both supported because in broods where males provided more care than females, the largest chick was predominantly fed by the male whereas the smallest chick was predominantly fed by the female. When the male provided less care than the female, an opposite result was found. The same patterns of allocation of care also seemed to exist when chicks were quite immobile just after having left the nest and when their positions were experimentally controlled, suggesting parental control.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  2. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Morren, Mattijn; Moorman, Lidwine

    2004-09-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors; and (c) two scales assessing anger and hostility. Self-reported attachment style was related to anger/hostility. That is, adolescents who defined themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of anger/hostility than adolescents who classified themselves as securely attached. Furthermore, perceived parental rearing was also related to anger/hostility. More specifically, low levels of emotional warmth and high levels of rejection, control, and inconsistency were accompanied by high levels of anger/hostility. Finally, regression analyses showed that both attachment status and parental rearing behaviors accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in anger/hostility. These findings are in keeping with the notion that family environment factors such as attachment style and parental rearing are involved in the development of anger/hostility in youths.

  3. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    , aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet...... as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance...

  4. Habitat edge, land management, and rates of brood parasitism in tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Michael A; Shochat, Eyal; Reinking, Dan L; Wolfe, Donald H; Sherrod, Steve K

    2006-04-01

    Bird populations in North America's grasslands have declined sharply in recent decades. These declines are traceable, in large part, to habitat loss, but management of tallgrass prairie also has an impact. An indirect source of decline potentially associated with management is brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), which has had substantial negative impacts on many passerine hosts. Using a novel application of regression trees, we analyzed an extensive five-year set of nest data to test how management of tallgrass prairie affected rates of brood parasitism. We examined seven landscape features that may have been associated with parasitism: presence of edge, burning, or grazing, and distance of the nest from woody vegetation, water, roads, or fences. All five grassland passerines that we included in the analyses exhibited evidence of an edge effect: the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's Sparrow (A. henslowii), Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). The edge was represented by narrow strips of woody vegetation occurring along roadsides cut through tallgrass prairie. The sparrows avoided nesting along these woody edges, whereas the other three species experienced significantly higher (1.9-5.3x) rates of parasitism along edges than in prairie. The edge effect could be related directly to increase in parasitism rate with decreased distance from woody vegetation. After accounting for edge effect in these three species, we found evidence for significantly higher (2.5-10.5x) rates of parasitism in grazed plots, particularly those burned in spring to increase forage, than in undisturbed prairie. Regression tree analysis proved to be an important tool for hierarchically parsing various landscape features that affect parasitism rates. We conclude that, on the Great Plains, rates of brood parasitism are strongly associated with relatively recent road cuts

  5. Analysis of piscicultural-biological results of works with Russian sturgeon brood fish at the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kononenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of world stocks of sturgeons is on the edge of catastrophe. These species are either extinct or under threat of extinction under human impacts. At the same time, there are enterprises, fish hatcheries, which deal with restoration and replenishment of natural stocks with of endangered fish species. One of such hatcheries is the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russian Federation. The aim of the study was an analysis of piscicultural-biological features of the Russian sturgeon brood fish. During the study, which was conducted in April–May 2011, 34 Russian sturgeon females were used in two rounds, 17 individuals each. For stimulating gametes maturation, the Derzhavin’s physiological method was used. Caviar was obtained by stripping the eggs under strict hygienic and sanitary norms. Eggs fertilization with the semi-dry method used the male milt that bought at the “Raskat” LLC. Egg stickiness elimination was performed with the aid of talc and apparatuses for the egg stickiness elimination. Eggs incubation was performed in the “Osetr” apparatuses until yolk-sac larvae hatching. The domesticated fish were subjected to bonitation for determining their readiness for spawning. As a result of this bonitation, the brood fish were separated into two groups: first round of rearing works: females with mean weight of 34.8 kg and age of 9 years; second round: females with mean weight of 32.3 kg and the same age. Among injected females of the first round, 100% positive reaction for the stimulating injection was observed, but 95% – among females of the second round. Maturation time of females of both rounds varied from 25 to 30 hours. The maturation state of gametes of sturgeon females or males was determined based on samples obtained. 90.2 kg of eggs were obtained from females of the first round. At the same time, the maximum quantity was observed in the female of 50.5 kg – 9.2 kg of caviar, and the least quantity

  6. Development of a rear wall for the KATRIN rear section and investigation of tritium compatibility of rear section components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Kerstin

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  7. Development of a Rear Wall for the KATRIN Rear Section and investigation of tritium compatibility of Rear Section components

    OpenAIRE

    Schönung, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c2 (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  8. Regulation of breeding behavior: do energy-demanding periods induce a change in prolactin or corticosterone baseline levels in the common tern (Sterna hirundo)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Hormones are involved in reproductive decisions, linking environmental cues and body condition and adapting behavior. Mass loss is often accompanied by decreased prolactin and increased corticosterone concentrations, influencing incubation and brooding behavior and ultimately triggering nest desertion. Using blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima), we measured baseline prolactin, corticosterone, and ketone body values in incubating common terns (Sterna hirundo) between 2006 and 2009 during energy-demanding periods: 50 pairs were sampled hungry (after an incubation bout) and again fed (after foraging). In a second approach, we sampled 57 other pairs (experienced and inexperienced birds) three times over their individual breeding period, because reproduction, especially chick rearing, is a very energy-demanding process. In line with the common physiological pattern of fasting, we found significantly lower baseline prolactin values in hungry terns, which were negatively related to mass loss over the incubation bout, whereas corticosterone and ketone body levels were marginally increased. Compared to that in the incubation phase, the prolactin level dropped after hatching of chicks in inexperienced birds, perhaps indicating lower parental expenditure. Corticosterone, on the other hand, increased after hatching in males, probably linked to higher foraging activity, as males mainly deliver food during the first days. These energy-demanding periods clearly influenced hormones and ketone bodies, maybe reinforced by the low energy margin of this small seabird species, but energy reserves were not depleted to a level affecting behavior or reproductive success.

  9. A test of the nest sanitation hypothesis for the evolution of foreign egg rejection in an avian brood parasite rejecter host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luro, Alec B; Hauber, Mark E

    2017-04-01

    Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved diverse defenses to avoid the costs associated with raising brood parasite nestlings. In egg ejection, the host recognizes and removes foreign eggs laid in its nest. Nest sanitation, a behavior similar in motor pattern to egg ejection, has been proposed repeatedly as a potential pre-adaptation to egg ejection. Here, we separately placed blue 3D-printed, brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs known to elicit interindividual variation in ejection responses and semi-natural leaves into American robins' (Turdus migratorius) nests to test proximate predictions that (1) rejecter hosts should sanitize debris from nests more frequently and consistently than accepter hosts and (2) hosts that sanitize their nests of debris prior to the presentation of a foreign egg will be more likely to eject the foreign egg. Egg ejection responses were highly repeatable within individuals yet variable between them, but were not influenced by prior exposure to debris, nor related to sanitation tendencies as a whole, because nearly all individuals sanitized their nests. Additionally, we collected published data for eight different host species to test for a potential positive correlation between sanitation and egg ejection. We found no significant correlation between nest sanitation and egg ejection rates; however, our comparative analysis was limited to a sample size of 8, and we advise that more data from additional species are necessary to properly address interspecific tests of the pre-adaptation hypothesis. In lack of support for the nest sanitation hypothesis, our study suggests that, within individuals, foreign egg ejection is distinct from nest sanitation tendencies, and sanitation and foreign egg ejection may not correlate across species.

  10. The influence of encapsulated embryos on the timing of hatching in the brooding gastropod Crepipatella dilatata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Villagrán, P. V.; Baria, K. S.; Montory, J. A.; Pechenik, J. A.; Chaparro, O. R.

    2018-01-01

    Encapsulated embryos are generally thought to play an active role in escaping from egg capsules or egg masses. However, for species that brood their egg capsules, the factors controlling the timing of hatching are largely unclear, particularly the degree to which hatching is controlled by the embryos rather than by the mother, and the degree to which the hatching of one egg capsule influences the hatching of sister egg capsules within the same egg mass. We studied aspects of hatching using the direct-developing gastropod Crepipatella dilatata, which includes nurse eggs in its egg capsules and broods clusters of egg capsules for at least several weeks before metamorphosed juveniles are released. Isolated egg capsules were able to hatch successfully, in the absence of the mother. Moreover, the hatching of one capsule did not cause adjacent sister capsules to hatch. Hatched and un-hatched sister egg capsules from the same egg mass differed significantly in the number of metamorphosed juveniles, average shell size, offspring biomass (juveniles + veliger larvae), and the number of nurse eggs remaining per egg capsule. Differences in when egg capsules hatched within a single egg mass were not explained by differences in egg capsule age. Hatching occurred only after most nurse eggs had been ingested, most offspring had metamorphosed into juveniles, and juveniles had reached a mean shell length > 1.36 mm. Whether the mother has any role to play in coordinating the hatching process or juvenile release remains to be determined.

  11. Strategic variation in mobbing as a front line of defense against brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, Justin A; Davies, Nicholas B

    2009-02-10

    Coevolutionary arms races, where adaptations in one party select for counter-adaptations in another and vice versa, are fundamental to interactions between organisms and their predators, pathogens, and parasites [1]. Avian brood parasites and their hosts have emerged as model systems for studying such reciprocal coevolutionary processes [2, 3]. For example, hosts have evolved changes in egg appearance and rejection of foreign eggs in response to brood parasitism from cuckoos, and cuckoos have evolved host-egg mimicry as a counter-response [4-6]. However, the host's front line of defense is protecting the nest from being parasitized in the first place [7-10], yet little is known about the effectiveness of nest defense as an antiparasite adaptation, and its coevolutionary significance remains poorly understood [10]. Here we show first that mobbing of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus by reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus is an effective defense against parasitism. Second, mobbing of cuckoos is a phenotypically plastic trait that is modified strategically according to local parasitism risk. This supports the view that hosts use a "defense in-depth strategy," with successive flexible lines of defense that coevolve with corresponding offensive lines of the parasite. This highlights the need for more holistic research into the coevolutionary consequences when multiple adaptations and counter-adaptations evolve in concert [11].

  12. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.

  13. Changes in infestation, cell cap condition, and reproductive status of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varrroidae) in brood exposed to honey bees with Varroa sensitive hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) bred for Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) selectively remove pupae infested with Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman from capped brood that is inserted into the nest. After one week, remaining brood cells tend to have been uncapped and recapped, and remaining mites are...

  14. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... nationwide downward trend in fatalities when a passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer--neither in... total crashes. The Fatality Accident Reporting System does not list the model year of the trailer. In... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy...

  15. Child-rearing practices and social development indicators in three-year-old children / Práticas educativas maternas e indicadores do desenvolvimento social no terceiro ano de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating relations between maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and social competence indicators of thirty-month-old children. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads. In the child's thirtieth month after birth, an observation of mother-child interaction was performed in order to evaluate maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence. The results support the literature about social development that relates child-rearing practices such as guidance, assertive control and positive parental involvement to social competence, and coercive and permissive practices to externalizing behavior problems. The work discusses the relevance of parental child-rearing practices for the comprehension of the social development, emphasizing the importance of child-rearing practices, such as autonomy authorization, intrusiveness and ambiguous control.

  16. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  17. A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Negative Rearing Experiences on Adolescents' Social Withdrawal and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Ok-Joo; Kim, Joon-Ho

    2017-09-01

    Children who have experienced negative rearing behaviors show a lack of self-confidence due to emotional instability and are reserved in interpersonal relationships. This can lead to failure in social adaptation and a high risk of depression, suicide, criminal acts, and anti-social behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of experiencing negative parental rearing behaviors, such as neglect and abuse, on adolescents' social withdrawal and aggression, by utilizing multivariate latent growth models. Data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS), a survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute targeting a cohort of three different age groups (grade 1, grade 4, and grade 7), from 2010 to 2016 was used. Multi-stage stratified sampling methods were used in the KCYPS, which surveyed the students and parents of the selected grade levels. This study analyzed the data for grade 7, from second year (grade 8) to fourth year (grade 10). Negative rearing experiences had a significant effect on social withdrawal and aggression, and this influence was shown to persist over the long term. This study examined the long-term developmental trajectory in the relationship between risk factors for adolescent development. Furthermore, the relationship between risk factors was shown to have not only short term but long-term effects as well, which reinforces the limitations of previous studies.

  18. Assessing rear-end crash potential in urban locations based on vehicle-by-vehicle interactions, geometric characteristics and operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Loukas; Stylianou, Katerina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2018-03-01

    Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes. In this study rear-end crash potential was estimated based on stopping distance between two consecutive vehicles, and four rear-end crash potential cases were developed. The results indicated that 66.4% of the observations were estimated as rear-end crash potentials. It was also shown that rear-end crash potential was presented when traffic flow and speed standard deviation were higher. Also, locational characteristics such as lane of travel and location in the network were found to affect drivers' car following decisions and additionally, it was shown that speeds were lower and headways higher when Heavy Goods Vehicles lead. Finally, a model-based behavioral analysis based on Multinomial Logit regression was conducted to systematically identify the statistically significant variables in explaining rear-end risk potential. The modeling results highlighted the significance of the explanatory variables associated with rear-end crash potential, however it was shown that their effect varied among different model configurations. The outcome of the results can be of significant value for several purposes, such as real-time monitoring of risk potential, allocating enforcement units in urban networks and designing targeted proactive safety policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Kingsley; Caceres, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is arguably the world's most widespread pest of fresh fruit production. With mounting controversy over using chemicals against insect pests, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has become increasingly more important as a successful technology in controlling or eradicating many insect pests. However, the wider adoption of SIT for Medflies has been hindered by damage to fruit from sterile female stings (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Moreover, the release of sterile females in SIT for Medflies is not efficacious (Hendrichs et al. 1995), a point validated in the field in Hawaii (McInnis et al. 1994) and Guatemala (Rendon, personal communication). Hendrichs et al. (1995) list many other advantages for releasing only male Medflies including improved economy, increased safety and improved field monitoring. Genetic systems for the separation of sexes have been developed for Medflies (Franz and Kerremans 1994, Willhoeft et al. 1996) and they allow for large-scale releases of only males. Genetic sexing strains (GSS), as they are known, are based upon selectable characters linked to the male sex by using a Y-autosome translocation (Franz et al. 1996). There are two types of GSS used in mass rearing. First, strains based upon a recessive mutation (wp) change the pupal colour from brown to white. In these strains, females emerge from white pupae and males from brown pupae. A machine is used to sort the pupae based upon colour. First described by Robinson and Van Heemert (1982), the most recent strain, SEIB 6-96 based upon the T(Y;5) 2-22 translocation, is relatively stable in small scale rearing (Franz et al. 1994). Second are the temperature sensitive lethal strains (wp/tsl) which carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation in addition to wp. In tsl strains, female embryos are killed by exposing eggs to a 3 C temperature during development (Franz et al. 1996). Male embryos are not temperature sensitive and

  20. Phencyclidine increased while isolation rearing did not affect progressive ratio responding in rats: Investigating potential models of amotivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan B; Young, Jared W

    2017-11-22

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of the global population with heterogeneous symptoms including positive, negative, and cognitive. While treatment for positive symptoms exists, none have been developed to treat negative symptoms. Animal models of schizophrenia are required to test targeted treatments and since patients exhibit reduced effort (breakpoints) for reward in a progressive ratio (PR) task, we examined the PR breakpoints of rats treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine or those reared in isolation - two common manipulations used to induce schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in rodents. In two cohorts, the PR breakpoint for a palatable food reward was examined in Long Evans rats after: 1) a repeated phencyclidine regimen; 2) A subchronic phencyclidine regimen followed by drug washout; and 3) post-weaning social isolation. Rats treated with repeated phencyclidine and those following washout from phencyclidine exhibited higher PR breakpoints than vehicle-treated rats. The breakpoint of isolation reared rats did not differ from those socially reared, despite abnormalities of these rats in other schizophrenia-relevant behaviors. Despite their common use for modeling other schizophrenia-relevant behaviors neither phencyclidine treatment nor isolation rearing recreated the motivational deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia, as measured by PR breakpoint. Other manipulations, and negative symptom-relevant behaviors, require investigation prior to testing putative therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on airflow characteristics of rear wing of F1 car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. R. S.; Sapit, A.; Mohammed, A. N.; Razali, M. A.; Sadikin, A.; Nordin, N.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims to investigate CFD simulation is carried out to investigate the airflow along the rear wing of F1 car with Reynold number of 3 × 106 and velocity, u = 43.82204 m/s. The analysis was done using 2-D model consists of main plane and flap wing, combined together to form rear wing module. Both of the aerofoil is placed inside a box of 350mm long and 220mm height according to regulation set up by FIA. The parameters for this study is the thickness and the chord length of the flap wing aerofoil. The simulations were performed by using FLUENT solver and k-kl-omega model. The wind speed is set up to 43 m/s that is the average speed of F1 car when cornering. This study uses NACA 2408, 2412, and 2415 for the flap wing and BE50 for the main plane. Each cases being simulated with a gap between the aerofoil of 10mm and 50mm when the DRS is activated. Grid independence test and validation was conduct to make sure the result obtained is acceptable. The goal of this study is to investigate aerodynamic behavior of airflow around the rear wing as well as to see how the thickness and the chord length of flap wing influence the airflow at the rear wing. The results show that increasing in thickness of the flap wing aerofoil will decreases the downforce. The results also show that although the short flap wing generate lower downforce than the big flap wing, but the drag force can be significantly reduced as the short flap wing has more change in angle of attack when it is activated. Therefore, the type of aerofoil for the rear wing should be decided according to the circuit track so that it can be fully optimized.

  2. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaher, Arushi; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Chauhan, Vasundhera; John, Jomimol; Mehta, Manju

    2016-01-01

    In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new) with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  3. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gangaher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children <12 years and Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  4. [Supporting the Love, Marriage, and Child-Rearing of Persons with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and their families have strong interests and hopes for love, marriage, pregnancy, and child-rearing. These experiences often lead to recovery from schizophrenia. There are many partners with schizophrenia who enjoy fruitful lives even with their disability. However, only some persons can enter into such lives in the real world in Japan and other countries. This leads persons with schizophrenia to develop a discouraged and disappointed attitude, and also causes professionals of mental health to develop indifference or pessimism about these issues. Schizophrenics are thought to have interests in love and sexual behavior just as strong as the general population. I discuss with my patients about these issues and working life early in the course of treatment. Because they lose their chance to learn adult behavior in social lives with peers due to the beginning of schizophrenia, they need an opportunity to participate in a social situation to learn knowledge and skills of dating and related behaviors, and systematic education such as psycho-education and social skills training should be provided. Continuing married life and child-rearing require more support from experts with rich experience and knowledge. Psychiatrists are required to participate in shared decision-making about medication during pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as provide knowledge on the benefits and risks of antipsychotics. Net-working with the family, professionals of child welfare, and the community is necessary to support child-rearing. Urakawa Bethel's House was introduced as a pioneering concept to support love, marriage, and child-rearing. Finally, professionals' negative or indifferent attitudes toward these issues are discussed in the setting of treatment. I hope that professionals of mental health will think about these issues from the standpoints of persons with schizophrenia and their families.

  5. Molecular evidence for extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the Black-headed Gull

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ležalová-Piálková, Radka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 2 (2011), s. 291-295 ISSN 0021-8375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Black-headed Gull * genetic mating system * extra-pair paternity * intraspecific brood parasitism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2011

  6. Some lite it hot: the effect of temperature on brood development in the invasive crab Hemigrapsus takanoi (Decapoda: brachyura: Varunidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.; Godschalk, M.; Smaal, A.C.; Lindeboom, H.J.; McLay, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    The duration of brood development in the introduced crab, Hemigrapsus takanoi in the Oosterschelde, The Netherlands, was compared at three different water temperatures. At 12, 18 and 24°C the females took an average of 32, 11 and 8 days respectively to lay eggs, which took 86, 28 and 18 days

  7. SENSITIVITY OF NEST SUCCESS, YOUNG FLEDGED, AND PROBABILITY OF RENESTING TO SEASONAL FECUNDITY IN MULTI-BROODED SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A considerable number of avian species can produce multiple broods within a season. Seasonal fecundity in these species can vary by changes in the number of young fledged per nest, the probability of a successful nest, and the probability of initiating additional nests (e.g., re...

  8. Seasonal variation in the incidence of double broods: The date hypothesis fits better than the quality hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N.; Verhulst, S.

    1996-01-01

    1. In three great tit (Parus major) populations the probability that a pair starts a second clutch, a clutch produced after a successful first brood, varied between years and areas but generally declined through the breeding season. 2. By exchanging first clutches between early and late breeding

  9. Seasonal variation in the incidence of double broods : The date hypothesis fits better than the quality hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N; Verhulst, S

    1. In three great tit (Parus major) populations the probability that a pair starts a second clutch, a clutch produced after a successful first brood, varied between years and areas but generally declined through the breeding season. 2. By exchanging first clutches between early and late breeding

  10. Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Bruce; Seibel, Brad; Drazen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

  11. Effect of Rearing Periods on the Production of Hybrid Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerling production of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobanchus longifilis) was investigated over three rearing periods of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks in fertilized earthen ponds during the rainy season. At harvest, fingerling mean weight was directly related to length of rearing period, while survival rate and ...

  12. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  13. Adolescent Coping Styles and Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth

    1994-01-01

    A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques…

  14. Improved seat and manniken models to study rear impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, A.R.; Wu, P.; Shanmugavelu, I.; Mondeau, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Occupant injury in automobile rear-end collisions is rapidly becoming one of the most aggravating traffic safety problems with high human suffering and societal costs. Recent studies in Europe, Canada and Japan have found that injury claims, in particular neck injuries due to rear impact have

  15. Effects of inducing exercise on growing mice by means of three-dimensional structure in rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yu; Ueno, Aki; Nunomura, Yuka; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Takeda, Shohei; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2016-11-01

    We reared ICR mice during a growth period (3 to 10 weeks of age) and examined the effect of exercise induction, by enriching the rearing environment with obstacles such as ladders, compared to the standard environment. Environmental enrichment significantly increased the amount of exercise in both sexes (Penvironment in growing mice. In addition, we suggest that exercise has beneficial effects on physical growth, sexual maturation and anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, environmental enrichment might be more effective in male than female in group-housed mice.

  16. Rearing Xyleborus volvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Media Containing Sawdust from Avocado or Silkbay, With or Without Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Cruz, Luisa F; Kendra, Paul E; Crane, Jonathan H; Ploetz, Randy C; Carrillo, Daniel

    2017-12-08

    Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent reports of an association between X. volvulus and Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the cause of the laurel wilt disease of avocado (Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae]), and its potential role as vector of the pathogen merit further investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate three artificial media containing sawdust obtained from avocado or silkbay (Persea humilis Nash) for laboratory rearing of X. volvulus. The effect of R. lauricola in the media on the beetle's reproduction was also evaluated. Of the three media, the one with the lowest content of sawdust and intermediate water content provided the best conditions for rearing X. volvulus. Reproduction on this medium was not affected by the sawdust species or the presence of R. lauricola. On the other two media, there was a significant interaction between sawdust species and R. lauricola. The presence of R. lauricola generally had a negative effect on brood production. There was limited colonization of the mycangia of X. volvulus by R. lauricola on media inoculated with the pathogen. From galleries formed within the best medium, there was 50% recovery of R. lauricola, but recovery was much less from the other two media. Here, we report the best artificial substrate currently known for X. volvulus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Destructive disinfection of infected brood prevents systemic disease spread in ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Christopher D; Ugelvig, Line V; Wiesenhofer, Florian; Grasse, Anna V; Tragust, Simon; Schmitt, Thomas; Brown, Mark Jf; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-01-09

    In social groups, infections have the potential to spread rapidly and cause disease outbreaks. Here, we show that in a social insect, the ant Lasius neglectus , the negative consequences of fungal infections ( Metarhizium brunneum ) can be mitigated by employing an efficient multicomponent behaviour, termed destructive disinfection, which prevents further spread of the disease through the colony. Ants specifically target infected pupae during the pathogen's non-contagious incubation period, utilising chemical 'sickness cues' emitted by pupae. They then remove the pupal cocoon, perforate its cuticle and administer antimicrobial poison, which enters the body and prevents pathogen replication from the inside out. Like the immune system of a metazoan body that specifically targets and eliminates infected cells, ants destroy infected brood to stop the pathogen completing its lifecycle, thus protecting the rest of the colony. Hence, in an analogous fashion, the same principles of disease defence apply at different levels of biological organisation.

  18. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  19. Genetic diversity of a Daugava basin brown trout (Salmo trutta brood stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics play an increasingly important role in the conservation of threatened fish populations. We have examined twelve microsatellite markers to determine the genetic diversity of a brood stock of brown trout from the Latvian Daugava river basin, used in a local supportive breeding program and compared diversity values to other Baltic populations. Allelic data was further inspected for indications of increased inbreeding. Additionally, we have analyzed the mitochondrial control region to classify the population within a broader phylogenetic framework. We found that the genetic diversity was comparatively low, but there was no strong evidence of high inbreeding. A newly detected mitochondrial haplotype indicates unnoticed genetic diversity of “Atlantic lineage” brown trout in the Daugava basin region. Our study provides first genetic details on resident brown trout from the Baltic Daugava river basin to improve the regional conservation management of this valuable genetic resource and contributes phylogeographically useful information.

  20. Reproduction of Varroa destructor and offspring mortality in worker and drone brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W

    2012-04-01

    Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P drone cells was high in the protonymph stage (mobile and immobile). A significant finding was the high rate of male mortality. The worker and drone brood revealed that 23.9 and 6.9%, respectively, of the adult male offspring was found dead. If the absence (missing) of the male and adult male mortality are taken together the percentage of cells increased to 40.0 and 21.3% in worker and drone cells, respectively (X(2) = 28.8, P < 0.05). The absence of the male or male mortality in a considerable number of worker cells naturally infested with varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica.

  1. Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the family Syngnathidae share a unique reproductive mode termed male pregnancy. Males carry eggs in specialised brooding structures for several weeks and release free-swimming offspring. Here we describe a systematic investigation of pre-release development in syngnathid fishes, reviewing available data for 17 species distributed across the family. This work is complemented by in-depth examinations of the straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion, the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, and the potbellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Results We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods – early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile – which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy. Conclusions Our classification is derived from examinations of species representing the full range of brooding-structure complexity found in the Syngnathidae, including tail-brooding as well as trunk-brooding species, which represent independent evolutionary lineages. We chose conspicuous common traits as diagnostic features of stages to allow for rapid and consistent staging of embryos and larvae across the entire family. In view of the growing interest in the biology of the Syngnathidae, we believe that the classification proposed here will prove useful for a wide range of studies on the unique reproductive biology of these male-brooding fish.

  2. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  3. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even...... with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks...... for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays...

  4. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation

  5. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samas, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights

  6. Uncovering Dangerous Cheats: How Do Avian Hosts Recognize Adult Brood Parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Alfréd; Prokop, Pavol; Grim, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Background Co-evolutionary struggles between dangerous enemies (e.g., brood parasites) and their victims (hosts) lead to the emergence of sophisticated adaptations and counter-adaptations. Salient host tricks to reduce parasitism costs include, as front line defence, adult enemy discrimination. In contrast to the well studied egg stage, investigations addressing the specific cues for adult enemy recognition are rare. Previous studies have suggested barred underparts and yellow eyes may provide cues for the recognition of cuckoos Cuculus canorus by their hosts; however, no study to date has examined the role of the two cues simultaneously under a consistent experimental paradigm. Methodology/Principal Findings We modify and extend previous work using a novel experimental approach – custom-made dummies with various combinations of hypothesized recognition cues. The salient recognition cue turned out to be the yellow eye. Barred underparts, the only trait examined previously, had a statistically significant but small effect on host aggression highlighting the importance of effect size vs. statistical significance. Conclusion Relative importance of eye vs. underpart phenotypes may reflect ecological context of host-parasite interaction: yellow eyes are conspicuous from the typical direction of host arrival (from above), whereas barred underparts are poorly visible (being visually blocked by the upper part of the cuckoo's body). This visual constraint may reduce usefulness of barred underparts as a reliable recognition cue under a typical situation near host nests. We propose a novel hypothesis that recognition cues for enemy detection can vary in a context-dependent manner (e.g., depending on whether the enemy is approached from below or from above). Further we suggest a particular cue can trigger fear reactions (escape) in some hosts/populations whereas the same cue can trigger aggression (attack) in other hosts/populations depending on presence/absence of dangerous

  7. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  8. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.

  9. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…

  10. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-07-30

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood.

  11. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  12. Development of a natural rearing system to improve supplemental fish quality: 1996-1998: final report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings

  13. The development of postinstitutionalized versus parent-reared Russian children as a function of age at placement and family type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Groark, Christina J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V; Salaway, Jennifer; Julian, Megan M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.

  14. Using event-triggered naturalistic data to examine the prevalence of teen driver distractions in rear-end crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Cher; Harland, Karisa K; McGehee, Daniel V

    2016-06-01

    While teen driver distraction is cited as a leading cause of crashes, especially rear-end crashes, little information is available regarding its true prevalence. The majority of distraction studies rely on data derived from police reports, which provide limited information regarding driver distraction. This study examined over 400 teen driver rear-end crashes captured by in-vehicle event recorders. A secondary data analysis was conducted, paying specific attention to driver behaviors, eyes-off-road time, and response times to lead-vehicle braking. Among teens in moderate to severe rear-end crashes, over 75% of drivers were observed engaging in a potentially distracting behavior. The most frequently seen driver behaviors were cell phone use, attending to a location outside the vehicle, and attending to passengers. Drivers using a cell phone had a significantly longer response time than drivers not engaged in any behaviors, while those attending to passengers did not. Additionally, in about 50% of the rear-end crashes where the driver was operating/looking at a phone (e.g., texting), the driver showed no driver response (i.e., braking or steering input) before impact, compared to 10% of crashes where the driver was attending to a passenger. The high frequency of attending to passengers and use of a cell phone leading up to a crash, compounded with the associated risks, underlines the importance of continued investigation in these areas. Parents and teens must be educated regarding the frequency of and the potential effects of distractions. Additional enforcement may be necessary if Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs are to be effective. Systems that alert distracted teens could also be especially helpful in reducing rear-end collisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available.

  16. Perceived parental child rearing and attachment as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms in children: The mediational role of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M; Magaz, Ana M; Santed, Miguel A; Sandin, Bonifacio

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine (a) the relative contribution of perceived parental child-rearing behaviors and attachment on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and (b) the role of attachment as a possible mediator of the association between parental rearing and anxiety and depression. A sample of 1002 children (aged 9-12 years) completed a booklet of self-report questionnaires measuring parental rearing behaviors, attachment towards peers, and DSM anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. We found that parental aversiveness, parental neglect, and fearful/preoccupied attachment, each accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, parental overcontrol was found to account for unique variance in anxiety whereas communication/warmth accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in depression. A relevant finding was that fearful/preoccupied attachment was found to mediate the association between parental rearing behaviors and both anxiety and depression. Parental rearing behaviors and attachment to peers may act as risk factors to the development and/or maintenance of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in children. Findings may contribute to outline preventive and/or treatment programs to prevent or reduce both clinical anxiety and depression during childhood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Estimating rear-end accident probabilities at signalized intersections: a comparison study of intersections with and without green signal countdown devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Li, Keping

    2014-01-01

    Rear-end accidents are the most common accident type at signalized intersections, because the diversity of actions taken increases due to signal change. Green signal countdown devices (GSCDs), which have been widely installed in Asia, are thought to have the potential of improving capacity and reducing accidents, but some negative effects on intersection safety have been observed in practice; for example, an increase in rear-end accidents. A microscopic modeling approach was applied to estimate rear-end accident probability during the phase transition interval in the study. The rear-end accident probability is determined by the following probabilities: (1) a leading vehicle makes a "stop" decision, which was formulated by using a binary logistic model, and (2) the following vehicle fails to stop in the available stopping distance, which is closely related to the critical deceleration used by the leading vehicle. Based on the field observation carried out at 2 GSCD intersections and 2 NGSCD intersections (i.e., intersections without GSCD devices) along an arterial in Suzhou, the rear-end probabilities at GSCD and NGSCD intersections were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. The results suggested that, on the one hand, GSCDs caused significantly negative safety effects during the flashing green interval, especially for vehicles in a zone ranging from 15 to 70 m; on the other hand, GSCD devices were helpful in reducing rear-end accidents during the yellow interval, especially in a zone from 0 to 50 m. GSCDs helped shorten indecision zones and reduce rear-end collisions near the stop line during the yellow interval, but they easily resulted in risky car following behavior and much higher rear-end collision probabilities at indecision zones during both flashing green and yellow intervals. GSCDs are recommended to be cautiously installed and education on safe driving behavior should be available.

  18. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  19. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  20. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  1. Environmental effects on the ontogeny of exploratory and escape behaviors of Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M M; Galet, B G

    1982-03-01

    Mongolian gerbils reared in standard laboratory cages and gerbils reared in cages containing a burrowlike shelter did not differ in their rate of development of escape responses to sudden visual stimulation. The presence of shelter in the rearing environment did, however, markedly slow the development of adult-like patterns of exploration. Reduced exposure to illumination, experienced by shelter-reared subjects, proved responsible for this retardation of development. The effect of shelter-rearing on the development of exploratory behavior is interpreted as demonstrating an environmentally induced maintenance of an adaptive juvenile pattern of behavior.

  2. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  3. Interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and rearing environment on affective attitude towards own infant in Japanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Erika; Doi, Hirokazu; Nagai, Tomoko; Ikeda, Satoko; Shinohara, Kauyuki

    2017-05-15

    Maternal positive attitude towards one's own infant is the cornerstone of effective parenting. Previous research has revealed an influence of both genetic and environmental factors on maternal parenting behavior, but little is known of the potential gene-environment interaction in shaping a mother's affective attitude. To address this gap, we investigated the effect of a mother's childhood rearing environment and a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on affective attitude towards her infant. Our analyses found an interactive effect between rearing environment and 5-HTTLPR genotype on maternal attitude. Specifically, a poor rearing environment (characterized by low maternal care and high paternal overprotection) decreased positive attitude towards one's own infant in mothers with homozygous short allele genotype. In contrast, this detrimental effect was almost eliminated in long allele carriers. Altogether, our results indicate that the 5-HTTLPR gene moderates the influence of experienced rearing environment on maternal parental behavior in a manner consistent with the notion that the short 5-HTTLPR allele amplifies environmental influence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. Influence of rearing conditions on voluntary ethanol intake and response to stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, G E; Hall, A M; Markert, L E; Glavin, G B

    1988-03-01

    The effects of exposure to four environmental rearing conditions on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake and response to immobilization stress were examined. Male weanling rats were reared in an enriched environment, with a female partner, with a male partner, or individually, for 90 days. At 111 days of age, voluntary consumption of ethanol in increasing concentrations (3 to 9%, v/v) was assessed. Following the ethanol-exposure period, rats were randomly divided into stressed and nonstressed groups and exposed to 3 h of immobilization. Results indicated that the enriched animals consumed greater amounts of ethanol as compared to all other groups, suggesting that the enriched environment and not handling, housing conditions, or the presence of another male or female is responsible for the observed increase in ethanol drinking behavior. Ulcer data indicated that among environmentally enriched rats, ethanol attenuated stress ulcer development relative to their non-ethanol-exposed but stressed controls. In nonstressed enriched rats, ethanol alone exacerbated stomach damage. We suggest that environmental rearing conditions markedly influence the complex interaction between ethanol intake and the response to stress.

  6. Semi-permeable species boundaries in the coral genus Madracis: introgression in a brooding coral system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, P R; Reyes-Nivia, M C; Faria, J; Kaandorp, J A; Luttikhuizen, P C; Bak, R P M

    2010-12-01

    Introgressive hybridization is described in several phylogenetic studies of mass-spawning corals. However, the prevalence of this process among brooding coral species is unclear. We used a mitochondrial (mtDNA: nad5) and two nuclear (nDNA: ATPSα and SRP54) intron markers to explore species barriers in the coral genus Madracis and address the role of hybridization in brooding systems. Specimens of six Caribbean Madracis morphospecies were collected from 5 to 60 m depth at Buoy One, Curaçao, supplemented by samples from Aruba, Trinidad & Tobago and Bermuda. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were coupled to detect distinct alleles within single colonies. The recurrent nDNA phylogenetic non-monophyly among taxa is only challenged by Madracis senaria, the single monophyletic species within the genus. nDNA AMOVAs indicated overall statistical divergence (0.1% significance level) among species but pairwise comparisons of genetic differentiation revealed some gene exchange between Madracis taxa. mtDNA sequences clustered in two main groups representing typical shallow and deep water Madracis species. Madracis pharensis shallow and deep colonies (with threshold at about 23-24 m) clustered in different mtDNA branches, together with their depth-sympatric congenerics. This divergence was repeated for the nDNA (ATPSα) suggestive of distinct M. pharensis depth populations. These matched the vertical distribution of the dinoflagellate symbionts hosted by M. pharensis, with Symbiodinium ITS2 type B7 in the shallows but type B15 in the deep habitats, suggesting symbiont-related disruptive selection. Recurrent non-monophyly of Madracis taxa and high levels of shared polymorphism reflected in ambiguous phylogenetic networks indicate that hybridization is likely to have played a role in the evolution of the genus. Using coalescent forward-in-time simulations, lineage sorting alone was rejected as an explanation to the SRP54 genetic variation

  7. Effects of a combined hatching and brooding system on hatchability, chick weight, and mortality in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2009-11-01

    Chicks hatch over a time window of approximately 36 to 48 h and are removed from the hatchers only when the majority of the chicks has hatched. Consequently, chicks are exposed to prolonged posthatch holding periods and delays in feed and water access, leading to dehydration and impaired posthatch performance. It is questionable whether the physiological requirements of the hatchlings can be met with current hatching systems. An alternative system that may better match the requirements of the hatchlings is a system that combines the hatching and brooding phase, so that feed and water can be provided immediately after hatch. Such a system, named Patio, was developed in the Netherlands and tested from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate effects on hatchability and early performance of broilers. This paper describes the Patio system and the results from these tests. A total of 21 broiler production trials (780,686 eggs) in the Patio system were evaluated at 3 locations and compared with control hatches of eggs of the same parental flock in the hatchery. Hatchability in the Patio was on average 1.45, 1.83, and 1.86% higher at location 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, in the calculation of the hatchability in the Patio, possible second grade chicks were included, whereas these were excluded in the calculation of hatchability in the hatchery. Additionally, in the hatchery, the hatching process was interrupted earlier than in the Patio, meaning that possible late hatching chicks remained in the flock in the Patio, but not in the hatchery. In 3 trials, the Patio chicks were 11.6 to 16.3% heavier at d 0, when the hatchery chicks were placed in the broiler house. Mean cumulative 7-d mortality was only assessed in the Patio and was 1.27, 1.09, and 1.43% at location 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The Patio system appears to function as an alternative to current hatching and brooding systems. Further studies are required to determine to what extent the higher hatchability is due to second

  8. Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl Tyto alba

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin, A.

    2004-01-01

    When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Two alba) broods. I assessed the role of within-brood age hierarchy on sibling negotiation, and in turn on jostling for position where parents predictably deliv...

  9. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    The population size, generic diversity and potential to produce hydrolytic enzymes of heterotrophic bacteria associated with pond reared Penaeus indicus was worked out following standard bacteriological procedures. Chitinoclastic vibrios were found...

  10. Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared in ... Economic importance of morphometric parameters such as live weight and body ... (R2) value of 60.30 included forecast indices such as BL, WS, WL, TL, BG and SL.

  11. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  12. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...

  14. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Child-rearing values : The impact of intergenerational class mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study contrasts two theoretical perspectives on the relationship between intergenerational class mobility and child-rearing values. According to the dissociative thesis, which describes social mobility as a disruptive experience leading to insecurity, social isolation, stress and frustration,

  16. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  17. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  18. Growth strategies of passerine birds are related to brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Vladimír

    2006-08-01

    Sibling competition was proposed as an important selective agent in the evolution of growth and development. Brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) intensifies sibling competition in the nests of its hosts by increasing host chick mortality and exposing them to a genetically unrelated nestmate. Intranest sibling competition for resources supplied by parents is size dependent. Thus, it should select for high development rates and short nestling periods, which would alleviate negative impacts of brood parasitic chicks on host young. I tested these predictions on 134 North American passerines by comparative analyses. After controlling for covariates and phylogeny, I showed that high parasitism rate was associated with higher nestling growth rate, lower mass at fledging, and shorter nestling periods. These effects were most pronounced in species in which sibling competition is most intense (i.e., weighing over about 30 g). When species were categorized as nonhosts versus old hosts (parasitized for thousands of years) versus new hosts (parasitized the last 100-200 years), there was a clear effect of this parasitism category on growth strategies. Nestling growth rate was the most evolutionarily flexible trait, followed by mass at fledging and nestling period duration. Adjustments during incubation (incubation period length, egg volume) were less pronounced and generally disappeared after controlling for phylogeny. I show that sibling competition caused by brood parasites can have strong effects on the evolution of host growth strategies and that the evolution of developmental traits can take place very rapidly. Human alteration of habitats causing spread of brood parasites to new areas thus cascades into affecting the evolution of life-history traits in host species.

  19. Effects of brood size manipulation and common origin on phenotype and telomere length in nestling collared flycatchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voillemot Marie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is accumulating that telomere length is a good predictor of life expectancy, especially early in life, thus calling for determining the factors that affect telomere length at this stage. Here, we investigated the relative influence of early growth conditions and origin (genetics and early maternal effects on telomere length of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis at fledging. We experimentally transferred hatchlings among brood triplets to create reduced, control (i.e. unchanged final nestling number and enlarged broods. Results Although our treatment significantly affected body mass at fledging, we found no evidence that increased sibling competition affected nestling tarsus length and telomere length. However, mixed models showed that brood triplets explained a significant part of the variance in body mass (18% and telomere length (19%, but not tarsus length (13%, emphasizing that unmanipulated early environmental factors influenced telomere length. These models also revealed low, but significant, heritability of telomere length (h2 = 0.09. For comparison, the heritability of nestling body mass and tarsus length was 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, which was in the range of previously published estimates for those two traits in this species. Conclusion Those findings in a wild bird population demonstrate that telomere length at the end of the growth period is weakly, but significantly, determined by genetic and/or maternal factors taking place before hatching. However, we found no evidence that the brood size manipulation experiment, and by extension the early growth conditions, influenced nestling telomere length. The weak heritability of telomere length suggests a close association with fitness in natural populations.

  20. Parental genetic diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) brood stock affects offspring susceptibility to whirling disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszterbauer, Edit; Forró, Barbara; Tolnai, Zoltán; Guti, Csaba Ferenc; Zsigmond, Gergely; Hoitsy, György; Kallert, Dennis Marc

    2015-03-03

    Whirling disease, caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, has high economical and ecological importance worldwide. Susceptibility to the disease varies considerably among salmonid species. In brown trout (Salmo trutta) the infection is usually subclinical with low mortality, which increases the risk of parasite dissemination, especially when farm fish are used for stocking natural habitats. The influence of intraspecific genetic differences (especially the level of homozygosity) on susceptibility is unknown. Therefore, we examined the possible correlations between parental genetic diversity and offspring susceptibility of brown trout stocks to whirling disease. Two brown trout brood stocks from a German and a Hungarian fish farm were genetically characterized using microsatellite and lineage-specific genetic markers. The individual inbreeding coefficient f and pairwise relatedness factor r were estimated based on eight microsatellite markers. Brood stock populations were divided into groups according to low and high f and r value estimates and subjected to selective fertilization. The offspring from these separate groups were exposed to M. cerebralis actinospores, and the infection prevalence and intensity was measured and statistically analysed. The analysis of phylogeographic lineage heritage revealed high heterogeneity in the Hungarian brood stock since > 50% of individuals were Atlantic-Danubian hybrids, while only pure Atlantic-descending specimens were detected in the German population. Based on f msat and r msat estimations, classified non-inbred (NIB), inbred (IB) and a group of closely related fish (REL) were created. The susceptibility of their offspring varied considerably. Although there was no significant difference in the prevalence of M. cerebralis infection, the mean intensity of infection differed significantly between NIB and IB groups. In REL and IB groups, a high variability was observed in infection intensity. No external

  1. The Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Carbohydrate Concentrations and Hydrolase Activity, During the Development of Honey Bee Worker Brood

    OpenAIRE

    Farjan Marek; Żółtowska Krystyna; Lipiński Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat Elżbieta; Dmitryjuk Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The colony collapse disorder is a growing problem world-wide. For this reason, we were prompted to search for natural and harmless agents that could improve the living conditions of honey bees. This group of agents includes exogenous antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, which boost natural immunity. We analysed the effect of vitamin C supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism in the developing honey bee worker brood. The total carbohydrate content and the concentrations of glycogen, trehalos...

  2. Routine post-weaning handling of rats prevents isolation rearing-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N.M. Rosa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Rats reared under isolation conditions from weaning present a number of behavioral changes compared to animals reared under social conditions (group housing. These changes include deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle reflex to a loud sound. PPI refers to the reduction of the magnitude of the startle reflex when a relatively weak stimulus (the prepulse precedes by an appropriate time interval the intense startle-elicing stimulus (the pulse. PPI is useful for studying sensorimotor integration. The present study evaluated the effect of handling on the impairment of PPI induced by isolation-rearing. Male Wistar rats (N = 11-15/group were housed in groups (5 per cage and handled three times a week or isolated (housed individually since weaning (21 days for 10 weeks when they reach approximately 150 g. The isolated rats were divided into "minimally handled" animals (handled once a week for cleaning purposes only or "handled" animals (handled three times a week. This handling consisted of grasping the rat by the tail and moving it to a clean cage (approximately 5 s. A statistically significant reduction (52% in the PPI test was found only in the isolated group with minimal handling while no difference was seen between grouped animals and isolated handled animals. These results indicate that isolation rearing causes disruption in the PPI at adult age, which serves as an index of attention deficit. This change in the sensory processing of information induced by post-weaning isolation can be prevented by handling during the development of the animal.

  3. Routine post-weaning handling of rats prevents isolation rearing-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M L N M; Silva, R C B; Moura-de-Carvalho, F T; Brandão, M L; Guimarães, F S; Del Bel, E A

    2005-11-01

    Rats reared under isolation conditions from weaning present a number of behavioral changes compared to animals reared under social conditions (group housing). These changes include deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex to a loud sound. PPI refers to the reduction of the magnitude of the startle reflex when a relatively weak stimulus (the prepulse) precedes by an appropriate time interval the intense startle-elicing stimulus (the pulse). PPI is useful for studying sensorimotor integration. The present study evaluated the effect of handling on the impairment of PPI induced by isolation-rearing. Male Wistar rats (N = 11-15/group) were housed in groups (5 per cage and handled three times a week) or isolated (housed individually) since weaning (21 days) for 10 weeks when they reach approximately 150 g. The isolated rats were divided into "minimally handled" animals (handled once a week for cleaning purposes only) or "handled" animals (handled three times a week). This handling consisted of grasping the rat by the tail and moving it to a clean cage (approximately 5 s). A statistically significant reduction (52%) in the PPI test was found only in the isolated group with minimal handling while no difference was seen between grouped animals and isolated handled animals. These results indicate that isolation rearing causes disruption in the PPI at adult age, which serves as an index of attention deficit. This change in the sensory processing of information induced by post-weaning isolation can be prevented by handling during the development of the animal.

  4. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I D

    2017-07-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks in mass rearing systems, ranging from simple sanitation methods to highly sophisticated methods including RNAi and transgenics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-xia Hu; Eric T. T. Wong

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoi...

  6. Repression and recuperation of brood production in Bombus terrestris bumble bees exposed to a pulse of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Laycock

    Full Text Available Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days 'on dose' followed by 14 days 'off dose' to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers. During the initial 'on dose' period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg(-1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following 'off dose' period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg(-1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop.

  7. Repression and Recuperation of Brood Production in Bombus terrestris Bumble Bees Exposed to a Pulse of the Neonicotinoid Pesticide Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Ian; Cresswell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days ‘on dose’ followed by 14 days ‘off dose’) to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae) produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers). During the initial ‘on dose’ period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg−1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following ‘off dose’ period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg−1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop. PMID:24224015

  8. Audiovisual Interactions in Front and Rear Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Montagne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human visual and auditory systems do not encode an entirely overlapped space when static head and body position are maintained. While visual capture of sound source location in the frontal field is known to be immediate and direct, visual influence in the rear auditory space behind the subject remains under-studied. In this study we investigated the influence of presenting frontal LED flashes on the perceived location of a phantom sound source generated using time-delay-based stereophony. Our results show that frontal visual stimuli affected auditory localization in two different ways – (1 auditory responses were laterally shifted (left or right toward the location of the light stimulus and (2 auditory responses were more often in the frontal field. The observed visual effects do not adhere to the spatial rule of multisensory interaction with regard to the physical proximity of cues. Instead, the influence of visual cues interacted closely with front–back confusions in auditory localization. In particular, visually induced shift along the left–right direction occurred most often when an auditory stimulus was localized in the same (frontal field as the light stimulus, even when the actual sound sources were presented from behind a subject. Increasing stimulus duration (from 15-ms to 50-ms significantly mitigated the rates of front–back confusion and the associated effects of visual stimuli. These findings suggest that concurrent visual stimulation elicits a strong frontal bias in auditory localization and confirm that temporal integration plays an important role in decreasing front–back errors under conditions requiring multisensory spatial processing.

  9. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

    2007-08-01

    Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size.

  10. Climate change effects on migration phenology may mismatch brood parasitic cuckoos and their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa; Sokolov, Leonid V; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Møller, Anders P

    2009-08-23

    Phenological responses to climate change vary among taxa and across trophic levels. This can lead to a mismatch between the life cycles of ecologically interrelated populations (e.g. predators and prey), with negative consequences for population dynamics of some of the interacting species. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that climate change might disrupt the association between the life cycles of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), a migratory brood parasitic bird, and its hosts. We investigated changes in timing of spring arrival of the cuckoo and its hosts throughout Europe over six decades, and found that short-distance, but not long-distance, migratory hosts have advanced their arrival more than the cuckoo. Hence, cuckoos may keep track of phenological changes of long-distance, but not short-distance migrant hosts, with potential consequences for breeding of both cuckoo and hosts. The mismatch to some of the important hosts may contribute to the decline of cuckoo populations and explain some of the observed local changes in parasitism rates of migratory hosts.

  11. Evolution of tolerance by magpies to brood parasitism by great spotted cuckoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Martín-Gálvez, D; Martínez, J G; Soler, M; Canestrari, D; Abad-Gómez, J M; Møller, A P

    2011-07-07

    Hosts may use two different strategies to ameliorate negative effects of a given parasite burden: resistance or tolerance. Although both resistance and tolerance of parasitism should evolve as a consequence of selection pressures owing to parasitism, the study of evolutionary patterns of tolerance has traditionally been neglected by animal biologists. Here, we explore geographical covariation between tolerance of magpies (Pica pica) and brood parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) in nine different sympatric populations. We estimated tolerance as the slope of the regression of number of magpie fledglings (i.e. host fitness) on number of cuckoo eggs laid in non-depredated nests (which broadly equals parasite burden). We also estimated prevalence of parasitism and level of host resistance (i.e. rejection rates of mimetic model eggs) in these nine populations. In accordance with the hypothetical role of tolerance in the coevolutionary process between magpies and cuckoos we found geographical variation in tolerance estimates that positively covaried with prevalence of parasitism. Levels of resistance and tolerance were not associated, possibly suggesting the lack of a trade-off between the two kinds of defences against great spotted cuckoo parasitism for magpies. We discuss the results in the framework of a mosaic of coevolutionary interactions along the geographical distribution of magpies and great spotted cuckoos for which we found evidence that tolerance plays a major role.

  12. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity of Paenibacillus larvae Isolated from Tunisian Infected Honey Bee Broods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadlia Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB, a virulent disease of honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae. In Tunisia, AFB has been detected in many beekeeping areas, where it causes important economic losses, but nothing is known about the diversity of the causing agent. Seventy-five isolates of P. larvae, identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were obtained from fifteen contaminated broods showing typical AFB symptoms, collected in different locations in the northern part of the country. Using BOX-PCR, a distinct profile of P. larvae with respect to related Paenibacillus species was detected which may be useful for its identification. Some P. larvae-specific bands represented novel potential molecular markers for the species. BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated a relatively high intraspecific diversity among the isolates not described previously with several molecular polymorphisms identifying six genotypes on polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphisms were also detected in several biochemical characters (indol production, nitrate reduction, and methyl red and oxidase tests. Contrary to the relatively high intraspecies molecular and phenotypic diversity, the in vivo virulence of three selected P. larvae genotypes did not differ significantly, suggesting that the genotypic/phenotypic differences are neutral or related to ecological aspects other than virulence.

  13. Experimental research on rear collimator in γ-ray industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhifang; Liu Jinhui

    2009-01-01

    Rear collimator is one of the key components in the γ-ray industrial CT, which plays an important role in removing scattering influence and improving the CT spatial resolution. High-performance CT is always associated with a high-quality collimator. By means of experiments, this paper discusses the behavior of collimators with different shapes and structures from the aspects of detector output signal, mass attenuation coefficient of the inspected object and quality of the actual CT image. The qualitative and quantitative results are reached, which are helpful for the design of high-performance industrial CT.

  14. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  15. Evaluation of reproduction and raising offspring in a nursery-reared SPF baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budda, Madeline L; Ely, John J; Doan, Sandra; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; White, Gary L; Wolf, Roman F

    2013-08-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon-breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until 2 years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to post-partum amenorrhea 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  18. The effects of captive versus wild rearing environments on long bone articular surfaces in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Lewton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical environments of captive and wild animals frequently differ in substrate types and compliance. As a result, there is an assumption that differences in rearing environments between captive and wild individuals produce differences in skeletal morphology. Here, this hypothesis is tested using a sample of 42 captive and wild common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Articular surface areas of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia were calculated from linear breadth measurements, adjusted for size differences using Mosimann shape variables, and compared across sex and environmental groups using two-way ANOVA. Results indicate that the articular surfaces of the wrist and knee differ between captive and wild chimpanzees; captive individuals have significantly larger distal ulna and tibial plateau articular surfaces. In both captive and wild chimpanzees, males have significantly larger femoral condyles and distal radius surfaces than females. Finally, there is an interaction effect between sex and rearing in the articular surfaces of the femoral condyles and distal radius in which captive males have significantly larger surface areas than all other sex-rearing groups. These data suggest that long bone articular surfaces may be sensitive to differences experienced by captive and wild individuals, such as differences in diet, body mass, positional behaviors, and presumed loading environments. Importantly, these results only find differences due to rearing environment in some long bone articular surfaces. Thus, future work on skeletal morphology could cautiously incorporate data from captive individuals, but should first investigate potential intraspecific differences between captive and wild individuals.

  19. Effect of egg storage duration and brooding temperatures on chick growth, intestine morphology and nutrient transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G; Izzetoglu, G T

    2017-10-01

    The effects of egg storage duration (ESD) and brooding temperature (BT) on BW, intestine development and nutrient transporters of broiler chicks were investigated. A total of 396 chicks obtained from eggs stored at 18°C for 3 days (ESD3-18°C) or at 14°C for 14 days (ESD14-14°C) before incubation were exposed to three BTs. Temperatures were initially set at 32°C, 34°C and 30°C for control (BT-Cont), high (BT-High) and low (BT-Low) BTs, respectively. Brooding temperatures were decreased by 2°C each at days 2, 7, 14 and 21. Body weight was measured at the day of hatch, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. Cloacal temperatures of broilers were recorded from 1 to 14 days. Intestinal morphology and gene expression levels of H+-dependent peptide transporter (PepT1) and Na-dependent glucose (SGLT1) were evaluated on the day of hatch and 14. Cloacal temperatures of chicks were affected by BTs from days 1 to 8, being the lowest for BT-Low chicks. BT-High resulted in the heaviest BWs at 7 days, especially for ESD14-14°C chicks. This result was consistent with longer villus and larger villus area of ESD14-14°C chicks at BT-High conditions. From 14 days to slaughter age, BT had no effect on broiler weight. ESD3-18°C chicks were heavier than ESD14-14°C chicks up to 28 days. The PepT1 and SGLT1 expression levels were significantly higher in ESD3-18°C chicks than ESD14-14°C on the day of hatch. There was significant egg storage by BT interaction for PepT1 and SGLT1 transporters at day 14. ESD14-14°C chicks had significantly higher expression of PepT1 and SGLT1 at BT-Low than those at BT-Cont. ESD14-14°C chicks upregulated PepT1 gene expression 1.15 and 1.57-fold at BT-High and BT-Low, respectively, compared with BT-Cont, whereas PepT1 expression was downregulated 0.67 and 0.62-fold in ESD3-18°C chicks at BT-High and BT-Low. These results indicated that pre-incubation egg storage conditions and BTs affected intestine morphology and PepT1 and SGLT1 nutrient transporters

  20. Parental rearing practices from the perspective of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuković Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of parenting in families with adolescents. Special emphasis is placed on the exploration of the concept of parenting rearing practices through the dimensions of parental emotional warmth, control and monitoring. Based on that, starting from the standpoint about the importance of child's perception of parental behaviour, this paper presents the results of the research aimed at examining adolescents' view of parental rearing practices. The instrument used in the research consisted of three subscales (emotional warmth, monitoring, control, as well as the questions about socio-demographic variables. The sample included 154 second grade students of secondary school, i.e. adolescents. The findings have shown that adolescents perceived parental warmth as the most present and parental monitoring and control as less present parental rearing practice. Mother's parental rearing practices were perceived as significantly more present compared to those of the father. Also, it was found that the gender of respondents is a significant variable in the perception of parental rearing practices, while family characteristics (family social status, family structure, parent's educational level and the number of children in the family have not been proved as statistically significant variables. The concluding part emphasizes the need for further research of the factors that determine father's role in the family with adolescents, and the need to develop parent's awareness of the benefits related to adolescent's self-disclosure in the process of parental monitoring.

  1. Mesonia hippocampi sp. nov., isolated from the brood pouch of a diseased Barbour's Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Judy; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Wilke, Thomas; Schubert, Patrick; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-07-01

    An orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) was isolated from the brood pouch of a diseased seahorse male of the species Hippocampus barbouri from the animal facility of the University of Giessen, Germany. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) into the monophyletic cluster of the genus Mesonia within the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, the strain shared only 92.2-93.8% sequence similarity to type strains of species of the genus Mesonia, with highest sequence similarity to the type strain of Mesonia aquimarina. Cellular fatty acid analysis showed a Mesonia-typical fatty acid profile including several branched and hydroxyl fatty acids with highest amounts of iso-C15 : 0 (40.9%) followed by iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (14.8%). In the polyamine pattern, sym-homospermidine was predominant. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The quinone system contained exclusively menaquinone MK-6. The only identified compound in the polar lipid profile was phosphatidylethanolamine present in major amounts. Additionally, major amounts of an unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids not containing a phosphate group, an amino group or a sugar residue were detected. The genomic G+C content of strain 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) was 30 mol%. Based on genotypic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characterizations we propose a novel species of the genus Mesonia, Mesonia hippocampi sp. nov., with strain 96_Hippo_TS_3/13(T) ( = CIP 110839T =  LMG 28572(T) = CCM 8557(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Mesonia is also provided.

  2. Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) as an indicator of reintroduction behavior and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) has been the greatest cause of mortality of whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the reintroduced population in Florida. This study investigated whether the behavior of juvenile cranes during captive rearing and shortly after release can be used to predict their chances of survival once released in the wild. This study also examined differences in behavior based on rearing treatments and whether differences observed during rearing continued at the release site. Experimental rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (RR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Two annual cycles of cranes were observed from hatch to 20 weeks of age in captivity (n=56 birds). Post-release bebavioral data were collected at the release site for a minimum of two weeks (n=34 birds), with mortality data collected up to one year post release (n=38 birds). Behavioral time budgets were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Logistic regression was used to build a model to identify behaviors that were associated with first-year survival. During rearing, PR birds were the most vigilant. There were no behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. Generally, rearing treatments had few long-term effects on the post-release behavior of the birds. The main behavioral differences during rearing and after release were the frequency of bouts and the percentage of time spent performing different behaviors. This may be attributed to foraging strategies and adaptation from captive conditions to the wild. Survival was not related to rearing treatment. Fifty-five percent of the birds survived the first year post-release based upon data pooled over two years. During rearing, the frequency of foraging bouts was positively correlated to survival. Survival was negatively correlated to the frequency of walking bouts during rearing, and release weight of the birds. These correlations accounted for 32 percent of the variability in survival. At the release site, 20

  3. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  4. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  5. Tunisian Rearing facility a first year production constraints and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfali, M.M; Ben Salah, H.; Caceres, C.; Raies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Tunisian Medfly rearing facility is located in the north of the country in a small city named Sidi Thabet, near the capital. This facility was designed for rearing the Medfly Genetic Sexing strain (GSS). The facility has been started operations in 2003 in order to release sterile males under 6000 hectares in the north east of the country in the Cap Bon Peninsula. This programme is supported by the Tunisian government, IAEA and FAO. Male only production was not stable for the four first months, due to some constraints. The production is stabilising by the time, after the tune fine off all rearing procedures and adjustment of the environmental control system. Quality control procedures (QC) were put for each procedure of the production from eggs to adult following the procedures established in the International FAO/IAEA/USDA Fruit Flies Quality control Manual

  6. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  7. Brood pheromone effects on colony protein supplement consumption and growth in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a subtropical winter climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N

    2008-12-01

    Fatty acid esters extractable from the surface of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), larvae, called brood pheromone, significantly increase rate of colony growth in the spring and summer when flowering plant pollen is available in the foraging environment. Increased colony growth rate occurs as a consequence of increased pollen intake through mechanisms such as increasing number of pollen foragers and pollen load weights returned. Here, we tested the hypothesis that addition of brood pheromone during the winter pollen dearth period of a humid subtropical climate increases rate of colony growth in colonies provisioned with a protein supplement. Experiments were conducted in late winter (9 February-9 March 2004) and mid-winter (19 January-8 February 2005). In both years, increased brood area, number of bees, and amount of protein supplement consumption were significantly greater in colonies receiving daily treatments of brood pheromone versus control colonies. Amount of extractable protein from hypopharyngeal glands measured in 2005 was significantly greater in bees from pheromone-treated colonies. These results suggest that brood pheromone may be used as a tool to stimulate colony growth in the southern subtropical areas of the United States where the package bee industry is centered and a large proportion of migratory colonies are overwintered.

  8. Evaluation of drone brood removal for management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, N W

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, A. mellifera L., was evaluated. Colonies were treated with CheckMite+ in the fall of 2002. The following spring, quantities of bees and brood were equalized, but colonies were not retreated. The brood nest of each colony consisted of 18 full-depth worker combs and two full-depth drone combs. Each worker comb had drone cells. Standard management practices were used throughout the season. Colonies were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, drone combs remained in place throughout the season. In the treatment group, drone combs were removed on 16 June, 16 July, 16 August, and 16 September and replaced with empty drone combs (16 June) or with drone combs removed on the previous replacement date. In the early fall, the average mite-to-bee ratio in the control group was significantly greater than the corresponding ratio in the treatment group. Drone brood removal did not adversely affect colony health as measured by the size of the worker population or by honey production. Fall worker populations were similar in the two groups. Honey production in treatment colonies was greater than or similar to production in control colonies. These data demonstrate that drone brood removal can serve as a valuable component in an integrated pest management program for V. destructor and may reduce the need for other treatments on a colony-by-colony basis.

  9. A comparison of the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata:Varroidae) in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; Zamora, Luis G; Van Veen, Johan W; Quesada, Mariela V

    2007-01-01

    Colony infestation by the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor is one of the most serious problems for beekeeping worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females, enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. To test the hypothesis that, due to the preference of mites to invade drone brood to reproduce, a high proportion of the mite reproduction should occur in drone cells, a comparative study of mite reproductive rate in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) was done for 370 mites. After determining the number, developmental stage and sex of the offspring in worker cells, the foundress female mite was immediately transferred into an uninfested drone cell. Mite fertility in single infested worker and drone brood cells was 76.5 and 79.3%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2)= 0.78, P = 0.37). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring (cells that contain one live adult male and at least one adult female mite) in drone cells (38.1%) compared to worker cells (13.8%) (X(2)= 55.4, P drone cells (X(2)= 69, P drone brood.

  10. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  11. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  12. Oxidative Stress in Early Life: Associations with Sex, Rearing Conditions, and Parental Physiological Traits in Nestling Pied Flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Moreno, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conditions experienced during juvenile development can affect the fitness of an organism. During early life, oxidative stress levels can be particularly high as a result of the increased metabolism and the relatively immature antioxidant system of the individual, and this may have medium- and long-term fitness consequences. Here we explore variation in levels of oxidative stress measured during early life in relation to sex, rearing conditions (hatching date and brood size), and parental condition and levels of oxidative markers in a wild population of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) followed for 2 yr. A marker of total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells, as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]), were assessed simultaneously. Our results show that nestling total GSH levels were associated with parental oxidative status, correlating negatively with maternal MDA and positively with total GSH levels of both parents, with a high estimated heritability. This suggests that parental physiology and genes could be determinants for endogenous components of the antioxidant system of the offspring. Moreover, we found that total GSH levels were higher in female than in male nestlings and that hatching date was positively associated with antioxidant defenses (higher TAS and total GSH levels). These results suggest that different components of oxidative balance are related to a variety of environmental and intrinsic--including parental--influencing factors. Future experimental studies must disentangle the relative contribution of each of these on nestling oxidative status and how the resulting oxidative stress at early phases shape adult phenotype and fitness.

  13. Early development in the mouth-brooding cichlid fish Satanoperca pappaterra (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Miranda Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical region exhibits the largest diversity of fish worldwide; however, little is known about the early development of fish species from this region. Therefore, to contribute to this knowledge, this study aimed to morphologically describe the early stages of development (eggs, larvae and juveniles of S. pappaterra using morphometric and meristic traits, and to assess changes in growth rates throughout larval and juvenile development by analyzing the relationships between various morphometric traits using analytical regression models. Both juvenile and adult individuals with mouth-brooded offspring were collected along the basins of the Cuiabá and Manso Rivers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil between March 2000 and March 2004. After the adults were identified, the offspring were classified according to its stage (embryonic, larval or juvenile period, and various morphometric and meristic variables were individually measured (when possible. The eggs of this species are yellow in color, oval shaped, show dendritic pigmentation within their yolk, have small to moderately sized perivitelline spaces and lack a mucous membrane and oil droplets. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the sample yolks ranged from 1.43mm to 2.70mm and 1.05mm to 1.68mm, respectively. The standard length of the larval period varied from 4.30mm to 7.16mm, and the standard length of the juvenile period varied from 10.29mm to 24.57mm. Larvae exhibit yolk sacs with internal dendritic pigmentation and dark punctate pigmentation in the dorsal and ventral body regions, whereas irregular transverse spots along the flanks are observed during the juvenile period. Adhesive organs are only present during the yolk-sac stage and at the beginning of the flexion stage. The mouth is terminal during all stages of development. The myomere number varied from 22 to 29 (9 to 16 pre-anal and 10 to 16 post-anal, and the maximal numbers of fin rays and spines were as follows: dorsal

  14. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  15. Long term outcomes in 46, XX adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia reared as males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, A; Yau, M; Qamar, A; Gangishetti, P; Barhen, A; Al-Malki, S; Mistry, H; Anthony, W; Toralles, M B; New, Maria I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and whose karyotype is 46, XX are usually assigned to the female gender. Reported herein are the long term outcomes in three patients with CAH whose karyotype is 46, XX and who were reared as males. A retrospective review of three CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype who were reared as males was conducted. Gender assignment, clinical and biochemical data, pre and post-genitoplasty genital examinations were reviewed. Gender identity was tested by an extensive questionnaire. Gender role, sexual preference, marital status and sexual satisfaction were evaluated by interview. The three patients were genotyped for the CYP21A2 gene confirming the diagnosis of CAH. Owing to genital virilization, cultural preferences for male gender and the lack of newborn screening programs the three patients reported herein were assigned to the male gender at birth before the diagnosis of CAH was established. In adulthood the patients remained significantly virilized. Thorough psychosexual assessments in adulthood revealed well established male gender identities compatible with their male gender assignments at birth. In all three patients, gender role and behavior were consistent with male gender identity including sexual intercourse with female partners. The three patients reported herein revealed that male gender assignment to CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype may have a successful outcome providing there is strong parental support and expert endocrine care. No standard guidelines have been published for the gender assignment of CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype and genital ambiguity. More studies concerning gender assignment in CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype reared as males are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  17. Ecology of Arcobacter species in chicken rearing and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A; Hillman, T J; Helps, C R; Allen, V M; Corry, J E L

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether Arcobacter spp. colonize the poultry-rearing environment or whether they are contaminants acquired during transportation and/or from the processing plant. Samples were collected on poultry farms and in the processing plant during slaughter and dressing. Two cultural methods of detection were used. Isolates were identified to species level using a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method, either on the initial suspensions, or after enrichment, or on pure cultures of isolates. Of the 62 samples examined from poultry farms, arcobacters were found only outside the rearing sheds (in effluent sludge and stagnant water). Thirty-four samples were examined from the processing plant and 26 were positive for arcobacters. All the isolates were Arcobacter butzleri. Arcobacters were not found in any sample by direct plating nor by m-PCR on the initial suspensions, thus it was concluded that numbers were very low. Arcobacter spp. were not found in samples from the live birds and their immediate environment, but A. butzleri was found in effluent sludge and stagnant water outside the rearing sheds. However, A. butzleri is common in poultry abattoirs, and it appears that poultry carcasses are contaminated during processing. Arcobacters are not found inside poultry-rearing sheds, but are contaminants in the processing environment.

  18. Economics of young stock rearing decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensiveness of agriculture has contributed to environmental pollution through a higher production of waste materials. The environmental and economic pressures mean that it is nowadays important that milk is produced in a more sustainable way. The young stock rearing enterprise also

  19. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  20. Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Petro

    1961-01-01

    The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection…

  1. Production performance of pigs reared in different systems and fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental material comprised 90 growing-finishing pigs, divided into six groups of 15 animals that were diverse in terms of rearing (with or without free access to outdoor runs) and feeding systems (fed increased metabolizable energy (ME) content diets with or without green alfalfa). Different feeding regimes and ...

  2. Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood metabolites of intensively reared gravid west African dwarf goats fed pulverized biofibre wastes based diets. ... packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), while goats on PMC/CsP/BG had significantly increased (p<0.05) white blood cell (WBC).

  3. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  4. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  5. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  6. Improving yaw dynamics by feedforward rear wheel steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Veldhuizen, T.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Active rear wheel steering can be applied to improve vehicle yaw dynamics. In this paper two possible control algorithms are discussed. The first method is a yaw rate feedback controller with a reference model, which has been reported in a similar form previously in literature. The second controller

  7. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  8. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in

  9. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  10. Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... farm reared periwinkles from brackish water earthen pond Buguma, Nigeria ... the enumeration of indicator organisms and other pathogens as well as their total counts. ... The boiled shell-on periwinkle sample had the highest level of microbial growth.

  11. Child-Rearing Practices of Two Generations of Punjabi Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…

  12. Broiler breeders should not be reared on long photoperiods | Lewis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial compared the responses of four broiler breeder genotypes to a typical lighting programme advocated for birds in lightproof housing with the provision of 14-h photoperiods to 20 weeks and 16 h in lay. The long-day rearing resulted in a 26-d delay in sexual maturation, seven fewer eggs to 60 weeks, a 2.5-g ...

  13. Positive Adjustment in Parents Rearing Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2000-01-01

    Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…

  14. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  15. Declining Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Andrew Cox

    Full Text Available Many songbird species have experienced significant population declines, partly because of brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater, which is positively associated with increasing landscape forest cover in the midwestern United States. However, cowbirds are also experiencing long-term population declines, which should reduce parasitism pressure and thus increase productivity of host species. We used 20 years of nest monitoring data from five sites in Missouri across a gradient of landscape forest cover to assess temporal trends in the rate and intensity of brood parasitism for Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea, and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis. We evaluated whether there were concomitant changes in fledging brood size, nest survival, a combination of the two metrics (i.e., host young produced per nest attempt, and whether such changes were more substantial with decreasing landscape forest cover. Parasitism rates and intensities declined substantially during 1991-2010. Fledging brood size and nest survival rates were positively associated with landscape forest cover, confirming the fragmentation hypothesis for Midwest forest birds. Declining parasitism rates were associated with increased fledging brood sizes, with more pronounced increases as landscape forest cover decreased. Nest survival increased insubstantially across time during laying and incubation, but not during the nestling stage. The best predictor of nest survival was parasitism status, with parasitized nests surviving at lower rates than unparasitized nests. Overall, productivity increased during 1991-2010, with more pronounced increases associated with lower levels of landscape forest cover. The negative effects of cowbirds on nest survival in addition to fledging brood size in less forested landscapes suggest that cowbirds may be a primary cause of forest fragmentation effects on songbird productivity in the

  16. A new species of brooding Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from deep-sea off Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mariano I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a new species of Psolus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), P. lawrencei sp. nov., (19 specimens) found in the deep sea (308-1398 m) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWAO) (around 38°S-54°W) with brooders (up to 3.15 mm) in the tentacles of females and a penis-like genital papilla on males. The presence of dorsal scales, the concave shape of the ossicles with a bridge, the distribution of podia on the dorsal side and the absence of large and conspicuous oral and anal valves are unique for this species. Furthermore, this is the first species of this genus found outside Antarctica that broods between its tentacles. The paper also reviews the reproductive, brooding development and morphological characteristics of P. lawrencei sp. nov. and compares them with those of several members of the family Psolidae. Finally, a possible connectivity between the deep-sea populations in the SWAO and in Antarctica is considered based on the appearance of a similar reproductive pattern in populations found in both areas, which suggests a past or present connection between these regions.

  17. Study effects sublethal concentration of diazinon on testis, brain and heart of Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, 1901 male brood stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Nejad Shamoushaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of toxic pesticides, Diazinon (60% emulsion on the some tissues of (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky, 1901 male brood stocks were studied. The test were studied under static water quality conditions at 15 °C ± 2 ºC in winter and spring 2009. The effective physical and chemical parameters of water were pH= 7-8.2, dh= 300 mg/L (caco3, DO= 7 ppm and T= 15 °C±2 ºC. LC50 96h pesticide Diazinon on the first 0.4 mg/L was determined and then fish were exposed by the toxin with 3 concentrations, MAC value, LC1, LC5, and a control with three replicates for 45 days. Pathology results showed toxin diazinon no effect on average weight and fish body length, the average weight of heart and brain but caueses decrease of gonad weigth and gonad index and also, cause complications of atrophy, fibrosis and necrosis in testis , vascular congestion, increased distance between the myocardium and fibrous string in heart and neuronal loss, vascular congestion and edema in the brain of kutum male brood stocks.

  18. Reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, from shallow to mesophotic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Wong, Kevin H.; Becker, Danielle M.; Glennon, Keegan; de Putron, Samantha J.

    2018-06-01

    Early life history traits of brooding corals are often affected by the environmental conditions experienced by parental colonies. Such parental effects can impact offspring survival, which influences the overall success of a population as well as resilience to environmental challenges. This study examines the reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral Porites astreoides across a depth gradient in Bermuda. Fecundity, larval size, larval Symbiodinium density, and settlement success, as well as post-metamorphic juvenile survival, growth, and Symbiodinium density were compared across three reef sites representing an inshore patch reef (2-5 m), an offshore rim reef (8-10 m), and an upper-mesophotic reef (30-33 m). Although fecundity did not differ across sites, larvae produced by colonies on the patch reef site were smaller, had lower Symbiodinium densities, and had lower rates of settlement and juvenile survival compared to larvae from colonies on the rim and upper-mesophotic reef sites. Larvae produced by colonies from the rim and upper-mesophotic sites did not differ in size or Symbiodinium densities; however, rates of settlement, growth, and survival were higher for larvae from the upper-mesophotic site compared to those from the rim reef site. These results indicate that offspring quality and success vary among sites with differing environmental conditions and may imply higher recruitment potential and resilience for upper-mesophotic corals.

  19. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  20. Community-Based Child-Rearing Support for Families : Based on an Investigation in Sapporo, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Haruka

    2017-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a high proportion of mothers who take care of their children at home and the problem of child-rearing anxiety and social isolation among them, the Japanese government has currently expanded child-rearing support via the Community-based Child-rearing Support Centers (CCSCs). They are open spaces for infants and parents in the community, where they can gather freely, communicate with each other, and share their anxieties and worries related to child rearing. ...

  1. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  2. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  3. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent...

  4. Captive rearing initiative for Salmon River chinook salmon; Report period: January 1998-January 1999; Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassemer, Peter; Kline, Paul; Heindel, Jeff; Plaster, Kurtis

    1999-01-01

    The IDFG initiated a captive rearing program for populations at high risk of extinction to maintain metapopulation structure. Captive rearing is a short-term approach to species preservation. The main goal of the captive rearing approach is to avoid demographic and environmental risks of cohort extinction; maintaining the genetic identity of the breeding unit is an important but secondary objective

  5. Lazy males and hardworking females? Sexual conflict over parental care in a brood parasite host and its consequences for chick growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Beňo, Radovan; Procházka, Petr; Jelínek, Václav; Abraham, Marek Mihai; Honza, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1061 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * Feeding * Parental investment * Social polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2015

  6. Food poisoning associated with ingestion of wild wasp broods in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tian

    2018-04-01

    Food poisoning due to wild wasp broods ingestion has long been noted in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical features of the poisoning and possible causes. Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed to produce demographic data on patients, information on clinical presentations, wasp species identification, and estimations of possible risk factors for symptomatic cases. Eleven poisoning events were associated with the ingestion of wild wasp broods, including 46 exposed persons with 31 symptomatic living cases and 8 deceased cases that were reported in the Yunnan province between 2008 and 2016. Poisoning cases were only detected in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley in the autumn. The severity of the symptoms was correlated with an evident dose-effect relationship regarding the quantity ingested. The mean latent period from wild wasp broods ingestion to the onset of the symptoms was 10 h for symptomatic living cases and 7 h for deceased cases, respectively. Both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were commonly observed in the poisoning cases. The toxin source may be indirectly caused by the wasp broods due to the prevalence of local poisonous plants, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Educational programs at the start of wasp harvest season in September in the high-risk area should be carried out to reduce the incidence of poisonings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brood removal or queen caging combined with oxalic acid treatment to control varroa mites (Varroa destructor) in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies of honey bee colonies exist where varroa mite control is achieved by integrating broodless conditions, through either total brood removal or queen caging, in combination with oxalic acid (OA) applications. We observed significant varroa mortality after applications of OA in obtaining bro...

  8. Discordancy or template-based recognition? Dissecting the cognitive basis of the rejection of foreign eggs in hosts of avian brood parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Ban, Miklos; Szekely, Tamas; Komdeur, Jan; Lucassen, Rim W. G.; van Boheemen, Lotte A.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Many avian hosts have evolved antiparasite defence mechanisms, including egg rejection, to reduce the costs of brood parasitism. The two main alternative cognitive mechanisms of egg discrimination are thought to be based on the perceived discordancy of eggs in a clutch or the use of recognition

  9. The effects of selection on low mortality and brooding by a mother hen on open-field response, feather pecking and cannibalism in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Ellen, E.D.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selection on low mortality in combination with brooding by a mother hen on open-field response at 5-6 weeks of age and on plumage and body condition at 42 weeks of age. Birds in the experiment were either selected for low mortality in

  10. Effects of Paternal Predation Risk and Rearing Environment on Maternal Investment and Development of Defensive Responses in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detecting past experiences with predators of a potential mate informs a female about prevailing ecological threats, in addition to stress-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to offspring. We examined whether prior exposure of a male rat to a predator (cat) odor influences the attraction of a female toward a male, subsequent mother–infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring. Females displayed less interest in males that had experienced predator odor. Mothers that reared young in larger, seminaturalistic housing provided more licking and grooming and active arched back-nursing behavior toward their offspring compared with dams housed in standard housing, although some effects interacted with paternal experience. Paternal predation risk and maternal rearing environment revealed sex-dependent differences in offspring wean weight, juvenile social interactions, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescence. Additionally, paternal predator experience and maternal housing independently affected variations in crf gene promoter acetylation and crf gene expression in response to an acute stressor in offspring. Our results show for the first time in mammals that variation among males in their predator encounters may contribute to stable behavioral variation among females in preference for mates and maternal care, even when the females are not directly exposed to predator threat. Furthermore, when offspring were exposed to the same threat experienced by the father, hypothalamic crf gene regulation was influenced by paternal olfactory experience and early housing. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that paternal stress exposure and maternal rearing conditions can influence maternal behavior and the development of defensive responses in offspring. PMID:27896313

  11. Physico- chemical study of Ceratitis capitata rearing diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sghiri, Mohamed Ali; Maddouri Fakri

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of the microbial growth in the rearing diet of ceratitis capitata made it possible to increase the productivity in pupae. The follow-up of the microbial load and the physicochemical parameters of the diets used with varous microbial inhibitors (potassium sorbate in combination with sodium benzoate with varous amounts, on the one hand, and of another share, nipagine in combination with sodium benzoate also with varous amounts) during a rearing of ceratitis capitata on the laboratory scale made it possible to select the diet D as being the most favorable diet. Indeed, a stability of the physico chemical parameters as well as a weak evolution of the microbial load are noted in this diet. (author). 16 refs

  12. Design of a rear anamorphic attachment for digital cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, A.; Valles, A.

    2008-09-01

    Digital taking systems for HDTV and now for the film industry present a particularly challenging design problem for rear adapters in general. The thick 3-channel prism block in the camera provides an important challenge in the design. In this paper the design of a 1.33x rear anamorphic attachment is presented. The new design departs significantly from the traditional Bravais condition due to the thick dichroic prism block. Design strategies for non-rotationally symmetric systems and fields of view are discussed. Anamorphic images intrinsically have a lower contrast and less resolution than their rotationally symmetric counterparts, therefore proper image evaluation must be considered. The interpretation of the traditional image quality methods applied to anamorphic images is also discussed in relation to the design process. The final design has a total track less than 50 mm, maintaining the telecentricity of the digital prime lens and taking full advantage of the f/1.4 prism block.

  13. Rearing of germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Kaneuchi, Choji.

    1977-01-01

    A method of rearing germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator was developed, Hatchability of eggs was higher than 95% when eggs were sterilized in a 1.5% mercuric chloride solution on the 2nd day before hatching. Sterility was 93% when 5 to 10 chicks were reared in a vinyl isolator for 2 weeks. Depression of body weight gain was observed in chicks fed diet irradiated at higher than 4 Mrad. However, no effects of irradiation on chick growth were observed when fat and the other components were sterilized separately and mixed before feeding. The growth rates of germfree chicks were higher than those of the conventional chicks which were supplied a diluted solution of fresh cecum feces of young hens with a normal intestinal flora pattern at the first feeding. (auth.)

  14. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  15. [Book review] Cowbirds and Other Brood Parasites by Catherine Ortega. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press (1998). The Avian Brood Parasites: Deception at the Nest by Paul A. Johnsgard. New York: Oxford University Press (1997) Parasitic Birds and their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution edited by S.I. Rothstein & S.K. Robinson. New York: Oxford University Press (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    We are in a golden age for the study of brood parasitism, judging from both the quantity and quality of recent scientific publications on cuckoos, cowbirds and parasitic finches by investigators working in Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia. As Johnsgard (1997) remarks in his preface, the evolutionary, ecological, and behavioural questions posed by obligate brood parasites are among the most intriguing contemporary ornithological topics. Rothstein & Robinson (1998) explain that brood parasites make ideal subjects for testing the generality of models for the evolution of social and mating behaviour, foraging behaviour, spatial distribution, and vocal development, because the strategy of providing no parental care removes constraints imposed on other birds. Since Aristotle, people have been fascinated by brood parasites, but only in the past two decades has the number of investigators working on this topic reached a critical mass and created momentum that promises many breakthroughs. New studies are being completed so rapidly that a general book is inevitably out of date on some topics by the time it is published. A complete library on brood parasitism should add two recent volumes (Morrison et al. 1999; Smith et al., in press).to the three reviewed here.

  16. Predation on hatchery-reared lobsters released in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meeren, Gro

    2000-01-01

    Predation on hatchery-reared lobsters (Homarus gammarus) in the wild was studied in order to identify predators in southwestern Norway on rocky and sandy substrates in winter and summer. Lobsters of 12–15 mm carapace length were tagged with magnetic microtags. About 51 000 juvenile lobsters were released on 10 occasions at three locations. Predator samplings were by trammel nets, eel traps, and videorecordings during the 24 h immediately following the releases. In summer, loss to ...

  17. Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days, influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

  18. Laboratory Rearing of the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Maruca vitrata is a major pest of mung bean (Vigna mungo) (Zahid et al.,. 2008) which is locally ... eggs were placed in a plastic container for hatching to provide the first laboratory ... (10.1 + 0.2). A sex ratio (M: F) of 1:1 was observed in both diets. .... because the success in rearing of M. vitrata in laboratory relies heavily on.

  19. The Effect of Temperature on Synchronization of Brood Development of the Bopyrid Isopod Parasite Probopyrus pandalicola with Molting of Its Host, the Daggerblade Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Brigette A; Curran, Mary Carla

    2015-08-01

    The bopyrid isopod Probopyrus pandalicola is a hematophagous ectoparasite that sexually sterilizes some palaemonid shrimps, including female daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The reproduction of parasitic isopods is thought to occur synchronously with host molting because the brood would be unsuccessful if molting occurred before the larvae were free swimming. Temperature affects the length of the molting cycle of shrimp, and therefore may also affect the incubation time of isopod broods. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of temperature on brood development of the parasite and on the degree of synchronization with the molting of its host. Parasitized P. pugio were monitored daily at 2 experimental temperatures, 23 and 15 C, in temperature-controlled chambers for the duration of a full parasite reproductive cycle. Developmental stage was determined by the visible coloration of the brood through the exoskeleton of the host, and was designated as egg, embryo I, embryo II, or epicaridium larvae. Temperature significantly affected median brood incubation time, which was only 11 days at 23 C, as compared to 35 days at 15 C. The final developmental stage (epicaridium larvae) was 3 times shorter at 23 C (median 3 days; n = 45) than at 15 C (median 9 days; n = 15). Temperature significantly affected the intermolt period of parasitized shrimp, which was shorter at 23 C (median 12 days) than at 15 C (median 37 days). A smaller percentage of the intermolt period elapsed between larval release and shrimp molting at 23 C (0.0%) than at 15 C (3.1%), indicating closer synchronization between host molting and parasite reproduction at the warmer temperature. At 15 C, the isopods utilized a smaller proportion of the time that was available for brood incubation during the intermolt period of their host. Brood size ranged from 391 to 4,596 young and was positively correlated with parasite and host size. Because development progressed more rapidly

  20. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress Biomarkers in Vanaraja Chicken Maintained Under Various Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is of major concern for poultry industry because it exerts deleterious effects on different parameters like feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weight gain, etc. In present study various enzymatic viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and non-enzymatic components like reduced glutathione (GSH, hemoglobin and stress induced cellular damage i.e. lipid peroxidation was estimated to access the stress level in Vanaraja chickens reared under various rearing systems during summer. Significantly (p<0.05 increased activities of CAT and SOD was observed in deep litter system as compared to cage and semi-intensive rearing system. However, non-significant change in CAT and significantly increased activity of SOD was observed as the age progress. GSH-Px activity significantly lower (p<0.05 in the deep litter as compared to other systems, however, the activity increases significantly (p<0.05 at 8th wks as compared to 4th wks. GSH level was found maximum in cage system compared to deep litter and semi-intensive system. Non-significant changes were observed in hemoglobin concentration during study both between age groups as well as the age progresses. Observations of the study suggested that cage system is better than deep litter and semi-intensive system in handling the stress induced by different environmental factors.

  2. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison......Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... bordering the north water polynya in high Arctic northwest Greenland, and from this main breeding area very little is known on foraging behavior. Little auks are feeding on lipid-rich copepods associated with cold artic waters, and are potentially important for monitoring and assessing the impact...

  3. Importance of brood maintenance terms in simple models of the honeybee - Varroa destructor - acute bee paralysis virus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple mathematical model of the infestation of a honeybee colony by the Acute Paralysis Virus, which is carried by parasitic varroa mites (Varroa destructor. This is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the dependent variables: number of mites that carry the virus, number of healthy bees and number of sick bees. We study this model with a mix of analytical and computational techniques. Our results indicate that, depending on model parameters and initial data, bee colonies in which the virus is present can, over years, function seemingly like healthy colonies before they decline and disappear rapidly (e.g. Colony Collapse Disorder, wintering losses. This is a consequence of the fact that a certain number of worker bees is required in a colony to maintain and care for the brood, in order to ensure continued production of new bees.

  4. Fine-scale analysis of genetic structure in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, E.; Tollrian, R.; Nürnberger, B.

    2009-09-01

    The dispersal of gametes and larvae plays a key role in the population dynamics of sessile marine invertebrates. Species with internal fertilisation are often associated with very localised larval dispersal, which may cause small-scale patterns of neutral genetic variation. This study on the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea focused on the smallest possible scale: Two S. hystrix stands (~100 colonies each) near Dahab were completely sampled, mapped and analysed at five microsatellite markers. The sexual mode of reproduction, the likely occurrence of selfing and the level of immigration were in agreement with previous studies on this species. Contrary to previous findings, both stands were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Also, no evidence for spatially restricted larval dispersal within the sampled areas was found. Differences between this and previous studies on S. hystrix could reflect variation in life history or varying environmental conditions, which opens intriguing questions for future research.

  5. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  6. Distribution and female reproductive state differences in orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons in the brain of the mouth brooding African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Danielle T; Roberts, David A; Maruska, Karen P

    2017-10-01

    Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths. To test the hypothesis that candidate neuropeptide-containing neurons known to be involved in feeding and energy homeostasis in mammals show conserved distribution patterns, we performed immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to localize appetite-stimulating (neuropeptide Y, NPY; agouti-related protein, AGRP) and appetite-inhibiting (cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART; pro-opiomelanocortin, pomc1a) neurons in the brain. NPY, AGRP, CART, and pomc1a somata showed distribution patterns similar to other teleosts, which included localization to the lateral tuberal nucleus (NLT), the putative homolog of the mammalian arcuate nucleus. Gravid females also had larger NPY and AGRP neurons in the NLT compared to brooding females, but brooding females had larger pomc1a neurons compared to gravid females. Hypothalamic agrp mRNA levels were also higher in gravid compared to brooding females. Thus, larger appetite-stimulating neurons (NPY, AGRP) likely promote feeding while females are gravid, while larger pomc1a neurons may act as a signal to inhibit food intake during mouth brooding. Collectively, our data suggest a potential role for NPY, AGRP, POMC, and CART in regulating energetic status in A. burtoni females during varying metabolic and reproductive demands. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of head rotation in whiplash-type rear impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge is increasing about the electromyographic and kinematic response of the neck muscles to rear impact, and also recent information is available on the effect of a rear impact offset to the left (posterolateral). The effect of head rotation, however, at the time of rear impact is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of head rotation to the left and right on the cervical muscle response to increasing low-velocity posterolateral impacts. Twenty healthy volunteers were subjected to rear impacts of 4.7, 8.3, 10.9 and 13.7 m/s2 acceleration, offset by 45 degrees to the subject's left, with head rotation to right and left. Bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii and splenii capitis were recorded. Triaxial accelerometers recorded the acceleration of the sled, torso at the shoulder level, and head of the participant. With the head rotated to the right, at an acceleration of 13.7 m/s2, the left sternocleidomastoid generated 59% and the right sternocleidomastoid 20% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) electromyogram (EMG). Under these conditions, the remaining muscles (both splenii capitis and trapezius) generated 25% or less of their MVC. With the head rotated to the left, at an acceleration of 13.7 m/s2, the right sternocleidomastoid generated 65% and the left sternocleidomastoid only 11% of the MVC EMG. Under these conditions, again the remaining muscles had low EMG activity (27% or less) with the exception of the left trapezius which generated 47% of its MVC. Electromyographic variables were significantly affected by the levels of acceleration (pfactor in determining the muscle response to whiplash, but head rotation at the time of impact is also important in this regard. More specifically, when a rear impact is left posterolateral, it results in increased EMG generation mainly in the contralateral sternocleidomastoid, as expected, but head rotation at the same time in this type of impact reduces the EMG

  8. Diversity and Petrogenesis of Bonin Rear-Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.; Gill, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu Bonin subduction zone has a history of abundant rhyolite production that is relevant to the development of intermediate to silicic middle crust. This study presents major and trace elemental compositions (via electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) of unaltered volcanic glass and phenocrysts from select medium- to high-K tephra intervals from IODP Site 1437 (Expedition 350, Izu Bonin Rear Arc). These data provide a time-resolved record of regional explosive magmatism ( 4.4Ma to present). Tephra from Site 1437 is basaltic to rhyolitic glass with accompanying phenocrysts, including hornblende. Glass compositions form a medium-K magmatic series with LREE enrichment (LaN/YbN = 2.5-6) whose trace element ratios and isotopic compositions are distinct from magmas with similar SiO2 contents in the main Izu Bonin volcanic front. Other workers have shown progressive enrichment in K and other trace element ratios moving from volcanic front westwards through the extensional region to the western seamounts in the rear arc. The <4.4 Ma rear-arc rhyolites from Site 1437 show pronounced negative Eu anomalies, high LaN/SmN (2-3.5), Ba/La <25 and Th of 1.5-4 ppm. These rhyolites show the highest variability for a given SiO2 content among all rear-arc magmas (rhyolites have 1.5-3.5 wt% K2O, Zr/Y of 1-8, LaN of 5-9 ppm) consistent with variability in literature reports of other rhyolite samples dredged from surrounding seamounts. Rhyolites have been dredged from several nearby seamounts with other high-K rhyolites dredged as close as nearby Meireki Seamount ( 3.8 Ma) and further afield in the Genroku seamount chain ( 1.88 Ma), which we compare to Site 1437 rhyolites. An extremely low-K rhyolite sill (13.6 Ma) was drilled lower in the section at Site U1437, suggesting that the mechanism for producing rhyolites in the Western Seamounts region changed over time. Rhyolites are either produced by differentiation of mafic magmas, by melting of pre-existing arc crust (as hypothesized in

  9. Experience in Rearing Common Carder Bees (Bombus pascuorum Scop., with Some Notes on Three Similar Species: Shrill Carder Bee (B. sylvarum L., Red-shanked Carder Bee (B. ruderarius Müll., and Brown-banded Carder Bee (B. humilis Ill. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Ptáček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearing method under controlled conditions known for Bombus terrestris was successful in initiating egg-laying for 83% of B. pascuorum queens. After larvae had hatched, fresh pollen pellets needed to be inserted into brood pockets daily. After the first workers had emerged, colony development was advanced by placing them outdoors and supplying them with a sugar solution and pollen. The bees were able to use tightly pressed pollen from small plastic pots inserted near the brood. This feeding resulted in large colonies that produced dozens of young queens. In contrast, colonies managed in the laboratory were unable to utilize pollen in a similar manner. They raised only a few workers and several queens. Mating young queens was easy. It was stimulated by daylight, but in the case of B. humilis by direct sunshine. Several B. pascuorum and B. sylvarum queens were overwintered and began the new generation under artificial conditions. However, a lack of fresh pollen limited the development of colonies outside of the vegetation period.

  10. FITNESS CONSEQUENCES OF PARENTAL BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO OFFSPRING NUMBER IN A PRECOCIAL SPECIES - THE LESSER SNOW GOOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLIAMS, TD; LOONEN, MJJE; COOKE, F

    We investigated the relationship between parental behavior and brood size, and the consequences of this relationship in terms of parental fitness (timing of molt and body mass at onset of molt in same year as breeding, and probability of return, timing of breeding, and clutch size in following year)

  11. CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF LIVER AND REPRODUCTION ABILITY OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN A IN FORMULATED FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet on the fatty acid composition of esterified cholesterol of liver and reproduction ability of brood carp females and males. Methodology. The experiment was conducted in pre-spawning period using three groups of brood carp. The control group of carp received standard granulated feed. Experimental groups of brood carps additionally received retynilatsetat in the composition of the above-mentioned fodder. Findings. It was found that the liver of females and males of brood carp of experimental groups, which received vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of feed in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period had shown a dose-dependent reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. At the same time, the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Originality. For the first time it was found that the liver of brood carp females and males, which received increased quantities of vitamin A in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had the reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid

  12. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  13. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  14. Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrejola, Elias; Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50±0.06) μm/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

  15. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social enrichment during postnatal development induces transgenerational effects on emotional and reproductive behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Curley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Across species there is evidence that the quality of the early social environment can have a profound impact on neurobiology and behavior. In the present study we explore the effect of communal rearing conditions (3 dams with 3 litters per cage during the postnatal period on offspring (F1 and grand-offspring (F2 anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. Females rearing pups in communal nests exhibited increased levels of postpartum maternal care and communal rearing was found to abolish sex-differences in weaning weights. In adulthood, communally reared offspring were observed to display reduced anxiety-like behavior when placed in a novel environment. When rearing their own offspring under standard conditions, communally reared females demonstrated higher levels of motivation to retrieve pups, built higher quality nests, and exhibited higher levels of postpartum care compared to standard reared females. When exposed to an intruder male, communally reared females were more subordinate and less aggressive. F2 offspring of communally reared females were observed to engage in reduced anxiety-like behavior, have larger litter sizes and an increased frequency of nursing on day PND 1. Analysis of neuropeptide receptor levels suggest that a communal rearing environment may exert sustained effects on behavior through modification of oxytocin and vasopressin (V1a receptor densities. Though Balb-C mice are often considered “socially-incompetent” and high in anxiety-like behavior, our findings suggest that through enrichment of the postnatal environment, these behavioral and neuroendocrine deficits may be attenuated both within and across generations.

  17. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT REAR KNEE ANGLES ON KINEMATICS IN THE SPRINT START

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milanese

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the rear knee angle range in the set position that allows sprinters to reach greater propulsion on the rear block during the sprint start. Eleven university-track team sprinters performed the sprint start using three rear knee angle conditions: 90°, 115° and 135°. A motion capture system consisting of 8 digital cameras (250 Hz was used to record kinematic parameters at the starting block phase and the acceleration phase. The following variables were considered: horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (COM, COM height, block time, pushing time on the rear block, percentage of pushing time on the rear block, force impulse, push-off angle and length of the first two strides. The main results show that first, horizontal block velocity is significantly greater at 90° vs 115° and 135° rear knee angle (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively at block clearance and the first two strides; second, during the pushing phase, the percentage of pushing time of the rear leg is significantly greater at 90° vs 135° rear knee angle (p<0.01. No significant difference was found for block time among the conditions. These results indicate that block velocity is the main kinematic parameter affected by rear knee angle during the starting block phase and acceleration phase. Furthermore, the 90° rear knee angle allows for a better push-off of the rear leg than larger angles at the set position. The findings of this study provide some direction and useful practical advice in defining an efficient rear leg biomechanical configuration at the set position.

  19. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  20. Repeatability of host female and male aggression towards a brood parasite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Samaš, P.; Honza, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 10 (2013), s. 907-917 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cuckoo Cuculus canorus * Great reed warblers * Nest defense * Behavioral syndromes * Plumage polymorphism * Enemy recognition * Potential hosts * Practical guide * Zebra finches Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2013

  1. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  2. Attitudes toward child rearing in female clinical nurses working in three shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The balance between child-rearing and work may be one of the most challenging issues facing female clinical nurses, particularly those who work in three shifts. This study aimed to identify attitudes toward child-rearing in this particular cohort, female clinical nurses working three shifts. Q methodology, a research method concerned with individuals' subjective points of view, was used. Thirty-five selected Q statements from 51 participants were divided into a normal distribution using a nine-point bipolar scale, and the collected data were analyzed using the QUANL program. Three discrete factors emerged: Factor I: child-rearing is natural work (child-rearing and work are separate); Factor II: child-rearing is hard work (child-rearing and work are in conflict); and Factor III: child-rearing requires help from someone (child-rearing and work are balanced). The subjective viewpoints of the three identified factors can be applied to develop diverse strategies to support child-rearing in female clinical nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    OpenAIRE

    E. Supriyono; E. Purwanto; N.B.P. Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere...

  4. [Parent's perspective on child rearing and corporal punishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Miguir Terezinha Vieccelli; Ricas, Janete

    2009-02-01

    To describe parents' current perception of corporal punishment associated to child rearing and its practices. There were studied 31 family members whose children were warded due to child abuse complaints (12) and not warded (19) at a health care unit and a local social service unit in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil) in 2006. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and speech analysis was performed grouped by subjects and categories. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSE: There was limitation of the respondents' speeches based on their production means. There was a diversity of conceptions on child rearing and its practices and corporal punishment was reported by all parents, even among those who expressed strong disapproval of this practice. Speeches were characterized by heterogeneity and polyphony with emphasis on the tradition speech, the religious speech and the popular scientific speech. Respondents did not express concepts of legal interdiction of corporal punishment or its excesses. The culture of corporal punishment of children is changing; tradition approving it has weakened and prohibition has been slowly adopted. Reinforcing legal actions against this practice can contribute to speed up the process to end corporal punishment of children.

  5. Effect of rear end spoiler angle of a sedan car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashud, Mohammad; Das, Rubel Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Automotive vehicle's performance, safety, maneuverability can be influenced by multi-disciplinary factors such as car engine, tires, aerodynamics, and ergonomics of design. With the recent years, inflation in the fuel prices & the demand to have reduced greenhouse emissions has played a significant role in redefining the car aerodynamics. The shape of the vehicle uses about 3% of fuel to overcome the resistance in urban driving, while it takes 11% of fuel for the highway driving. This considerable high value of fuel usage in highway driving attracts several design engineers to enhance the aerodynamics of the vehicle using minimal design changes. Besides, automotive vehicles have become so much faster experiencing uplift force which creates unexpected accidents. This brings the idea of using external devices, which could be attached to the present vehicle without changing the body. This paper is based on the design, developments and numeral calculation of the effects of external device, which will be spoiler that mounted at the rear side of the sedan car to make the present vehicles more aerodynamically attractive. The influence of rear spoiler on the generated lift, drag, and pressure distributions are investigated and reported using commercially available Autodesk Simulation CFD software tool.

  6. Jamaican child-rearing practices: the role of corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    The family is the most prominent social group that exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental violence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like the United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, child-rearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines the child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being.

  7. Current research progresses on calf rearing and nutrition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Qi-yu; ZhAng Rong; Tu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Calves are the reserve forces for dairy cattle. Scientific rearing strategy of calves is the basis of efficient cattle breeding. However, many problems exist in current rearing systems of calves and restrict the sustainable development of dairy cattle in China. The absence of basic research is the most highlighted problem among them. Recent researches on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical indices and rumen development in calves were summarized in this paper. Additionally, the optimal levels of energy and protein in milk replacer and starter diets for calves were indicated, and limiting amino acids for calves fed different diets were discussed. A variety of additives, such as acidifiers, probiotics and polysaccharides, are regarded as promising alternatives to antibiotics to reduce disease in calves. Dietary supplementations of these additives have positive effects on growth and health of calves. However, studies on the nutrition of vitamins and minerals in calves have been seldom done, and deserve our further researches. To sum up, the postnatal period is one of the most critical "windows" for rumen manipulation and epigenetic regulation. Any changes from environments, especially early nutrition, may produce long-term effects on growth, health and milk yields in adult cattle.

  8. Floodplain farm fields provide novel rearing habitat for Chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob V E Katz

    Full Text Available When inundated by floodwaters, river floodplains provide critical habitat for many species of fish and wildlife, but many river valleys have been extensively leveed and floodplain wetlands drained for flood control and agriculture. In the Central Valley of California, USA, where less than 5% of floodplain wetland habitats remain, a critical conservation question is how can farmland occupying the historical floodplains be better managed to improve benefits for native fish and wildlife. In this study fields on the Sacramento River floodplain were intentionally flooded after the autumn rice harvest to determine if they could provide shallow-water rearing habitat for Sacramento River fall-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Approximately 10,000 juvenile fish (ca. 48 mm, 1.1 g were reared on two hectares for six weeks (Feb-March between the fall harvest and spring planting. A subsample of the fish were uniquely tagged to allow tracking of individual growth rates (average 0.76 mm/day which were among the highest recorded in fresh water in California. Zooplankton sampled from the water column of the fields were compared to fish stomach contents. The primary prey was zooplankton in the order Cladocera, commonly called water fleas. The compatibility, on the same farm fields, of summer crop production and native fish habitat during winter demonstrates that land management combining agriculture with conservation ecology may benefit recovery of native fish species, such as endangered Chinook salmon.

  9. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Jr. José Carlos Vieira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees are more tolerant of infestations with the mite Varroa jacobsoni than are honey bees of European origin. The capacity of these bees to detect and react to brood infested with this mite could be one of the factors determining this tolerance. We tested colonies of Africanized bees headed by queens from swarms collected in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. The Italian colonies had queens imported directly from the USA, or from the Brazilian Island of Fernando de Noronha, where varroa-infested Italian colonies have been maintained, untreated, since 1984. Recently sealed worker brood cells were artificially infested by opening the cell capping, inserting live adult female mites and resealing the cells. Control cells were treated in the same way, but without introducing mites. The ability of the Africanized honey bees to recognize and remove this artificially infested brood was compared with that of first generation Italian/Africanized hybrid bees, and with the two groups of "pure" Italian bees, in three separate experiments. Africanized colonies removed a mean of 51% of the infested brood, while Italian/Africanized hybrid colonies removed 25%. Africanized colonies also removed a significantly greater proportion of infested brood than did Italian colonies, headed by queens from the USA (59 vs. 31%, respectively. Similarly, when Africanized colonies were compared with colonies of Italian bees from Fernando de Noronha, the former were found to be significantly more efficient at removing infested brood (61 vs. 35%, respectively, even though the population of Italian bees on this island has been exposed to and survived varroa infestations (without treatment for more than 12 years. Only the Africanized honey bees removed a significant proportion of varroa-infested brood, when the data was corrected for brood removal from control cells.

  10. Strain Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Different Nose Shapes of Projectile Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Gyuyong; Kim, Hongseop; Son, Minjae; Choe, Gyeongcheol; Nam, Jeongsoo

    2018-03-09

    This study evaluates the fracture properties and rear-face strain distribution of nonreinforced and hooked steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels penetrated by projectiles of three different nose shapes: sharp, hemispherical, and flat. The sharp projectile nose resulted in a deeper penetration because of the concentration of the impact force. Conversely, the flat projectile nose resulted in shallower penetrations. The penetration based on different projectile nose shapes is directly related to the impact force transmitted to the rear face. Scabbing can be more accurately predicted by the tensile strain on the rear face of concrete due to the projectile nose shape. The tensile strain on the rear face of the concrete was reduced by the hooked steel fiber reinforcement because the hooked steel fiber absorbed some of the impact stress transmitted to the rear face of the concrete. Consequently, the strain behavior on the rear face of concrete according to the projectile nose shape was confirmed.

  11. Strain Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Different Nose Shapes of Projectile Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the fracture properties and rear-face strain distribution of nonreinforced and hooked steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels penetrated by projectiles of three different nose shapes: sharp, hemispherical, and flat. The sharp projectile nose resulted in a deeper penetration because of the concentration of the impact force. Conversely, the flat projectile nose resulted in shallower penetrations. The penetration based on different projectile nose shapes is directly related to the impact force transmitted to the rear face. Scabbing can be more accurately predicted by the tensile strain on the rear face of concrete due to the projectile nose shape. The tensile strain on the rear face of the concrete was reduced by the hooked steel fiber reinforcement because the hooked steel fiber absorbed some of the impact stress transmitted to the rear face of the concrete. Consequently, the strain behavior on the rear face of concrete according to the projectile nose shape was confirmed.

  12. Brood size and sex ratio in response to host quality and wasp traits in the gregarious parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study investigated whether the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii females adjust their brood size and sex ratio in response to body size and stage of Plutella xylostella larval hosts, as well as to their own body size and the order of oviposition. These factors were analyzed using multiple regression with simultaneous entry of them and their two-way interactions. Parasitoids brood size tended to increase with host body size at parasitism when the 4th instar larval host was attacked, but did not change when the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were attacked. Parasitoids did not vary in brood size according to their body size, but decreased with their bouts of oviposition on a linear trend from 10 offspring adults emerged per host in the first bout of oviposition down to eight in the third. Parasitoid offspring sex ratio did not change with host instar, host body weight, wasp body size, and oviposition bout. Proportions of male offspring per brood were from 11% to 13% from attacking the 2nd to 4th instar larvae and from 13% to 16% across three successive bouts of oviposition, with a large variation for smaller host larvae and wasps. When fewer than 12 offspring were emerged from a host, one male was most frequently produced; when more than 12 offspring were emerged, two or more males were produced. Our study suggests that O. sokolowskii females may optimize their clutch size in response to body size of mature P. xylostella larvae, and their sex allocation in response to clutch size.

  13. Rear Operations Group medicine: a pilot study of psychological decompression in a Rear Operations Group during Operation HERRICK 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimenko, Wasyl; Simpson, R G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate group activity psychological decompression (GAPD) in a Rear Operations Group. Provision of military archaeological exercises for a Rear Operations Group's medical centre patients during Op HERRICK 14 with analysis of before and after Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ), Work and Social Adjustment Scales, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) 7 Anxiety, Audit Questionnaire and Impact of Events Scale Revised and analysis of interviews with supervisors and soldiers. Soldiers reported a mean of 13%-38% improvement across the self-reported domains. The civilian archaeologists reported improvements in self-esteem, morale and team-working. 10 out of 24 soldiers have expressed an interest to pursue archaeology further; eight soldiers disclosed mental health issues for the first time, four of whom required mental health referral. GAPD can help early-returned soldiers in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression, isolation and psychological traumatic symptoms. It also helps to increase perception of their ability to work and socialise as a team and help them to an early return to work. It can provide soldiers with the opportunity to approach their supervisors in an informal manner and help in early detection of mental health problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  15. Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T

    2018-01-01

    How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. The relationship between morphological and sexual indices in suitable brood Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Brandt and Ratzeburg, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Falahatkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to reduction of sturgeon stocks in various water bodies, artificial propagation has become significantly important for stock restoration and appropriate broodstock selection is vital in this process. Selection of suitable broodstocks may influence the quality and quantity of obtained eggs and larva. The present study aimed to examine correlation between some morphometric and reproductive parameters to find suitable brood fish for artificial reproduction in Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Forty fish free of any external disease symptom and abnormality were selected for the study. Following biometric measurements including weight, total length, abdominal girth, PV (distance between pectoral and pelvic fins, LX (distance between anal and caudal fins, polarization index (PI, gonadosomatic index, absolute fecundity, and fertilization rate, correlations between these morphometric and biological characteristics with emphasis on breeding were calculated. There was higher correlation between weight-absolute fecundity and length-PV in fish responded to artificial breeding, while correlation between age-PV, length-PV and weight-abdominal girth were higher in those fish not responded to artificial breeding. The results suggests that it is quite possible to select suitable Russian sturgeon spawners for artificial propagation based on combination of body weight, LX, PV, age, abdominal girth and total length, however the most useful criteria for the selection seems to be precise measurement of the polarization index.

  17. Population genetic characterization and family reconstruction in brood bank collections of the Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cyprinidae:Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ashraf; Basak, Abhisak; Islam, Md Nazrul; Alam, Md Samsul

    2015-01-01

    The founder stock of a captive breeding program is prone to changes in genetic structure due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Genetic characterization of the founder population using suitable molecular markers may help monitor periodic changes in the genetic structure in future. To develop benchmark information about the genetic structure we analyzed six microsatellite loci in the Brodbank collections of rohu (Labeo rohita) originated from three major rivers-the Jamuna, the Padma and the Halda. A total of 28 alleles were detected in 90 individuals with an average of 4.6 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.655 to 0.705 and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.702 to 0.725. The mean F IS values were 0.103, 0.106 and 0.018 for the Jamuna, Padma and Halda fishes respectively. The population pair-wise F ST values ranged from 0.0057 to 0.0278. Structure analysis grouped the fishes of the three rivers into two clusters. The numbers of half-sib families were 5, 5 and 4 and the numbers of full-sib families were 12, 10 and 18 for the Halda, Jamuna and the Padma samples respectively. Bottleneck was detected in all the river samples. We recommend to collect more fish from different locations of the major rivers to broaden the genetic variability of the founder stocks of the Brood bank.

  18. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0156869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains Excel and CSV spreadsheets monitoring captive Sea Turtle rearing program. Daily feeding logs as well as water chemistry were recorded.

  19. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  20. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  1. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mohammadzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here.Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features.After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed.Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2 which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  2. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Rahimi, Hamidreza

    2014-03-01

    Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2) and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here. Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features. After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2) and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed. Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2) which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  3. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  4. Paternity-parasitism trade-offs: a model and test of host-parasite cooperation in an avian conspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bruce E; Hochachka, Wesley M; Eadie, John M

    2002-06-01

    Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of conspecific brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing access to the host nest in exchange for copulations. We develop a cost-benefit model to explore the conditions under which such host-parasite cooperation might occur. When the brood parasite does not have a nest of her own, the only benefit to the host male is siring some of the parasitic eggs (quasi-parasitism). Cooperation with the parasite is favored when the ratio of host male paternity of his own eggs relative to his paternity of parasitic eggs exceeds the cost of parasitism. When the brood parasite has a nest of her own, a host male can gain additional, potentially more important benefits by siring the high-value, low-cost eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. Under these conditions, host males should be even more likely to accept parasitic eggs in return for copulations with the parasitic female. We tested these predictions for American coots (Fulica americana), a species with a high frequency of conspecific brood parasitism. Multilocus DNA profiling indicated that host males did not sire any of the parasitic eggs laid in host nests, nor did they sire eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. We used field estimates of the model parameters from a four-year study of coots to predict the minimum levels of paternity required for the costs of parasitism to be offset by the benefits of mating with brood parasites. Observed levels of paternity were significantly lower than those predicted under a variety of assumptions, and we reject the hypothesis that host males cooperated with parasitic females. Our model clarifies the specific costs and benefits that influence host-parasite cooperation and, more generally

  5. Analysis of factors associated with seatbelt wearing among rear passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Isah, Noradrenalina; Othman, Ihamah; Syed Rahim, Sharifah-Allyana; Paiman, Noorfaradilla

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 793 rear passengers in Malaysia. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association of rear seatbelt wearing with 12 independent variables. Seven factors were significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing. Experience of being stopped by an enforcement officer for not wearing rear seatbelt yielded the highest odds ratio 2.3 (p = 0.002) followed by self-consciousness (odds ratio 1.7; p = 0.004), attitude (odds ratio 1.5, p = 0.001), and knowledge (odds ratio 1.4, p = 0.004). Age of participants and their perception of being caught by an enforcement officer were also significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing, odds ratios were 1.03 (p = 0.004) and 1.1 (p = 0.004), respectively. In contrast, level of education was negatively associated with rear seatbelt wearing (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.003). It was concluded that enforcement activities, knowledge and attitude on seatbelt wearing play a very important role in improving the rate of rear seatbelt wearing. Thus, efforts to increase these factors should be the special focus in designing education and social marketing activities to advocate rear seatbelt wearing.

  6. Impact of Nickel silicide Rear Metallization on Series Resistance of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R; Hanna, Amir N; Kutbee, Arwa T; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    the electrical characteristics of nickel mono-silicide (NiSi)/Cu-Al ohmic contact on the rear side of c-Si solar cells. We observe a significant enhancement in the fill factor of around 6.5% for NiSi/Cu-Al rear contacts leading to increasing the efficiency by 1.2

  7. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Parental Involvement and Child-Rearing Beliefs in Asian Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, A. R.; Chew, E.; Carter, M.; Chunn, J.; Jotanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement (PI) and child-rearing beliefs were examined amongst parents whose children attended state-run kindergartens across Singapore. A total of 244 parents completed an online survey consisting of a Child-Rearing Beliefs Scale, a PI Scale, and demographic details. Results indicated respondents were generally low-income earners with…

  8. Research on tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2003-01-01

    The tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is studied in this paper. The principles and ways of defining the power are discussed. It is proved that the power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is reasonable in the industrial scale test

  9. Child rearing styles, dental anxiety and disruptive behaviour: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This was to explore the relation between children's dental anxiety, their behaviour during treatment and their parent's rearing style. Also the parents' preparation of the child for dental treatment was related to behaviour and parental rearing style. Methods: The parents of 100 children,

  10. Machismo in two cultures: relation to punitive child-rearing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F

    1994-07-01

    The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.

  11. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  12. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  13. A new test method for the assessment of neck injuries in rear-end collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappon, H.J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whiplash injuries due to rear-end car collisions is one of the most aggravating traffic safety problems with serious implications for the European society. Yearly more than a million European citizens suffer neck injuries from rear-end car collisions, implying tremendous societal costs. Therefore

  14. Cultural Differences in Child Rearing: A Comparison of Immigrant Chinese and Caucasian American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Tseng, Hui-Mei

    1992-01-01

    Studies cultural differences in child rearing practices of 38 middle-class Chinese immigrant mothers and 38 middle-class Caucasian-American mothers of 3-8 year olds. Results suggest similarity in child-rearing goals of both groups, although Chinese-American immigrant mothers rely on traditional Chinese methods of socialization to achieve these…

  15. Does Research on Children Reared in Father-absent Families Yield Information on Father Influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequently employed research design for studying paternal influences on child development has been to compare children reared in father-absent families to those reared in father-present families. Research should be directed to the study and conceptualization of the more specific components of experience in the father-child and…

  16. Demographic parameters of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on two diets developed for Lygus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two artificial diets developed for rearing Lygus spp., a fresh yolk chicken egg based-diet (FYD) and a dry yolk chicken egg based-diet (DYD), were evaluated as an alternative food source for rearing the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Survival to adult was...

  17. Rearing of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belz, E.; Géneau, C.E.; Fürst, M.; Balmer, O.; Andermatt, P.; Pfiffner, L.; Westerd, L.E.C.; Luka, H.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing continuous and reliable colonies of pest-parasitoid systems in the laboratory is an essential requirement for carrying out manipulative experiments on biological control. Here we describe in detail the rearing protocols that we optimized for the efficient rearing of the cabbage moth

  18. Lean Six Sigma Application in Rear Combination Automotive Lighting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodkomkham, Thanwarhat; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    The case study company produces various front and rear lightings for automobiles and motorcycles. Currently, it faces two problems, i.e. high defective rate and high inventory. Lean Six Sigma was applied as a tool to solve the first problem, whereas the other problem was managed by changing the production concept from push to pull. The results showed that after applying all new settings to the process, the defect rate was reduced from 36,361 DPPM to 3,029 DPPM. In addition, after the implementation of the Kanban system, the company achieved substantial improvement in lead time reduction by 44%, in-process inventory reduction by 42%, finished good inventory reduction by 50%, and finished good area increased by 16%.

  19. Rearing Environmental Influences on Religiousness: An Investigation of Adolescent Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Laura B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-10-01

    Religiousness is widely considered to be a culturally transmitted trait. However, twin studies suggest that religiousness is genetically influenced in adulthood, although largely environmentally influenced in childhood/adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a self-report measure of religiousness in a sample consisting of 284 adoptive families (two adopted adolescent siblings and their rearing parents); 208 biological families (two full biological adolescent siblings and their parents); and 124 mixed families (one adopted and one biological adolescent sibling and their parents). A sibling-family model was fit to the data to estimate genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on religiousness, as well as cultural transmission and assortative mating effects. Religiousness showed little evidence of heritability and large environmental effects, which did not vary significantly by gender. This finding is consistent with the results of twin studies of religiousness in adolescent and preadolescent samples.

  20. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  1. Evolutionarily advanced ant farmers rear polyploid fungal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Aanen, D.K.; Schiøtt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    to be lowly and facultatively polyploid (just over two haplotypes on average), whereas Atta and Acromyrmex symbionts are highly and obligatorily polyploid (ca. 5-7 haplotypes on average). This stepwise transition appears analogous to ploidy variation in plants and fungi domesticated by humans and in fungi...... the number of nuclei per fungal cell for 42 symbionts reared by 14 species of Panamanian fungus-growing ants. This showed that domesticated symbionts of higher attine ants are polykaryotic with 7-17 nuclei per cell, whereas nonspecialized crops of lower attines are dikaryotic similar to most free...... domesticated by termites and plants, where gene or genome duplications were typically associated with selection for higher productivity, but allopolyploid chimerism was incompatible with sexual reproduction....

  2. A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

    In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consumeŕs right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianjińs pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

  3. Recent advances in the rearing of Glossina pallidipes Austen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leegwater-Van der Linden, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The rearing technique of Glossina pallidipes Austen in Amsterdam is described. The flies are kept at 25 0 C, 80% relative humidity in very dim light which operates 12 hours a day. Flies are fed on ears of lop-eared rabbits inside the colony room. Nine-day-old females are massmated with an equal number of 12-day-old males for approximately three days. Mated females are kept without males. Under these circumstances the interlarval period is nine years. The first larva is deposited on the 20th day after emergence and the mean longevity hereafter is 60 days average or 101 days with individual attention. Productivity has been observed from 1977 onward. The insemination rate gradually increased from 66 to 97%, and fecundity from about 0.5 to 0.8. Premating deaths remained at a level of 4%. The eclosion rate was 92% and pupal weight 39 mg. In the Amsterdam practice these figures imply that nearly one third of the weekly pupal production is needed to maintain the colony at a set number. The remainder can be used for other purposes. Judging from observations and experience it seems that prevention of chemical contamination and any disturbance, mass-mating at the appropriate time and a very high humidity are relevant points in the various techniques used in rearing G. pallidipes. Attention is now being given to the viability of the colony in Amsterdam for eradicating G. pallidipes in East Africa. Females emerging from pupae sent from a test area near Tanga, Tanzania, were readily inseminated by males from the Amsterdam colony, indicating the possibility of using the sterile male technique for reduction of G. pallidipes in East Africa. (author)

  4. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  5. Reduced rearing density increases postrelease migration success of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Hage; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Näslund, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    during rearing in the hatchery. However, individuals reared at reduced density had less eroded dorsal fins and opercula relative to those from the high-density treatment. In the stream, the downstream migration success was 16% higher for fish reared at reduced density than for conspecifics kept at high-density......The overall aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rearing density on the post-release survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during seaward migration. Fish were either reared at conventional hatchery density or at one-third of conventional density. Three hundred one-year old...... smolts from each density treatment were individually tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and released 3.2 km upstream of a stationary antenna array in a natural stream. There were no significant differences in length, body mass, or condition between fish from the two density treatments...

  6. EFFECT OF REARING SYSTEM ON THE MUSCLE FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BREEDS WITH DIFFERENT GROWTH SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avellini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the rearing system on the muscle fibre characteristics of two meat chicken breeds such as the Ross and the Livorno characterized by extremely fast and extremely slow growth speed respectively. No differences between the breeds were found in the conventional rearing system except for muscle fibre area. On the other hand, in the free range rearing system, differences in muscle fibre composition were evidenced between the breeds especially in the Ileotibialis lateralis muscle with the Livorno having a greater percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 36,65. A higher percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 46,90 was found in the Ileotibialis lateralis of the free range reared Livorno chickens compared to the conventionally reared ones.

  7. Access to litter during rearing and environmental enrichment during production reduce fearfulness in adult laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsaeter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke

    2017-01-01

    Exaggerated fear-reactions are associated with injurious flying, smothering, feather pecking and other events that compromise animal welfare in laying hens. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chicks with access to litter during the first five weeks of life would be less fearful...... as adult hens compared to birds reared without access to litter. The hypothesis was tested in a national on-farm study in commercial aviary flocks in Norway. Five rearing farmers divided the pullets into two groups within their rearing houses. While the chicks were enclosed inside the aviary rows during...... reared with paper) were visited. During the visit, the fearfulness of the adult birds was tested in a stationary person test and a novel object test. The data was analysed by ANOVA or logistic regression as appropriate. The access to litter during rearing did not influence the number of birds...

  8. Factors contributing to commercial vehicle rear-end conflicts in China: A study using on-board event data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio; Engström, Johan; Bärgman, Jonas; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-09-01

    In the last 30years, China has undergone a dramatic increase in vehicle ownership and a resulting escalation in the number of road crashes. Although crash figures are decreasing today, they remain high; it is therefore important to investigate crash causation mechanisms to further improve road safety in China. To shed more light on the topic, naturalistic driving data was collected in Shanghai as part of the evaluation of a behavior-based safety service. The data collection included instrumenting 47 vehicles belonging to a commercial fleet with data acquisition systems. From the overall sample, 91 rear-end crash or near-crash (CNC) events, triggered by 24 drivers, were used in the analysis. The CNC were annotated by three researchers, through an expert assessment methodology based on videos and kinematic variables. The results show that the main factor behind the rear-end CNC was the adoption of very small safety margins. In contrast to results from previous studies in the US, the following vehicles' drivers typically had their eyes on the road and reacted quickly in response to the evolving conflict in most events. When delayed reactions occurred, they were mainly due to driving-related visual scanning mismatches (e.g., mirror checks) rather than visual distraction. Finally, the study identified four main conflict scenarios that represent the typical development of rear-end conflicts in this data. The findings of this study have several practical applications, such as informing the specifications of in-vehicle safety measures and automated driving and providing input into the design of coaching/training procedures to improve the driving habits of drivers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of electroless nickel on the series resistance of high-efficiency inkjet printed passivated emitter rear contacted solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenio, Martha A.T. [REC Technology US, Inc., 1159 Triton Dr., Foster City, CA 94301 (United States); Lennon, A.J.; Ho-Baillie, A.; Wenham, S.R. [ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Many existing and emerging solar cell technologies rely on plated metal to form the front surface contacts, and aluminium to form the rear contact. Interactions between the metal plating solutions and the aluminium rear can have a significant impact on cell performance. This paper describes non-uniform nickel deposition on the sintered aluminium rear surface of passivated emitter and rear contacted (PERC) cells patterned using an inkjet printing technique. Rather than being plated homogeneously over the entire rear surface as is observed on an alloyed aluminium rear, the nickel is plated only in the vicinity of the point openings in the rear surface silicon dioxide dielectric layer. Furthermore, this non-uniform nickel deposition was shown to increase the contact resistance of the rear point contacts by an order of magnitude, resulting in higher series resistance values for these fabricated PERC cells. (author)

  10. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees-New damage categories in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganso, Beatrice T; Fombong, Ayuka T; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Pirk, Christian W W; Stuhl, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite.

  11. Effects of cocaine combined with a social cue on conditioned place preference and nucleus accumbens monoamines after isolation rearing in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotewold, Susan K.; Wall, Vanessa L.; Goodell, Dayton J.; Hayter, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Social interaction during drug exposure can potentiate cocaine reward. Isolation rearing (ISO) during adolescence increases social interaction and may amplify this potentiation. Objectives The objectives of this study are to determine whether ISO alters conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine when combined with a social cue and to determine whether ISO alters the effects of cocaine when combined with social cue on nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Methods Male and female rats were either ISO or group (GRP) reared for 4 weeks during adolescence. CPP was performed using a low dose of cocaine (2 mg/kg or saline) with or without exposure to a novel same-sex conspecific during conditioning. In vivo microdialysis was performed using the same parameters. Results ISO rats engaged in more social and aggressive behaviors during conditioning relative to GRP. Cocaine reduced social and aggressive behaviors in all rats. CPP was not influenced by rearing condition. Cocaine produced significant CPP, and a social cue produced CPP only in males. In contrast, the interaction of cocaine and a social cue on NAcS DA and 5-HT differed depending upon rearing condition. In isolates, cocaine-induced DA was attenuated, while cocaine plus a social cue produced potentiated DA and 5-HT. Conclusions Exposure to a low dose of cocaine in the presence of a social cue produced additive effects on CPP while producing synergistic effects on DA and 5-HT in the NAcS of ISO rats. The aversive effects of this compound stimulus may negate the rewarding effects in isolates. PMID:24553577

  12. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  13. Influence of diet and rearing system on heavy pig performance, carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative dietary protein sources and new types of outdoor rearing techniques that enhance animal welfare, thus optimising costs and production performance, are among the main objectives of nutritionists and breeders. The aim of this study was to compare two types of rations where pea and potato concentrate completely substituted soybean in intensively and extensively bred swine. Forty Large White × Duroc piglets weighing about 40 kg were divided into 4 groups of 10 sex- and weightmatched individuals: Indoor rearing + Control diet, Indoor rearing + Experimental diet, Outdoor rearing + Control diet, Outdoor rearing + Experimental diet. Different diets were formulated for the growing phase (40-100 kg and the fattening period (100-slaughter; pigs, weighed individually every 40 days to estimate the average daily gain and feed conversion rate, were slaughtered when they reached the weight for Italian ham production. The following measurements were obtained: carcass weight, slaughtered yield, weight of lean cuts, pH 45 minutes and 24 hours post mortem. 40 semimembranosus muscle samples were analysed for colour parameters (L*, a* and b*, moisture, fat, protein and ash while the energy values were calculated. Semimembranosus intramuscular fat and ham backfat were analysed for fatty acid profile. Statistical analysis of performances data was conducted using design with repeated measures and the slaughterhouse, meat and fat composition data were subjected to ANOVA. The results show that soybean can be completely substituted with other protein crops. Rearing and slaughterhouse performances were not affected by the diet, whereas significant differences emerged with the rearing system. Diet composition significantly affected lean meat proportion (50.0 vs 48.2 and fat thickness of 3/4 Thoracic Vertebra (25.3 vs 28.3 mm, while the rearing system significantly affected all carcass quality measures. Some parameters were better in outdoorthan

  14. Impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development in the Western province of Sri Lanka.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nettisinghe, A.M.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Steenstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development, in a coconut grazing and a peri-urban smallholder dairy production system in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. The heifer rearing scheme included free advice on calf rearing, drugs, acaricides, minerals

  15. Periodical Press as a Means to Study Rear Area Activities in the First World War (Black Sea Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Black Sea Province rear activity in the First World War. The article is based on the data of local and regional periodical press, such as: «Chernomorsky Kray», «Sochinsky Listok», «Chernomorskoe Poberezh’e», «Chernomorsky Listok Voyny», etc. Among the rear area activities, we can name charity for the wounded, entertainment at military hospitals, foundation of Mercy Sisters schools and Red Cross regional offices. Attention is also attached to the interaction with state institutions in charge of hospital work and the attitude of the royal family towards hospital care. Red Cross activities in the First World War are also significant. The conclusion states that cooperation between centre and outskirts in terms of help for the wounded was close in the First World War. Almost all of the work, concerning the establishment of regional (province hospitals was charity-funded. Outskirts attempted to model the supreme authority behavior, concerning this question and as a result the care for war victims had become the duty of the whole Russian community.

  16. Comparative profiling of microbial community of three economically important fishes reared in sea cages under tropical offshore environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheeda, M K; Rangamaran, Vijaya Raghavan; Srinivasan, Senthilkumar; Ramaiah, Sendhil Kumar; Gunasekaran, Rajaprabhu; Jaypal, Santhanakumar; Gopal, Dharani; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran

    2017-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial composition of farmed cobia pompano and milkfish, reared in sea-cages by culture-independent methods. This study would serve as a basis for assessing the general health of fish, identifying the dominant bacterial species present in the gut for future probiotic work and in early detection of potential pathogens. High-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 hyper variable regions of 16S rDNA on Illumina MiSeq platform facilitated unravelling of composite bacterial population. Analysis of 1.3 million quality-filtered sequences revealed high microbial diversity. Characteristic marine fish gut microbes: Vibrio and Photobacterium spp. showed prevalence in cobia and pompano whereas Pelomonas and Fusobacterium spp. dominated the gut of milkfish. Pompano hindgut with 10,537 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity index followed by cobia (10,435) and milkfish (2799). Additionally unique and shared OTUs in each gut type were identified. Gammaproteobacteria dominated in cobia and pompano while Betaproteobacteria showed prevalence in milkfish. We obtained 96 shared OTUs among the three species though the numbers of reads were highly variable. These differences in microbiota of farmed fish reared in same environment were presumably due to differences in the gut morphology, physiological behavior and host specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral Differentiation and Ovarian Development of Unmated Gynes, Queens, and Workers of Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida 1987 (Formicidae, Ectatomminae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Santana Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral differentiation and ovarian development of unmated gynes, queens, and workers of Ectatomma vizottoi were investigated in laboratory conditions. Forty-one behavioral acts were identified and quantified for workers, 19 for queens and 24 for unmated gynes, for an overall species repertoire of 42 different behavioral acts. Ovipositing reproductive eggs was an exclusive task of the queen, whereas workers showed 15 caste-specific behaviors. The most important (frequent behaviors for the queens were brood care, immobility, and reproduction, and for workers were immobility, grooming/interaction, brood care, and foraging. Unmated gynes (not winged primarily showed immobility, brood care, grooming/interaction, and foraging. Analysis of ovarian development showed that unmated gynes had little-developed ovarioles, in contrast to queens. Queens and unmated gynes showed a clear behavioral differentiation, in which queens played the role of reproducers and unmated gynes performed activities belonging to the worker repertoire. Despite the presence of several breeding queens in the colony, functional monogyny was the rule.

  18. Safety assessment of sugar dusting treatments by analysis of hygienic behavior in honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Jevrosima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a dominant natural defense mechanism against brood diseases. In this study, the influence of sugar dusting treatments on hygienic behavior was evaluated in 44 strong honey bee colonies. Three doses of pulverized sugar, 20, 30 and 40 g, each applied at three-, seven- and fourteen-day intervals were tested. The percentage of cleaned cells (PCC in the total number of those with pin-killed brood served as a measure of the hygienic potential. The effect was dependent on the frequency of treatments: all doses applied every third and seventh day significantly (p<0.001 decreased the PCC in comparison with the untreated control colonies. Nevertheless, sugar did not threaten the hygienic potential, as PPC values remained above 94% following all treatments. Thus, it can be concluded that the tested sugar treatments are safe and can be justifiably implemented into integrated pest management strategies to control Varroa destructor.

  19. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The plantar surface of the footpads and the hocks of broiler were recorded using infrared thermal images. The incidence of hock burns in broilers reared on new litter was 0.72 times lower than those on reused litter. Broilers reared on new litter presented lower risk (0.75, RR<1 of presenting pododermatitis when compared to those reared on reused litter. When simulating the risk using a larger sample, the simulated risk of broilers presenting footpad and hock lesions when reared on new litter was 38% higher those reared on reused litter.

  20. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. THE QUALITY OF THE YOUNG WARM-BLOODED STALLIONS DURING THE REARING PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MARŠÁLEK

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of young stallions during the rearing period and to analyze the differences among several test rearing houses with various altitudes (up to 250, 250-300, 300-400, 400-500 and more than 500 meters above the sea level. In 227 stallions ending the rearing period in the years 2004 and 2005 the records from 5 foals´ assortment were processed (it means the growth comparison with the growth standard, results of exterior classification and results of movement mechanics classification. The statistically significant differences among the rearing houses with various altitudes were found out in growth classification (13,614++ to 27,679+++, in exterior classification (13,136++ to 20,281+++ and in movement mechanics classification (17,930++ to 26,526+++. The relation between in-rearing and end-rearing classification was higher for growth (up to 0,862+ than for exterior (up to 0,652+ and movement mechanics (up to 0,585+. It’s obvious, that the final foal’s movement mechanics and exterior classification can’t be faithfully estimated before the rearing finalization.

  2. Radiographic analysis of the development of the pelvic limb of captive-reared cranes (Grus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, T.G.; Langenberg, J.A.; Deakin, L.

    1996-01-01

    For captive-reared cranes, pelvic limb abnormalities in chicks have been identified as significant morbidity/mortality factors. An important component of the diagnosis of limb abnormalities is the understanding of the normal limb. This study was undertaken to describe the normal, radiographic development of the femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and fibula of the whooping crane (Grus americana), Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis), and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus). Crane chicks were anesthetized and their pelvic limb bone development evaluated radiographically on a weekly to bimonthly basis from one to fourteen weeks of age. Body weight, bone length, diaphyseal width, and physeal development and closure were evaluated. Based on the radiographic analysis, the gross development of the long bones of the pelvic limb of whooping, Florida sandhill, and Siberian cranes was found to be similar among the three species, and not dissimilar from other avian species which have been studied. Repeated handling, anesthesia, and radiographic exposure did not produce any behavioral, developmental, or physical abnormalities in the studied cranes when compared to cranes of the same species raised using the same methods. This is the first work to describe pelvic limb bone development in these species

  3. The Complete and Updated "Rotifer Polyculture Method" for Rearing First Feeding Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Best, Jason; Cockington, Jason; Henry, Eric C.; Hurley, Shane; James, Althea; Lapointe, Christopher; Maloney, Kara; Sanders, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a model organism of increasing importance in many fields of science. One of the most demanding technical aspects of culture of this species in the laboratory is rearing first-feeding larvae to the juvenile stage with high rates of growth and survival. The central management challenge of this developmental period revolves around delivering highly nutritious feed items to the fish on a nearly continuous basis without compromising water quality. Because larval zebrafish are well-adapted to feed on small zooplankton in the water column, live prey items such as brachionid rotifers, Artemia, and Paramecium are widely recognized as the feeds of choice, at least until the fish reach the juvenile stage and are able to efficiently feed on processed diets. This protocol describes a method whereby newly hatched zebrafish larvae are cultured together with live saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in the same system. This polyculture approach provides fish with an "on-demand", nutrient-rich live food source without producing chemical waste at levels that would otherwise limit performance. Importantly, because the system harnesses both the natural high productivity of the rotifers and the behavioral preferences of the fish, the labor involved with maintenance is low. The following protocol details an updated, step-by-step procedure that incorporates rotifer production (scalable to any desired level) for use in a polyculture of zebrafish larvae and rotifers that promotes maximal performance during the first 5 days of exogenous feeding. PMID:26863035

  4. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  5. State of the immune protection system of brood carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 based on vitamin E and selenium levels in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yurchak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the state of the immune system of brood carp, which were fed with a combined feed containing a liposomal preparation with vitamin E and organic compound of selenium microelement during pre-spawning period. Methodology: The study has been performed in three experimental ponds, in which carp females and males were placed after wintering. The first experimental group was fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/mg of the feed and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The second experimental group received the supplement of vitamin E at a concentration of 100 mg.kg and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The control group received the mentioned combined feed without addition of the vitamin-mineral supplement. After termination of 30-day pre-spawning feeding with the combined feed supplemented with vitamin E and selenium, blood samples for biochemical tests were collected from fish of the control and both experimental groups. Findings. It was found that pre-spawning feeding of carp females and males with combined feeds supplemented with the above mentioned vitamin-mineral additive had a positive effect on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish blood. Originality. The effect of the liposomal preparation with vitamin E and microelement Se fed to brood carp during the pre-spawning period on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish peripheral blood was studied for the first time. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in fish breeding centers and full-system fish farms for balanced feeding of brood fish.

  6. Izu-Bonin rear-arc magmatism: Geochemical investigation of volcanoclastic material

    OpenAIRE

    Sæbø, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Studied samples from the Izu Bonin rear arc show a distinct geochemical pattern that resemble the modern continental crust. In contrast to the volcanic front, samples from the Izu Bonin rear arc show enrichment of LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) and higher K2O at a given SiO2. This suggest that processes leading up to the geochemistry observed in the rear arc is fundamental in creating the modern continental crust. Additional isotopic and trace element analysis from volcanic material rec...

  7. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Baughman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  8. Sex-role patterns, paternal rearing attitudes and child development in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelbladt, P; Uddenberg, N; Englesson, I

    1981-07-01

    Sex-role patterns, the father's rearing attitude and the child's intellectual and emotional development in different social classes were studied in a randomly selected sample of 58 Swedish unbroken families of a small child. Working class men and women married younger and the women were more often house-wives. Working class men had more often been reared in an "authoritarian" way and more often reared their children in the same way. Upper middle class men had taken a more active part in the care of the child. Working class children scored lower on the intelligence tests, especially the verbal ones and were more often estimated as socially immature.

  9. Parental rearing patterns and drug abuse. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkevi, A; Stefanis, C

    1988-01-01

    Results from a controlled study on a sample of 91 imprisoned drug dependents on perceived parental rearing practices using the EMBU and on parental family characteristics are presented. While few differences were observed between drug dependents and imprisoned controls-father less warm and mother more permissive in drug dependent group--comparisons of drug dependents with a general population sample revealed more differences between the two populations: drug dependents perceive both parents compared to the general population group as less rejective, very permissive, their mother as warmer and more overprotective and their father more inconsistent and less favouring them than siblings. Supportive evidence on the dependents' family psychopathology is provided by studying family characteristics. While our findings seem to support the prevailing view in the literature on the role of the mother of the drug dependent characterised by strong emotional bonds and overprotection as well as of the rather emotionally distant father, the question is raised on the contribution of other factors, such as psychopathic personality, on the above findings.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF REARING SYSTEM ON SKIN COLOUR IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Terčič

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different rearing systems on the skin colour of commercial broilers. Research was carried out on 100 broilers of two different provenances (ross 208 and prelux-bro up to 56 days of age. In the first half of the experiment the broilers were fed according to standard technology with bro starter which contained 23.44 % crude protein and 12.98 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. On the 28th day broilers were divided into two groups and fed with bro finisher which contained 70 % cereals, 14.0 % crude protein and 16.26 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. Half of the broilers were kept indoors without access to the grassland, while the other half had free access during the day (12 hours. Free range broilers showed a higher degree of pigmentation in skin colour than the broilers in confinement. The differences were statistically significant for the L* (lightness and b* (yellowness values.

  11. Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Geeta; Bhattacharya, S

    2006-07-01

    The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel-based commercial sex workers. X2 test, Fisher's Exact test. Some commercial sex workers continued pregnancy with the hope of security and support, while others were compelled to do so, as they report late for medical termination of pregnancy. A group of sex workers (Devdasis) received support during pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and child-rearing. The role and responsibilities of raising the child, depended upon the kind of family support available to the mothers. Being a single parent, stigma of the profession, odd working hours and variable family support were major challenges, while the fact that the women were earning, availability of rehabilitation centers, the homogeneous groups within the brothels, supportive peers and local non governmental organizations were factors which helped them in the process of raising their children. Day care centers and night shelters should be opened up in the red light area where the children can be looked after, during the working hours. The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children.

  12. Carcass characteristics of llamas (Lama glama) reared in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez; Maino; Guzmán; Vaquero; Köbrich; Pokniak

    2000-07-01

    Body and carcass composition were studied on 10 male and 10 female naturally reared llamas (Lama glama). Half the animals were young (9-12 months) and the other half adult (>3 year). The average live weights for young and adult males were 104.4 and 100.6kg, and for females 67.6 and 104.6kg, respectively. Average carcass weights for the four groups were 58.9, 56.2, 36.8 and 56.7kg, respectively. Carcass composition for males and females was similar, but males had slightly higher dressing percentages than females (56.1 and 55.8 vs. 54.1 and 54.2 for young and adult males and females, respectively). Carcass length and fat depth at the loin and proportions of cuts in the carcass were similar for both the sexes, except for leg and tail, which were proportionately heavier in young females compared to the other groups. The composition of meat on fresh basis was: moisture 70.2%, protein 20.5%, ether extract 8.23% and ash 3.4%. Age and sex seemed to have no effects on the body and carcass characteristics studied nor on the chemical composition of meat.

  13. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  14. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  15. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  16. Nutrition and behavior of fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Janet L; Hanna, Sherilyn J; Asa, Cheryl S; Bauman, Karen L

    2009-05-01

    Fennec foxes make popular pets because of their small size, minimal odor, and highly social behaviors. They are kept in zoos for conservation and educational programs. The exotic animal practitioner is most likely to be presented with fennec foxes that are overweight because of inappropriate diets or excessive feeding. Clients attempting to hand-rear fennec foxes need advice about formula selection, amounts to feed, protocols for keeping pups warm, and weaning. This article provides information on social behavior, reproduction, and parental behavior, nutrition, and hand-rearing.

  17. Effect of Brood Age on Nestling Diet and Prey Composition in a Hedgerow Specialist Bird, the Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of food provided to nestling birds influence their growth and development and offers key insight into the ecological requirements of birds. One bird species whose feeding ecology is poorly understood is the Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria, which utilizes semi-natural shrubby vegetation in agroecosystems. Because Barred Warbler nestlings vary greatly in body mass we hypothesised that diet and prey properties (size, diversity, taxonomic composition, and chitin content and resulting body hardness and digestibility would differ as the nestlings aged. We quantified the diet based on faecal analysis, sampling faecal sacs from the nestlings pooled into three age classes: 2-3 days old, 4-6 d old, and 7-9 d old. Nestlings were provided a wide diversity of food and a strong relationship existed between food characteristics and nestling age. The youngest nestlings (2-3 d old had the lowest values of each dietary characteristic (diversity, number and total biomass of prey, and individual prey weight, that were significantly lower than the oldest nestlings (7-9 d old. Nestlings aged 4-6 d exhibited intermediate dietary characteristics. Differences in dietary composition of the six major food types showed marked differences between the individual broods and age categories. Percentages of the number and biomass of soft-bodied prey were highest in the diet of 2-3 d and 4-6 d old nestlings, and decreased with increasing age, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the percentage of intermediately and heavily chitinised prey. Parent Barred Warblers probably preferentially select soft-bodied prey for the youngest nestlings, and satisfy the greater energy demands of the older ones by providing them with a greater variety of prey containing more chitin, as well as plant food. The provisioning of less-readily digestible prey to older nestlings suggests that as the quality of food decreases the quantity increases, implying that the

  18. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    A parabolic relationship was obtained while studying the length-weight relationship of the postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. The b value (multiplying constant) showed that in the laboratory reared penaeid prawns, length-weight relationship strictly...

  19. The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, J M; Horn, J M

    2000-08-01

    There is an extensive literature on the relationship between birth order and psychological traits, but no previous study has investigated the influence of ordinal position on personality development within adoptive siblings. Such a design is important because it effectively separates the effects of biological birth order and rearing order. Here we report data from two adoption cohorts in which subjects were biological first-borns reared in various ordinal positions. Data were analyzed with reference to Sulloway's (1996) evolutionarily based sibling rivalry theory of birth order effects. Between- and within-family analyses indicated that rearing order's influence on personality was very weak. The only clear difference was for conscientiousness, on which first-reared siblings scored higher. We draw possible implications for Sulloway's theory and speculate upon an alternative, prenatal biological process that may produce birth order differences.

  20. Captive reared loggerhead sea turtles Hook and bait interaction trials From 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hook and bait interaction feeding response data from experiments with captive reared loggerhead sea turtles ranging from 45 - 65 cm straight carapace length) were...