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Sample records for brood rearing behaviors

  1. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

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    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-03

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management.

  2. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico

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    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  3. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

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    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  4. Species richness and distributions of boreal waterbirds in relation to nesting and brood-rearing habitats

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    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bertram, Mark R.; Dubour, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of ecological factors that drive animal distributions allows us to understand why distributions vary temporally and spatially, and to develop models to predict future changes to populations–vital tools for effective wildlife management and conservation. For waterbird broods in the boreal forest, distributions are likely driven by factors affecting quality of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and the influence of these factors may extend beyond singles species, affecting the entire waterbird community. We used occupancy models to assess factors influencing species richness of waterbird broods on 72 boreal lakes, along with brood distributions of 3 species of conservation concern: lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca), and horned grebe (Podiceps auritus). Factors examined included abundance of invertebrate foods (Amphipoda, Diptera, Gastropoda, Hemiptera, Odonata), physical lake attributes (lake area, emergent vegetation), water chemistry (nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll a concentrations), and nesting habitats (water edge, non-forest cover). Of the 5 invertebrates, only amphipod density was related to richness and occupancy, consistently having a large and positive relationship. Despite this importance to waterbirds, amphipods were the most patchily distributed invertebrate, with 17% of the study lakes containing 70% of collected amphipods. Lake area was the only other covariate that strongly and positively influenced species richness and occupancy of scaup, scoters, and grebes. All 3 water chemistry covariates, which provided alternative measures of lake productivity, were positively related to species richness but had little effect on scaup, scoter, and grebe occupancy. Conversely, emergent vegetation was negatively related to richness, reflecting avoidance of overgrown lakes by broods. Finally, nesting habitats had no influence on richness and occupancy, indicating that, at a broad spatial scale, brood

  5. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in st...

  6. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse Selection of Brood-Rearing Habitat Using Remotely-Sensed Imagery: Can Readily Available High-Resolution Imagery Be Used to Identify Brood-Rearing Habitat Across a Broad Landscape?

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    Westover, Matthew; Baxter, Jared; Baxter, Rick; Day, Casey; Jensen, Ryan; Petersen, Steve; Larsen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse populations have decreased steadily since European settlement in western North America. Reduced availability of brood-rearing habitat has been identified as a limiting factor for many populations. We used radio-telemetry to acquire locations of sage-grouse broods from 1998 to 2012 in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Using these locations and remotely-sensed NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery, we 1) determined which characteristics of brood-rearing habitat could be used in widely available, high resolution imagery 2) assessed the spatial extent at which sage-grouse selected brood-rearing habitat, and 3) created a predictive habitat model to identify areas of preferred brood-rearing habitat. We used AIC model selection to evaluate support for a list of variables derived from remotely-sensed imagery. We examined the relationship of these explanatory variables at three spatial extents (45, 200, and 795 meter radii). Our top model included 10 variables (percent shrub, percent grass, percent tree, percent paved road, percent riparian, meters of sage/tree edge, meters of riparian/tree edge, distance to tree, distance to transmission lines, and distance to permanent structures). Variables from each spatial extent were represented in our top model with the majority being associated with the larger (795 meter) spatial extent. When applied to our study area, our top model predicted 75% of naïve brood locations suggesting reasonable success using this method and widely available NAIP imagery. We encourage application of our methodology to other sage-grouse populations and species of conservation concern.

  7. Rearing Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood under laboratory conditions.

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    Silva, I C; Message, D; Cruz, C D; Campos, L A O; Sousa-Majer, M J

    2009-05-26

    We developed a method for rearing larvae of Africanized bees under laboratory conditions to determine the amount of diet needed during larval development to obtain a worker bee. We started with larvae 18-24 h old, which were transferred to polyethylene cell cups and fed for five days. We found that the amount of diet needed for successful larval development was: 4, 15, 25, 50, and 70 microl during the first to fifth days, respectively. The survival rate to the adult stage was 88.6% when the larvae received the daily amount of diet divided into two feedings, and 80% when they received only one feeding per day. The adult weight obtained in the laboratory, when the larvae received the daily amount of diet in a single dose, did not differ from those that were developed under field conditions (our control). All adults that we obtained in laboratory appeared to be normal. This technique has the potential to facilitate studies on brood pathogens, resistance mechanisms to diseases and also might be useful to test the impacts of transgenic products on honey bee brood.

  8. A meta-analysis of lesser prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing habitats: implications for habitat management

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    Hagen, Christian A.; Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and range of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been reduced by >90% since European settlement of the Great Plains of North America. Currently, lesser prairie-chickens occupy 3 general vegetation communities: sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia), sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii), and mixed-grass prairies juxtaposed with Conservation Reserve Program grasslands. As a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act, there is a need for a synthesis that characterizes habitat structure rangewide. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood habitats to determine whether there was an overall effect (Hedges' d) of habitat selection and to estimate average (95% CI) habitat characteristics at use sites. We estimated effect sizes (di) from the difference between use (nests and brood sites) and random sampling sites for each study (n = 14), and derived an overall effect size (d++). There was a general effect for habitat selection as evidenced by low levels of variation in effect sizes across studies and regions. There was a small to medium effect (d++) = 0.20-0.82) of selection for greater vertical structure (visual obstruction) by nesting females in both vegetation communities, and selection against bare ground (d++ = 0.20-0.58). Females with broods exhibited less selectivity for habitat components except for vertical structure. The variation of d++ was greater during nesting than brooding periods, signifying a seasonal shift in habitat use, and perhaps a greater range of tolerance for brood-rearing habitat. The overall estimates of vegetation cover were consistent with those provided in management guidelines for the species.

  9. Social rearing environment influences dog behavioral development

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Naomi D.; Craigon, Peter J.; Blythe, Simon A.; England, Gary C.W.; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Early life experiences are known to influence behavior later in life. In dogs, environmental influences of early home rearing could be exploited to improve the chances of developing adult behavior most suited to the adult environment. For working dog organizations, such as Guide Dogs, suitable adult behavior is important to ensure that dogs can fulfill their role as guides for people with visual impairment. Here, we test the hypothesis that dogs' home rearing environment will influence behavi...

  10. Brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from fish reared in captivity

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    S.D. KLAOUDATOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of brood stock is considered to be one of the most important operations in order to acquire eggs and fry from any promising candidate finfish species for aquaculture production. The sex reversal observed in hermaphrodite species adds to confusion and creates additional complications in forming a brood stock. The present study describes the efforts and the results of the brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from individuals aged between 4 and 5 years (TL>300mm reared in floating cages. Six groups were formed (50 fish/group in all of which females were present comprising 20 to 40% of the population. The presence of females was in contrast to the literature, which reported that sex reversal of the common Pandora is complete in naturally occurring populations with the absence of females in sizes of a total length greater than 220mm, indicating that in captivity sex reversal is not complete for this species. Four of the groups formed spawned under natural environmental conditions without hormonal treatment and the other two groups were administered a different dosage (250 and 500 IU/kg of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG to induce spawning. The reproductive period started in the middle of May and ended at the beginning of July and spontaneous spawning occurred in all groups. Egg release lasted for a mean period of one month for the groups that spawned without hormonal treatment with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between groups. The groups that spawned under hormonal treatment released eggs for a period of six and seven days, for the group that spawned under the high and low hormonal treatment, respectively, with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between them. The hormonal induced spawning resulted in egg release within a short period of time ideal for a hatchery. However, the number of viable eggs produced was significantly lower

  11. Rearing behavior and rearing stress of fathers with children of preschool and school age.

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    Lee, Ja-Hyung; Kim, Hye-Young; Park, Young-Ae

    2004-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the paternal rearing behavior and rearing stress level between fathers with a preschooler and fathers with school children so that it can be utilized as a basic source for developing parental rearing education programs. A descriptive comparative method was conducted to identify the paternal rearing behavior and paternal rearing stress. Respondents were 361 fathers who had either preschoolers (n=189) or children of elementary age (n=172). Comparing the two group's means, the rearing activity score and rearing stress there were significant differences. In the school children's group's father, 'outdoor activity' and 'guidance on discipline activity' were significantly higher than the other group. In the preschool children's fathers group, 'play interaction activity' was statistically significant higher than the other, and the child-part mean score of paternal rearing stress was significantly higher than the other group. The correlation between paternal rearing behavior and paternal rearing stress, indicates that more paternal rearing behavior means less paternal rearing stress. These results of this study will help design more effective rearing programs for fathers that have either preschool children or school children by providing the basic data for paternal rearing behaviors and paternal rearing stress.

  12. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REPLACEMENT-BROOD STOCK OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS (WALBAUM, 1792 REARED IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE INDUSTRIAL FISH FARM "SLOBODA-BANYLIV”

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    P. Mendrishora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of morphometric measurements and dates of aquaculture-biological characteristics of the young-of-the-year and age-1+ rainbow trout reared under industrial technology at instable conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda-Banyliv”. Methodology. The study has been performed at the industrial fish farm “Sloboda-Banyliv”, Chernivtsi region. The materials for the study were young-of-the-year and age-1+ rainbow trout obtained from the eggs of autumn-spawning form rainbow trout. The young-of-the-year were reared in a 216 m2 tank with stocking density of 255 ind./m2, age-1+ fish were reared in 108 m2 tank with a stocking density of 33 ind./m2 according to generally accepted methods in trout culture. Morphometric measurements of fish were performed according to I.F. Pravdin. Statistical processing of data was carried out in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. The analysis of values was done in the system of absolute values. The analyzed criteria of the measured parameters were their mean values and standard errors (M±m, deviation (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with the artificial feed with high protein content manufactured by “Biomar” (Denmark. Findings. The studies on rainbow trout rearing under industrial conditions showed that fish body proportions did not change with age, however, the length of their fins decreased. The slenderness coefficient in age-1+ fish decreased insignificantly that is typical with increasing body depth. Despite instable rearing conditions, both young-of-the-year and age-1+ fish were characterized by moderate growth rate and high feed-conversion efficiency. Originality. For the first time, in conditions of Ukraine, a study on the formation of rainbow trout brood stocks in a fish farm with instable rearing conditions was performed with the use of the analysis of phenotypical and productive features. Practical value. The results of the performed work will provide an opportunity to

  13. Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites.

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    Keith S Delaplane

    Full Text Available A honey bee queen mates on wing with an average of 12 males and stores their sperm to produce progeny of mixed paternity. The degree of a queen's polyandry is positively associated with measures of her colony's fitness, and observed distributions of mating number are evolutionary optima balancing risks of mating flights against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of this behavior that can be expected to confer colony benefit. In this study we used instrumental insemination to create three classes of queens with exaggerated range of polyandry--15, 30, or 60 drones. Colonies headed by queens inseminated with 30 or 60 drones produced more brood per bee and had a lower proportion of samples positive for Varroa destructor mites than colonies whose queens were inseminated with 15 drones, suggesting benefits of polyandry at rates higher than those normally obtaining in nature. Our results are consistent with two hypotheses that posit conditions that reward such high expressions of polyandry: (1 a queen may mate with many males in order to promote beneficial non-additive genetic interactions among subfamilies, and (2 a queen may mate with many males in order to capture a large number of rare alleles that regulate resistance to pathogens and parasites in a breeding population. Our results are unique for identifying the highest levels of polyandry yet detected that confer colony-level benefit and for showing a benefit of polyandry in particular toward the parasitic mite V. destructor.

  14. Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites.

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    Delaplane, Keith S; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Brown, Mike A; Budge, Giles E

    2015-01-01

    A honey bee queen mates on wing with an average of 12 males and stores their sperm to produce progeny of mixed paternity. The degree of a queen's polyandry is positively associated with measures of her colony's fitness, and observed distributions of mating number are evolutionary optima balancing risks of mating flights against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of this behavior that can be expected to confer colony benefit. In this study we used instrumental insemination to create three classes of queens with exaggerated range of polyandry--15, 30, or 60 drones. Colonies headed by queens inseminated with 30 or 60 drones produced more brood per bee and had a lower proportion of samples positive for Varroa destructor mites than colonies whose queens were inseminated with 15 drones, suggesting benefits of polyandry at rates higher than those normally obtaining in nature. Our results are consistent with two hypotheses that posit conditions that reward such high expressions of polyandry: (1) a queen may mate with many males in order to promote beneficial non-additive genetic interactions among subfamilies, and (2) a queen may mate with many males in order to capture a large number of rare alleles that regulate resistance to pathogens and parasites in a breeding population. Our results are unique for identifying the highest levels of polyandry yet detected that confer colony-level benefit and for showing a benefit of polyandry in particular toward the parasitic mite V. destructor.

  15. Evaluation of 1991-1992 Brood Overwinter-Reared Coho Released from Net Pens in Youngs Bay, Oregon : Final Completion Report Youngs Bay Terminal Fishery Project.

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    Hirose, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Funding from Bonneville Power Administration was provided to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s Fisheries Project to identify and develop terminal fishing opportunities. The 1991 and 1992 brood fingerling coho from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries were successfully reared during the winter period to smolt stage in Youngs Bay utilizing floating net pens. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries during 1991--93 from 2-week net-pen acclimation releases, total accountability of coho adults averaged 40,540 fish, with the Youngs Bay commercial harvest accounting for 39%. With reduced ocean harvest impacts during 1994 and 1995, 92% of 51,640 coho in 1994 and 68% of 23,599 coho in 1995 (based on coded-wire-tag recoveries) were accounted for in the Youngs Bay commercial fishery for combined 2-week and overwinter acclimation net-pen releases. Overwinter net-pen acclimation coho accounted for 35,063 and 15,775 coho adults in 1994 and 1995 with 93% and 68% accountable in the Youngs Bay commercial harvest. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries, less than 1% of the adults resulting from releases at Youngs Bay net pens strayed to hatcheries, while none were recovered on spawning ground surveys during 1991--95. The highest survival rates were observed for 1991 and 1992 brood overwinter coho released in early May. Time of release, not rearing strategy, appears to be the determining factor affecting survival in Youngs Bay.

  16. Do brooding and polygamy behaviors exist on Cretaceous oviraptoroid dinosaurs of China: a paleobiological perspective

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    Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative

  17. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat in Nevada and California—Spatial variation in selection and survival patterns

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    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Dudko, Jonathan E.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2017-08-10

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse") are highly dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) dominated vegetation communities for food and cover from predators. Although this species requires the presence of sagebrush shrubs in the overstory, it also inhabits a broad geographic distribution with significant gradients in precipitation and temperature that drive variation in sagebrush ecosystem structure and concomitant shrub understory conditions. Variability in understory conditions across the species’ range may be responsible for the sometimes contradictory findings in the scientific literature describing sage-grouse habitat use and selection during important life history stages, such as nesting. To help understand the importance of this variability and to help guide management actions, we evaluated the nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat factors that influence selection and survival patterns in the Great Basin using a large dataset of microhabitat characteristics from study areas spanning northern Nevada and a portion of northeastern California from 2009 to 2016. The spatial and temporal coverage of the dataset provided a powerful opportunity to evaluate microhabitat factors important to sage-grouse reproduction, while also considering habitat variation associated with different climatic conditions and areas affected by wildfire. The summary statistics for numerous microhabitat factors, and the strength of their association with sage-grouse habitat selection and survival, are provided in this report to support decisions by land managers, policy-makers, and others with the best-available science in a timely manner.

  18. Behavior of varroa mites in worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

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    Calderón, Rafael A; Fallas, Natalia; Zamora, Luis G; van Veen, Johan W; Sánchez, Luis A

    2009-12-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is currently the most important pest of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Because mite reproduction occurs within the sealed cell, the direct observation of varroa activity inside the cell is difficult. A video observation method using transparent polystyrol cells containing infested brood was used to analyze the behavior of varroa mites in worker brood of Africanized honey bees. We recorded how mites feed on the larva and pupa, construct a fecal accumulation site and how the bee larva carried out some longitudinal movements around the cell. The feeding activity of the foundress mite varies during the course of the cycle. On the prepupa mites were found to feed often (0.3 +/- 0.2 bouts h(-1)) for a period of 8.7 +/- 8.4 min h(-1) and there was no preference for a specific segment as feeding site. On the opposite, during the pupal stage mites fed less often (0.1 +/- 0.1 bouts h(-1)) for a period of 6.2 +/- 4.0 min h(-1) and almost always at a particular site (92.4%). On pupa, 83.7% of the feeding was on the 2nd abdominal segment (n = 92), and only few perforations were found on the thorax. Varroa shows a preference for defecation in the posterior part of the cell (cell apex), close to the bee's anal zone. We found a high correlation between the position of the feeding site on the pupa and the position of the fecal accumulation on the cell wall. Most infested cells have only one fecal accumulation site and it was the favorite resting site for the mite, where it spent 24.3 +/- 3.9 min h(-1). Longitudinal displacements were observed in 28.0% (n = 25) of the analyzed bee larvae. Turning movements around the cell, from the bottom to the top, were carried out by these larvae, mainly during the second day (47.7 +/- 22.5 min h(-1)), just before pupation, with a total time of 874.9 +/- 262.2 min day(-1) (n = 7 individuals). These results in worker brood of Africanized bees demonstrate adaptations of varroa mites to parasitizing the

  19. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

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    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  20. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

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    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  1. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

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    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  2. Parental Care in a Stressful World: Experimentally Elevated Cortisol and Brood Size Manipulation Influence Nest Success Probability and Nest-Tending Behavior in a Wild Teleost Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algera, Dirk A; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Zolderdo, Aaron J; Cooke, Steven J

    Parental care is an advantageous reproductive behavior, as the fitness of the caregiver is increased through improving the chances of its offspring's survival. Parental care occurs in a variety of teleost fishes. The body size of parental fish and the size of their brood can affect nest abandonment decisions, where compared with smaller fish with smaller broods, larger fish with larger broods typically invest more energy into reproductive events because they have less future reproductive potential. Although essential for basal metabolism and body maintenance functions, when glucocorticoid hormones (e.g., cortisol) are chronically elevated, as can occur during stress, fish may experience impairments in behavior and immune function, leading to compromised health and condition. Anthropogenic stressors during parental care can lead to elevated stress, therefore making it necessary to understand how stress influences an already-challenging period. Using smallmouth bass as a model, a gradient of body sizes, and experimentally manipulated brood size (i.e., reducing large broods and supplementing small broods) and cortisol levels (i.e., elevated via slow-release intraperitoneal cocoa butter implants containing cortisol versus controls), we tested the hypothesis that the reproductive success and parental care behaviors (i.e., aggression, nest tending) of nest-guarding male smallmouth bass are influenced by parental body size, brood size, and cortisol level. Overall, there was a relationship between cortisol treatment and nest success in which larger fish exhibited lower success when cortisol levels were elevated. Brood size had a significant effect on fish-tending behavior, independent of cortisol level and body size. Lending partial support to our hypothesis, the results of this study indicate that the reproductive success of guarding male smallmouth bass is influenced by cortisol level and that tending behavior is affected by brood size.

  3. An evaluation of the possible adaptive function of fungal brood covering by attine ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Myrmicinae: Attini) live in an obligate symbiotic relationship with a fungus that they rear for food, but they can also use the fungal mycelium to cover their brood. We surveyed colonies from 20 species of fungus-growing ants and show that brood-covering behavior occurs in most...... species, but to varying degrees, and appears to have evolved shortly after the origin of fungus farming, but was partly or entirely abandoned in some genera. To understand the evolution of the trait we used quantitative phylogenetic analyses to test whether brood-covering behavior covaries among attine...... ant clades and with two hygienic traits that reduce risk of disease: mycelial brood cover did not correlate with mutualistic bacteria that the ants culture on their cuticles for their antibiotics, but there was a negative relationship between metapleural gland grooming and mycelial cover. A broader...

  4. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  5. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  6. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  7. An experimental manipulation of maternal perfectionistic anxious rearing behaviors with anxious and non-anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer H; Broeren, Suzanne; Newall, Carol; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2013-09-01

    The anxious rearing model of perfectionism development proposes that children develop perfectionism in response to parental worry about their children being imperfect and parental behaviors such as overprotection from mistakes and focus on the negative consequences of mistakes. In the current study, perfectionistic rearing behaviors were experimentally manipulated during a copy task in clinically anxious children (n = 42) and non-anxious children (n = 35). Children were randomized to receive high or non-perfectionistic rearing behaviors from their parents during the copy task designed to elicit child perfectionistic behaviors. Results showed that self-reported self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) was significantly higher in the anxious group compared with the non-anxious group. All children showed an increase in observed SOP in response to high perfectionistic rearing behaviors. Despite this increase in SOP in the high perfectionistic rearing condition, it was children in the non-perfectionistic rearing condition that improved significantly in task accuracy performance. Non-anxious children declined in task-related striving for perfectionism when they experienced non-perfectionistic rearing behaviors from their parents. Anxious children, however, did not show a decline in task-related striving following non-perfectionistic rearing. Results support the perfectionistic rearing model and parental perfectionistic behaviors' impact on children's observed and self-reported SOP and task performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship Between Parent Child– Rearing Practices and High Risk Behavior on Basis of Cloninger's Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zarei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family is the initial nurture environment of a child that affects future behavior. The types of rewards and punishments in the initial stages of life affect future behavior. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between parent child– rearing practices and high risk behavior on basis of Cloninger's scale in Bandarabbas city. Methods: The study was a descriptive correlation study. In this study permissiveness, democratic and authority parent child– rearing practices were measured with Bamerind parent child– rearing practices inventory and Cloninger's high risk behavior scale. The population under study included adolescents aged 11-18 years and their parents. A total of 150 subjects were selected randomly. Results: The results of analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between parent child– rearing practices and subscale avoid of pathology in high risk behavior ( P value =0.035. The relation between parent child– rearing practices and authority- logical and subscale innovation in high risk behavior was also significant (P=0.022. The relation between subscale authority- logical parent child– rearing practices and subscale social reward in high risk behavior with P value of 0.037 was significant. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between parent child– rearing practices and helpful, harmful or destructive behavior and therefore parent's role is very important. Parent's knowledge and family trainings for rearing health are very important.

  9. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  10. Relationship Between Parent Child– Rearing Practices and High Risk Behavior on Basis of Cloninger's Scale

    OpenAIRE

    E Zarei

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Family is the initial nurture environment of a child that affects future behavior. The types of rewards and punishments in the initial stages of life affect future behavior. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between parent child– rearing practices and high risk behavior on basis of Cloninger's scale in Bandarabbas city. Methods: The study was a descriptive correlation study. In this study permissiveness, democratic and authority parent child– rearing practices ...

  11. The effects of captive rearing on the behavior of newly-released whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rearing treatments used in captivity to prepare animals for reintroduction to the wild may have a profound effect on behavior and, possibly, affect their survival after reintroduction. This study examined the behaviors of captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) upon their release in Florida to determine if rearing treatments may affect the behavior of the birds and how these affect their chances of survival in the wild. Individually tagged birds were observed at the rearing facility, the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, from hatch to 20 weeks of age and at the release site in Central Florida for up to 6 weeks post release. The rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Observations at the rearing facility are described in a previous paper. At the release site, each bird was observed for 5 min every morning (0700?1000 h) and late afternoon (1500?1800 h) during the 6-week study period. Our results indicated that most of the time, the n = 34 birds were foraging (46.03 ? 1.48%), followed by nonvigilant (20.89 ? 0.73%), vigilant (19.21 ? 0.72%), or performing comfort behaviors (11.61 ? 1.28%). Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. PR birds were found in larger groups than HR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and greater than HR and HRE birds afterwards. This may be interpreted as an antipredator strategy for birds that relied on parental guidance during rearing. HR and HRE birds foraged more than PR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and PR birds were more vigilant during the first 2 weeks post release. Across rearing treatments, the percentages of time spent foraging and engaged in vigilant behaviors during rearing were positively correlated with their behavior upon release. If any of these behaviors can be demonstrated to have relevance for the

  12. Energy expenditure, nestling age, and brood size : an experimental study of parental behavior in the great tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ; Tinbergen, JM

    1999-01-01

    A brood manipulation experiment on great tits Parus major was performed to study the effects of nestling age and brood size on parental care and offspring survival. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of females feeding nestlings of 6 and 12 days of age was measured using the doubly-labeled water

  13. The Relationship between Parental Rearing Behavior, Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Ryoung Moon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.

  14. The Relationship between Parental Rearing Behavior, Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju Ryoung; Song, Jinyoung; Huh, June; Kang, I-Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Chang, Sung-A; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-01-01

    Parental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity. Patients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children's Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data. The median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity. Parental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent's resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.

  15. Removal of Varroa jacobsoni infested brood in honey bee colonies with differing pollen stores

    OpenAIRE

    Janmaat, Alida; Winston, Mark

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The effects of high or low pollen storage on Apis mellifera L. brood removal behavior and Varroa jacobsoni reproduction were examined. High pollen storage colonies removed 49% of the infested larvae compared to 33% removal by the low pollen storage colonies. No difference was found in the proportion of fertile mites between those reared in high or low pollen storage colonies, although mite fertility appeared to decrease from mid to late summer in British Columbia, Cana...

  16. Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites: e0142985

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delaplane, Keith S; Pietravalle, Stephane; Brown, Mike A; Budge, Giles E

    2015-01-01

    ... against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of this behavior that can be expected to confer colony benefit...

  17. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  18. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  19. The influence of maternal child-rearing attitudes and teaching behaviors on preschoolers' delay of gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, C F; Harris, Y R

    2000-09-01

    This study was an exploratory examination of the influence of mothers' teaching behaviors, strategies, and child-rearing attitudes on their children's ability to delay gratification. In an externally imposed delay of gratification situation, 30 mothers from a rural university community taught their children strategies that could help them refrain from touching a brightly wrapped present when the mothers left the room. Results showed that mothers of children who did not delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with a permissive parenting style, whereas mothers of children who did delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with an authoritative parenting style. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the development of children's self-control and self-regulatory abilities.

  20. Effects of brood size manipulations on sexual attractiveness of offspring in the zebra finch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeKogel, CH; Prijs, HJ

    In a laboratory study the effect of brood size manipulations on the sexual attractiveness of offspring was investigated. Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, were reared in small or large broods. Young were exchanged so that natural siblings from different rearing conditions could be compared. Birds

  1. Behavior and performance of broiler strains reared under semi-intensive system with shaded areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAD Barbosa Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The matter of animal welfare has led to studies in order to evaluate alternative rearing systems for livestock in order to improve well-being. The semi-intensive system is an alternative method of rearing broilers in which the birds are kept in a poultry house and have free access to a pasture area during the day. It is known that ambient conditions may directly affect the behavior of birds reared in the semi-intensive system. Therefore, this research evaluated the behavior of four broiler strains reared under a semi-intensive system with a shaded area (provided by a black plastic screen - 50% and the bioclimatic characteristics of this environment when compared with the non-shaded pasture. Thirty-five birds were reared in pens with 4.5 m² and 35 m² of pasture. Ambient variables were measured throughout the day to calculate the indexes of thermal comfort (BGHI and enthalpy. Data was analyzed in a 4 x 2 factorial (4 strains and 2 rearing environments with 2 repetitions, in order to establish the rate of bird permanence in the pasture. There was an improvement in the ambient conditions of the shaded pasture in the hottest hours of the day (from 10:00 to 14:00 h, i.e., there was a reduction in the mean values of BGHI (approximately 26% and enthalpy (36%. As a consequence, there was an increase in the rate of permanence in this environment if compared with the non-shaded pasture. Three out of four evaluated strains showed better adaptability to the semi-intensive rearing system.

  2. Prespawning Behavior, Spawning, and Development of the Brooding Starfish Leptasterias polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, J F; Mercier, A

    1995-02-01

    Our study focused on the precise reproductive behavior of the starfish Leptasterias polaris (Muller and Troschel) before and during spawning--a subject of much speculation and evident ecological importance. Between the third week of December 1992 and mid-January 1993, we observed spawning in the laboratory that roughly corresponded to field observations in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary. In experimental tanks provided with natural environmental conditions, the spawning was preceded by 7 to 8 weeks of complex aggregative interactions among the starfish. The individuals, which usually avoid each other, began to make discreet arm contact, which intensified with time and eventually led to the superposition of two or more starfish, independently of sex. The interactions seem to be associated with decreasing temperature, because aggregative and spawning behaviors were not observed under stable temperature conditions. Male spawning is first initiated when the temperature falls to about 2{deg}C during minimum daylength (polaris serves mainly to keep the eggs clean, healthy, and protected against predation.

  3. Isolation rearing reveals latent antisnake behavior in California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus becheeyi) searching for predatory threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromborg, Chris T; Coss, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    This study of California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) investigated the long-term effects of isolation rearing on alarm-call recognition. Six wild-caught squirrels, trapped as yearlings, and six laboratory-reared squirrels were maintained in solitary cages for approximately 3 years prior to the study. Visual searching and olfactory searching were measured as squirrels emerged from their burrow-like nest box into a laboratory room after hearing repetitive playbacks of alarm calls or control sounds consisting of pulses of white-noise or ambient laboratory sounds. Before exiting completely after hearing alarm calls, both groups exhibited similar levels of visual searching that was reliably higher than after hearing the other sounds. After exiting completely, the laboratory-reared squirrels exhibited a reliably greater amount of olfactory investigation than the wild-caught squirrels. Five laboratory-reared squirrels turned around after exiting and inspected their dark nest-box opening, three of which tail flagged repeatedly and one threw substrate into the opening. Since pups recognize snakes and engage in this behavior, this latent expression of antisnake behavior illustrates its robust organizational properties in the appropriate burrow-like context irrespective of the presumed retardation of neural development known to occur in other species of rodent subjected to similar isolation rearing.

  4. Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, J J; Fullwood, S D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts' behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts' immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune measures did not indicate that any treatments resulted in physiological effects indicative of stress.

  5. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  6. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. On the link between perceived parental rearing behaviors and self-conscious emotions in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Cor; Muris, Peter; Dibbets, Pauline; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Lotte H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11–18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument

  8. First evidence of conspecific brood parasitism in song sparrows with comments on methods sufficient to document this behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; J. Letitia Grenier; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard; Mark E. Hauber

    2006-01-01

    Conspecific brood parasitism occurs in many songbird species but has not been reported in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). In three separate study areas where breeding Song Sparrows experience heavy nest predation pressure and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism, we observed six instances in which newly laid eggs were attributable to female Song Sparrows...

  9. On the Link between Perceived Parental Rearing Behaviors and Self-conscious Emotions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Cor; Muris, Peter; Dibbets, Pauline; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11-18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument to measure proneness to guilt and shame (SCEMAS). Results indicated that parental rearing dimensions were positively related to self-conscious emotions. Regarding the non-clinical sample, both favourable (emotional warmth) and unfavourable (rejection) paternal and maternal rearing dimensions were significant correlates of guilt- and shame-proneness. The results for the clinical sample were less conclusive: only maternal emotional warmth and rejection were found to be significantly associated with guilt and shame. Interestingly, no associations between any of the paternal rearing dimensions and self-conscious emotions emerged. Taken together, these results are in keeping with the notion that parental rearing factors are involved in the development of both adaptive and maladaptive self-conscious emotions in adolescents.

  10. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  11. Brood Ball-Mediated Transmission of Microbiome Members in the Dung Beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Feindler, Michele; Feeser, Karla; Abebe, Tselotie

    2013-01-01

    Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood chamber. The

  12. Behavior Problems of Psychic Nature in Shelter - Reared Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Yuksel Halil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the etiology, the species and the prevalence of pathoethological processes of psychic nature in sheltered dogs. The analysis was performed on the mandatory necessity of establishing the type of the dog’s temperament, in relation to the owners’ proper approach towards the specific animal, as well as its successful primary and secondary socialisation. A neurotic dog may exhibit chronic anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, obsessive behavior, and inappropriate responses to stimuli. Truly psychotic dogs, however, are deranged. Their behavior is acute and unpredictable.

  13. Effects of mu- and kappa-2 opioid receptor agonists on pain and rearing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Heather L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of pain involves a balance between inhibition of pain and minimization of side effects; therefore, in developing new analgesic compounds, one must consider the effects of treatment on both pain processing and behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mu and kappa-2 opioid receptor agonists on general and pain behavioral outcomes. Methods As a general behavioral assessment, we modified the cylinder rearing assay and recorded the number and duration of rearing events. Thermal sensitivity was evaluated using either a reflexive measure of hindpaw withdrawal latency to a radiant heat source or using an orofacial operant thermal assay. Acetic acid-induced visceral pain and capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammatory pain were used as painful stimuli. The mu-opioid receptor agonist, morphine or the kappa-2 receptor agonist GR89696 was administered 30 min prior to testing. A general linear model repeated measures analysis was completed for baseline session comparisons and an analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effects of treatment on each outcome measure (SPSS Inc. When significant differences were found, post-hoc comparisons were made using the Tukey honestly significant difference test. *P Results We found that morphine and GR89,696 dose-dependently decreased the number of reaching events and rearing duration. Rearing behavior was not affected at 0.5 mg/kg for morphine, 1.25 × 10-4 mg/kg for GR89,696. Hindpaw thermal sensitivity was significantly increased only at the highest doses for each drug. At the highest dose that did not significantly influence rearing behavior, we found that visceral and neurogenic inflammatory pain was not affected following GR89,696 administration and morphine was only partially effective for blocking visceral pain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that high levels of the opioids produced significant untoward effects and made distinguishing an analgesic

  14. Habitat selection and movements of Piping Plover broods suggest a tradeoff between breeding stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2015-01-01

    In precocial birds, adults select breeding areas using cues associated with habitat characteristics that are favorable for nesting success and chick survival, but there may be tradeoffs in habitat selection between these breeding stages. Here we describe habitat selection and intra-territory movements of 53 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) broods (320 observations) during the 2007–2008 breeding seasons on mainland- and island-shoreline habitats at Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, USA. We used remotely sensed habitat characteristics to separately examine habitat selection and movements at two spatiotemporal scales to account for potential confounding effects of nest-site selection on brood-rearing habitat used. The scales used were (1) the entire brood-rearing period within available brood-rearing areas and (2) 2-day observation intervals within age-specific discrete habitat selection choice sets. Analyses at both scales indicated that broods selected areas which were non-vegetated, moderately level, and nearer to the shoreline. Rate of brood movement increased with age up to 5 days, then stabilized; broods that hatched >50 m away from the shoreline moved toward the shoreline. Brood movements were greater when they were in vegetated areas, when the brood-rearing area was of greater topographic complexity, and when broods aged 6–25 days were further away from the shoreline. Using inferences from our results and those of previously published work, we postulate how a potential tradeoff in habitat selection between nesting and brood-rearing can contribute to an ecological trap in a novel habitat. This work, in the context of published works, suggests that plover breeding habitat is a complex of both nesting and brood-rearing habitats and provides a basis for making remotely sensed abundance estimates of suitable breeding habitat for Piping Plovers.

  15. Effects of sex and early rearing condition on adult behavior, health, and well-being in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Andrea W; Bard, Kim A; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2017-08-26

    Scientific evaluation of management strategies for captive species is part of the establishment of best practices for animal welfare. Here we report the effects of sex, rearing, and a sex-by-rearing interaction on adult, captive chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) behavior, health, well-being, personality, and orientation towards humans based on multiple methods (observation, animal records, and surveys). Chimpanzees raised in three conditions, mother-reared (MR), standard nursery (ST) and an experimental nursery (RC), were assessed approximately 20 years after their differential rearing experiences concluded. Sex had a significant effect on behavior towards conspecifics (aggression [M>F]; affiliation [F>M]), on abnormal behavior (rocking [M>F]), and on likelihood of incurring at least one injury (between ages 6 and 10 [M>F]). Rearing condition had a significant impact on behavior towards humans (negative solicitation [RC=ST>MR=ST]; neutral behavior [RC>ST>MR], yawning (RC=ST>MR=ST), subjective well-being (MR=ST>RC=ST), and on GI illness frequency (RC>ST=MR). Sex interacted with rearing on aggression towards humans (for males, RC>MR=ST), frequency of upper respiratory infection (URI: for males RC>MR=ST)) and likelihood of at least one URI between the ages of 11 and 15 (RC males>ST males). Our findings support the conclusion that there are long-term effects of both early rearing and sex on captive adult chimpanzee welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrasting brood-sex ratio flexibility in two opiine (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of tephritid (Diptera) fruit files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass-rearing of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative release would be more economical if production could be biased towards females. If sex ratios are ever to be manipulated under rearing conditions it is important to determine if, then understand why, sex ratio flexibility exists. Unequal brood-s...

  17. Problem behaviors in adult laying hens - identifying risk factors during rearing and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Hansen, Tone B; Muri, Karianne; Nødtvedt, Ane; Moe, Randi O; Janczak, Andrew M

    2017-10-25

    Feather pecking, toe pecking, cannibalism, smothering, social clumping, hens laying eggs outside the nest boxes, and reduced feather quality are examples of problem behaviors and consequences reported by egg producers. The aim of this study was to identify rearing- and production-related risk factors associated with producer-reported problem behaviors in Norwegian layer flocks. Questionnaires were distributed to 410 egg producers nationwide, and 120 producers responded to the survey (response rate 29%). After exclusion of data that did not comply with the instructions, the final dataset included 78 flocks (19%). The survey covered questions about the farm, the flock's production results, the housing environment, climate and management routines, and the behavior of the birds from 16 wk of age until the flock was euthanized at 70-80 wk of age. The individual problem behaviors were combined to generate a continuous index variable called "problem behavior", ranging from 0 (none) to 8 (all the listed problem behaviors) reported. Multilevel linear regression models were applied to evaluate associations between the index and selected risk factors during rearing and production. The primary predictor was housing system during egg production: producers with aviary flocks on average (± standard deviation) reported 1.6 (± 0.60) more problem behaviors compared to producers with furnished cages (P < 0.001). Within aviaries (n = 40), producers, on average reported 1.7 (± 0.50) more problem behaviors in flocks that experienced problems with climatic conditions, compared to flocks without climatic problems (P = 0.001). For respondents with furnished cages (n = 30), on average 1.1 (± 0.50) fewer problem behaviors were reported in farms with ≥ 7,500 birds compared to farms with < 7,500 birds (P = 0.027). In conclusion, this is the first study assessing management and housing factors during the rearing and laying phase associated with problem behaviors as reported by Norwegian

  18. Panic disorder and perceived parental rearing behavior investigated by the Japanese version of the EMBU scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, T; Kitamura, H; Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Kaiya, H; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-01-01

    Although recent studies have found dysfunctional parental rearing behaviour is associated with certain aspects of psychopathology of panic disorder (PD), the results are not in complete agreement. By using a translated Japanese version of the EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran), we investigated the parental rearing behavior perceived by 103 normal subjects, 71 PD patients with agoraphobia, and 32 PD patients without agoraphobia. The PD patients scored both parents as more rejecting and overprotective than did the controls. However, subgroup analysis showed that the patients with agoraphobia reported significantly more rejection from both parents and less emotional warmth from mothers, while the patients without agoraphobia, by contrast, reported more overprotection from both parents and more favouring subject from fathers than did the controls. Interestingly, these results were consistent with those documented in the Western literature, which reported "affectionless control" as a parenting style in PD, and, furthermore, indicated a cross-cultural similarity of parental rearing factor. In addition, it was suggested that a lack of care might be associated with the development of agoraphobia in Japan.

  19. Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Roman, Roman; Sagili, Ramesh R.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important to social insects for the allocation of its working members into coordinated suites of behaviors. We tested effects of long-term treatment with brood pheromone on suites of honey bee brood rearing and foraging behaviors. Pheromone-treated colonies reared significantly greater brood areas and more adults than controls, while amounts of stored pollen and honey remained statistically similar. Brood pheromone increased the number of pollen foragers and the pollen load weights they returned. It appeared that the pheromone-induced increase in pollen intake was directly canalized into more brood rearing. A two-way pheromone priming effect was observed, such that some workers from the same age cohorts showed an increased and extended capacity to rear larvae, while others were recruited at significantly younger ages into pollen-specific foraging. Brood pheromone affected suites of nursing and foraging behaviors allocating worker and pollen resources associated with an important fitness trait, colony growth.

  20. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-04-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear.

  1. The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Petrowski, Katja; Brähler, Elmar; Zenger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender. Methods: N = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 ...

  2. Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H Cox

    Full Text Available It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering". In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering" is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (DBA. We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

  3. Effects of growth pattern and dietary protein level during rearing on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth patterns (GP) and dietary crude protein levels (CP) during rearing (2–22 weeks of age) on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing

  4. Begging and cowbirds : brood parasites make hosts scream louder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Saino, Nicola; Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.

    2009-01-01

    Avian brood parasites have evolved striking begging ability that often allows them to prevail over the host progeny in competition for parental resources. Host young are therefore selected by brood parasites to evolve behavioral strategies that reduce the cost of parasitism. We tested the prediction

  5. [Types of child rearing behavior of parents during early childhood: Q-methodological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Jung; Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the awareness of child rearing among parents of children in early childhood and to provide fundamental data for parent education programs according to child rearing type. Q-methodology which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item was used. Forty Q items which were derived from a literature review and interviews with nurturing mothers were classified into a normal distribution using a 9-point scale. Collected data were analyzed using the QUANAL PC Program. Four types of parents' child rearing were identified. Type I was named 'affection-respect type', type II, 'concern-rule compliant type', type III, 'solicitude-model type', and type IV, 'geniality-encouragement type'. For proper growth and development during early childhood, parents should have rational information and awareness of their child rearing type. Results of this study can be used as essential data to develop child rearing education programs according to parents' child rearing attitude.

  6. The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Brähler, Elmar; Zenger, Markus

    2014-11-07

    Recalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender. N = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 (M = 48.1 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. In this sample, an ultra-short form of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior Questionnaire, the German short version of the resilience scale, and two screening instruments for depression and anxiety (PHQ-2, GAD-2) were filled out. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data estimated with the maximum likelihood method approach. The data revealed that rejection and punishment were clearly associated with lower resilience. Moreover, resilience had a strong connection to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience had the same quality of association in both men and women with respect to anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime. Recalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience. Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

  7. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  8. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  9. Variation in the early marine survival and behavior of natural and hatchery-reared Hood Canal steelhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A; Tezak, Eugene P

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced selection and direct effects of the culture environment can both cause captively bred fish populations to survive at low rates and behave unnaturally in the wild. New approaches to fish rearing in conservation hatcheries seek to reduce hatchery-induced selection, maintain genetic resources, and improve the survival of released fish. This study used acoustic telemetry to compare three years of early marine survival estimates for two wild steelhead populations to survival of two populations raised at two different conservation hatcheries located within the Hood Canal watershed. Steelhead smolts from one conservation hatchery survived with probabilities similar to the two wild populations (freshwater: 95.8-96.9%, early marine: 10.0-15.9%), while smolts from the other conservation hatchery exhibited reduced freshwater and early marine survival (freshwater: 50.2-58.7%, early marine: 2.6-5.1%). Freshwater and marine travel rates did not differ significantly between wild and hatchery individuals from the same stock, though hatchery smolts did display reduced migration ranges within Hood Canal. Between-hatchery differences in rearing density and vessel geometry likely affected survival and behavior after release and contributed to greater variation between hatcheries than between wild populations. Our results suggest that hatchery-reared smolts can achieve early marine survival rates similar to wild smolt survival rates, and that migration performance of hatchery-reared steelhead can vary substantially depending on the environmental conditions and practices employed during captivity.

  10. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  11. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  12. Punitive Discipline and Child Behavior Problems in Chinese-American Immigrant Families: The Moderating Effects of Indigenous Child-Rearing Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 107 Chinese immigrant families we examined whether cultural child-rearing beliefs moderated the association between parents' use of punitive discipline and children's behavioral adjustment. Immigrant parents and their children aged 7 to 17 years completed measures of parental discipline and child behavior problems. Parents also…

  13. Parental investment with a superior alien in the brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Ø H; Johnstone, R A

    2007-11-01

    When a parent's parentage differs across breeding attempts, established theory predicts that the parent should invest more in a brood when perceived parentage is high. We present a model of parental investment in which offspring unrelated to the parent have a competitive advantage over the parent's own offspring and take a larger share of investment. We show that this can weaken or, if the competitive advantage is great, reverse the predicted relationship between perceived parentage and parental investment. A moderate competitive advantage of extra-pair young over within-pair young could partly explain the lack of any clear relationship between paternal care and paternity in many studies, and could easily arise if females choose extra-pair partners for good genes. Our results are also relevant to interspecific avian brood parasitism. As parasites reared together with host offspring are often superior competitors, their hosts could benefit from increasing investment in response to suspected parasitism.

  14. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  15. Xiaochaihutang attenuates depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of social isolation-reared mice by regulating monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and BDNF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Fang; Yang, Jingyu; Dong, Yingxu; Su, Guangyue; Zhang, Kuo; Pan, Xing; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Tingshuo; Wu, Chunfu

    2017-08-17

    Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), as a classical herbal formula for the treatment of "Shaoyang syndrome" has been demonstrated to exert an antidepressant effect in multiple animal models of depression as shown in our previous studies. However, the effects of XCHT on social isolation (SI)-reared mice have not been investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice, and its implicated mechanisms, including alterations in the monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression. Male C57 BL/6J mice (aged 4 weeks after weaning) were reared isolatedly for 8 weeks and XCHT (0.8, 2.3, 7.0g/kg) were given by gavage once a day. Forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze test (EPM) and intruder-induced aggression test were used to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice after administration of XCHT for 6 weeks. HPLC-MS/MS was performed to quantify the levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus by in vivo microdialysis, while western immunoblotting was used to evaluate the action of XCHT on the synthesis, transport and degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters. Immunofluorescence was used to study the effects of XCHT on neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression, including Ki-67, DCX, BrdU and BDNF. Our results showed that administration of XCHT (0.8, 2.3 and 7.0g/kg) for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the increase in immobility time in TST and FST, improved the anxiety-like behaviors in OFT and EPM, and improved the aggressive behaviors of SI-reared mice. XCHT significantly elevated monoamine neurotransmitters levels and inhibited 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in hippocampal microdialysates of SI-reared mice. In addition, we found XCHT enhanced monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis enzymes (TPH2 and TH) expressions, inhibited serotonin transporter (SERT) expression and decreased monoamine neurotransmitter

  16. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Purcell

    Full Text Available Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  17. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Avril, Amaury; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Bates, Sarah; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  18. Sexual imprinting misguides species recognition in a facultative interspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Michael D; Hauber, Mark E; Derrickson, Scott R

    2010-10-22

    Sexual reproduction relies on the recognition of conspecifics for breeding. Most experiments in birds have implicated a critical role for early social learning in directing subsequent courtship behaviours and mating decisions. This classical view of avian sexual imprinting is challenged, however, by studies of megapodes and obligate brood parasites, species in which reliable recognition is achieved despite the lack of early experience with conspecifics. By rearing males with either conspecific or heterospecific brood mates, we experimentally tested the effect of early social experience on the association preferences and courtship behaviours of two sympatrically breeding ducks. We predicted that redheads (Aythya americana), which are facultative interspecific brood parasites, would show a diminished effect of early social environment on subsequent courtship preferences when compared with their host and congener, the canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Contrary to expectations, cross-fostered males of both species courted heterospecific females and preferred them in spatial association tests, whereas control males courted and associated with conspecific females. These results imply that ontogenetic constraints on species recognition may be a general impediment to the initial evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Under more natural conditions, a variety of mechanisms may mitigate or counteract the effects of early imprinting for redheads reared in canvasback broods.

  19. Nurse honeybee workers tend capped brood, which does not require feeding, around the clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagari, Moshe; Brenner, Yafit; Bloch, Guy

    2017-11-15

    'Nurse' honeybees tend brood around the clock with attenuated or no circadian rhythms, but the brood signals inducing this behavior remain elusive. We first tested the hypothesis that worker circadian rhythms are regulated by brood pheromones. We monitored locomotor activity of individually isolated nurse bees that were exposed to either various doses of larval extract or synthetic brood ester pheromone (BEP). Bees orally treated with larval extract showed attenuated circadian rhythms in one of four tested colonies; a similar but statistically non-significant trend was seen in two additional colonies. Nurse bees treated with synthetic BEP showed rhythm attenuation in one of three tested colonies. Next, we tested the hypothesis that capped brood, which does not require feeding, nevertheless induces around-the-clock activity in nurses. By combining a new protocol that enables brood care by individually isolated nurse bees, detailed behavioral observations and automatic high-resolution monitoring of locomotor activity, we found that isolated nurses tended capped brood around the clock with attenuated circadian rhythms. Bees individually isolated in similar cages but without brood showed strong circadian rhythms in locomotor activity and rest. This study shows for the first time that the need to feed hungry larvae is not the only factor accounting for around-the-clock activity in nurse bees. Our results further suggest that the transition between activity with and without circadian rhythms is not a simple switch triggered by brood pheromones. Around-the-clock tending may enhance brood development and health in multiple ways that include improved larval feeding, thermoregulation or hygienic behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Behavior and performance of sows fed different levels of fiber and reared in individual cages or collective pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO E.L. BUDIÑO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pregnant sows were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 2x2 factorial scheme consisting of two housing systems (individual cages and collective pens and two diets (low [2.67%] and high [13.14%] level of crude fiber. Physiological, behavioral, environmental, and hormonal parameters were studied. In addition, the following productive and reproductive parameters were evaluated: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion of the sow and piglets, number of piglets born dead and alive, number and weight at weaning, and backfat thickness of sows. Pregnant sows reared in collective pens and fed a high-fiber diet exhibited better physiological responses, indicating greater comfort and better animal welfare. The environmental variables were close to the comfort zone of the animals. In addition to providing a more comfortable environment, housing pigs in collective pens reduced stereotypy, permitting the sows to express a more natural behavior. The high-fiber diet did not interfere with female productive performance. Tifton hay can therefore be indicated as an alternative for the formulation of sow diets to improve animal welfare.

  1. Evidence for foraging -site fidelity and individual foraging behavior of pelagic cormorants rearing chicks in the gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzerka, J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Garthe, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) is the most widespread cormorant in the North Pacific, but little is known about its foraging and diving behavior. However, knowledge of seabirds' foraging behavior is important to understanding their function in the marine environment. In 2006, using GPS dataloggers, we studied the foraging behavior of 14 male Pelagic Cormorants rearing chicks on Middleton Island, Alaska. For foraging, the birds had high fidelity to a small area 8 km north of the colony. Within that area, the cormorants' diving activity was of two distinct kinds-near-surface dives (1-6 m) and benthic dives (28-33 m). Individuals were consistent in the depths of their dives, either mostly shallow or mostly deep. Few showed no depth preference. Dive duration, time at maximum depth, and pauses at the water surface between consecutive dives were shorter for shallow dives than for deep dives. The cormorants made dives of both types throughout the day, but the frequency of deep dives increased toward evening. Maximum foraging range was 9 km; maximum total distance traveled per trip was 43.4 km. Trip durations ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 hr. Maximum depth of a dive was 42.2 m, and duration of dives ranged from 4 to 120 sec. We found that Pelagic Cormorants at Middleton Island were faithful to one particular foraging area and individuals dived in distinct patterns. Distinct, specialized foraging behavior may be advantageous in reducing intra- and interspecific competition but may also render the species vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  2. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  3. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  4. Meat quality characteristics of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...

  5. Imprinting and the origin of parasite-host species associations in brood-parasitic indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne; Payne; Woods; Sorenson

    2000-01-01

    Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host species, the red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, the Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Captive-reared female indigobirds were tested as adults for mate choice and for host choice. In tests of mate choice, female indigobirds responded preferentially towards mimicry songs of male indigobirds that were similar to those of the females' own foster parents. Females reared by Bengalese finches responded to male songs that mimicked Bengalese finch song rather than to male songs that mimicked their normal host species, the firefinch. In tests of host choice, females reared by Bengalese finches laid in the nests of Bengalese finches, and females reared by firefinches laid in the nests of firefinches. Wild-caught females showed the same behaviours as captive-bred females reared by firefinches. A female indigobird's social companions (firefinch or Bengalese) following her independence of her foster parents had no effect on her sexual response to male mimicry song or her choice of a host species in brood parasitism. The results support the predictions of a model of imprinting-like behaviour development in which young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, rather than a model of innate bias for songs and nests of their normal host species, or a null model of nonspecific brood parasitism and differential survival. The results provide experimental support for the recent origin of brood parasite-host associations and the significance of imprinting in speciation in these brood parasites. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Diurnal ingestive behavior of Holstein calves reared in different systems: feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ingestive behavior of Hostein calves kept in two husbandry systems: feedlot or pasture. We examined the ingestive behavior of 11 male non-castrated calves, with average initial age of 75 days, six of which were individually penned, consuming corn silage and concentrate-based diet at a ratio of 40:60 (on a DM basis, and the remainder, on pearl millet pasture (Pennisetum americanum receiving concentrate supplementation at 1.0% body weight. Evaluations were held from November to February, from 8:00 am to 6:00 pm. Feedlot calves stay longer (p < 0.05 in idle, both in lying and standing positions, while animals on pasture spent more time in eating and ruminating activities. Confined animals performed a higher number of daily meals, but of shorter duration each. In both production systems, rumination activity is preferably performed in lying position, however, rumination time in standing position is about 1.4 times longer for those kept on pasture. Animals kept on pasture show a lower efficiency of DM intake, greater number of ruminated boluses, which were ruminated for less time and with fewer cud chewings.

  7. Testing predictions of small brood models using parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guinnee, M.A.; Bernal, J.S.; Bezemer, T.M.; Fidgen, J.G.; Hardy, I.C.W.; Mayhew, P.J.; Mills, N.J.; West, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: How is variation in offspring size (between broods) related to brood size? Hypotheses: Variance in offspring size (between broods) should decrease with increasing brood size as predicted by Charnov and colleagues' (Charnov and Downhower, 1995; Charnov et al., 1995) small brood invariant.

  8. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  9. On the Links between Attachment Style, Parental Rearing Behaviors, and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Non-Clinical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Jeffrey; Meesters, Cor; ter Huurne, Mijke; Bamelis, Lotte; Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We sought to investigate the relationships between negative family factors such as insecure attachment and adverse parental rearing, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a large sample of non-clinical children (N = 237) aged 9 to 12 years. All children completed a set of self-report questionnaires including a single-item measure of…

  10. Learning performance and brain structure of artificially-reared honey bees fed with different quantities of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steijven, Karin; Spaethe, Johannes; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Härtel, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Artificial rearing of honey bee larvae is an established method which enables to fully standardize the rearing environment and to manipulate the supplied diet to the brood. However, there are no studies which compare learning performance or neuroanatomic differences of artificially-reared (in-lab) bees in comparison with their in-hive reared counterparts. Here we tested how different quantities of food during larval development affect body size, brain morphology and learning ability of adult honey bees. We used in-lab rearing to be able to manipulate the total quantity of food consumed during larval development. After hatching, a subset of the bees was taken for which we made 3D reconstructions of the brains using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Learning ability and memory formation of the remaining bees was tested in a differential olfactory conditioning experiment. Finally, we evaluated how bees reared with different quantities of artificial diet compared to in-hive reared bees. Thorax and head size of in-lab reared honey bees, when fed the standard diet of 160 µl or less, were slightly smaller than hive bees. The brain structure analyses showed that artificially reared bees had smaller mushroom body (MB) lateral calyces than their in-hive counterparts, independently of the quantity of food they received. However, they showed the same total brain size and the same associative learning ability as in-hive reared bees. In terms of mid-term memory, but not early long-term memory, they performed even better than the in-hive control. We have demonstrated that bees that are reared artificially (according to the Aupinel protocol) and kept in lab-conditions perform the same or even better than their in-hive sisters in an olfactory conditioning experiment even though their lateral calyces were consistently smaller at emergence. The applied combination of experimental manipulation during the larval phase plus subsequent behavioral and neuro-anatomic analyses is a

  11. Learning performance and brain structure of artificially-reared honey bees fed with different quantities of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Steijven

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Artificial rearing of honey bee larvae is an established method which enables to fully standardize the rearing environment and to manipulate the supplied diet to the brood. However, there are no studies which compare learning performance or neuroanatomic differences of artificially-reared (in-lab bees in comparison with their in-hive reared counterparts. Methods Here we tested how different quantities of food during larval development affect body size, brain morphology and learning ability of adult honey bees. We used in-lab rearing to be able to manipulate the total quantity of food consumed during larval development. After hatching, a subset of the bees was taken for which we made 3D reconstructions of the brains using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Learning ability and memory formation of the remaining bees was tested in a differential olfactory conditioning experiment. Finally, we evaluated how bees reared with different quantities of artificial diet compared to in-hive reared bees. Results Thorax and head size of in-lab reared honey bees, when fed the standard diet of 160 µl or less, were slightly smaller than hive bees. The brain structure analyses showed that artificially reared bees had smaller mushroom body (MB lateral calyces than their in-hive counterparts, independently of the quantity of food they received. However, they showed the same total brain size and the same associative learning ability as in-hive reared bees. In terms of mid-term memory, but not early long-term memory, they performed even better than the in-hive control. Discussion We have demonstrated that bees that are reared artificially (according to the Aupinel protocol and kept in lab-conditions perform the same or even better than their in-hive sisters in an olfactory conditioning experiment even though their lateral calyces were consistently smaller at emergence. The applied combination of experimental manipulation during the larval phase plus

  12. Laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, and biomedical research potential of the Yucatan octopus (Octopus maya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heukelem, W F

    1977-10-01

    Eggs of the Yucatan octopus, Octopus maya, were collected at Campeche, Mexico, transported to Hawaii, and incubated in glass funnels. Benthic juveniles hatched from the large (17-mm) eggs and were reared on a variety of live and frozen foods. As many as 200 animals were reared for the first month in a 20-liter aquarium. No disease or parasite problems were encountered and nearly all well-fed juveniles survived to sexual maturity. The species was reared through four generations in the laboratory. Animals weighed 0.1 g at hatching and within 8.5 months attained an average weight of 3231 g. Mating was promiscuous and sperm were stored in the oviducts until spawning. Spawning occurred at 8-9 months of age. Up to 5,000 eggs were laid by large females and nearly 100% of fertilized eggs developed to hatching. Females brooded eggs during the 45-day period of development but artificial was as successful as natural incubation by the mother. Pos-reproductive senescent decline of both males and females was rapid and average life span was 300 days from hatching. Areas of biomedical research in which O maya could be a useful model were suggested and included neurobiology, comparative psychology, ontogeny of behavior, immunology, endocrinology, and studies of aging.

  13. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  14. Spatial patterns, ecological niches, and interspecific competition of avian brood parasites: inferring from a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Noh, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yunkyoung; Kwon, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Hoe; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2014-09-01

    Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So far, however, few studies have demonstrated whether the interspecific competition really occurs in the system of avian brood parasitism and how the nature of brood parasitism is related to their niche evolution. Using the occurrence data of five avian brood parasites from two sources of nationwide bird surveys in South Korea and publically available environmental/climatic data, we identified their distribution patterns and ecological niches, and applied species distribution modeling to infer the effect of interspecific competition on their spatial distribution. We found that the distribution patterns of five avian brood parasites could be characterized by altitude and climatic conditions, but overall their spatial ranges and ecological niches extensively overlapped with each other. We also found that the predicted distribution areas of each species were generally comparable to the realized distribution areas, and the numbers of individuals in areas where multiple species were predicted to coexist showed positive relationships among species. In conclusion, despite following different coevolutionary trajectories to adapt to their respect host species, five species of avian brood parasites breeding in South Korea occupied broadly similar ecological niches, implying that they tend to conserve ancestral preferences for ecological conditions. Furthermore, our results indicated that contrary to expectation interspecific competition for host availability between avian brood parasites seemed to be trivial, and thus, play little role in shaping their spatial distributions and ecological niches. Future studies, including the complete ranges of avian brood

  15. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  16. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y; Sharma, Dhruv B; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  17. A password for species recognition in a brood-parasitic bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, M E; Russo, S A; Sherman, P W

    2001-05-22

    Recognition of conspecifics is an essential precursor of sexual reproduction. Most mammals and birds learn salient features of their parents or siblings early in ontogeny and later recognize individuals whose phenotypes match the mental image (template) of relatives closely enough as conspecifics. However, the young of brood parasites are reared among heterospecifics, so social learning will yield inappropriate species recognition templates. Initially, it was inferred that conspecific recognition in brood parasites depended on genetically determined templates. More recently it was demonstrated that learning plays a critical role in the development of parasites' social preferences. Here we propose a mechanism that accommodates the interaction of learned and genetic components of recognition. We suggest that conspecific recognition is initiated when a young parasite encounters some unique species-specific signal or "password" (e.g. a vocalization, behaviour or other characteristic) that triggers learning of additional aspects of the password-giver's phenotype. We examined the possibility that nestlings of the obligately brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) could use a species-specific vocalization, the "chatter", as a password. We found that six-day-old nestlings responded (begged) significantly more frequently to playbacks of chatters than to other avian sounds and that two-month-old fledglings approached playbacks of chatters more quickly than vocalizations of heterospecifics. Free-living cowbird fledglings and adults also approached playbacks of chatters more often than control sounds. Passwords may be involved in the ontogeny of species recognition in brood parasites generally.

  18. Post-fledging brood and care division in the roseate tern (Sterna dougallii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatch, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Extended post-fledging parental care is an important aspect of parental care in birds, although little studied due to logistic difficulties. Commonly, the brood is split physically (brood division) and/or preferential care is given to a subset of the brood by one parent or the other (care division). Among gulls and tern (Laridae), males and females generally share parental activities during the pre-fledging period, but the allocation of parental care after fledging is little documented. This study examined the behaviour of male and female roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) during the late chick-rearing and early post-fledging periods, and in particular the amount of feeds and the time spent in attendance given to individual chicks/fledglings. Pre-fledging parental care was biparental in all cases. Post-fledging parental care was dependent on the number of fledglings in the brood. Males and females continued biparental care in clutches with one surviving fledgling, while in two-fledgling clutches, males fed the A-fledgling while females fed the B-fledgling. Overall, there was no difference in attendance, only in feeds. This division of care may be influenced by the male only being certain of the paternity of the A-chick but not by chick sex. ?? 2011 Japan Ethological Society and Springer.

  19. The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we cross-fostered eggs originating from single-queen (= monogynous) or multiple-queen (= polygynous) colonies into experimental groups of workers from each social structure to investigate whether differences in offspring survival, development time and body size are shaped by the genotype and/or prefoster maternal effects present in the eggs, or by the social origin of the rearing workers. Eggs produced by polygynous queens were more likely to survive to adulthood than eggs from monogynous queens, regardless of the social origin of the rearing workers. However, brood from monogynous queens grew faster than brood from polygynous queens. The social origin of the rearing workers influenced the probability of brood survival, with workers from monogynous colonies rearing more brood to adulthood than workers from polygynous colonies. The social origin of eggs or rearing workers had no significant effect on the head size of the resulting workers in our standardized laboratory conditions. Overall, the social backgrounds of the parents and of the rearing workers appear to shape distinct survival and developmental traits of ant brood. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  1. The role of the AMPA receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor on aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in chronic social isolation-reared mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Koh; Kurosawa, Natsuki; Seki, Kenjiro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social isolation (SI)-reared mice exhibit aggressive and depressive-like behaviors. However, the pathophysiological changes caused by chronic SI remain unclear. The hypothalamus and amygdala have been suggested to be associated with the stress of SI. In addition to serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors, AMPA receptors have also been suggested to be involved in aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in animals. Therefore, we examined whether chronic SI affects AMPA and 5-HT3 receptor expression levels in these regions. A Western blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated SI-induced depressive-like symptoms but not aggressive behavior. Intra-amygdalar infusions of the selective AMPA receptor agonist (S)-AMPA (10 μM) induced despair-like behavior, but not sucrose preference or aggressive behavior, in mice not reared in SI (naïve mice). Alternatively, treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A (3.0 mg/kg; i.p.) decreased aggression levels. In addition, intra-hypothalamic infusions of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (3 μM) did not trigger aggressive behavior in naïve mice; however, the administration of ondansetron (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.) increased aggression levels in two-week SI mice, which rarely exhibited the aggressive behavior. Moreover, ondansetron did not affect the depressive-like symptoms of the SI mice. These results suggest that SI-induced up-regulation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits protein levels in the amygdalar region and down-regulation of 5-HT3 receptor proteins level in the hypothalamic region are associated with the effect of AMPA receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist -induced aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  3. An ultra-short screening version of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE-US and its factor structure in a representative German sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2] assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions.

  4. EFFECT OF BROOD STOCK SIZE ON EGG FERTILIZATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of size of brood stock on egg fertilization, hatchability and fry survival rate of Clarias gariepinus in an intensive culture system, for a period of four weeks. Larger brood stock size (1200-1500g) produced larger eggs and bigger fry while moderate brood ...

  5. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  6. Is extrapair mating random? On the probability distribution of extrapair young in avian broods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, Jon E.; Korsten, Peter; Bouwman, Karen A.; Berg, Mathew L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A dichotomy in female extrapair copulation (EPC) behavior, with some females seeking EPC and others not, is inferred if the observed distribution of extrapair young (EPY) over broods differs from a random process on the level of individual offspring (binomial, hypergeometrical, or Poisson). A review

  7. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-04-01

    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation.

  8. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Andrea W; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Bard, Kim A; Maple, Terry L; Marr, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age. Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a significant predictor of stereotypic rocking in adult chimpanzees, F(1, 18) = 7.50, p = .013. For those subjects (N = 24) with a full 20 years (birth through age 20 years) of health data available, both rearing experience and disorganized attachment were significant predictors of upper respiratory infection frequency, F(2, 21) = 8.86, p = .002. Chimpanzees with disorganized attachment exhibited average subjective well-being as adults, whereas chimpanzees with organized strategies exhibited higher than average subjective well-being as adults. These results support the findings of human attachment research and are in line with attachment-based predictions for chimpanzees, such that the consequences of an early history of disorganized attachment may be adverse and long lasting. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Description age-3 brood rainbow trout bred in the conditions of the industral fish farm "Sloboda Banyliv"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mendryshora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of cultivation and give fish-breeding and biological characteristics of age-3 brood rainbow trout grown using industrial technology in the conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv." Methodology. Fish cultivation was carried in tank conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv". The material for the study were age-3 brood rainbow trout obtained from eggs of the fall-spawning form of rainbow trout. Cultivation was carried out in a 216 m2 tank, stocking density of 255 fish/m2, using standard trout culture methods. Statistical analysis of the material was performed in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. Analysis of the variables was performed in the system of absolute values. The analysis criteria were their mean values mean deviations (M±m, standard error (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with specialized feed manufactured by “BioMar” (Denmark with a high protein content (more than 40%. Findings. Based on the performed selective-breeding works aimed at creating brood stocks of rainbow trout, it was found that brood fish reared in the industrial conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv”, despite instable culture conditions, were characterized by a moderate growth rate and had high values of productive and reproductive features. Mean weight of age-3 rainbow trout females was 1282.5 g, fecundity — 3.48 thousand eggs. Mean weight of produced eggs was 239.17 g, while individual parameters were 70.4 mg for the weight and 4.58 mm for the diameter. Originality. For the first time a study aimed at the formation of brood stocks of rainbow trout with analysis of phenotypic and productive features in the conditions of a fish farm with instable temperature and water regimes has been conducted. Practical value. The results of the performed work will allow selecting and forming a brood stock with high values of productive and reproductive features.

  10. Effect of dietary synbiotic supplement on behavioral patterns and growth performance of broiler chickens reared under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A A; Jacobs, J A; Murugesan, G R; Cheng, H W

    2018-01-11

    This study examined the effects of a dietary synbiotic supplement on the behavioral patterns and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). Three hundred sixty 1-day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were distributed among 24 floor pens (15 chicks per pen); each pen was randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatments containing a synbiotic at 0 (control), 0.5 (0.5X) and 1.0 (1.0X) g/kg. From d 15 to 42, birds were exposed to HS at 32°C daily from 08:00 to 17:00. Five broiler chickens were randomly marked in each pen for behavioral observation. Instantaneous scan sampling was used to record the birds' behavioral patterns. Performance parameters were measured on d 7, 14, 28 and 42. The synbiotic fed birds exhibited more standing, sitting, walking, feeding, preening and less wing spreading and panting behaviors (P  0.05). There were few dose-related differences of the synbiotic on production performance; namely, the 1.0X concentration resulted in the highest BW and feed intake on d 14 and 42 (P broiler industry to diminish the negative effects of HS, potentially safeguarding the welfare and production of broiler chickens, particularly in areas that experience hot climates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis.

  14. Physiological costs and carry-over effects of avian interspecific brood parasitism influence reproductive tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melissa M; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2013-05-01

    Although models of co-evolution between brood parasites and their hosts primarily focus upon the cost to hosts in the current reproductive bout, the impact of brood parasitism may carry over to future reproductive attempts by altering resource allocation. Glucocorticoid stress hormones help mediate resource allocation to reproduction, yet they have rarely been examined in brood parasitic systems. Here we determined if shifts in parental care and corticosterone had carry-over effects on future reproductive effort in the rufous-and-white wren (Thryophilus rufalbus), a host of the Central American striped cuckoo (Tapera naevia). We found that parasitized parents had significantly higher stress-induced, but not baseline, corticosterone than natural parents during the fledgling stage, which was associated with changes in parental care. The high investment in current reproduction while parasitized may be due to the value of fledged chicks in tropical systems. This maladaptive response by parasitized parents was associated with delayed re-nesting and a reduced likelihood of nesting in the subsequent breeding season. Although a reduction in future reproductive effort can result from a combination of factors, this work suggests that fitness costs of brood parasitism are mediated by changes in corticosterone and parental care behavior that carry over into subsequent breeding seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  16. Brood size and body condition in the House Sparrow Passer domesticus : the influence of brooding behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chastel, O; Kersten, M.

    In many bird species, females undergo a marked decline in body condition during the first days of the nestling period. This decline may be because brooding young chicks reduces the time available for foraging. Alternatively, it might be viewed as an adaptive way to reduce flight costs when the food

  17. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  18. Effects of crude extracts of a saxitoxin-producer strain of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming behavior of wild and laboratory reared guppy Poecilia vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Karina C; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Dos Santos, Everton G N; Cunha, Rodolfo A; Santos, Cláudia P

    2017-04-01

    The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is an invasive species in water supply reservoirs worldwide, which can produces cylindrospermopsins and saxitoxins. In the wild, guppy (Poecilia vivipara) can be exposed to cyanotoxins, but those born and reared in laboratory are free of this contact. The aim of this paper was to comparatively measure the locomotor activity of 'wild' and 'lab' P. vivipara before and after exposure to crude extracts of two different cultures of C. raciborskii (CYRF-01), a saxitoxin-procucer strain. The movement of each fish was recorded using an image monitoring system (Videomex V(®)) before and after 48 h exposure to cyanobacterial extracts. Each experiment was performed during 4 h, with 1 h acclimation and 3 h recording period of the parameters Distance performed (DP), Swimming time (SwT), Stereotypic time (StT), Resting time (RT) and Average speed (AS). The quantification of saxitoxin in the solutions was performed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The weight or the total length did not influence the locomotor activity of fish in any of the experiments. The saxitoxin value was similar for both cultures (Culture 1: 7.3 μg L(-1) and Culture 2: 8.6 μg L(-1)). However, in experiments with Culture 1 an increased activity in most parameters was observed, while in Culture 2, a decreased activity was observed only in 'lab' fish. Wild fish was less affected, showing higher resistance to both cyanobacterial crude extracts. This study showed that different cultures of the same strain of C. raciborskii and with similar contents of saxitoxin are able to change the locomotor activity of P. vivipara, contributing to the validation of the use of behavioral parameters to the evaluation of sublethal effects of toxic cyanobacteria on fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

  20. Marsupial brood care in Cretaceous tanaidaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Alba; Delclòs, Xavier; Engel, Michael S; Bird, Graham J; Perrichot, Vincent; Peñalver, Enrique

    2017-06-29

    Parental care in animal evolution has long fascinated biologists, but tracing this complex of behavioural repertoires is challenging, as these transitory states often leave no corporeal traces as fossils. Among modern invertebrates, the tanaidaceans (Malacostraca: Peracarida), a lineage of marsupial crustaceans, show an interesting variety of brooding strategies. Here we report on fossil tanaidaceans from the Cretaceous of Spain and France that provide conclusive evidence for marsupial care of brood-offspring. Two exceptionally preserved female specimens of Alavatanais carabe and A. margulisae from Late Albian Peñacerrada I amber (Spain) possess four pairs of rudimentary oostegites, indicating formation of a marsupium. From Recent data, given the taxonomic distribution of a marsupium of four pairs of oostegites, we hypothesize that this may be plesiomorphic for the Tanaidomorpha. We also report on a peculiar tanaidacean specimen referable to the fossil family Alavatanaidae, Daenerytanais maieuticus gen. et sp. nov., from Early Cenomanian La Buzinie amber (France), preserved with its marsupial pouch and content. Our discoveries provide early evidence of the peracarid reproductive strategy, as seen in modern Tanaidacea, and argue that this form of parental care may have played a role in the diversification of the lineage during this period.

  1. Tests of landscape influence: Nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, J.J.; Garner, L.; Garner, S.; Lloyd, J.D.; Saab, V.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked nesting success and brood parasitism in >2500 bird nests in 38 patches of deciduous riparian woodland. Patches on both river systems were embedded in one of two local contexts (buffered from agriculture by coniferous forest, or adjacent to agriculture), but the abundance of agriculture and human habitation within 1 km of each patch was highly variable. We examined evidence for three models of landscape effects on nest predation based on (1) the relative importance of generalist agricultural nest predators, (2) predators associated with the natural habitats typically removed by agricultural development, or (3) an additive combination of these two predator communities. We found strong support for an additive predation model in which landscape features affect nest predation differently at different spatial scales. Riparian habitat with forest buffers had higher nest predation rates than sites adjacent to agriculture, but nest predation also increased with increasing agriculture in the larger landscape surrounding each site. These results suggest that predators living in remnant woodland buffers, as well as generalist nest predators associated with agriculture, affect nest predation rates, but they appear to respond at different spatial scales. Brood parasitism, in contrast, was unrelated to agricultural abundance on the landscape, but showed a strong nonlinear relationship with farm and house density, indicating a critical point at which increased human habitat causes increased brood parasitism. Accurate predictions regarding landscape effects on nest predation and brood parasitism will require an

  2. Parental behaviour and mixed broods among cichlid fish of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that all species which show well developed parental behaviour may have foreign fry mix with their broods on occasion. A variety of species of fry were found in mixed broods. These come from two categories of fish: those which apparently do not guard their free swimming fry; and those which have a well ...

  3. Three-dimensional visualisation of brooding behaviour in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brooding in ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) is a highly-developed reproduction strategy and has evolved independently several times. In South African waters, brooding occurs both in the very small amphiurid Amphipholis squamata, which is hermaphroditic, and in the large ophiodermatid Ophioderma wahlbergii ...

  4. Releasing captive-reared masked bobwhite for population recovery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Gee, G.; Brennan, L.A.; Palmer, W.E.; Burger, L.W.; Pruden, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to it's former southern Arizona range have been ongoing since establishment of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Pre-release conditioning techniques developed prior to Refuge establishment continued to be utilized in an effort to improve post-release survival of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks. Foremost among these techniques was the use of wild Texas bobwhite (C. v. texanus) males as foster parents which were paired with all broods released on the Refuge. The efficacy of this technique was evaluated using radio telemetry in 1994, and the results indicated that the use of foster Texas males was not as effective as had been presumed because post-release chick survival was poor. Therefore, in 1995 pre-release conditioning protocol were modified in an effort to improve post-release survival. The primary intent of these modifications was to emphasize wild behavior among chicks prior to release. Modifications to established protocol included imprinting chicks to adult bobwhites immediately after eggs hatched and exposing 1-to-2 day old chicks to natural foods (insects and seeds) while they were in brooder units. Foster parents and their respective broods were then placed in flight pens that mimicked the natural conditions that would confront broods upon release. Family groups were held in flight pens for several weeks for acclimatization purposes and then transported to temporary enclosures erected at release sites where they were held for a week and then released. Finally all releases were conducted during fall after covey formation was apparent to ensure that foster parents and released chicks remained with a group of birds. Preliminary results indicated that post-release chick survival was higher than what was observed in 1994. Pre-conditioning research will continue in an effort to further quantify post-release survival of masked bobwhite chicks. Although the

  5. Effects of predation risk on site selection of barnacle geese during brood-rearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, J; Loonen, MJJE; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis breed on small islands in the Kongsfjorden area, Spitsbergen. Shortly after hatching, families approach feeding sites at the mainland coast in the close surroundings of the village Ny-Alesund. The goslings are subject to predation by arctic foxes Alopex lagopus

  6. Factors Affecting Piping Plover Chick Survival In Different Brood-Rearing Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The published report for Piping Plover in Maryland discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and...

  7. Habitat selection of brood-rearing Northern Wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe and their invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van H.; Burg, Van den A.B.; Versluijs, R.; Siepel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Birds consider both variation in prey abundance and accessibility in their decision of where to forage. Acidification and nitrogen deposition affect both prey abundance and accessibility by stimulating growth of nitrophilic grasses at the expense of forbs. Management practises such as mowing or

  8. Song learning in brood-parasitic indigobirds Vidua chalybeata: song mimicry of the host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne; Payne; Woods

    1998-06-01

    Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host, red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Male indigobirds reared by Bengalese finches developed the songs of Bengalese finches, and males reared by firefinches developed songs of firefinches. Males copied their foster father only when they had lived with him long after independence (45 days post-fledging), while males separated normally at independence (22-24 days post-fledging) copied songs of other individuals and not songs of their foster father. Males reared by Bengalese finches showed no preference to learn firefinch song over songs of the experimental foster species or other control finch species even when they had lived with firefinches as companions from the time of fledging to independence. Males copied several song themes, acquired the same number of mimicry songs, and acquired their songs at the same age, whether reared by Bengalese finches or by firefinches. When they lived with other indigobirds, the male indigobirds copied mimicry songs of male indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. We predicted mimicry-song specificity and repertoire size in experimental indigobirds from a hypothesis of an early developmental period when young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, and a later period when they direct their attention to other birds with similar songs. The predictions, based on field observations of wild birds, were that (1) males reared by a novel foster species other than the normal host would learn the song of that foster species, and (2) males that left their foster parents at the normal time of independence would copy the songs of other individuals, including other adult indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. Begging calls of young indigobirds did not mimic the calls of young firefinches. Indigobirds reared alone

  9. Effect of the presence of brood and fungus on the nest architecture and digging activity of Acromyrmex subterraneus Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Magno dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the stimuli that trigger digging behavior in Acromyrmex subterraneus during nest building. The hypothesis was that the presence of the fungus garden and/or brood triggers the excavation of tunnels and chambers. For the experiment, the excavation rate of individually marked workers kept in plastic cylinders filled with soil was recorded. Four treatments were applied: (1 30 medium-sized workers, 5 g fungus garden and 30 brood items (larvae and pupae; (2 30 medium-sized workers and 5 g fungus garden; (3 30 medium-sized workers and 30 brood items; (4 30 medium-sized workers without fungus and brood. After 24 h, morphological parameters of nest structure (length and width of the chambers and tunnels in cm and the volume of excavated soil were recorded. In contrast to the expected findings, no change in morphological structure, rate of excavation by workers, or volume of excavated soil was observed between treatments, except for tunnel width, which was greater, when no brood or fungus garden was present. Thus, the results do not support the hypothesis that the fungus garden and/or brood are local stimuli for nest excavation or that they mold the internal architecture of the nest. Although this hypothesis was confirmed for Acromyrmex lundii and Atta sexdens rubropilosa, the same does not apply to A. subterraneus. The digging behavior of workers is probably the result of adaptation during nest building in different habitats.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Profitability in Brood-and-Sell and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the profitability of brood-and-sell and brood-and-finish broiler enterprises in Abia State of Nigeria. Data collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules from 70 poultry farmers made up of 35 brood-and-sell and 35 brood-and-finish broiler farmers were analyzed using multiple ...

  11. Rear end collision: Causes and avoidance techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nekovee, Maziar; Bie, Jing; Naja, Rola

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collision is one of the most frequent accidents occurring on roadways. This chapter investigates how vehicle’s local parameters in a platoon of cars (i.e., perception and information collection, vehicle speed, safe distance, braking parameters) affect the global behavior of the traffic

  12. Observations on sex ratio and behavior of males in Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Scolytinae, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biedermann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungal feeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera, and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC. These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries.

  13. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    1998-01-01

    1. We tested for costs of chick rearing in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) by removing entire clutches from 149 of 405 randomly selected nests, in which one or both mates was colour-banded. After the manipulation, we monitored adult nest attendance and body condition at unmanipulated and manipulated nests, and measured the survival and fecundity of these adults the following year.2. Late in the chick-rearing period, adults from unmanipulated nests (i.e. with chicks) went on significantly longer foraging trips, and were significantly lighter for their size, than adults from manipulated nests (i.e. without chicks).3. Adults from unmanipulated nests also survived to the following nesting season at a significantly lower rate than those from the manipulated nests (0·898 vs. 0·953), suggesting that attempting to raise chicks can reduce life expectancy by 55%.4. There was a tendency for adults from nests that were unmanipulated in year one to have lower reproductive success in year two, primarily because of reduced fledging success, and a higher incidence of non-breeding.5. These findings suggest that mass loss in kittiwakes during chick rearing may not be adaptive. Raising chicks can lead to reproductive costs, and the causal mechanism appears to be a reduction in body condition.6. We compare our results with previous brood (or clutch) size manipulation experiments that have measured adult body condition, survival and/or future fecundity. Although the empirical evidence suggests that long-lived species are more likely to experience survival costs than short-lived species, we believe the opposite may be true. We suggest that shifting the experimental protocol of cost of reproduction studies from brood enlargements (an approach taken in most prior studies) to brood reductions will provide more accurate quantifications of naturally occurring costs.7. The cost of reproduction is one mechanism proposed to explain the reduced survival rates reported

  14. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Westerman

    Full Text Available Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies, and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies. Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other.

  15. Role of anxiety and brooding in specificity of autobiographical recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Ros, Laura; Latorre, Jose Miguel; Muñoz, Maria Dolores; Aguilar, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Jose Vicente

    2016-12-01

    Overgeneral schemas and lack of autobiographical memory (AM) specificity about our past experiences can predict mood disturbance. Rumination, functional avoidance and executive processes are the main explanatory variables of such overgenerality. However, in non-clinical samples, rumination predicts overgenerality most consistently after the induction of dysphoric mood. Anxiety also activates rumination. Furthermore, anxiety predicts memory performance and has effects on mood which are independent of the effects of rumination. So, what might be the role of anxiety in autobiographical memory performance? A sample of 210 voluntary participants reported measures of autobiographical memory, anxiety, rumination (brooding and reflection), functional avoidance and executive functions (semantic and phonetic verbal fluency task). Autobiographical performance (specificity) was negatively associated with brooding and age and positively with phonetic verbal fluency but not with functional avoidance and anxiety. However, anxiety and brooding were positively correlated even after controlling for depression scores. Moreover, using structural equation modeling, anxiety showed a significant indirect effect on autobiographical specificity through brooding rumination. These results suggest a possible association of anxiety with autobiographical recall through brooding rumination. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  17. Social learning of a brood parasite by its host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

  18. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  19. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  20. Costs of reproduction in the Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata : Manipulation of brood size in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH; Overkamp, GFJ

    1996-01-01

    Brood size of Zebra Finches Taeniopygia guttata was manipulated in an attempt to identify a trade-off between current and subsequent reproduction in a laboratory situation with ad libitum food availability. The birds were able to raise a larger brood than the most frequent brood size under the same

  1. The benefit of large broods in barnacle geese : a study using natural and experimental manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, MJJE; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Black, JM; Drent, RH

    1. In precocial birds, where the young feed themselves, the costs and benefits of brood size are still poorly understood. An experimental manipulation of brood size was employed to examine the effects of brood size on both parents and young in a wild population of barnacle geese [Branta leucopsis

  2. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  3. Partial brood release in woodlice: A bet- hedging tactic?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-06

    Jun 6, 1994 ... natural selection. Observations of brood release in several species of woodlice revealed that approximately 7% of females released between two and 10 young up to 24 h in advance of their siblings. Although under laboratory conditions oHspring fitness measures between precocious young and their ...

  4. Controlled Artificial Reproduction in Mouth Brooding Tilapia with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protocol for induced breeding in mouth brooding tilapia for genetic improvement is discussed. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was suspended in calcium free Hanks' balanced salt solution (c-f HBSS), and injected into the back muscle of blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) females at the dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 IU g-1 ...

  5. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 21721, 9476 and 5400 W per week, respectively. When brooding started in the first week of August, poults needed only 5544 W supplementary heat. However, tom turkey poults would nevertheless benefit from supplementary heat during this period because they are not yet fully feathered and the digestive system has not ...

  6. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1774 (2014), s. 20132665 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg coloration * egg mimicry * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  7. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009- 2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717309507

  8. Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

    2006-07-01

    The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

  9. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  10. Increased brood size leads to persistent eroded telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eReichert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Costs of reproduction can be divided in mandatory costs coming from physiological, metabolic and anatomical changes required to sustain reproduction itself, and in investment-dependent costs that are likely to become apparent when reproductive efforts are exceeding what organisms were prepared to sustain. Interestingly, recent data showed that entering reproduction enhanced breeders’ telomere loss, but no data explored so far the impact of reproductive investment. Telomeres protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shortened telomeres were associated with shorter lifespan, telomere erosion being then proposed to powerfully quantify life’s insults. Here, we experimentally manipulated brood size in order to modify reproductive investment of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata below or beyond their (optimal starting investment and tested the consequences of our treatment on parents’ telomere dynamics. We show that an increased brood size led to a reduction in telomere lengths in both parents compared to control and to parents raising a reduced brood. This greater telomere erosion was detected in parents immediately after the reproductive event and the telomere length difference persisted up to one year later. However, we did not detect any effects of brood size manipulation on annual survival of parents kept under laboratory conditions. In addition, telomere lengths at the end of reproduction were not associated with annual survival. Altogether, although our findings highlight that fast telomere erosion can come as a cost of brood size manipulation, they provide mixed correlative support to the emerging hypothesis that telomere erosion could account for the links between high reproductive investment and longevity.

  11. WHY ARE THERE SO MANY SPECIES OF BROODING ANTARCTIC ECHINOIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Élie; Féral, Jean-Pierre

    1996-04-01

    Marine invertebrates display a great variety of life-history traits and reproductive strategies. In echinoids, four patterns of larval development are generally recognized: planktotrophy, pelagic lecithotrophy, bottom dwelling, and brood protecting. Each broad type of free and protected development is found in all the oceans, but comparisons of the principal reproductive modes between different geographic regions have shown that they are not equally distributed. Frequency of pelagic development (planktotrophic and lecithotrophic) decreases from equator to Antarctic, where brood protecting becomes dominant. Numerous theories have been proposed to explain the richness of nonpelagic development in most marine invertebrates within the Southern Ocean. These theories can be grouped into three categories: (1) larval survival, where selection acts on larval; (2) energy allocation; and (3) dispersal. All of them consider the adaptative significance of brood protecting as the key to the success of this strategy in the Antarctic. However, the adaptative significance of brooding and the evolutionary success of this strategy in the Antarctic must be considered as two separate questions. To consider the problem at an evolutionary level, we have examined the consequences of different reproductive strategies on the genetic structure of species and on the long-term evolution of the clade. We examine this problem in the case of echinoids, a clade particularly well suited to addressing this question. In echinoids, the reduction of larval-stage duration is associated with a decrease in gene flow and consequently in the geographical scale of genetic differentiation. This allows us to reconsider the high-speciation-rate model, which leads to an increase in the number of low-dispersal species (isolation by distance). This model, previously tested by means of fossils is not satisfactory in living echinoids. Thus, the model is rebuilt with the addition of differential extinction rate

  12. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  13. Rearing history and allostatic load in adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Wolfe, Barbara A; Crews, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted rearing history is a psychological and physical stressor for nonhuman primates, potentially resulting in multiple behavioral and physiological changes. As a chronic, soma-wide stressor, altered rearing may be best assessed using a holistic tool such as allostatic load (AL). In humans, AL estimates outcomes of lifetime stress-induced damage. We predicted mother-reared gorillas would have lower AL than nursery-reared and wild-caught conspecifics. We estimated AL for 27 gorillas housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium between 1956 and 2014. AL estimates were calculated using biomarkers obtained during previous anesthetic events. Biomarkers in the high-risk quartile were counted toward a gorilla's AL. Rearing history was categorized as mother-reared, nursery-reared, and wild-caught. Using ANCOVA, rearing history and AL are significantly associated when age and sex are entered as covariates. Wild-caught gorillas have significantly higher AL than mother-reared gorillas. Neither wild-caught nor mother-reared gorillas are significantly different from nursery-reared gorillas. When examined by sex, males of all rearing histories have significantly lower AL than females. We suggest males face few stressors in human care and ill effects of rearing history do not follow. Wild-caught females have significantly higher AL than mother-reared females, but neither is significantly different from nursery-reared females. Combined with our previous work on AL in this group, wherein females had twofold higher AL than males, we suggest females in human care face more stressors than males. Disrupted rearing history may exacerbate effects of these stressors. Providing opportunities for females to choose their distance from males may help reduce their AL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. CROSS-NATIONAL TRANSFERABILITY OF THE 2-FACTOR MODEL OF PARENTAL REARING BEHAVIOR - A CONTRAST OF DATA FROM CANADA, THE FEDERAL-REPUBLIC-OF-GERMANY, HUNGARY, JAPAN, SINGAPORE AND VENEZUELA WITH DUTCH TARGET RATINGS ON THE EMBU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; PERRIS, C; EISEMANN, M; DEALDAZ, EG; VANDERENDE, J; GUAN, DKS; RICHTER, J; GASZNER, P; IWAWAKI, S; BARON, P; JOUBERT, N; PRUDHOMME, L

    In order to contribute to the cross-cultural study of child-rearing practices and psychopathology, this pilot study sought to examine the cross-national generalizability of parental rearing constructs by analyzing self-report data on the EMBU, an instrument designed to assess memories of parental

  15. Socialization of a single hand-reared tiger cub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Angela S; Bashaw, Meredith J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    Given the drawbacks of hand-rearing nonhuman animals in captivity, the practice is generally avoided, but it is sometimes necessary. A few scientific publications are available to guide managers toward best practices in hand-rearing, but the majority of articles focus on hand-rearing captive primates. Less is known about hand-rearing carnivores, but early socialization appears to be critical for adult social behavior. This article documents the successful hand-rearing and reintroduction of a single female Sumatran tiger cub at Zoo Atlanta. Reintroduction included a systematic procedure that used scent trials and introduction sessions through a barrier to gauge interest and determine whether or not aggression was a problem. Based on signs of interest, reduced stress-related behaviors, and a lack of aggression, animal managers decided to proceed with reintroduction. During the introductions, the animals were not aggressive and did occasionally interact, although typical mother-infant interactions were rare. The cub has since bred naturally and successfully delivered and reared two litters of cubs. These data suggest limited exposure to an adult tiger may be adequate socialization for normal reproduction even if it is provided relatively late in the cub's development.

  16. Evaluating smallholder brood- and- sale poultry operation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 92 crossbred pullet chicks of normal feather (44), naked neck (27) and frizzle (21) were used to evaluate early growth performance and monetary returns of a simulated smallholder brood-and-sale poultry production operation. Average day-old (D.O.) weight of chicks were 34.57±0.98g, 35.28±0.59g and ...

  17. Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry operators. MO Onu, MC Madukwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Agro-Science Vol. 3(1) 2002: 63-67. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v3i1.1505 · AJOL African ...

  18. Honeybee Colony Vibrational Measurements to Highlight the Brood Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bencsik

    Full Text Available Insect pollination is of great importance to crop production worldwide and honey bees are amongst its chief facilitators. Because of the decline of managed colonies, the use of sensor technology is growing in popularity and it is of interest to develop new methods which can more accurately and less invasively assess honey bee colony status. Our approach is to use accelerometers to measure vibrations in order to provide information on colony activity and development. The accelerometers provide amplitude and frequency information which is recorded every three minutes and analysed for night time only. Vibrational data were validated by comparison to visual inspection data, particularly the brood development. We show a strong correlation between vibrational amplitude data and the brood cycle in the vicinity of the sensor. We have further explored the minimum data that is required, when frequency information is also included, to accurately predict the current point in the brood cycle. Such a technique should enable beekeepers to reduce the frequency with which visual inspections are required, reducing the stress this places on the colony and saving the beekeeper time.

  19. Behavior, performance and physiological parameters of pigs reared in deep bedding Comportamento, desempenho e parâmetros fisiológicos de suínos criados em cama sobreposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana R. Caldara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the behavior, performance and physiological parameters of pigs in different production systems. Twenty four animals in the growth phase were distributed in a randomized block design in three treatments: T1 - concrete floor, T2 - deep bedding with wood shaving, and T3 - deep bedding with coffee husks. The behavioral study was carried out by observing the animal behavior for an uninterrupted period of eight hours throughout seven weeks. The proportions of time spent in each behavior were characterized using the frequency histogram composition. Environmental (IBGTH, physiological (rectal and skin temperature and respiratory rate and performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion parameters were measured in animals during the period. The production systems of deep bedding showed higher values of IBGTH. There was no effect of production systems evaluated on the performance parameters. Rectal temperature was higher in animals reared on deep bedding with coffee husks in relation to the concrete floor. The use of deep bedding benefited the behavior of piglets in the growth phase and it reduced the agonistic behavior among individuals.Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar o comportamento, desempenho e parâmetros fisiológicos de suínos, em diferentes sistemas de produção. Foram utilizados 24 suínos em crescimento, distribuídos em delineamento casualizado, nos tratamentos: T1 - piso de concreto; T2 - cama sobreposta com maravalha; T3 - cama sobreposta com casca de café. Realizou-se observação do comportamento animal, por oito horas ininterruptas, ao longo de sete semanas. Foram caracterizadas as proporções de tempo dedicadas a cada comportamento, utilizando a composição de histograma de frequência. Foram mensurados parâmetros ambientais (ITGU, fisiológicos (temperatura retal e de superfície e frequência respiratória e de desempenho dos animais (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e

  20. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Mardones-Toledo

    Full Text Available Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor

  1. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Brood desertion involves a series of interactions between the members of a pair. This process is likely to be based on either member's perception of the other's propensity to desert. We manipulated this perception in males by experimentally increasing female body mass in the rock sparrow (Petronia...... petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... to reduce the female's propensity to switch mate and desert or to increase her propensity to copulate with the male to obtain paternity in her next brood. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the perception of the risk of being deserted by the female does not necessarily induce males to desert first...

  3. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-05-03

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony.

  4. Parenting children with food allergy: preliminary development of a measure assessing child-rearing behaviors in the context of pediatric food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Parra, Gilbert R; Elkin, T David

    2009-08-01

    Food allergy affects up to 8% of children and is increasingly common. Although adult caregivers initially assume the primary role in children's daily allergy management activities, as children approach school age they assume greater responsibility for the prevention of allergic exposures. The ways that parents prepare children for this transition are likely to influence children's subsequent risk for allergic exposures, yet few studies have examined parent behaviors in the context of pediatric food allergy. To develop a brief measure to evaluate specific parenting practices related to caring for a child with food allergy. A total of 292 primary caregivers of food-allergic children completed an Internet-based survey that included the Parenting Children with Food Allergy (PCFA) questionnaire. Factor analysis of the PCFA items suggested 3 factors that accounted for 98% of the variance: autonomy support, protection/monitoring, and emergency education. Internal consistencies for the 3 scales were acceptable (alpha = .79, .73, and .82, respectively). Child age and medical variables (history of emergency epinephrine use, perceived severity of worst allergic reaction, and number of different food allergies) were associated with parenting practices. Although additional psychometric data for the PCFA are needed, preliminary findings suggest that this measure may be useful in evaluating parenting within the context of pediatric food allergy.

  5. Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    The ˜430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines. A short telson bears long parallel cerci. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the new arthropod as a stem-group mandibulate. The evidence suggests that the tethered individuals are juveniles and the association represents a complex brooding behavior. Alternative possibilities—that the tethered individuals represent a different epizoic or parasitic arthropod—appear less likely.

  6. Parental child-rearing practices, behavior problems and pre-school children's social competence Práticas educativas parentais, problemas de comportamento e competência social de crianças em idade pré-escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Helena Marin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined associations between parents' childrearing practices, behavior problems and pre-school children's social competence. A total of 48 mothers and 33 fathers, when their firstborn children were aged six, completed an interview about child-rearing practices and the Social Skills Rating System that also assesses behavior problems. Spearman correlations indicated positive associations between maternal coercive practices and children's behavior problems, especially those related to externalizing. Positive correlations were also found between fathers' coercive practices and internalizing problems, as well as among fathers' inductive and non-interference practices with children's cooperation and assertiveness, respectively. Girls' mothers reported higher levels of self-control and social competence than did boys' mothers. Moreover, lower SES mothers referred more coercive practices while higher SES mothers reported more inductive practices. Findings underscore the relationship between fathers' inductive practices and children's social competence. In addition, results suggested associations among both mothers' and fathers' coercive practices and children's behavior problems.O estudo investigou a relação das práticas educativas parentais, problemas de comportamento e a competência social de crianças pré-escolares. Participaram 48 mães e 33 pais, cujos primogênitos tinham seis anos de idade, que responderam a uma entrevista sobre práticas educativas e ao Sistema de Avaliação das Competências Sociais, o qual também avalia problemas de comportamento. Correlações de Spearman revelaram associações positivas entre práticas coercitivas maternas e problemas de comportamento infantil, especialmente os de externalização. Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre práticas coercitivas paternas e problemas de internalização, bem como entre as práticas indutivas e de não interferência paternas com a cooperação e a

  7. Social makes smart: rearing conditions affect learning and social behaviour in jumping spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, J; Schneider, J M

    2017-11-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.

  8. Waptia and the Diversification of Brood Care in Early Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Vannier, Jean

    2016-01-11

    Brood care, including the carrying of eggs or juveniles, is a form of parental care, which, like other parental traits [1], enhances offspring fitness with variable costs and benefits to the parents [2]. Attempts to understand why and how parental care evolved independently in numerous animal groups often emphasize the role of environmental pressures such as predation, ephemeral resources, and, more generally, the harshness of environment. The fossil record can, in principle, provide minimum age constraints on the evolution of life-history traits, including brood care and key information on the reproductive strategies of extinct organisms. New, exceptionally preserved specimens of the weakly sclerotized arthropod Waptia fieldensis from the middle Cambrian (ca. 508 million years ago) Burgess Shale, Canada, provide the oldest example of in situ eggs with preserved embryos in the fossil record. The relatively small clutch size, up to 24 eggs, and the relatively large diameter of individual eggs, some over 2 mm, contrast with the high number of small eggs-found without preserved embryos-in the bivalved bradoriid arthropod Kunmingella douvillei from the Chengjiang biota (ca. 515 million years ago). The presence of these two different parental strategies suggests a rapid evolution of a variety of modern-type life-history traits, including extended investment in offspring survivorship, soon after the Cambrian emergence of animals. Together with previously described brooded eggs in ostracods from the Upper Ordovician (ca. 450 million years ago), these new findings suggest that the presence of a bivalved carapace played a key role in the early evolution of parental care in arthropods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Moorman

    Full Text Available Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus, but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species. Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds.

  10. Child Rearing and Children's Prosocial Initiations toward Victims of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the relation between maternal rearing behavior and the ways children aged 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 years cope with emotions of distress in others. Specifically examined children's reparation for transgression when they were the cause of distress and their altruism when they were bystanders. (JMB)

  11. Brood removal influences fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hygienic removal of brood infested with Varroa destructor by Apis mellifera disrupts the reproduction of the infesting mites and exposes the foundress mites to potential removal from the colony by grooming. Using brood deliberately infested with marked Varroa, we investigated the association bet...

  12. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  13. Brooding in a temperate zone land snail: seasonal and regional patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulikowska-Drozd, A.; Maltz, T.K.; Kappes, H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to assess if the reproductive strategy of a brooding land snail shifts along a climatic gradient. We focused on the following traits: timing and length of the reproductive season, brood size, ontogenetic dynamics of embryos, and reproductive mode (viviparity versus

  14. Brooding Rumination and Risk for Depressive Disorders in Children of Depressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Grassia, Marie; Stone, Lindsey B.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the role of brooding rumination in children at risk for depression. We found that children of mothers with a history of major depression exhibited higher levels of brooding rumination than did children of mothers with no depression history. Examining potential mechanisms of this risk, we found no…

  15. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the

  16. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  17. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  18. Frequent vocalizing is negatively associated with brood parasitism in a host of the brown-headed cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Sonya E.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) can substantially affect host species' reproductive success. The "host-activity" hypothesis suggests that parasites eavesdrop on conspicuous behaviors to locate and parasitize hosts, and several studies of cowbird hosts support this hypothesis. In contrast, a recent study of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) reported a negative association between the host's vocalization rate near the nest and brood parasitism. This contradictory pattern is intriguing because Bell's Vireo is a common cowbird host and vocalizes near and on its nests. We tested a key assumption of the host-activity hypothesis in a different subspecies (V. b. arizonae) to determine whether the contradictory pattern reported in V. b. pusillus is an anomaly or could be generalized to other subspecies. Unparasitized vireos vocalized more frequently than parasitized birds, confirming that the pattern in Bell's Vireos is the opposite of that reported for other cowbird hosts. Nesting stage played a role: unparasitized birds vocalized more than parasitized birds only during the nest-building and incubation stages. Given that vocalization rate and other behaviors change through the breeding season, future tests of the host-activity hypothesis should control for nesting stage. Moreover, future efforts to identify the underlying cause for the association between vocalization rate and probability of parasitism should consider the possibility of reciprocal causal relationships between them. We propose five additional hypotheses to explain why in Bell's Vireo the pattern between these two traits is opposite of what has been reported in other birds.

  19. Reproductive and metabolic state differences in olfactory responses to amino acids in a mouth brooding African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Alexandre A; Butler, Julie M; Field, Karen E; Caprio, John; Maruska, Karen P

    2017-08-15

    Olfaction mediates many crucial life-history behaviors such as prey detection, predator avoidance, migration and reproduction. Olfactory function can also be modulated by an animal's internal physiological and metabolic states. While this is relatively well studied in mammals, little is known about how internal state impacts olfaction in fishes, the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. Here we apply electro-olfactograms (EOGs) in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to test the hypothesis that olfactory responses to food-related cues (i.e. l-amino acids; alanine and arginine) vary with metabolic, social and reproductive state. Dominant males (reproductively active, reduced feeding) had greater EOG magnitudes in response to amino acids at the same tested concentration than subordinate males (reproductively suppressed, greater feeding and growth rates). Mouth brooding females, which are in a period of starvation while they brood fry in their mouths, had greater EOG magnitudes in response to amino acids at the same tested concentration than both recovering and gravid females that are feeding. Discriminant function analysis on EOG magnitudes also grouped the male (subordinate) and female (recovering, gravid) phenotypes with higher food intake together and distinguished them from brooding females and dominant males. The slope of the initial negative phase of the EOG also showed intra-sexual differences in both sexes. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between olfaction and metabolic state observed in other taxa is conserved to fishes. For the first time, we provide evidence for intra-sexual plasticity in the olfactory response to amino acids that is influenced by fish reproductive, social and metabolic state. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  1. How is anxiety involved in the longitudinal relationship between brooding rumination and depressive symptoms in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E; Weir, Kirsty F

    2013-08-01

    A growing body of research supports the application of Response Styles Theory to adolescent populations. Although the essential dynamic, namely that rumination increases the incidence of depressive symptoms, has been demonstrated among adolescents, a number of important empirical questions remain, such as: what are the gender differences and developmental trends for brooding and reflective rumination?; does a reciprocal relationship exist between brooding or reflective rumination, on the one hand, and depressive symptoms and anxiety, on the other hand, over time? and how do additional variables (i.e., anxiety) impact upon the rumination-depressive symptoms relationship? In this study, self-reported levels of rumination (both brooding and reflective), and anxious and depressive symptoms were measured longitudinally across 4 months in a sample of 976 community adolescents (46% females), aged 11-16 years old. Mean group differences showed that female adolescents reported engaging in more brooding rumination than male adolescents beginning at 13 years of age. A reciprocal brooding rumination to depressive symptoms relationship and a reciprocal brooding rumination to anxiety relationship were found over time, and they did not differ for boys and girls. We tested the possibility that anxious symptoms would function as a third variable, but the obtained model showed that brooding rumination and anxiety both contributed unique variance in predicting changes in depressive symptoms over time.

  2. Effects of artificial eggs on prolactin secretion, steroid levels, brood patch development, incubation onset and clutch size in the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Melanie; Setiawan, Alvin N; Davis, Lloyd S

    2007-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the transition from egg laying to incubation behavior in birds is associated with changes in plasma levels of prolactin and steroid hormones. However, any effect of the tactile and visual input provided by eggs at initiating these hormonal changes has not been fully investigated in wild birds. A few days before yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes, started egg laying, we placed an artificial egg into their nests or under cages next to their nest. We then investigated the effect of the tactile and/or visual stimulus of such an artificial egg on prolactin secretion, steroid hormone levels (total androgen, estradiol and progesterone), brood patch development, incubation onset and clutch size in these penguins. Prolactin levels rose in females in response to having an artificial egg in the nest, while they declined considerably in males. Total androgen concentrations in males were less than 7% of those of control males and the levels prior to egg placement. Brood patch width increased in both males and females. Additionally, an egg in the nest caused yellow-eyed penguin pairs to attend and sit prone on their nest more frequently. Females that initiated egg laying 1 or 2 days after placement of the artificial egg in the nest, laid a full clutch of two eggs, while most other females that were exposed to an artificial egg in their nest, laid only a single egg. In contrast, the visual stimulus of an artificial egg alone (that was placed under a cage) did not influence hormone levels, brood patch development, incubation behavior or clutch size. The stimulation of an egg in the nest influences prolactin and total androgen levels in yellow-eyed penguins, particularly in males. While brood patch development and incubation behavior were initiated and egg laying was terminated in response to an artificial egg in the nest, the exact endocrine mechanisms underlying these physiological and behavioral changes remain poorly understood. We

  3. Mobbing and sitting tight at the nest as methods of avoiding brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A

    2012-04-06

    The arms race between brood parasites and their hosts has led to many different host behaviours for avoiding parasitism. Some of these behaviours are social, and require the presence of conspecifics to work effectively: in response to alarm calls, some species engage in mobbing behaviour where neighbours join nest tenants in attacking and repelling an invading brood parasite. There are risks involved for the neighbours, but it has been demonstrated that social mobbing allows individuals to learn about the presence of brood parasites in the environment, suggesting that social learning is occurring. Here, I consider whether using social signals to alert naive individuals to the presence of brood parasites is a suitable strategy, compared with sitting tight on the nest in response to the signal (which should reduce the chances of being parasitized). I also compare the efficiency of these strategies with the case where individuals fail to change behaviour in response a brood parasite. Using an individual-based simulation model, I demonstrate that both mobbing and sitting tight are effective strategies in response to a signal, and that mobbing is more effective when the chances of being parasitized increase. These results are discussed and compared with known host-brood parasite relationships.

  4. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. CONCLUSION: The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  5. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Moskát, Csaba; Bán, Miklós; Grim, Tomás; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2009-11-11

    Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  6. Parental rearing and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.

  7. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393.86... guards and rear end protection. (a)(1) General requirements for trailers and semitrailers manufactured on... extremity of the vehicle. (3) Guard height. The vertical distance between the bottom edge of the horizontal...

  8. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  9. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  10. Three-dimensional visualisation of brooding behaviour in two distantly related brittle stars from South African waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landschoff, J; Griffiths, CL

    2015-01-01

    .... In South African waters, brooding occurs both in the very small amphiurid Amphipholis squamata, which is hermaphroditic, and in the large ophiodermatid Ophioderma wahlbergii, which is gonochoric...

  11. Different early rearing experiences have long term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Stephanie L.; Bennett, Allyson J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition, however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that mother-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain morphology in chimpanzees and suggests potential differences in the development of white matter expansion and myelination. PMID:24206013

  12. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  13. If I only knew why: the relationship between brooding, beliefs about rumination, and perceptions of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Yaakov; Mor, Nilly

    2014-07-01

    People who tend to engage in brooding, the maladaptive subtype of rumination, are at risk to develop depression. Brooders often endorse metacognitive beliefs that self-focused ruminative thinking is beneficial. In the current study, we examined whether brooding and positive beliefs about rumination are associated with perceptions of and preferences for treatments for depression. Participants (N=118) read descriptions of two different clusters of treatments for depression, Insight-Oriented (IO) treatments and Activation-Oriented (AO) treatments. They then rated treatment efficacy and credibility and completed self-report measures of rumination (including brooding and reflection subscales), beliefs about rumination, and depression. Brooding and metacognitive positive beliefs about rumination were associated with positive perceptions of IO (but not AO) treatments. Positive beliefs about rumination contributed to the prediction of perceptions of IO treatments (but not AO treatments) beyond the effect of brooding. We discuss the implications of these findings for individuals' decision-making processes regarding which type of treatment to seek. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Effect of Open Brood and Colony Strength on the Onset of Oviposition by Queen Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąbka Jakub

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In bee colonies without open brood, e.g., after swarming, there is no need for royal jelly, and nurse bees thus do not produce it. According to many beekeepers, adding combs with open brood restarts the production of royal jelly by nurse bees, and the virgin queens then are better fed and start earlier oviposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of open brood and the strength of the colonies affect the onset of oviposition by queen bees. Open brood in colonies with virgins before and during mating flights did not accelerate the initiation of oviposition by the queens. In addition, no differences were identified in starting oviposition by queens in strong colonies of more than 30,000 worker bees, or in weak colonies with up to 1,000 workers. Overall, the results showed that neither open brood in the nests, nor the strength of the colonies affects the onset of oviposition by queen bees.

  15. Mitigating barriers against accessible cities and transportation, for child-rearing households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Ohmori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the types of cities and transportation environments required for increasing quality of life of child-rearing households in Japan. The author proposes a classification of barriers that child-rearing parents face in their daily lives. An international comparative study shows that the behavior of and public attitudes toward stroller users in Japan are very different from those in other countries. In addition to providing accessible environments in cities and transportation systems, improving the quantity and quality of childcare services and information, and alleviating the scheduling constraints that come along with rearing children, it is also essential to raise public awareness of child rearing and travelers with children, a development that could help increase the birth rate in Japan.

  16. Using sightability-adjusted brood-pair ratios to estimate waterfowl productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Pieron, Matthew R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kimmel, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, biologists used brood-pair ratios (BPRs) as an index to waterfowl productivity to help guide management decisions and evaluate conservation practices. However, BPRs are biased by imperfect detection probabilities, especially for broods. We conducted roadside surveys for breeding waterfowl pairs on 7–8 study sites in the springs of 2006–2008 in northeastern North Dakota, USA. Later each year, we conducted replicate counts of broods on the same wetlands and used mark–recapture methods to estimate sightability-adjusted BPRs (SA-BPRs). Traditional roadside brood surveys detected only 30–45% of the available broods, depending on species. We explored the potential for using SA-BPRs to measure hen success (i.e., the probability a female hatches ≥1 egg across all nesting attempts) for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other upland-nesting dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). We found that SA-BPRs explained 40% of the variation in hen success over 5 species of dabbling ducks, and we were able to detect an effect of predator reduction on hen success in combined dabblers, but not in mallards alone. However, we found no relationship between SA-BPRs and mallard fledging rates (hen success × initial brood size × duckling survival). Our results suggest that SA-BPRs can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional measures of productivity such as nesting success, but not to measures of duckling survival. Nevertheless, SA-BPRs may be useful in areas where traditional measures of waterfowl productivity are logistically or financially challenging.

  17. First record of invasive Burmese Python oviposition and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslowe, Emma; Falk, Bryan; Collier, Michelle A. M.; Josimovich, Jillian; Rahill, Thomas; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discovered an adult female Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) coiled around a clutch of 25 eggs in a cement culvert in Flamingo, FL, in Everglades National Park. To our knowledge, this is the first record of an invasive Burmese Python laying eggs and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure in Florida. A 92% hatch-success rate suggests that the cement culvert provided suitable conditions for oviposition, embryonic development, and hatching. Given the plenitude of such anthropogenic structures across the landscape, available sites for oviposition and brooding may not be limiting for the invasive Burmese Python population.

  18. Varying congruence of hygienic responses to Varroa destructor and freeze-killed brood among different types of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., have been selectively bred for enhanced hygiene (i.e., removal of affected brood from sealed cells) to improve resistance to diseases and parasites. Bees selected for removal of freeze-killed brood (FKB) have protection from several microbial disease...

  19. Long-term effects of brood size manipulation on morphological development and sex-specific mortality of offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeKogel, CH

    1. Little is known about long-term effects of brood size on fitness components of offspring. This is unfortunate because such information is needed to predict optimal brood size. Furthermore, ontogenetic circumstances are potentially important in explaining the large individual differences in

  20. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  1. Sex-specific nestling body mass in relation to brood sex composition in the Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, O; Dijkstra, C; Dekker, AL; Waasdorp, S; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    The trade-off between brood size and offspring quality as predicted by life history theory, has been extensively studied in birds. However, in sexually size-dimorphic birds, where the larger sex requires more investment from the parents, the potential additional trade-off between brood sex ratio and

  2. Does Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Adversely Affect Long-Term Welfare following Transfer to Furnished Cages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Hansen, Tone Beate; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Moe, Randi O.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10). There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000), with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52%) compared to cage birds (2.48%). The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing. PMID:25229879

  3. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Tahamtani

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03. Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10. There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000, with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52% compared to cage birds (2.48%. The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  4. Environmental features determining successful rearing in the mutant mouse staggerer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, J M

    1984-02-01

    The mutant mouse staggerer is unable to rear her pups to weaning unless special precautions are taken. The following environmental conditions were found to contribute to compensate for the maternal behavioral deficits of the staggerer: (1) the foster pups used in a constraining box to stimulate the lactating staggerer mother are 4 days old. (2) The mother is enforced to stay in close physical contact with these pups for at least 12 hours immediately after delivery. (3) The staggerer pups are transferred to a normal lactating mother to suckle her for the first 12 hours of life.

  5. Biased estimates of fitness consequences of brood size manipulation through correlated effects on natal dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, JM

    2005-01-01

    1. Dispersal of parents and offspring in relation to manipulated brood size were analysed in the great tit Parus major (L.) to study the potential confusion between dispersal and survival. The study area consisted of eight woodlots interspersed with nonbreeding habitat. The maximum distance between

  6. Brood parasite and host eggshells undergo similar levels of decalcification during embryonic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Igic, B.; Hauber, M. E.; Moskát, C.; Grim, T.; Shawkey, M. D.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2017), s. 165-173 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * decalcification * eggshell thickness * embryonic development * common cuckoo * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2016

  7. Selecting honey bees for worker brood that reduces the reproduction of Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated an effect of Apis mellifera worker brood on the reproduction of Varroa destructor as a resistance trait by conducting seven generations of bidirectional selection. Initial tests showed two-fold differences in mite fecundity (progeny per foundress mites) between colonies of different...

  8. The effects of brood stock size on the economy of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fry and maximum return on investment, female brooders of body weights ranging between 400 599 g are recommended for hormone induced natural breeding exercises. (International exchange rate: N129.00/US$1.00 as at 01 April, 2006) Keywords: Clarias anguillaris, brood stock size, induced breeding, fry production

  9. Tests of landscape influence: nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Tewksbury; Lindy Garner; Shannon H. Garner; John D. Lloyd; Victoria A. Saab; Thomas E. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked...

  10. Effect of brood size manipulations on parents and offspring in the Barn owl, Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Ducrest, A.L; Dijkstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    When the overall food demand of the young increases, parents can either increase their effort to feed the brood, potentially reducing their residual reproductive value, or alternatively maintain their effort, leading to offspring mortality. In long-lived species where fitness is related to the

  11. Corticosterone metabolites in blue tit and pied flycatcher droppings: Effects of brood size, ectoparasites and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, E.; Merino, S.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Tomás, G.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Osorno, J.L.; Kuchar, A.; Möstl, E.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of birds induces the secretion of corticosterone (CORT) as a response to different ecological variables. In this study we tested experimentally if manipulations of brood size or ectoparasitism led to subsequent differences in the concentration of

  12. Interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Ryan J; Fresco, David M

    2016-10-01

    Awareness of the body (i.e., interoceptive awareness) and self-referential thought represent two distinct, yet habitually integrated aspects of self. A recent neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety incorporates the connections between increased but low fidelity afferent interoceptive input with self-referential and belief-based states. A deeper understanding of how self-referential processes are integrated with interoceptive processes may ultimately aid in our understanding of altered, maladaptive views of the self - a shared experience of individuals with mood and anxiety disorders. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine how negative self-referential processing (i.e., brooding rumination) relates to interoception in the context of affective psychopathology. Undergraduate students (N = 82) completed an interoception task (heartbeat counting) in addition to self-reported measures of rumination and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated an interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety-related distress. Specifically, high levels of brooding rumination coupled with low levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with the highest levels of depression and anxiety-related distress, whereas low levels of brooding rumination coupled with high levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety-related distress. The findings provide further support for the conceptualization of anxiety and depression as conditions involving the integration of interoceptive processes and negative self-referential processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard methods for Apis mellifera brood as human food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Evans, Joshua David; Jonas-Levi, Adi

    2018-01-01

    Insects hold enormous potential to address food and nutritional security issues. The honey bee is a key insect, given its importance for pollination, as well as its products which can be directly consumed, like honey, pollen and brood. Research on edible insects is an emerging field that draws up...

  14. SEASONAL-VARIATION IN THE SEX-RATIO OF MARSH HARRIER CIRCUS-AERUGINOSUS BROODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, M; DAAN, S; BRUINENBERGRINSMA, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Analysis of the sexes of 2260 nestlings in 735 marsh harrier broods revealed an overall excess [sex ratio (SR) = 54.8%] of males, and a significant increase in the proportion of males with progressive laying date (d = day of the year): In [SR/(1-SR)] = -1.286 + 0.013 d. 2. We argue that it is

  15. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. An evaluation of the possible adaptive function of fungal brood covering by attine ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    ant clades and with two hygienic traits that reduce risk of disease: mycelial brood cover did not correlate with mutualistic bacteria that the ants culture on their cuticles for their antibiotics, but there was a negative relationship between metapleural gland grooming and mycelial cover. A broader...

  17. Exposure to increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness and increases use of three-dimensional space in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors, would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160 were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80 in an aviary and the other half (n = 80 in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by ANOVA on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis (PCA. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds had lower levels of fearfulness, compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency towards a more active behavioral response in the aviary- than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform and upper perch compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens.

  18. High frequency of multiple paternity in broods of a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefc, Kristina M; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2008-05-01

    In several animal taxa, genetic analyses have demonstrated that social monogamy and biparental brood care do not preclude polygamous reproduction. Few studies have been conducted in fish, but in fish species without alternative reproductive phenotypes, social monogamy was largely congruent with genetic parentage. In contrast to these findings, we report an exceptionally high level of multiple paternity in a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence (Variabilichromis moorii), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial data of 10 broods. Whereas all offspring in a nest shared a common mother, each brood was sired by 2 to > 10 males. None of the inferred sires was assigned a large proportion of the brood. Paternity was estimated as the minimum number of sires required to explain multilocus offspring genotypes, and as the maximum-likelihood number of sires given population allele frequencies. Analysis of simulated brood genotypes suggested that, although these two methods tend to under- and overestimate, respectively, the true number of sires, primary sires with many offspring in a brood would have been detected. Hence, the genetic data indicate that the nest tending males suffer substantial cuckoldry and provide alloparental care for a large number of unrelated fry. We have no data on the social status of the cuckolding males, but due to synchronous spawning of pairs and commitment to brood care of paired males, it is possible that most of the parasitic spawners are solitary males.

  19. Exposure to increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness and increases use of three-dimensional space in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew Michael

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and

  20. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Studies of Rat Behavior: Transient Motor Deficit in Skilled Reaching, Rears, and Activity in Rats After a Single Dose of MnCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Alaverdashvili

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI has been suggested to be a useful tool to visualize and map behavior-relevant neural populations at large scale in freely behaving rodents. A primary concern in MEMRI applications is Mn 2+ toxicity. Although a few studies have specifically examined toxicity on gross motor behavior, Mn 2+ toxicity on skilled motor behavior was not explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to combine manganese as a functional contrast agent with comprehensive behavior evaluation. We evaluated Mn 2+ effect on skilled reach-to-eat action, locomotion, and balance using a single pellet reaching task, activity cage, and cylinder test, respectively. The tests used are sensitive to the pathophysiology of many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders of the motor system. The behavioral testing was done in combination with a moderate dose of manganese. Behavior was studied before and after a single, intravenous infusion of MnCl 2 (48 mg/kg. The rats were imaged at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days following infusion. The results show that MnCl 2 infusion resulted in detectable abnormalities in skilled reaching, locomotion, and balance that recovered within 3 days compared with the infusion of saline. Because some tests and behavioral measures could not detect motor abnormalities of skilled movements, comprehensive evaluation of motor behavior is critical in assessing the effects of MnCl 2 . The relaxation mapping results suggest that the transport of Mn 2+ into the brain is through the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system with the primary entry point and highest relaxation rates found in the pituitary gland. Relaxation rates in the pituitary gland correlated with measures of motor skill, suggesting that altered motor ability is related to the level of Mn circulating in the brain. Thus, combined MEMRI and behavioral studies that both achieve adequate image enhancement and are also free of motor skills deficits are

  1. Do male and female cowbirds see their world differently? Implications for sex differences in the sensory system of an avian brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Ojeda, Agustin; Deisher, Marcella; Burry, Brianna; Baumhardt, Patrice; Stark, Amy; Elmore, Amanda G; Ensminger, Amanda L

    2013-01-01

    Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning) of brown-headed cowbirds. We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception). Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.

  2. Do male and female cowbirds see their world differently? Implications for sex differences in the sensory system of an avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning of brown-headed cowbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception. Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.

  3. Prolonged Institutional Rearing Is Associated with Atypically Large Amygdala Volume and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Millner, Alexander; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter J.; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are…

  4. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Ferro, Antonio; Spolaore, Paolo

    2008-07-09

    The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003). Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor in order to gain an idea of genuine seat

  5. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Ferro, Antonio; Spolaore, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003). Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor in

  6. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance......, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet......, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption....

  7. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  8. Microenvironmental variation in preassay rearing conditions can ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microenvironmental variation in preassay rearing conditions can lead to anomalies in the measurement of life-history traits. Sutirth Dey Snigdhadip Dey J. Mohan Amitabh Joshi. Research Note Volume 85 Issue 1 April 2006 pp 53-56 ...

  9. Improving vehicle rear lighting and signalling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszbach, R.

    1972-01-01

    Measures that can be taken to improve vehicle rear-lighting and signaling are described in broad outline. These measures relate to the visibility of a vehicle, determination of its position (and derivates), the additional indication of specific vehicle-characteristics and preferable coding methods

  10. Synthesis report on rearing Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Ann E. Hajek; Thomas L. M. Dubois; David R. Lance

    2003-01-01

    Since not all research on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB) can be conducted in China or at North American sites where it is being eradicated, the ability to mass rear the Asian longhorned beetle is critical to rapid progress on research necessary for exclusion, detection, and eradication of this serious pest.

  11. Reared Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Salvo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the identification of a small collection of Opiinae reared from Agromyzidae from Argentina are reported; six new species and one new genus (Lorenzopius gen. nov.; type species: Lorenzopius calycomyzae spec. nov.) are described. A checklist to the species of Opiinae known from

  12. Laboratory Rearing of the Hairy Chinch Bug

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, P. B.; Ratcliffe, R. H.; Steinhauer, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory procedures were developed for rearing the hairy chinch bug Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon, on corn sections in 236.6 ml cardboard cartons. There was significantly higher survival of nymphs and adults when eggs were surface sterilized in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution as compared to those treated with a 1% solution or untreated eggs. Adult survival was significantly higher (P

  13. The "Rear-View Mirror" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, James

    1987-01-01

    The "rear-view mirror" approach referred to by McLuhan refers to new media being used with the methods of older, different media. A Sens-it (SENtence- SENtence- SITuation) cell model is suggested as an effective use of interactive videodisk systems in contrast to the communicative competence approach. (Author/LMO)

  14. Laboratory rearing and handling of cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena

    2017-01-01

    Lack of suitable rearing and handling techniques has hampered research on the biology and control of many species of cerambycids that feed on host species of economic importance. Furthermore, because cerambycids spend most or all of their pre-adult life cycle inside the host plant, the biology of many is not well-known and would be dif

  15. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  16. Intraspecific brood parasitism: a strategy for floating females in the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell; Diemer

    1999-01-01

    In many bird species, there is a floating population of females that are excluded from breeding because of competition for limited breeding resources. Female floaters may enhance their reproductive success by engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism. We studied female floaters in a population of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, in order to determine their identity and potential parasitic behaviour. Females were caught after being attracted to nestboxes with artificial nests during 1993-1995. None of the females was known to have a nest of her own at capture but 47% of the females either laid an egg in the nest or carried a fully developed egg within the reproductive tract, indicating that they were intraspecific brood parasites. The floating females were significantly younger and smaller than breeding females. Of 13 females equipped with radiotransmitters and followed daily, all but one started a breeding attempt of their own after 3-8 days and the majority settled as secondary females or mated with males where the original female had disappeared. This suggests that females that are unable to compete successfully for nest sites or males early in the breeding season may use intraspecific brood parasitism to enhance reproductive success during the period that they are constrained from breeding. The importance of settling rapidly because of a seasonal decline in reproductive success may also promote the evolution of intraspecific brood parasitism in the starling. The relative reproductive success of combining egg dumping with breeding compared with traditional breeding will depend on the costs of delaying breeding as well as the probability of finding a mate later in the breeding season. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steven J; Reamer, Lisa A; Hopkins, William D

    2014-03-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that mother-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain morphology in chimpanzees and suggests potential differences in the development of white matter expansion and myelination. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impoverished rearing impairs working memory and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Mary L; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2008-01-22

    Impoverished rearing conditions deregulate metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) function and expression within the prefrontal cortex, which contributes to poor performance in positively reinforced spatial working memory tasks. This study extended earlier data by demonstrating that impoverished rearing conditions impair spatial working memory even under conditions of negative reinforcement, indicating a generalized deficit in working memory processing. This protracted behavioral effect was associated with reduced total prefrontal cortex levels of the active, dimerized form of mGluR 5, but there was no change in mGluR 1 or mGluR 2/3 dimer expression in any brain region examined. Thus, impoverished rearing conditions produce protracted deficits in spatial working memory, in association with reduced prefrontal mGluR 5 function that may be relevant to the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

    2011-03-22

    The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression and Activity of Lysozyme in Apis Mellifera Carnica Brood Infested with Varroa Destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaobidna Ewa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite that attacks the honey bee, and previous studies have suggested that parasitosis caused by this mite is accompanied by immunosuppresion in the host. In this study, the effect of mite infestation on the expression of the lysozyme-1 (lys-1 gene and lysozyme activity in Apis mellifera carnica was determined. The experiment was carried out on the five developmental stages of honey bee workers and drones. Developmental and gender-related differences in gene expression and lysozyme activity were observed in a Varroa destructor-infested brood. The relative expression of the lys-1 gene increased in a infested worker brood and decreased in a drone brood except for P3 pupae. In the final stage of development, the lys-1 gene expression was significantly lower in infested newly emerged workers and drones. Changes in the relative expression of the lys-1 gene in infested individuals was poorly manifested at the level of enzyme activity, whereas at the two final stages of development (P5 and I there was a positive correlation between relative lys-1 expression and lysozyme activity in infested bees of both genders (r=0.988, r=0.999, respectively. The results of this study indicate that V. destructor influences the lysozyme-linked immune response in bees.

  1. Rumination in migraine: Mediating effects of brooding and reflection between migraine and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine.

  2. Maternal androgens in avian brood parasites and their hosts: responses to parasitism and competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Wingfield, John C.; Fox, David M.; Walker, Brian G.; Thomley, Jill E

    2017-01-01

    In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring. We hypothesized that elevated maternal androgens in host eggs are a defense against brood parasitism. Our second hypothesis was that elevated maternal androgens in cowbird eggs are a defense against intra-specific competition. For host species, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with parasitized nests of small species, those whose nest success is most reduced by cowbird parasitism. For cowbirds, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with eggs in multiply-parasitized nests, which indicate intra-specific competition for nests due to high cowbird density. We propose experimental work to further examine the use of maternal effects by cowbirds and their hosts.

  3. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  4. Patterns of avian nest predators and a brood parasite among restored riparian habitats in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Smiley, Peter C; Cooper, Charles M

    2005-09-01

    In fragmented edge-dominated landscapes, nest predation and brood parasitism may reduce avian reproductive success and, ultimately, populations of some passerine species. In the fragmented agroecosystem of northwest Mississippi, placement of drop-pipe structures has been used as a restoration technique for abating gully erosion along stream banks. These actions have formed small herbaceous and woody habitat extensions into former agricultural lands. We quantified species relative abundances, species richness, and evenness of avian nest predators and a brood parasite within four categories of constructed habitat resulting from drop-pipe installation. Differences in the abundance of two nest predators, cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) and blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), were observed among constructed habitats. However, relative abundances of other predators such as common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and the obligate brood parasite brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) did not differ among four habitat categories. Although species richness, abundance, and evenness of potential nest predators were generally similar among the constructed habitats, predator species composition varied, suggesting that these habitats supported different predator communities. This difference is important because as each predator species is added to or deleted from the community, variation may occur in the framework of prey search methods, predator strategies, and potentially overall predation pressure. We suggest that land managers using drop-pipes as part of stream restoration projects allow for the development of the constructed habitat with the largest area and greatest vegetative structure.

  5. Brood parasitism in the sand martin, Riparia riparia: evidence for two parasitic strategies in a colonial passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves; Bryant

    1998-12-01

    Sand martin parentage was studied at a large breeding colony in central Scotland. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting was used during the 3-year study to exclude some social parents as true parents, and thereby determine the frequency of monogamy, quasiparasitism (QP), intraspecific brood parasitism (ISBP) and extrapair fertilization (EPF) amongst 45 broods and 167 nestlings. Monogamous parentage characterized the majority of broods (60%), so most chicks were the offspring of their social parents (81%). QP (involving a male's extrapair mate laying in his nest) was found in 9% of broods and 2.4% of chicks and ISBP (or 'egg dumping') in 4% of broods and 1.8% of chicks. A substantial proportion of offspring arose from EPFs, affecting 36% of broods and 14% of chicks. On present evidence, the relatively high frequency of QP found in sand martins is unusual. We propose that its observed frequency is unlikely to be due to chance events and may represent a female-driven strategy. (c)1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Effects of brooding periods on performance of poults and grow-out small bronze turkeys in hot humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaodu, Chibuzo Hope; Okoro, Victor Mela Obinna; Uchegbu, Martins Chigozie; Mbajiorgu, Christian Anayochukwu

    2018-01-06

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of varied brooding regimes on the performance of small bronze turkey poults and their grow-outs. One hundred and twenty (n = 120) poults were subjected to four brooding regimes of 0-5, 0-6, 0-7, and 0-8 weeks, designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. Each brooding regime (treatment) was applied to 3 replicates of 10 poults/replicate in a completely randomized design. The feed intake of T1 poults was higher (P grow-out turkeys in all the production parameters measured, as well as in the feed cost per kilogram weight gain of the treatment groups. This result shows that small bronze-type turkeys brooded from 0 to 8 weeks had higher efficiency in terms of feed intake, FCR, and lower economic costs compared to those brooded from 0 to 5, 0-6, and 0-7 weeks at the poult stage. However, at grow-out stage, the period of brooding did not have any effects on their performance.

  7. Simultaneous spawning by female stream goby Rhinogobius sp. and the association with brood cannibalism by nesting males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S; Iwao, H; Sakata, J; Inoue, M; Omori, K; Yanagisawa, Y

    2016-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted by varying the undersurface area of nesting substratum and the number of females in an experimental tank to elucidate the determinants of the mating pattern in the stream goby, Rhinogobius sp. cross-band type. Males with larger nests tended to attract two or more females to their nest in a tank. Moreover, males spawned simultaneously with multiple females and entire brood cannibalism by males was rarely observed under a female-biased sex ratio. When males spawned with a single female with low fecundity, however, entire brood cannibalism occurred at a high frequency, suggesting that a male guarding a nest with fewer eggs consumes the brood. Therefore, spawning behaviour of females that leads to a large egg mass would decrease the risk of entire brood cannibalism. In this species, simultaneous spawning by multiple females in a nest serves as a female counter-measure against entire brood cannibalism. These results suggest that a conflict of interest between the sexes through brood cannibalism is a major determinant of simultaneous spawning. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. A comparison of the hygienic response of Africanized and European (Apis mellifera carnica honey bees to Varroa-infested brood in tropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Aumeier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the significance of hygienic behavior for the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized honey bees, they were compared with non-tolerant Carniolans in tropical Brazil. Capped worker brood cells were artificially infested with living Varroa mites, and inspected some days later. Uncapping, disappearance of the introduced mite and removal of the pupa were recorded in a total of manipulated 3,096 cells during three summer seasons. The hygienic response varied between Africanized and Carniolan colonies, but this difference was significant only in one year, during which Africanized honey bees removed a significantly greater proportion of Varroa mites than European honey bees. A high proportion of the mites disappeared from artificially infested brood cells without damage to the pupae. The opening of the cell and the removal of the bee brood are independent traits of a graded response by adult workers towards mite-infested brood cells. We found a higher between-colony variation in the reaction towards Varroa-infested brood of Africanized honey bees compared to Carniolans. The overall similar response of the two bee types indicates that hygienic behavior is not a key factor in the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized bees in Brazil.Com o intuito de examinar o significado do comportamento higiênico na tolerância à varroose de abelhas africanizadas, elas foram comparadas com as não tolerantes Cárnicas no Brasil tropical. Células de cria de operárias operculadas foram artificialmente infestadas com ácaros Varroa vivos e inspecionadas alguns dias depois. Desoperculação, desaparecimento dos ácaros introduzidos e remoção da pupa foram anotados em um total de 3096 células manipuladas durante três verões. A resposta higiênica variou entre as colônias africanizadas e de Cárnicas, mas esta diferença foi significante apenas em um ano, durante o qual as abelhas africanizadas removeram uma proporção significantemente maior de

  9. Prevalence of rear seat belt use among pregnant women in a suburban area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shota; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Itoh, Masahiro; Soda, Masayuki; Kameda, Takashi; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Yokota, Hidemi; Kamioka, Kiyoshi; Minegishi, Takashi

    2017-10-24

    The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and influencing factors of rear seat belt use among pregnant women. Questionnaires were given to 1546 pregnant women who visited obstetrics clinics and hospitals for prenatal checkups from October to December 2013. A total of 1494 pregnant women (96.6%) agreed to participate in this study and completed the questionnaire. Fewer than 20% of the rear-seat passengers 'always' used seat belts before and during pregnancy, whereas a third 'never' used a seat belt before or during pregnancy. There was no significant decrease in seat belt use by rear-seat passengers during compared to before pregnancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, knowledge of how to use a seat belt during pregnancy, belief in the compulsory use of a rear seat belt and driver behavioral characteristics before pregnancy were associated with rear seat belt use during pregnancy. The prevalence of fastening seat belts was substantially low. The provision of information regarding proper seat belt use and its role in protecting the fetus may increase use. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  11. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  12. Effect of Brood Pheromone on Survival and Nutrient Intake of African Honey Bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démares, Fabien J; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Nicolson, Susan W; Pirk, Christian W W

    2017-05-01

    The influence of pheromones on insect physiology and behavior has been thoroughly reported for numerous aspects, such as attraction, gland development, aggregation, mate and kin recognition. Brood pheromone (BP) is released by honey bee larvae to indicate their protein requirements to the colony. Although BP is known to modulate pollen and protein consumption, which in turn can affect physiological and morphological parameters, such as hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development and ovarian activation, few studies have focused on the effect of BP on nutritional balance. In this study, we exposed newly emerged worker bees for 14 d and found that BP exposure increased protein intake during the first few days, with a peak in consumption at day four following exposure. BP exposure decreased survival of caged honey bees, but did not affect either the size of the HPG acini or ovarian activation stage. The uncoupling of the BP releaser effect, facilitated by working under controlled conditions, and the presence of larvae as stimulating cues are discussed.

  13. Sex differences in retention after a visual or a spatial discrimination learning task in brood parasitic shiny cowbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astié, Andrea A; Scardamaglia, Romina C; Muzio, Rubén N; Reboreda, Juan C

    2015-10-01

    Females of avian brood parasites, like the shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), locate host nests and on subsequent days return to parasitize them. This ecological pressure for remembering the precise location of multiple host nests may have selected for superior spatial memory abilities. We tested the hypothesis that shiny cowbirds show sex differences in spatial memory abilities associated with sex differences in host nest searching behavior and relative hippocampus volume. We evaluated sex differences during acquisition, reversal and retention after extinction in a visual and a spatial discrimination learning task. Contrary to our prediction, females did not outperform males in the spatial task in either the acquisition or the reversal phases. Similarly, there were no sex differences in either phase in the visual task. During extinction, in both tasks the retention of females was significantly higher than expected by chance up to 50 days after the last rewarded session (∼85-90% of the trials with correct responses), but the performance of males at that time did not differ than that expected by chance. This last result shows a long-term memory capacity of female shiny cowbirds, which were able to remember information learned using either spatial or visual cues after a long retention interval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Artificial rearing of 10 species of wood-boring insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1969-01-01

    Small numbers of 10 species of wood-boring insects were reared from newly hatched larvae to adults on artificial media with good survival. Species with life cycles of up to 2 years in nature were reared on the media in less than 1 year. Although all of the adults appeared normal physically, some were sterile. One species was reared artificially for three generations....

  15. Parental energy expenditure during brood rearing in the Great Tit (Parus major) in relation to body mass, temperature, food availability and clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Dietz, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    1. Quantification of the energetic needs of reproducing animals provides a basis for understanding patterns in reproduction. The doubly labelled water technique enables this to be carried out under natural conditions. 2. Daily energy expenditure of 32 female Great Tits (Parus major) tending

  16. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Rearing Chrysoperla externa Larvae on Artificial Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C E S; Amaral, B B; Souza, B

    2017-02-01

    We tested three artificial diets for rearing larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aiming at reducing the production costs of this predator. Two of the diets come from studies with other species of lacewings, and the third is a modification described in this paper. All diets were based on animal protein and were supplied to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, whereas 1st instar larvae received eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We evaluated the preimaginal duration and survival, adult size, longevity and fecundity, egg hatchability, and predatory capacity of larvae produced. The performance of the diets was followed for seven generations. The diet we describe showed to be the best among the artificial diets tested. Our results show that C. externa can be successfully reared on artificial diets during second and third instars, reducing in 90% the dependency on eggs of A. kuehniella.

  18. Cod (Gadus morhua) rearing attempts in France

    OpenAIRE

    Suquet, Marc; Omnes, Marie-helene; Normant, Yvon; Petton, Bruno; Severe, Armelle; Fauvel, Christian; Barone, Herve; Quemener, Loic; Buchet, Vincent; Pasco, Laurent; Menard, E.; Gaignon, Jean-louis

    2002-01-01

    Because of its rapid growth, its good reputation and the promising aquaculture experiences conducted in Norway and Scotland, cod is considered as a good candidate for cold water aquaculture. The aim of this paper is to present the work carried out in France since 1999: the selection of cod as a promising candidate for aquaculture and the assessment of its rearing performances in this environment.

  19. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  20. Increased drinking following social isolation rearing: implications for polydipsia associated with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Hawken

    Full Text Available Primary polydipsia, excessive drinking without known medical cause, is especially associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We used animal models of schizophrenia-like symptoms to examine the effects on schedule-induced polydipsia: post-weaning social isolation rearing, subchronic MK-801 treatment (an NMDA-receptor antagonist or the two combined. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats reared in groups or in isolation beginning at postnatal day 21 were further divided to receive subchronic MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg twice daily or saline for 7 days beginning on postnatal day 62. Following a 4-day withdrawal period, all groups were trained on a schedule-induced polydipsia paradigm. Under food-restriction, animals reared in isolation and receiving food pellets at 1-min intervals developed significantly more drinking behavior than those reared with others. The addition of subchronic MK-801 treatment did not significantly augment the amount of water consumed. These findings suggest a predisposition to polydipsia is a schizophrenia-like behavioral effect of post-weaning social isolation.

  1. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von Mérey, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach to evaluate potential effects of plant protection products on honeybee brood with colonies at realistic worst-case exposure rates. The approach comprised 2 stages. In the first stage, honeybee colonies were exposed to a commercial formulation of glyphosate applied to flowering Phacelia tanacetifolia with glyphosate residues quantified in relevant matrices (pollen and nectar) collected by foraging bees on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 postapplication and glyphosate levels in larvae were measured on days 4 and 7. Glyphosate levels in pollen were approximately 10 times higher than in nectar and glyphosate demonstrated rapid decline in both matrices. Residue data along with foraging rates and food requirements of the colony were then used to set dose rates in the effects study. In the second stage, the toxicity of technical glyphosate to developing honeybee larvae and pupae, and residues in larvae, were then determined by feeding treated sucrose directly to honeybee colonies at dose rates that reflect worst-case exposure scenarios. There were no significant effects from glyphosate observed in brood survival, development, and mean pupal weight. Additionally, there were no biologically significant levels of adult mortality observed in any glyphosate treatment group. Significant effects were observed only in the fenoxycarb toxic reference group and included increased brood mortality and a decline in the numbers of bees and brood. Mean glyphosate residues in larvae were comparable at 4 days after spray application in the exposure study and also following dosing at a level calculated from the mean measured levels in pollen and nectar, showing the applicability and robustness of the approach for dose setting with honeybee brood studies. This study has developed a versatile and predictive approach for use in higher tier honeybee toxicity studies. It can be used to realistically quantify exposure of colonies to pesticides to allow the

  2. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Morren, Mattijn; Moorman, Lidwine

    2004-09-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors; and (c) two scales assessing anger and hostility. Self-reported attachment style was related to anger/hostility. That is, adolescents who defined themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of anger/hostility than adolescents who classified themselves as securely attached. Furthermore, perceived parental rearing was also related to anger/hostility. More specifically, low levels of emotional warmth and high levels of rejection, control, and inconsistency were accompanied by high levels of anger/hostility. Finally, regression analyses showed that both attachment status and parental rearing behaviors accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in anger/hostility. These findings are in keeping with the notion that family environment factors such as attachment style and parental rearing are involved in the development of anger/hostility in youths.

  3. Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Stefan; Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Anthony B

    2012-12-29

    Members of the family Syngnathidae share a unique reproductive mode termed male pregnancy. Males carry eggs in specialised brooding structures for several weeks and release free-swimming offspring. Here we describe a systematic investigation of pre-release development in syngnathid fishes, reviewing available data for 17 species distributed across the family. This work is complemented by in-depth examinations of the straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion, the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, and the potbellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods - early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile - which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy. Our classification is derived from examinations of species representing the full range of brooding-structure complexity found in the Syngnathidae, including tail-brooding as well as trunk-brooding species, which represent independent evolutionary lineages. We chose conspicuous common traits as diagnostic features of stages to allow for rapid and consistent staging of embryos and larvae across the entire family. In view of the growing interest in the biology of the Syngnathidae, we believe that the classification proposed here will prove useful for a wide range of studies on the unique reproductive biology of these male-brooding fish.

  4. A neural basis for password-based species recognition in an avian brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Gaglio, Annmarie; Tyler, Elizabeth; Coculo, Joseph; Louder, Matthew I M; Hauber, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites are raised by heterospecific hosts and, therefore, lack crucial early exposure to relatives and other conspecifics. Yet, young brood parasites readily recognize and affiliate with others of their own species upon independence. One solution to this social recognition paradox is the ontogenetic 'password' mechanism used by obligate parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), whereby conspecific identification is initially mediated through the cowbird chatter: a non-learned vocal cue. We explored the neural basis of such password-based species recognition in juvenile and adult male cowbirds. We found that cowbird auditory forebrain regions express greater densities of the protein product of the immediate-early gene ZENK in response to the password chatter call relative to control sounds of mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) coos. The chatter-selective induction of ZENK expression occurs in both the caudal medial nidopallium (NCM) and the caudal medial mesopallium (CMM) in adults, but only within the NCM in juveniles. In contrast, we discovered that juvenile cowbirds exhibit neural selectivity to presentations of either conspecific or heterospecific songs, but only in CMM and only after recent experience. Juvenile cowbirds that did not have previous experience with the song type they were exposed to during the test period exhibited significantly lower activity-dependent gene expression. Thus, in juvenile male cowbirds, there is early onset of species-specific selective neural representation of non-learned calls in NCM and recently experienced song in CMM. These results suggest that NCM is evolutionarily co-opted in parasitic cowbirds to selectively recognize the password chatter, allowing juvenile cowbirds to identify adult conspecifics and avoid mis-imprinting upon unrelated host species. These ontogenetic comparisons reveal novel insights into the neural basis of species recognition in brood parasitic species. © 2017. Published by

  5. Mooreonuphis vespa, a new brooding species of Onuphidae (Annelida) from northern Spain (Bay of Biscay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore; Anadón, Nuria

    2013-11-29

    A new species of the genus Mooreonuphis Fauchald, 1982 collected from the Cantabrian shelf (Bay of Biscay) is described. Mooreonuphis vespa sp. nov. constitutes the first record of this genus in European waters and is characterised by: conspicuous dark brown transverse segmental pigment bands; antennae and palps with 3-5 basal ceratophoral rings and a very long distal ring; unusually long and slender peristomial and dorsal cirri; simple branchiae from chaetiger 17-19. We present observations on its reproductive biology (including brooding behaviour) and remark on the biogeography of the genus.

  6. Analysis of piscicultural-biological results of works with Russian sturgeon brood fish at the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kononenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of world stocks of sturgeons is on the edge of catastrophe. These species are either extinct or under threat of extinction under human impacts. At the same time, there are enterprises, fish hatcheries, which deal with restoration and replenishment of natural stocks with of endangered fish species. One of such hatcheries is the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russian Federation. The aim of the study was an analysis of piscicultural-biological features of the Russian sturgeon brood fish. During the study, which was conducted in April–May 2011, 34 Russian sturgeon females were used in two rounds, 17 individuals each. For stimulating gametes maturation, the Derzhavin’s physiological method was used. Caviar was obtained by stripping the eggs under strict hygienic and sanitary norms. Eggs fertilization with the semi-dry method used the male milt that bought at the “Raskat” LLC. Egg stickiness elimination was performed with the aid of talc and apparatuses for the egg stickiness elimination. Eggs incubation was performed in the “Osetr” apparatuses until yolk-sac larvae hatching. The domesticated fish were subjected to bonitation for determining their readiness for spawning. As a result of this bonitation, the brood fish were separated into two groups: first round of rearing works: females with mean weight of 34.8 kg and age of 9 years; second round: females with mean weight of 32.3 kg and the same age. Among injected females of the first round, 100% positive reaction for the stimulating injection was observed, but 95% – among females of the second round. Maturation time of females of both rounds varied from 25 to 30 hours. The maturation state of gametes of sturgeon females or males was determined based on samples obtained. 90.2 kg of eggs were obtained from females of the first round. At the same time, the maximum quantity was observed in the female of 50.5 kg – 9.2 kg of caviar, and the least quantity

  7. The relationship between false confessions and perceptions of parental rearing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Finnbogadottir, Hildur; Smari, Unnur Jakobsdottir

    2006-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between a history of having made a false confession and reported parental rearing practices. It was hypothesized that the reporting of rejection and absence of warmth by parents would be associated with the making of a false confession. The participants were 804 college students in Iceland. Each was asked about false confessions made to teachers and parents in the past, as well as about false confessions made to the police during questioning. The participants completed questionnaires relating to perceived parental rearing practices (EMBU), proneness to antisocial behavior (the Gough Socialization Scale), personality (EPQ), self-esteem (Rosenberg), and compliance (GCS). Only eight participants (1% of those interrogated) claimed to have made false confessions to the police, whereas 10% claimed to have made false confessions to teachers or parents. False confessions were significantly associated with proneness to antisocial behavior and the EMBU Rejection and Warmth scales for both fathers and mothers.

  8. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  9. Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: consumption of and operant responding for ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehan, Gerald A; Palmatier, Matthew I; Cain, Mary E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Exposing rats to differential rearing conditions during early postweaning development has been shown to produce changes in a number of behaviors displayed during adulthood. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate whether rearing alcohol-preferring (P) and nonpreferring (NP) rats in an environmental enrichment condition (EC), a social condition (SC), or an impoverished condition (IC) would differentially affect self-administration of 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for consumption of 10% ethanol in limited- and free-access tests. For Experiment 2, rats were trained to respond in an operant chamber for ethanol and then provided concurrent access to 10% ethanol and water. Each solution was presented in a separate liquid dipper after meeting the schedule of reinforcement on distinct levers. After concurrent access tests, the water lever/dipper was inactivated and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was initiated. Three successive solutions (10% ethanol, 15% ethanol, and 10% sucrose) were tested under the PR. For P rats, rearing in an EC reduced ethanol consumption, preference, and motivation to obtain ethanol, relative to P rats reared in an IC. Thus, exposure to a novel environment immediately after weaning acted to decrease the reinforcing properties of ethanol in an animal model for alcoholism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Coevolutionary interactions between farmers and mafia induce host acceptance of avian brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-05-01

    Brood parasites exploit their host in order to increase their own fitness. Typically, this results in an arms race between parasite trickery and host defence. Thus, it is puzzling to observe hosts that accept parasitism without any resistance. The 'mafia' hypothesis suggests that these hosts accept parasitism to avoid retaliation. Retaliation has been shown to evolve when the hosts condition their response to mafia parasites, who use depredation as a targeted response to rejection. However, it is unclear if acceptance would also emerge when 'farming' parasites are present in the population. Farming parasites use depredation to synchronize the timing with the host, destroying mature clutches to force the host to re-nest. Herein, we develop an evolutionary model to analyse the interaction between depredatory parasites and their hosts. We show that coevolutionary cycles between farmers and mafia can still induce host acceptance of brood parasites. However, this equilibrium is unstable and in the long-run the dynamics of this host-parasite interaction exhibits strong oscillations: when farmers are the majority, accepters conditional to mafia (the host will reject first and only accept after retaliation by the parasite) have a higher fitness than unconditional accepters (the host always accepts parasitism). This leads to an increase in mafia parasites' fitness and in turn induce an optimal environment for accepter hosts.

  11. Strategic variation in mobbing as a front line of defense against brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, Justin A; Davies, Nicholas B

    2009-02-10

    Coevolutionary arms races, where adaptations in one party select for counter-adaptations in another and vice versa, are fundamental to interactions between organisms and their predators, pathogens, and parasites [1]. Avian brood parasites and their hosts have emerged as model systems for studying such reciprocal coevolutionary processes [2, 3]. For example, hosts have evolved changes in egg appearance and rejection of foreign eggs in response to brood parasitism from cuckoos, and cuckoos have evolved host-egg mimicry as a counter-response [4-6]. However, the host's front line of defense is protecting the nest from being parasitized in the first place [7-10], yet little is known about the effectiveness of nest defense as an antiparasite adaptation, and its coevolutionary significance remains poorly understood [10]. Here we show first that mobbing of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus by reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus is an effective defense against parasitism. Second, mobbing of cuckoos is a phenotypically plastic trait that is modified strategically according to local parasitism risk. This supports the view that hosts use a "defense in-depth strategy," with successive flexible lines of defense that coevolve with corresponding offensive lines of the parasite. This highlights the need for more holistic research into the coevolutionary consequences when multiple adaptations and counter-adaptations evolve in concert [11].

  12. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.

  13. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-07

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos.

  14. Enhanced innate immune responses in a brood parasitic cowbird species: degranulation and oxidative burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relative effectiveness of two innate immune responses in two species of New World blackbirds (Passeriformes, Icteridae) that differ in resistance to West Nile virus (WNV). We measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental components of phagocytosis, and we predicted that the functional effectiveness of these innate immune responses would correspond to the species' relative resistance to WNV. The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), an obligate brood parasite, had previously shown greater resistance to infection with WNV, lower viremia and faster recovery when infected, and lower subsequent antibody titers than the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), a close relative that is not a brood parasite. We found that cowbird leukocytes were significantly more functionally efficient than those of the blackbird leukocytes and 50% more effective at killing the challenge bacteria. These results suggest that further examination of innate immunity in the cowbird may provide insight into adaptations that underlie its greater resistance to WNV. These results support an eco-immunological interpretation that species like the cowbird, which inhabit ecological niches with heightened exposure to parasites, experience evolutionary selection for more effective immune responses.

  15. Inbreeding influences within-brood heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCS) in an isolated passerine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Sheena M; Jamieson, Ian G

    2013-08-01

    Molecular estimates of inbreeding may be made using genetic markers such as microsatellites, however the interpretation of resulting heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) with respect to inbreeding depression is not straightforward. We investigated the relationship between pedigree-determined inbreeding coefficients (f) and HFCs in a closely monitored, reintroduced population of Stewart Island robins (Petroica australis rakiura) on Ulva Island, New Zealand. Using a full sibling design, we focused on differences in juvenile survival associated specifically with individual sibling variation in standardized multilocus heterozygosity (SH) when expected f was identical. We found that within broods, siblings with higher SH at microsatellite loci experienced a higher probability of juvenile survival. This effect, however, was detected primarily within broods that experienced inbreeding or when inbreeding had occurred in their pedigree histories (i.e., at the parents' level). Thus we show, for the first time in a wild population, that the strength of an HFC is partially dependent on the presence of inbreeding events in the recent pedigree history. Our results illustrate the importance of realized effects of inbreeding on genetic variation and fitness and the value of full-sibling designs for the study of HFCs in the context of small, inbred populations. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. A test of the nest sanitation hypothesis for the evolution of foreign egg rejection in an avian brood parasite rejecter host species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luro, Alec B.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved diverse defenses to avoid the costs associated with raising brood parasite nestlings. In egg ejection, the host recognizes and removes foreign eggs laid in its nest. Nest sanitation, a behavior similar in motor pattern to egg ejection, has been proposed repeatedly as a potential pre-adaptation to egg ejection. Here, we separately placed blue 3D-printed, brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater) eggs known to elicit interindividual variation in ejection responses and semi-natural leaves into American robins' ( Turdus migratorius) nests to test proximate predictions that (1) rejecter hosts should sanitize debris from nests more frequently and consistently than accepter hosts and (2) hosts that sanitize their nests of debris prior to the presentation of a foreign egg will be more likely to eject the foreign egg. Egg ejection responses were highly repeatable within individuals yet variable between them, but were not influenced by prior exposure to debris, nor related to sanitation tendencies as a whole, because nearly all individuals sanitized their nests. Additionally, we collected published data for eight different host species to test for a potential positive correlation between sanitation and egg ejection. We found no significant correlation between nest sanitation and egg ejection rates; however, our comparative analysis was limited to a sample size of 8, and we advise that more data from additional species are necessary to properly address interspecific tests of the pre-adaptation hypothesis. In lack of support for the nest sanitation hypothesis, our study suggests that, within individuals, foreign egg ejection is distinct from nest sanitation tendencies, and sanitation and foreign egg ejection may not correlate across species.

  17. Child-rearing practices and social development indicators in three-year-old children / Práticas educativas maternas e indicadores do desenvolvimento social no terceiro ano de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating relations between maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and social competence indicators of thirty-month-old children. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads. In the child's thirtieth month after birth, an observation of mother-child interaction was performed in order to evaluate maternal child-rearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence. The results support the literature about social development that relates child-rearing practices such as guidance, assertive control and positive parental involvement to social competence, and coercive and permissive practices to externalizing behavior problems. The work discusses the relevance of parental child-rearing practices for the comprehension of the social development, emphasizing the importance of child-rearing practices, such as autonomy authorization, intrusiveness and ambiguous control.

  18. Flow testing rear face hardware combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haun, F.E. Jr.

    1962-06-01

    The purpose of these tests is to provide necessary laboratory data in support of an R,PEO program in determining the energy loss associated with various hardware size combinations on the rear face of the B-D-F reactors. The original method used to check for critical flow was determined to be faulty. A revised method demonstrated critical flow did occur in the 5/8-inch inconel connector and combination 1 fittings. The remaining fitting combinations with the 5/8-inch inconel and 3/4-inch aluminum connector were not rechecked because of the reaming of the I.D. to permit the continuation of the original tests. During test number 6, audible cavitation was heard with the highest severity at a point midway between pressure points 3 and 4 on the connector. This condition appeared again in tests 6A, 7, and 7A, with incipient cavitation at approximately 40 gpm in each test, regardless of the rear header pressure and/or temperature.

  19. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays...... with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks...

  20. Parental Child-Rearing Strategies Influence Self-Regulation, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Psychopathology in Early Adulthood: Evidence from a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Courtney N.; Hoerger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU – a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents’ child-rearing behaviors – as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavio...

  1. [Supporting the Love, Marriage, and Child-Rearing of Persons with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and their families have strong interests and hopes for love, marriage, pregnancy, and child-rearing. These experiences often lead to recovery from schizophrenia. There are many partners with schizophrenia who enjoy fruitful lives even with their disability. However, only some persons can enter into such lives in the real world in Japan and other countries. This leads persons with schizophrenia to develop a discouraged and disappointed attitude, and also causes professionals of mental health to develop indifference or pessimism about these issues. Schizophrenics are thought to have interests in love and sexual behavior just as strong as the general population. I discuss with my patients about these issues and working life early in the course of treatment. Because they lose their chance to learn adult behavior in social lives with peers due to the beginning of schizophrenia, they need an opportunity to participate in a social situation to learn knowledge and skills of dating and related behaviors, and systematic education such as psycho-education and social skills training should be provided. Continuing married life and child-rearing require more support from experts with rich experience and knowledge. Psychiatrists are required to participate in shared decision-making about medication during pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as provide knowledge on the benefits and risks of antipsychotics. Net-working with the family, professionals of child welfare, and the community is necessary to support child-rearing. Urakawa Bethel's House was introduced as a pioneering concept to support love, marriage, and child-rearing. Finally, professionals' negative or indifferent attitudes toward these issues are discussed in the setting of treatment. I hope that professionals of mental health will think about these issues from the standpoints of persons with schizophrenia and their families.

  2. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaher, Arushi; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Chauhan, Vasundhera; John, Jomimol; Mehta, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new) with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences. PMID:27867895

  3. Study on airflow characteristics of rear wing of F1 car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. R. S.; Sapit, A.; Mohammed, A. N.; Razali, M. A.; Sadikin, A.; Nordin, N.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims to investigate CFD simulation is carried out to investigate the airflow along the rear wing of F1 car with Reynold number of 3 × 106 and velocity, u = 43.82204 m/s. The analysis was done using 2-D model consists of main plane and flap wing, combined together to form rear wing module. Both of the aerofoil is placed inside a box of 350mm long and 220mm height according to regulation set up by FIA. The parameters for this study is the thickness and the chord length of the flap wing aerofoil. The simulations were performed by using FLUENT solver and k-kl-omega model. The wind speed is set up to 43 m/s that is the average speed of F1 car when cornering. This study uses NACA 2408, 2412, and 2415 for the flap wing and BE50 for the main plane. Each cases being simulated with a gap between the aerofoil of 10mm and 50mm when the DRS is activated. Grid independence test and validation was conduct to make sure the result obtained is acceptable. The goal of this study is to investigate aerodynamic behavior of airflow around the rear wing as well as to see how the thickness and the chord length of flap wing influence the airflow at the rear wing. The results show that increasing in thickness of the flap wing aerofoil will decreases the downforce. The results also show that although the short flap wing generate lower downforce than the big flap wing, but the drag force can be significantly reduced as the short flap wing has more change in angle of attack when it is activated. Therefore, the type of aerofoil for the rear wing should be decided according to the circuit track so that it can be fully optimized.

  4. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gangaher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children <12 years and Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  5. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  6. Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Bruce; Seibel, Brad; Drazen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

  7. How Much of Language, If Any, Came About in the Same Sort of Way as the Brooding Chamber in Snails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2001-01-01

    Critically assesses the merits and limitations of four conceptions of language genesis. Focuses on the conception that language, like the brooding chamber in certain snail species, came about through cooption as a by-product of something else. (Author/VWL)

  8. The reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in worker brood of Africanized and hybrid honey bees in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon, R.A.; Sommeijer, M.J.; Ruijter, de A.; Veen, van der J.W.

    2003-01-01

    From February to July 2001, the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in artificially infested worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees (AHB) (Apis mellifera) and hybrids (HF1) of AHB x European honey bees was investigated in Costa Rica. No significant differences were found between AHB and

  9. Effect of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) on mortality of artificially reared honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera carnica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Sophie; Brodschneider, Robert; Vollmann, Jutta; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heat-formed, acid-catalyzed contaminant of sugar syrups, which find their way into honey bee feeding. As HMF was noted to be toxic to adult honey bees, we investigated the toxicity of HMF towards larvae. Therefore we exposed artificially reared larvae to a chronic HMF intoxication over 6 days using 6 different concentrations (5, 50, 750, 5000, 7500 and 10,000 ppm) and a control. The mortality was assessed from day 2 to day 7 (d7) and on day 22 (d22). Concentrations ranging from 5 to 750 ppm HMF did not show any influence on larval or pupal mortality compared to controls (p > 0.05; Kaplan-Meier analysis). Concentrations of 7500 ppm or higher caused a larval mortality of 100%. An experimental LC50 of 4280 ppm (d7) and 2424 ppm (d22) was determined. The calculated LD50 was 778 µg HMF per larva on d7 and 441 µg HMF on d22. Additionally, we exposed adult honey bees to high concentrations of HMF to compare the mortality to the results from larvae. On d7 larvae are much more sensitive against HMF than adult honey bees after 6 days of feeding. However, on d22 after emergence adults show a lower LC50, which indicates a higher sensitivity than larvae. As toxicity of HMF against honey bees is a function of time and concentration, our results indicate that HMF in supplemental food will probably not cause great brood losses. Yet sublethal effects might decrease fitness of the colony.

  10. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of reversed...

  11. Laboratory Rearing of the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    rearing M. vitrata in laboratory on artificial diet. The first procedure to rear M. vitrata larvae was developed by Ochieng et al. (1981) on cowpea flowers and pods. Subsequently, other researchers used other natural food such as, fresh runner bean, French bean and broad beans. ... and diet ingredients that are expensive and.

  12. Quality of field collected and laboratory reared Chilo partellus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of laboratory reared stem borer species for screening of maize varieties is usually questioned by end user cereal breeders. A quality check study was performed in a screen house at KARI-Katumani to evaluate the quality of eight-year old laboratory reared stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). The evaluation ...

  13. Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    Biological control programs of mealybug species have relied on sprouting potatoes, pumpkins and butternut for rearing of both mealybugs and their natural enemies. In this study, the suitability of sprouting potatoes, butternuts and citrus as mass rearing substrates for the oleander mealybug,. Paracoccus burnerae was ...

  14. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding traditional child rearing practices in the Sub-Saharan African region and the changes that have occurred over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. Child rearing practices that promote mental health and ensure survival through the years as well as negative aspects ...

  15. LCD rear projector P401LC; Ekisho hoshiki rear projector P401LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A rear projector using a 40-type LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) has been commercialized, which may be utilized in various ways. It may be used for displaying information at shops, airports, etc., or may be used as a landscape-oriented electronic signboard for which plural projectors need to be arranged laterally. The rear projector is characterized in that (1) it can be placed anywhere and occupies but a small space, installed on the floor, suspended from the ceiling, or hung on the wall, that (2) it easily produces large pictures in a multiple screen system of 2 times 2 screens (80 inches) by the use of a built-in video wall processor, and that (3) it deals with various types of signals, ranging from video signals to XGA signals, by the use of a newly developed resolution rate conversion LSI (Large Scale Integration). (translated by NEDO)

  16. The effects of age and past and present behavioral specialization on behavior of workers of the red wood ant Formica polyctena Först. during nestmate reunion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Julita; Szczuka, Anna; Symonowicz, Beata; Wnuk, Andrzej; Anna, Gonzalez Szwacka; Mazurkiewicz, Paweł Jarosław; Studnicki, Marcin; Godzińska, Ewa Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Social insect workers usually participate first in intranidal tasks and then switch to extranidal ones. However, foragers may switch again to intranidal brood care. This process is called the behavioral reversion. We applied dyadic nestmate reunion tests to explore behavioral differences between five groups of workers of the red wood ant Formica polyctena: callows (newly eclosed workers), nurses, reverted nurses (foragers that switched back to intranidal brood care in response to exposure to brood in absence of nurses), and two groups of foragers. Inter-group differences between the tested ants were related both to age and past and present behavioral specialization. Callows were the least active and their behavior was characterized by the lowest tempo. Nurses usually behaved in a way intermediate in respect to behavior of callows and the ants that had already passed the transition to extranidal tasks. The behavior of reverted nurses showed both similarities and differences with respect to behavior of foragers. Some traits of behavior of reverted nurses were similar as in the case of nurses, or intermediate in respect to both nurses and foragers. Behavioral reversion of workers of F. polyctena has thus other behavioral correlates besides the reappearance of intranidal brood care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  18. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  19. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.

  20. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samas, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights

  1. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  2. Reproduction of Varroa destructor and offspring mortality in worker and drone brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W

    2012-04-01

    Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P drone cells was high in the protonymph stage (mobile and immobile). A significant finding was the high rate of male mortality. The worker and drone brood revealed that 23.9 and 6.9%, respectively, of the adult male offspring was found dead. If the absence (missing) of the male and adult male mortality are taken together the percentage of cells increased to 40.0 and 21.3% in worker and drone cells, respectively (X(2) = 28.8, P < 0.05). The absence of the male or male mortality in a considerable number of worker cells naturally infested with varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica.

  3. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-07-30

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood.

  4. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…

  5. A Comparison of Value Preferences and Attitudes toward Collectivism of Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia; Gutman, Piret

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to shed some light on the effect of socialization context (home vs. orphanage) on gender-specific value acquisition. With this aim value preferences and collectivistic attitudes of institution-reared and home-reared teenagers (14-20 yrs.) were compared. Teenagers from ordinary homes were found to score high on…

  6. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  7. A multinomial logit model-Bayesian network hybrid approach for driver injury severity analyses in rear-end crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Ma, Jianming; Wei, Heng; Guan, Hongzhi

    2015-07-01

    Rear-end crash is one of the most common types of traffic crashes in the U.S. A good understanding of its characteristics and contributing factors is of practical importance. Previously, both multinomial Logit models and Bayesian network methods have been used in crash modeling and analysis, respectively, although each of them has its own application restrictions and limitations. In this study, a hybrid approach is developed to combine multinomial logit models and Bayesian network methods for comprehensively analyzing driver injury severities in rear-end crashes based on state-wide crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. A multinomial logit model is developed to investigate and identify significant contributing factors for rear-end crash driver injury severities classified into three categories: no injury, injury, and fatality. Then, the identified significant factors are utilized to establish a Bayesian network to explicitly formulate statistical associations between injury severity outcomes and explanatory attributes, including driver behavior, demographic features, vehicle factors, geometric and environmental characteristics, etc. The test results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid approach performs reasonably well. The Bayesian network reference analyses indicate that the factors including truck-involvement, inferior lighting conditions, windy weather conditions, the number of vehicles involved, etc. could significantly increase driver injury severities in rear-end crashes. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insights for developing effective countermeasures to reduce rear-end crash injury severities and improve traffic system safety performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  9. Pen rearing and imprinting of fall Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Novotny, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  10. Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, M; Reuter, G S

    2001-04-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of"Starline" stock. Colonies bred for hygienic behavior are able to detect, uncap, and remove experimentally infested brood from the nest, although the extent to which the behavior actually reduces the overall mite-load in untreated, naturally infested colonies needed further verification. The results indicate that hygienic colonies with queens mated naturally to unselected drones had significantly fewer mites on adult bees and within worker brood cells than Starline colonies for up to 1 yr without treatment in a commercial, migratory beekeeping operation. Hygienic colonies actively defended themselves against the mites when mite levels were relatively low. At high mite infestations (>15% of worker brood and of adult bees), the majority of hygienic colonies required treatment to prevent collapse. Overall, the hygienic colonies had similar adult populations and brood areas, produced as much honey, and had less brood disease than the Starline colonies. Thus, honey bees bred for hygienic behavior performed as well if not better than other commercial lines of bees and maintained lower mite loads for up to one year without treatment.

  11. Perceived parental child rearing and attachment as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms in children: The mediational role of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M; Magaz, Ana M; Santed, Miguel A; Sandin, Bonifacio

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine (a) the relative contribution of perceived parental child-rearing behaviors and attachment on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and (b) the role of attachment as a possible mediator of the association between parental rearing and anxiety and depression. A sample of 1002 children (aged 9-12 years) completed a booklet of self-report questionnaires measuring parental rearing behaviors, attachment towards peers, and DSM anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. We found that parental aversiveness, parental neglect, and fearful/preoccupied attachment, each accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, parental overcontrol was found to account for unique variance in anxiety whereas communication/warmth accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in depression. A relevant finding was that fearful/preoccupied attachment was found to mediate the association between parental rearing behaviors and both anxiety and depression. Parental rearing behaviors and attachment to peers may act as risk factors to the development and/or maintenance of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in children. Findings may contribute to outline preventive and/or treatment programs to prevent or reduce both clinical anxiety and depression during childhood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  13. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  14. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  15. Relationship-Building Skills of Child-Rearing Mothers in Japanese Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Honda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the skills of mothers who used to build positive interpersonal relationships with people they met through child-rearing. The research method was qualitative descriptive study. The participants were 24 mothers who had children between ages of one and four years. These participants were recruited at child-rearing salons and childcare centers located in various municipalities in Japan. The survey period was from September 2013 to July 2014. The mothers’ interpersonal relationship-building skills were described by six categories: “ability to strive for new encounters,” “ability to try to interact socially with others,” “ability to choose compatible people,” “ability to continuously maintain good relationships,” “ability to take action suitable to a situation,” and “ability to build positive relationships with parents-in-law.” Cognitive aspects of assessing and understanding the interactions that occur during exchanges and behavioral aspects guided by these cognitions were identified within these skills. This study contributed to providing a framework to understand mothers’ interpersonal relationship-building skills for public health nurses involved in child-rearing support.

  16. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  17. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  19. Child rearing in Japan: current trends and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K

    1998-04-01

    Loyalty to one's extended family, a well-known Japanese tradition, has broken down following World War II. Child rearing in Japan, therefore, has been changing gradually and clearly. Traditionally, child rearing was taught to young mothers by the grandmothers. However, recently young couples are no longer living with their parents. Therefore, there are no advisers nor consultants available at home for their child rearing. Commercialism has certainly invaded the field of child rearing, including too many guidebooks and even baby-sitting companies. Children's lives have become much more competitive, busy and unnatural in comparison with those of 20-30 years ago. This might be one cause of the increased incidence of bullying, school phobia and psychological disorders in children.

  20. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  1. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I D

    2017-07-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks in mass rearing systems, ranging from simple sanitation methods to highly sophisticated methods including RNAi and transgenics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An artificial diet for rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2013-08-01

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use secondary screwworms in our laboratory for preliminary experiments as a model for the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), which has been eradicated from the United States. C. macellaria larvae reared on animal tissues produced a putrid odor, an unfavorable condition in the laboratory, and variable pupal size and weight, bringing into question the validity of use as a model for C. hominivorax. Therefore, studies were conducted to develop a less odiferous artificial diet with reduced variability in resulting pupae by comparing three diets: 1) an artificial diet prepared from spray-dried blood, spray-dried poultry egg, dry milk substitute, and solidified with a polyacrylate polymer gel; 2) a fresh blood-based diet prepared similarly, except fresh bovine blood was used in place of spray-dried blood; and 3) a beef liver diet. Data from seven life-history parameters of resulting insects were collected and analyzed. Larval and pupal weights of C. macellaria reared on both the dry and fresh blood-based diets were significantly higher than those reared on the liver diet. Numbers of pupae and percentage of adult emergence were also significantly higher from both dry blood and fresh blood-based diets than those reared on the liver diet. Female flies developing from larvae reared on dry and fresh blood-based diets laid significantly more eggs than females developing from larvae reared on the liver diet. Results show that C. macellaria larvae developed and grew normally in the dry and fresh blood-based diets, indicating that an artificial diet can effectively replace the liver diet commonly used for rearing C. macellaria.

  3. Neck Kinematics in Rear-End Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King H Yang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to document the kinematics of the neck during low-speed rear-end impacts. In a series of experiments reported by Deng et al (2000, a pneumatically driven mini-sled was used to study cervical spine motion using six cadavers instrumented with metallic markers at each cervical level, a 9-accelerometer mount on the head, and a tri-axial accelerometers on the thorax. A 250-Hz x-ray system was used to record marker motion while acceleration data were digitized at 10,000 Hz. Results show that, in the global coordinate system, the head and all cervical vertebrae were primarily in extension during the entire period of x-ray data collection. In local coordinate systems, upper cervical segments were initially in relative flexion while lower segments were in extension. Facet joint capsular stretch ranged from 17 to 97%. In the vertical direction, the head and T1 accelerated upward almost instantaneously after impact initiation while there was delay for the head in the horizontal direction. This combination was the result of a force vector which was pointed in the forward and upward direction to generate an extension moment. Upward ramping of the torso was larger in tests with a 20-deg seatback angle. The study concluded that the kinematics of the neck is rather complicated and greatly influenced by the large rotations of the thoracic spine. Significant posterior shear deformation was found, as evidenced by the large facet capsular stretch. Although the neck forms a 'mild' S-shaped curve during whiplash, using its shape as an injury mechanism can be misleading because the source of pain is likely to be located in the facet capsules.

  4. Effect of Varroa destructor, Wounding and Varroa Homogenate on Gene Expression in Brood and Adult Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleoglu, Gun; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls. The effect of V. destructor parasitism in adults relative to the controls was not significantly different from buffer injection for AmHym and AmVit2 expression, and it was not significantly different from homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. In brood, V. destructor parasitism, buffer injection and homogenate injection decreased AmVit2 expression, whereas AmHym expression was decreased by V. destructor parasitism but increased by buffer and homogenate injection relative to the controls. The effect of varroa parasitism in brood was not significantly different from buffer or homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. Expression levels of the four genes did not correlate with detectable viral levels in either brood or adults. The results of this study indicate that the relative effects of V. destructor parasitism on honey bee gene expression are also shared with other types of stresses. Therefore, some of the effects of V. destructor on honey bees may be mostly due to wounding and injection of foreign compounds into the hemolymph of the bee during parasitism. Although both brood and adults are naturally parasitized by V. destructor, their gene expression responded differently, probably the result of different mechanisms of host responses during development.

  5. Intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation and adjustment symptoms in couples: The role of co-brooding and co-reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Horn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult emotion regulation is not only occurring within the person but includes strategies that happen in social interactions and that are framed as co-regulating. The current study investigates the role of the interpersonal emotion regulation strategies of co-reappraisal and co-brooding in couples for adjustment disorder symptoms as the disorder will be outlined in the International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11. Methods Couples registered together in an online questionnaire study reporting whether or not they are adjusting to a major stressor that is psychologically challenging to them. In total, one hundred and forty-six participants (N = 73 male; N = 73 female reported having experienced a major stressor in the last 12 months and were thus be identified as at risk for adjustment disorder. Those individuals at risk were assessed for adjustment disorder and depressive symptoms; intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation (co-/brooding, co-/reappraisal were assessed not only in the individual at risk but also in the romantic partner. Results Regression-based dyadic analyses revealed that above and beyond intrapersonal emotion regulation, interpersonal co-brooding and for the female participants also co-reappraisal were significantly associated with symptoms of adjustment disorder and depression, standardized betas varied between .24 and .36, suggesting medium effect sizes. An association with the female partner’s tendency to reappraise with fewer symptoms in the male partner at risk for adjustment disorder could also be observed. Conclusions Co-brooding and co-reappraisal represent emotion regulation strategies that happen in social interaction and seem to play a relevant role in the context of adjustment disorders above and beyond the commonly assessed intrapersonal emotion regulation strategies.

  6. 'Waiting impulsivity' in isolation-reared and socially-reared rats: effects of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-05-01

    Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively. IR rats showed similar acquisition of the 5-CSRTT. Amphetamine increased premature responding in both groups; however, IR rats showed less responding overall. For the TDRT, IR rats revealed a greater preference for the large but delayed reward during task acquisition (i.e. were less impulsive) with a higher rate of nose poking during the delay, and exhibited a compressed dose-response function (i.e. reduced dose sensitivity) for amphetamine. Impulsive action and impulsive choice were reduced in IR rats under certain conditions, and a blunted response to D-amphetamine was found on these measures. These reductions in impulsivity contrast with locomotor hyperactivity normally shown in IR rats and the findings have implications for the utility of IR as a model of psychopathology.

  7. White-cheeked Pintail duckling and brood survival across wetland types at Humacao Nature Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Lancaster, Joseph D.; Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Duckling survival is an important influence on recruitment in several North American Anas species. White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis) breeding in Puerto Rico encounter a variety of wetland types that may influence duckling survival. We monitored fates of 92 radio-tagged ducklings in 31 broods in 5 wetland habitat types at Humacao Nature Reserve in southeastern Puerto Rico from 2000 to 2002. Wetlands included 2 separate coastal lagoon complexes, mangrove forest, and managed and unmanaged wetland impoundments containing herbaceous vegetation. We used known-fate models to estimate daily and interval survival rates of ducklings and broods. We conducted conservative and liberal analyses of survival because of uncertain fates of 36 ducklings. In the conservative analysis, the most parsimonious model for duckling survival contained wetland type and a positive influence of daily precipitation. In the liberal analysis, duckling survival also varied among wetlands, was positively influenced by daily precipitation, but negatively influenced by hatch date. Brood survival was also positively influenced by precipitation and female body mass. Managed wetland impoundments and shallowly flooded lagoon habitats containing ferns, interspersed cattail (Typha dominguensis), and other herbaceous cover promoted up to 3 times higher survival of ducklings over the course of a 30-day duckling period than we found in mangroves, more deeply flooded lagoons with predominately restricted shoreline cover, or unmanaged impoundments overgrown with vegetation. Broad confidence intervals for survival estimates among wetlands preclude unequivocal interpretation, but our results suggest that White-cheeked Pintail ducklings survive poorly in mangroves but benefit from appropriate management.

  8. Repression and Recuperation of Brood Production in Bombus terrestris Bumble Bees Exposed to a Pulse of the Neonicotinoid Pesticide Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Ian; Cresswell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days ‘on dose’ followed by 14 days ‘off dose’) to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae) produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers). During the initial ‘on dose’ period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg−1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following ‘off dose’ period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg−1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop. PMID:24224015

  9. Repression and recuperation of brood production in Bombus terrestris bumble bees exposed to a pulse of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Laycock

    Full Text Available Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days 'on dose' followed by 14 days 'off dose' to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers. During the initial 'on dose' period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg(-1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following 'off dose' period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg(-1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop.

  10. Brooding rumination as a mediator in the relation between early maladaptive schemas and symptoms of depression and social anxiety in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther; Padilla, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Theory states that different cognitive constructs can be included in an integrated sequential model. This 3-wave longitudinal study assessed whether schema domains predict brooding rumination and brooding in turn predict depression and social anxiety symptoms among adolescents. A total of 1170 adolescents (M(age) = 13.44 years old, SD(age) = 1.30) completed measures of schema domains, brooding rumination, depression and social anxiety symptoms at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up (T1, T2, T3, respectively). Results revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain at T1 predicted prospective depression symptoms at T3 directly but not through brooding rumination. However, this schema domain did not predict social anxiety symptoms. The Other-Directedness schema domain at T1 predicted social anxiety symptoms at T3 both directly and through brooding at T2. Furthermore, this schema domain also predicted depression symptoms at T3 through brooding at T2. Identifying specific schema domains and the mechanisms through which these domains predict psychological symptoms has implications for interventions with adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body.

  12. Reproductive biology of a brooding Diopatra species: Diopatra marocensis Paxton et al., 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A.; Quintino, V.; Gentil, F.; Freitas, R.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The reproductive cycle of Diopatra marocensisPaxton et al., 1995 has been studied in a population from Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal with monthly samples, during a two-year period. This species presents a direct development with brooding in the parental tube and specimens with gametes inside the coelom and female tubes with eggs and/or larvae were observed in every sampling month. This suggested that the species reproduces during the whole year, with the main reproductive period from April to September. The male:female sex ratio ranged from 1:2 to 1:4, with females always dominating the population. A comparison with other Diopatra Audouin and Milne Edwards, 1833 (Onuphidae) showed that D. marocensis is the largest species with direct development and with the highest number of eggs and larvae inside the parental tube. With the exception of the colour, due to the presence of the gametes in the coelom cavity, no morphological differences between males and females were observed.

  13. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  14. A generalist brood parasite modifies use of a host in response to reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louder, Matthew I M; Schelsky, Wendy M; Albores, Amber N; Hoover, Jeffrey P

    2015-09-07

    Avian obligate brood parasites, which rely solely on hosts to raise their young, should choose the highest quality hosts to maximize reproductive output. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are extreme host generalists, yet female cowbirds could use information based on past reproductive outcomes to make egg-laying decisions thus minimizing fitness costs associated with parasitizing low-quality hosts. We use a long-term (21 years) nest-box study of a single host, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea), to show that local cowbird reproductive success, but not host reproductive success, was positively correlated with the probability of parasitism the following year. Experimental manipulations of cowbird success corroborated that female cowbirds make future decisions about which hosts to use based on information pertaining to past cowbird success, both within and between years. The within-year pattern, in particular, points to local cowbird females selecting hosts based on past reproductive outcomes. This, coupled with high site fidelity of female cowbirds between years, points to information use, rather than cowbird natal returns alone, increasing parasitism rates on highly productive sites between years. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Rumination in Adolescence: the Distinctive Impact of Brooding and Reflection on Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-06-20

    Rumination has a crucial role in the onset, severity and maintenance of depression in adolescent and adult populations. The Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS) is the most widely self-report instrument used to assess individual differences in the tendency to engage in ruminative responses style. This paper aims to test the factor structure of the 10-item RRS and the gender-based measurement invariance, in a community sample of adolescents, using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Participants were 542 adolescents (53% females) with a mean age of 14 years old (SD = 1.75) from middle and secondary schools (years of education's mean = 9.46, SD = 1.60) in Portugal. Results confirm the two-factor structure of the RRS composed by brooding and reflection dimensions (GFI = .93, CFI = .90, TLI = .87, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .11, 90% C.I. [0.092 to 0.121]) and the invariance across gender (GFI = .91, CFI = .89, TLI = .85, RMSEA = .08, 90% C.I. [0.069 to 0.090], p anxiety and stress symptoms (p rumination than male adolescents. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Portuguese version of RRS and suggest that this short version is an economical, valid and reliable measure to assess ruminative response styles in adolescence.

  16. Characterization of pollen and bacterial community composition in brood provisions of a small carpenter bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-05-01

    Many insects obtain gut microbes from their diet, but how a mother's foraging patterns influence the microbes found in her offspring's food remains an open question. To address this gap, we studied a bee that forages for pollen from multiple species of plants and may therefore acquire diverse bacteria from different plants. We tested the hypothesis that pollen diversity correlates with bacterial diversity by simultaneously characterizing these two communities in bee brood provisions for the first time. We used deep sequencing of the plant RBCL gene and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize pollen and bacterial diversity. We then tested for associations between pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, as well as co-occurrence of specific bacteria and pollen types. We found that both pollen and bacterial communities were extremely diverse, indicating that mother bees visit a wide variety of flowers for pollen and nectar and subsequently bring a diversity of microbes back into their nests. Pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, however, were not correlated. Certain pollen types significantly co-occurred with the most proportionally abundant bacteria, indicating that the plants these pollen types came from may serve as reservoirs for these bacteria. Even so, the overall diversity of these communities appears to mask these associations at a broader scale. Further study of these pollen and bacteria associations will be important for understanding the complicated relationship between bacteria and wild bees. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Paton

    Full Text Available Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  18. Picking among pen-reared quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  19. Seat strength in rear body block tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; White, Samuel D

    2016-07-03

    This study collected and analyzed available testing of motor vehicle seat strength in rearward loading by a body block simulating the torso of an occupant. The data were grouped by single recliner, dual recliner, and all belts to seat (ABTS) seats. The strength of seats to rearward loading has been evaluated with body block testing from 1964 to 2008. The database of available tests includes 217 single recliner, 65 dual recliner, and 18 ABTS seats. The trends in seat strength were determined by linear regression and differences between seat types were evaluated by Student's t-test. The average peak moment and force supported by the seat was determined by decade of vehicle model year (MY). Single recliner seats were used in motor vehicles in the 1960s to 1970s. The average strength was 918 ± 224 Nm (n = 26) in the 1960s and 1,069 ± 293 Nm (n = 65) in the 1980s. There has been a gradual increase in strength over time. Dual recliner seats started to phase into vehicles in the late 1980s. By the 2000s, the average strength of single recliner seats increased to 1,501 ± 335 Nm (n = 14) and dual recliner seats to 2,302 ± 699 Nm (n = 26). Dual recliner seats are significantly stronger than single recliner seats for each decade of comparison (P seats was 4,395 ± 1,185 in-lb for 1989-2004 MY seats (n = 18). ABTS seats are significantly stronger than single or dual recliner seats (P seats. Body block testing is an quantitative means of evaluating the strength of seats for occupant loading in rear impacts. There has been an increase in conventional seat strength over the past 50 years. By the 2000s, most seats are 1,700-3,400 Nm moment strength. However, the safety of a seat is more complex than its strength and depends on many other factors.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  2. Comparison of Brain Development in Sow-Reared and Artificially Reared Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Reeba M; Mudd, Austin T; Alexander, Lindsey S; Lai, Chron-Si; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight) were either SR (n = 10) with ad libitum intake or AR (n = 29) receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow's milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P brain atlas) fractional anisotropy (FA), and lower (P compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in WM organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter (GM) volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest analysis revealed larger (P brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and certain subcortical regions to be larger (P brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P compared with SR animals. Overall, increases in brain metabolite concentrations, coupled with greater FA values in WM tracts and volume differences in GM of specific brain regions, suggest differences in myelin development and cell proliferation in SR versus AR piglets.

  3. The effects of captive versus wild rearing environments on long bone articular surfaces in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Lewton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical environments of captive and wild animals frequently differ in substrate types and compliance. As a result, there is an assumption that differences in rearing environments between captive and wild individuals produce differences in skeletal morphology. Here, this hypothesis is tested using a sample of 42 captive and wild common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Articular surface areas of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia were calculated from linear breadth measurements, adjusted for size differences using Mosimann shape variables, and compared across sex and environmental groups using two-way ANOVA. Results indicate that the articular surfaces of the wrist and knee differ between captive and wild chimpanzees; captive individuals have significantly larger distal ulna and tibial plateau articular surfaces. In both captive and wild chimpanzees, males have significantly larger femoral condyles and distal radius surfaces than females. Finally, there is an interaction effect between sex and rearing in the articular surfaces of the femoral condyles and distal radius in which captive males have significantly larger surface areas than all other sex-rearing groups. These data suggest that long bone articular surfaces may be sensitive to differences experienced by captive and wild individuals, such as differences in diet, body mass, positional behaviors, and presumed loading environments. Importantly, these results only find differences due to rearing environment in some long bone articular surfaces. Thus, future work on skeletal morphology could cautiously incorporate data from captive individuals, but should first investigate potential intraspecific differences between captive and wild individuals.

  4. Rearing practices and early performance of migratory fish for stocking program: study of the critically endangered European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Garcia, E.

    2017-01-01

    Stocking for conservation purposes is the practice of raising animals in captivity and releasing them into an area from which the species have either declined or disappeared, in an attempt to enhance the natural population. Fish reared in hatcheries are exposed to selective reproduction, and early life experiences in a safe setting can strongly influence the behavioral, genetic, morphological and physiological attributes necessary to respond adequately to natural conditions after stocking. Ex...

  5. Rearing conditions differently affect the motor performance and cerebellar morphology of prenatally stressed juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulupinar, Emel; Erol, Kevser; Ay, Hakan; Yucel, Ferruh

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to environmental changes. In this study, the effect of diverse environmental rearing conditions on the motor performances of prenatally stressed juvenile rats and its reflection to the cerebellar morphology were investigated. Prenatally stressed Wistar rats were grouped according to different rearing conditions (Enriched=EC, Standard=SC and Isolated=IC) after weaning. Six weeks later, male and female offspring from different litters were tested behaviorally. In rotarod and string suspension tests, females gained better scores than males. Significant gender and housing effects were observed especially on the motor functions requiring fine skills with the best performance by enriched females, but the worst by enriched males. The susceptibility of cerebellar macro- and micro-neurons to environmental conditions was compared using stereological methods. In female groups, no differences were observed in the volume proportions of cerebellar layers, soma sizes and the numerical densities of granule or Purkinje cells. However, a significant interaction between housing and gender was observed in the granule to Purkinje cell ratio of males, due to the increased numerical densities of the granule cells in enriched males. These data imply that proper functioning of the cerebellum relies on its well organized and evolutionarily conserved structure and circuitry. Although early life stress leads to long term behavioral and neurobiological consequences in the offspring, diverse rearing conditions can alter the motor skills of animals and synaptic connectivity between Purkinje and granular cells in a gender dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental rearing practices from the perspective of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuković Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of parenting in families with adolescents. Special emphasis is placed on the exploration of the concept of parenting rearing practices through the dimensions of parental emotional warmth, control and monitoring. Based on that, starting from the standpoint about the importance of child's perception of parental behaviour, this paper presents the results of the research aimed at examining adolescents' view of parental rearing practices. The instrument used in the research consisted of three subscales (emotional warmth, monitoring, control, as well as the questions about socio-demographic variables. The sample included 154 second grade students of secondary school, i.e. adolescents. The findings have shown that adolescents perceived parental warmth as the most present and parental monitoring and control as less present parental rearing practice. Mother's parental rearing practices were perceived as significantly more present compared to those of the father. Also, it was found that the gender of respondents is a significant variable in the perception of parental rearing practices, while family characteristics (family social status, family structure, parent's educational level and the number of children in the family have not been proved as statistically significant variables. The concluding part emphasizes the need for further research of the factors that determine father's role in the family with adolescents, and the need to develop parent's awareness of the benefits related to adolescent's self-disclosure in the process of parental monitoring.

  7. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  8. Memories of parental rearing practices and personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminsen, S; Jørgensen, J; Kragh-Hansen, L; Pedersen, L L

    1984-05-01

    Relationships between own memories of parental rearing practices and adult personality features were examined. Two hundred healthy volunteers, 86 males and 114 females, completed the Own Memories of Child-Rearing Experiences ( EMBU ), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire ( EPQ ) and the Lazare - Klerman - Armor Trait Scale ( LKAS ). Relations between two sets of variables were examined by means of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Bonferroni inequalities were applied for each family of hypotheses. For the male sample all correlations were not significant. For females there were several significant correlations. The most consistent finding was that the experience of negative parental rearing factors was associated with pathological features in the personality. About one half of the significant correlations were found between female hysterical scores and EMBU father. The findings support the general assumption that females with hysterical traits have complicated relations to their fathers, which may indicate fixation in the Oedipal stage.

  9. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P reproductive success of a specific resident family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  10. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of drone brood removal for management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, N W

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, A. mellifera L., was evaluated. Colonies were treated with CheckMite+ in the fall of 2002. The following spring, quantities of bees and brood were equalized, but colonies were not retreated. The brood nest of each colony consisted of 18 full-depth worker combs and two full-depth drone combs. Each worker comb had drone cells. Standard management practices were used throughout the season. Colonies were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, drone combs remained in place throughout the season. In the treatment group, drone combs were removed on 16 June, 16 July, 16 August, and 16 September and replaced with empty drone combs (16 June) or with drone combs removed on the previous replacement date. In the early fall, the average mite-to-bee ratio in the control group was significantly greater than the corresponding ratio in the treatment group. Drone brood removal did not adversely affect colony health as measured by the size of the worker population or by honey production. Fall worker populations were similar in the two groups. Honey production in treatment colonies was greater than or similar to production in control colonies. These data demonstrate that drone brood removal can serve as a valuable component in an integrated pest management program for V. destructor and may reduce the need for other treatments on a colony-by-colony basis.

  12. Positive selection on sperm ion channels in a brooding brittle star: consequence of life-history traits evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A A-T; Abi-Rached, L; Galtier, N; Bernard, A; Montoya-Burgos, J I; Chenuil, A

    2017-07-01

    Closely related species are key models to investigate mechanisms leading to reproductive isolation and early stages of diversification, also at the genomic level. The brittle star cryptic species complex Ophioderma longicauda encompasses the sympatric broadcast-spawning species C3 and the internal brooding species C5. Here, we used de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly in two closely related species displaying contrasting reproductive modes to compare their genetic diversity and to investigate the role of natural selection in reproductive isolation. We reconstructed 20 146 and 22 123 genes for C3 and C5, respectively, and characterized a set of 12 229 orthologs. Genetic diversity was 1.5-2 times higher in C3 compared to C5, confirming that species with low parental investment display higher levels of genetic diversity. Forty-eight genes were the targets of positive diversifying selection during the evolution of the two species. Notably, two genes (NHE and TetraKCNG) are sperm-specific ion channels involved in sperm motility. Ancestral sequence reconstructions show that natural selection targeted the two genes in the brooding species. This may result from an adaptation to the novel environmental conditions surrounding sperm in the brooding species, either directly affecting sperm or via an increase in male/female conflict. This phenomenon could have promoted prezygotic reproductive isolation between C3 and C5. Finally, the sperm receptors to egg chemoattractants differed between C3 and C5 in the ligand-binding region. We propose that mechanisms of species-specific gamete recognition in brittle stars occur during sperm chemotaxis (sperm attraction towards the eggs), contrary to other marine invertebrates where prezygotic barriers to interspecific hybridization typically occur before sperm-egg fusion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. COMBINATION THERAPY WITH FLUOXETINE AND ALPRAZOLAM TO CONTROL ANXIETY IN A HAND-REARED SNOW LEOPARD (UNCIA UNCIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Holly J

    2016-09-01

    A captive hand-reared adult male snow leopard ( Uncia uncia ) was treated for anxiety associated with taunting from visitors, the presence of large crowds, and introduction to a female for breeding. Behaviors included shaking, chewing on tail, panting, panicking, and bouncing off the viewing glass, pacing, and avoidance of the female. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and alprazolam were administered initially to minimize anxious behaviors while the fluoxetine achieved therapeutic levels. The alprazolam was tapered completely and was only used episodically on two occasions. Although a palatability issue with alprazolam initially prevented consistent dosing, anxious behavior was eliminated and successful breeding behavior was achieved for the first time. After 44 mo of therapy, there have been no anxious behaviors requiring additional medications, two additional breeding behaviors observed, and no evidence of adverse side effects with long-term use.

  14. Fecundity and trapping of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in Greek drone brood of Apis melifera (Hymenoptera: Apididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros T. Damos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the parasitization levels and fecundity of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor Oudemans in drone brood of bee colonies located in Northern Greece. Based on successive observations in spring and early summer, the study also examines whether early entrapment of mites into the drone brood cell decreases the mite population levels in the succeeding generation. Varroa populations in drone brood were extremely high (approx. 40% in early spring, although numbers dropped significantly (approx. 20% after the entrapment and removal of mites into the drone brood (t=4.14518, P=0.0136, Mann-Whitney: P=0.005. In most cases, more than half of the inspected cells were occupied with two or more parental mites. No significant differences were found in the reproductive performance of the Varroa mites between the two successive generations in spring and early summer (t=-0.607, P=0.554, Mann-Whitney: P=0.128. The reproductive performance of V. destructor ranged from 1.5-3 progeny per female individual (m1:1.673, SE=0.09 and m2:2.02, SE: 0.44 for the first and second generations, respectively. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the drone and the mite populations (y=0.830+1.153x, F=8.851, P=0.41, R2:0.689 and y=0.319+0.968x, F=45.276, R2: 0,938, P=0.07 for the first and second mite generations, respectively. There were no significant differences in the number of infested and non-infested cells during the first observations (m1: 105.2, SE: 25.0, m2: 170.0 SE: 40.0, t=-1.38, P=0.203, Mann-Whitney: n1:81.0, n2:142.5, P=0.0656. On the contrary, during the second observations the number of infested cells was significantly lower (m1: 27.6, SE:8.1, m2:262.8, SE:69.0, t=-3.39, P=0.027, Mann-Whitney: P=0.012, n1:20, n2:340.

  15. Effect of Varroa destructor, Wounding and Varroa Homogenate on Gene Expression in Brood and Adult Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Koleoglu

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym and defensin-1 (AmDef-1, longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2 and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68 was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls. The effect of V. destructor parasitism in adults relative to the controls was not significantly different from buffer injection for AmHym and AmVit2 expression, and it was not significantly different from homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. In brood, V. destructor parasitism, buffer injection and homogenate injection decreased AmVit2 expression, whereas AmHym expression was decreased by V. destructor parasitism but increased by buffer and homogenate injection relative to the controls. The effect of varroa parasitism in brood was not significantly different from buffer or homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. Expression levels of the four genes did not correlate with detectable viral levels in either brood or adults. The results of this study indicate that the relative effects of V. destructor parasitism on honey bee gene expression are also shared with other types of stresses. Therefore, some of the effects of V. destructor on honey bees may be mostly due to wounding and injection of foreign compounds into the hemolymph of the bee during parasitism. Although both brood and adults are naturally parasitized by V. destructor, their gene expression responded differently, probably the result of different mechanisms of host responses during development.

  16. Early development in the mouth-brooding cichlid fish Satanoperca pappaterra (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Miranda Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical region exhibits the largest diversity of fish worldwide; however, little is known about the early development of fish species from this region. Therefore, to contribute to this knowledge, this study aimed to morphologically describe the early stages of development (eggs, larvae and juveniles of S. pappaterra using morphometric and meristic traits, and to assess changes in growth rates throughout larval and juvenile development by analyzing the relationships between various morphometric traits using analytical regression models. Both juvenile and adult individuals with mouth-brooded offspring were collected along the basins of the Cuiabá and Manso Rivers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil between March 2000 and March 2004. After the adults were identified, the offspring were classified according to its stage (embryonic, larval or juvenile period, and various morphometric and meristic variables were individually measured (when possible. The eggs of this species are yellow in color, oval shaped, show dendritic pigmentation within their yolk, have small to moderately sized perivitelline spaces and lack a mucous membrane and oil droplets. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the sample yolks ranged from 1.43mm to 2.70mm and 1.05mm to 1.68mm, respectively. The standard length of the larval period varied from 4.30mm to 7.16mm, and the standard length of the juvenile period varied from 10.29mm to 24.57mm. Larvae exhibit yolk sacs with internal dendritic pigmentation and dark punctate pigmentation in the dorsal and ventral body regions, whereas irregular transverse spots along the flanks are observed during the juvenile period. Adhesive organs are only present during the yolk-sac stage and at the beginning of the flexion stage. The mouth is terminal during all stages of development. The myomere number varied from 22 to 29 (9 to 16 pre-anal and 10 to 16 post-anal, and the maximal numbers of fin rays and spines were as follows: dorsal

  17. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  18. Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing substrates for the oleander mealybug, Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) ... The mean number of eggs per female was higher on sprouting potatoes (121.3) than on citrus (68), but declined with an increase in temperature from 22 to ...

  19. Grasscutter rearing as an urban agricultural practice in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reviewed grasscutter rearing as an urban agricultural practice in Ibadan metropolis. Focus group discussion was conducted for members of the Grasscutter Farmers Association of Nigeria, Ibadan branch, with headquarters at the Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan. Also a sample of 35 of the 45 ...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF MOOD ON MEMORIES OF PARENTAL REARING PRACTICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; KRAMER, JJAM; SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    Parental rearing styles are often found to be related to adult psychological disorders. In general, conclusions are based on the data of retrospective studies, in which patients' memories of their parents' behaviour are investigated. However, it has been widely recognized that memories may be

  1. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  2. Relative abundance of hard tick on reared cattle (Family: Bovidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out among cattle reared in Idah LGA of Kogi State, for tick infestations for a period of four months (May – August, 2009). A total of 294 cattle were sampled, 181 were infested with three species of hard ticks (Family: Ixodidae), comprising of Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, and ...

  3. Ectoparasite infestation of free scavenging chickens reared under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 2015, 19 (2):55-66. Ectoparasite infestation of free scavenging chickens reared under traditional backyard production system in Wolayita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Tesfaheywet Zeryehun1. • and Yonas Yohannes1. 'College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O.Box 138, Dire Dawa, ...

  4. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  5. Larval development of laboratory-reared carpenter, Argyrozona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larval development of the sparid Argyrozona argyrozona is described and illustrated from 16 individuals, representative of a batch reared in the laboratory from artificially spawned eggs. A general account of development is given as well as detailed descriptions of pigmentation, fin development, head spination, ...

  6. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  7. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in

  8. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, sparing the head and distal portion of the front and rear limbs, bilateral cataracts and strabismus were noticed. Milk and blood from the mother, as well as blood from the healthy and ...

  9. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  10. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  11. Command and Control of the Division Rear Battle,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-05

    locations such as bridges, dams , and traffic choke points, and the associated detection systems needed to monitor the situation in the rear area encompass...Tactics," International Defense Review (January 1980) p. 160. MAJ Robert E. Bort , "Air Assault Brigades: Now Element in the Soviet Desant Force Structure

  12. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  13. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  14. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  15. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  16. Economics of young stock rearing decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensiveness of agriculture has contributed to environmental pollution through a higher production of waste materials. The environmental and economic pressures mean that it is nowadays important that milk is produced in a more sustainable way. The young stock rearing enterprise also

  17. The growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus L. reared in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of poultry manure loading and stocking density on the growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus in ponds. Instantaneous growth rate and total production of groups of fish stocked at a rate of 1 fish/m2, and 2 fish/m2 reared in ponds loaded with 0.5 and ...

  18. Larval development of laboratory-reared carpenter, Argyrozona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rest soft rays) in fish larger than 7,00 mm BL. Table 1 Morphometries and meristics of A. argyrozona larvae and juveniles reared in captivity. Measurements are in mm and are absolute. BL = Body Length; HL = Head Length; SnL = Snout Length; ED = Eye Diameter; PAL=Pre- anal Length; BD = Body Depth; C = Caudal; ...

  19. Declining Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Andrew Cox

    Full Text Available Many songbird species have experienced significant population declines, partly because of brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater, which is positively associated with increasing landscape forest cover in the midwestern United States. However, cowbirds are also experiencing long-term population declines, which should reduce parasitism pressure and thus increase productivity of host species. We used 20 years of nest monitoring data from five sites in Missouri across a gradient of landscape forest cover to assess temporal trends in the rate and intensity of brood parasitism for Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea, and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis. We evaluated whether there were concomitant changes in fledging brood size, nest survival, a combination of the two metrics (i.e., host young produced per nest attempt, and whether such changes were more substantial with decreasing landscape forest cover. Parasitism rates and intensities declined substantially during 1991-2010. Fledging brood size and nest survival rates were positively associated with landscape forest cover, confirming the fragmentation hypothesis for Midwest forest birds. Declining parasitism rates were associated with increased fledging brood sizes, with more pronounced increases as landscape forest cover decreased. Nest survival increased insubstantially across time during laying and incubation, but not during the nestling stage. The best predictor of nest survival was parasitism status, with parasitized nests surviving at lower rates than unparasitized nests. Overall, productivity increased during 1991-2010, with more pronounced increases associated with lower levels of landscape forest cover. The negative effects of cowbirds on nest survival in addition to fledging brood size in less forested landscapes suggest that cowbirds may be a primary cause of forest fragmentation effects on songbird productivity in the

  20. Description of laboratory reared first zoea of Callinectes danae Smith (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheruparambil Sankarankutty; Sung Yun Hong; Kwang Bong Kim

    1999-01-01

    A detailed description of laboratory reared first zoea larva of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 is given. The larvae utilized for this study were reared in vitro in a special incubator. A comparison with larvae of other species is also attempted.

  1. A new species of brooding Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from deep-sea off Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mariano I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a new species of Psolus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), P. lawrencei sp. nov., (19 specimens) found in the deep sea (308-1398 m) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWAO) (around 38°S-54°W) with brooders (up to 3.15 mm) in the tentacles of females and a penis-like genital papilla on males. The presence of dorsal scales, the concave shape of the ossicles with a bridge, the distribution of podia on the dorsal side and the absence of large and conspicuous oral and anal valves are unique for this species. Furthermore, this is the first species of this genus found outside Antarctica that broods between its tentacles. The paper also reviews the reproductive, brooding development and morphological characteristics of P. lawrencei sp. nov. and compares them with those of several members of the family Psolidae. Finally, a possible connectivity between the deep-sea populations in the SWAO and in Antarctica is considered based on the appearance of a similar reproductive pattern in populations found in both areas, which suggests a past or present connection between these regions.

  2. Maternal effects in the highly communal sociable weaver may exacerbate brood reduction and prepare offspring for a competitive social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, René E; Eising, Corine M; Merrill, Richard M; Karadas, Filiz; Hatchwell, Ben; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2013-02-01

    Maternal effects can influence offspring phenotype with short- and long-term consequences. Yet, how the social environment may influence egg composition is not well understood. Here, we investigate how laying order and social environment predict maternal effects in the sociable weaver, Philetairus socius, a species that lives in massive communal nests which may be occupied by only a few to 100+ individuals in a single nest. This range of social environments is associated with variation in a number of phenotypic and life-history traits. We investigate whether maternal effects are adjusted accordingly. We found no evidence for the prediction that females might benefit from modifying brood hierarchies through an increased deposition of androgens with laying order. Instead, females appear to exacerbate brood reduction by decreasing the costly production of yolk mass and antioxidants with laying order. Additionally, we found that this effect did not depend on colony size. Finally, in accordance with an expected increased intensity of environmental stress with increasing colony size, we found that yolk androgen concentration increased with colony size. This result suggests that females may enhance the competitive ability of offspring raised in larger colonies, possibly preparing the offspring for a competitive social environment.

  3. Molecular analysis of six Rhynchospio Hartman, 1936 species (Annelida: Spionidae) with comments on the evolution of brooding within the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I; Malyar, Vasily V; Pankova, Victoria V; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2016-06-24

    Rhynchospio Hartman, 1936 is a small group of spionid polychaetes currently comprising ten described species distributed mainly in the Pacific. Five species examined to date are hermaphrodites producing spermatozoa with long nuclei, oocytes with thin and smooth envelopes, and dorsally brooding their offspring. Since our first molecular analysis of four Rhynchospio species, we have collected additional material from Northern Territory, Australia, and Oregon, USA. Herein, we describe the gamete and adult morphology of the newly collected material and use molecular analyses to provide new insight on the phylogenetic relationships of six Rhynchospio species. Adults of R. cf. foliosa from Oregon are hermaphrodites, but in contrast to other Rhynchospio, they produce spermatozoa with short nuclei (ect-aquasperm), oocytes with thick vesiculate envelopes, and likely have a holopelagic larval development. Analysis of four gene fragments, comprising mitochondrial 16S rDNA, and nuclear 18S, 28S rDNA, and Histone 3 (2516 bp in total) showed Rhynchospio to be a monophyletic group, with R. cf. foliosa being a distant sister to the five other species. Rhynchospio cf. foliosa was closer to M. arctia having ect-aquasperm and vesiculate thick-envelop oocytes (p = 14.40%) than to Spioninae members B. proboscidea and P. elegans, having introsperm and oocytes with thin and smooth envelopes (p = 15.39 and 16.54%, respectively). We hypothesize that brooding might have evolved from free-spawning inside the Rhynchospio clade, but this hypothesis should be tested in a future analysis.

  4. Establishment of a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus) breeding colony from wild-caught founders: comparison of reproductive performance of wild-caught and laboratory-reared pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botten, J; Ricci, R; Hjelle, B

    2001-08-01

    The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) is a natural reservoir for several human pathogens, but little is known about the mechanisms by which such pathogens are maintained in nature. As a first step toward developing a colony of deer mice that were permissive for infection with Sin Nombre (SN) hantavirus, we collected 68 wild P. maniculatus rufinus from central New Mexico. Mice from this cohort were used to establish 26 breeding pairs, of which 85% were fertile. In subsequent generations, fertility decreased slightly to 73% (N = 59) in laboratory-reared F1 and F2 pairs. Wild-caught females delivered 7.2 litters on average (range, 1 to 18), whereas laboratory-reared pairs delivered 5.5 (range, 1 to 13). The average time between pairing and first litter was 106 days for wild-caught animals, whereas that for laboratory-reared pairs was 71 days. None of the pairs displayed a seasonal breeding preference. Cannibalistic behavior increased from 5% in founders to 26% in laboratory-reared pairs. Mean litter size for wild-caught females was 4.3, whereas that for laboratory-reared dams was 4. Founding animals have been maintained in captivity for longer than 2 years, with only 2 deaths (4.8%). Our colony is competent for infection with SN virus. Thus, it should be useful for testing of models for maintenance of SN virus in wild rodents, and other aspects of the virus-host relationship.

  5. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  6. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  7. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience(EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-18

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience(EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate(NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors(including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments(including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed.

  8. STUDY REGARDING HELIX ASPERSA SNAIL WINTERTIME PROTECTION IN OPEN AIR REARING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. NICA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy the standard wintertime protecting solution used for brown garden snail(Helix aspersa aspersa inside open air rearing technology is to cut the plants to 20cm and to protect the rearing pen with agryl-sheet, named in italian language Tessuto-NonTessuto or for short TNT. But this method isn`t suited for our country colderwinters. Low temperatures registered during 2005 - 2006 winter and hibernationbehaviour inadequate understanding led to high mortality rates, estimated to over85%, in most of the outdoor snail farms all around Romania.In order to solve the problem we studied some aspects of brown garden snail ecologicplasticity, his hibernation behavior inside outdoor snail farms and researched thepossibilities of implementing some alternative wintertime protective methods. As aresult we developed the “sandwich” system based on straw non-conducting propertiesconceived in such a manner to provide an efficient adiabatic protection while theinside aeration is enough to limit as much as possible the straw mass moistening.

  9. Rearing the southern green stink bug using an artificial dry diet and an artificial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzi, Antonio Ricardo [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: Panizzi@cnpso.embrapa.br; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali; Carvalho, Diogo Rodrigues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jrpparra@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; E-mail: drcarval@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Santos, Claudia Hirt [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)]. E-mail: clauhirt@yahoo.com.br

    2000-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted with an artificial dry diet to rear nymphs, and with an artificial plant as substrate for egg laying by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). The artificial diet was composed of: soybean protein (15 g); potato starch (7.5 g); dextrose (7.5 g); sucrose (2.5 g); cellulose (12.5 g); vitamin mixture (niacinamide 1 g, calcium pantothenate 1 g, thiamine 0.25 g, riboflavin 0.5 g, pyridoxine 0.25 g, folic acid 0.25 g, biotin 0.02 mL, vitamin B12 1 g - added to 1,000 mL of distilled water) (5.0 mL); soybean oil (20 mL); wheat germ (17.9 g); and water (30 mL). Nymphs showed normal feeding behavior when fed on the artificial diet. Nymphal development time was longer than or similar to that of nymphs fed on soybean pods. Total nymphal mortality was low (ca. 30%), both for nymphs reared on the artificial diet, and for nymphs fed on soybean pods. At adult emergence, fresh body weights were significantly (P<0.01) less on the artificial diet than on soybean pods. Despite the lower adult survivorship and fecundity on artificial plants than on soybean plants, it was demonstrated for the first time that a model simulating a natural plant, can be used as a substrate for egg mass laying, in conjunction with the artificial diet. (author)

  10. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  11. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  12. Design of a rear anamorphic attachment for digital cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, A.; Valles, A.

    2008-09-01

    Digital taking systems for HDTV and now for the film industry present a particularly challenging design problem for rear adapters in general. The thick 3-channel prism block in the camera provides an important challenge in the design. In this paper the design of a 1.33x rear anamorphic attachment is presented. The new design departs significantly from the traditional Bravais condition due to the thick dichroic prism block. Design strategies for non-rotationally symmetric systems and fields of view are discussed. Anamorphic images intrinsically have a lower contrast and less resolution than their rotationally symmetric counterparts, therefore proper image evaluation must be considered. The interpretation of the traditional image quality methods applied to anamorphic images is also discussed in relation to the design process. The final design has a total track less than 50 mm, maintaining the telecentricity of the digital prime lens and taking full advantage of the f/1.4 prism block.

  13. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...... mixtures for efficient prophylactic methods. Comparison of growth behaviour of inhibitory isolates and pathogens at cod rearing temperatures, metabolite production and adhesion capacity were considered for final probiont selection. Four promising isolates that could be used as a mixed supplement to rearing...

  14. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  15. Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days, influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

  16. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M.; M Khoobdel; J Rafinejd

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods: Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver–baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop...

  17. Aspects of the reproductive biology of hatchery–reared Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg diameter distribution frequency of four batches of hatchery–reared gravid Clarias gariepinus with 10 fish per batch of varying fish weights per batch, namely: 60 ± 0.09 g, 125 ± 0.11 g, 250 ± 0.14 g and 500 ± 0.12 g was studied. Eggs from paired ovaries hardened with 1% formalin in 0.6% saline solution for 3 weeks ...

  18. Rearing conditions, health and welfare of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Slavča; Stanković B.; Zlatanović Z.; Joksimović-Todorović M.; Davidović V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in rearing conditions, health and welfare issues of dairy cows. The last approximately 30 years has witnessed worldwide increasing scientific research, consumer activity, and political response towards housing condition, health and welfare issues of dairy cattle. All buildings and housing systems for dairy cattle should be designed, constructed, maintained and managed to assist in the achievement of the Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger ...

  19. Brood removal or queen caging combined with oxalic acid treatment to control varroa mites (Varroa destructor) in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies of honey bee colonies exist where varroa mite control is achieved by integrating broodless conditions, through either total brood removal or queen caging, in combination with oxalic acid (OA) applications. We observed significant varroa mortality after applications of OA in obtaining bro...

  20. Discordancy or template-based recognition? Dissecting the cognitive basis of the rejection of foreign eggs in hosts of avian brood parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Ban, Miklos; Szekely, Tamas; Komdeur, Jan; Lucassen, Rim W. G.; van Boheemen, Lotte A.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Many avian hosts have evolved antiparasite defence mechanisms, including egg rejection, to reduce the costs of brood parasitism. The two main alternative cognitive mechanisms of egg discrimination are thought to be based on the perceived discordancy of eggs in a clutch or the use of recognition

  1. Declining brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R., III Thompson; Brian Root; John Faaborg; Csaba. Moskat

    2012-01-01

    Many songbird species have experienced significant population declines, partly because of brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), which is positively associated with increasing landscape forest cover in the midwestern United States. However, cowbirds are also experiencing long-term population declines, which should reduce...

  2. Did vicariance and adaptation drive cryptic speciation and evolution of brooding in Ophioderma longicauda (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), a common Atlanto-Mediterranean ophiuroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, E; Stöhr, S; Chenuil, A

    2011-11-01

    Over the last decade, cryptic speciation has been discovered in an increasing number of taxa. Species complexes are useful models for the understanding of speciation processes. Motivated by the discovery of brooding specimens in the common Atlanto-Mediterranean broadcast spawning brittle star, Ophioderma longicauda, a recent study revealed the occurrence of divergent mitochondrial lineages. We analysed 218 specimens from 23 locations spread over the geographic range of the species with partial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. A subset of this sample was also surveyed with the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA cluster (nuclear ITS-1). Our study revealed six highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the ITS-1 data confirmed that they most likely represent a species complex. Geographic ranges, abundances and genetic structures are contrasted among the putative cryptic species. Lineages in which brooding specimens have been found form a monophyletic group and are restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean basin, an oligotrophic zone. A phylogeny-trait association analysis revealed a phylogenetic signal for low 'chlorophyll a' values (our proxy for oligotrophy). An ecological shift related to the hyper oligotrophy of the Eastern Mediterranean region is therefore likely to have played a role in the evolution of brooding. This study revealed that a complex mixture of vicariance, population expansion, adaptive divergence and possibly high local diversification rates resulting from brooding has shaped the evolution of this species complex. The dating analysis showed that these events probably occurred in the Pleistocene epoch. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Parental Child-Rearing Strategies Influence Self-Regulation, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Psychopathology in Early Adulthood: Evidence from a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N.; Hoerger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU – a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents’ child-rearing behaviors – as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavior, interpersonal problems, personal financial problems, and academic maladjustment. A subset of participants also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Parental warmth was found to be related to overall better self-regulation and improved interpersonal and academic adjustment. In contrast, both parental rejection and overcontrol were found to be related to general deficits in self-regulation as well as adjustment difficulties and psychopathology. Parental rejection was most closely related to internalizing clinical presentations like anxiety, depression, and somatization, whereas overcontrol was most aligned with increased hypomanic activation and psychoticism. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationships between parental child-rearing strategies and socio-emotional adjustment and psychopathology were partially mediated by self-regulation. Future directions are suggested, including basic and translational research related to better understanding the roles of parental child-rearing and self-regulation in the development of internalizing symptoms, activation, and psychotic symptoms. PMID:22423172

  4. Parental Child-Rearing Strategies Influence Self-Regulation, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Psychopathology in Early Adulthood: Evidence from a Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N; Hoerger, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU - a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents' child-rearing behaviors - as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavior, interpersonal problems, personal financial problems, and academic maladjustment. A subset of participants also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Parental warmth was found to be related to overall better self-regulation and improved interpersonal and academic adjustment. In contrast, both parental rejection and overcontrol were found to be related to general deficits in self-regulation as well as adjustment difficulties and psychopathology. Parental rejection was most closely related to internalizing clinical presentations like anxiety, depression, and somatization, whereas overcontrol was most aligned with increased hypomanic activation and psychoticism. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationships between parental child-rearing strategies and socio-emotional adjustment and psychopathology were partially mediated by self-regulation. Future directions are suggested, including basic and translational research related to better understanding the roles of parental child-rearing and self-regulation in the development of internalizing symptoms, activation, and psychotic symptoms.

  5. Silicon nanopowder as diffuse rear reflector for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, S.; Haase, F.; Peibst, R.; Brendel, R.

    2017-08-01

    Highly efficient solar cells require minimized recombination and maximized optical absorption. We apply Si nanopowder with a median particle size of 500 nm to the rear side of poly-Si on oxide (POLO) passivated Si wafers that have a planar front side. The enhanced optical absorption consists of a useful component from the wafer and useless absorption by the Si pigments and the poly-Si layer. We derive and successfully apply an analytical model that accounts for both contributions and for the light trapping that is caused by light scattering at the nanopowder layer. We measure and model that this rear side increases the photogenerated current density by 1.3 mA/cm2 for a 140 μm-thick planar cell. We compare the performance of the Si-pigmented diffuse rear side reflectors (PDR) with reflectors using random pyramids (RPs) and POLO junctions. We find that for full surface coverage by Si nanopowder, the better surface passivation compensates for an inferior optical performance of a PDR when compared to RP.

  6. Predictors of rear seat belt use among U.S. adults, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Geeta; Beck, Laurie; Bergen, Gwen; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo

    2015-06-01

    Seat belt use reduces the risk of injuries and fatalities among motor vehicle occupants in a crash, but belt use in rear seating positions is consistently lower than front seating positions. Knowledge is limited concerning factors associated with seat belt use among adult rear seat passengers. Data from the 2012 ConsumerStyles survey were used to calculate weighted percentages of self-reported rear seat belt use by demographic characteristics and type of rear seat belt use enforcement. Multivariable regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for rear seat belt use, adjusting for person-, household- and geographic-level demographic variables as well as for type of seat belt law in place in the state. Rear seat belt use varied by age, race, geographic region, metropolitan status, and type of enforcement. Multivariable regression showed that respondents living in states with primary (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR): 1.23) and secondary (APR: 1.11) rear seat belt use enforcement laws were significantly more likely to report always wearing a seat belt in the rear seat compared with those living in a state with no rear seat belt use enforcement law. Several factors were associated with self-reported seat belt use in rear seating positions. Evidence suggests that primary enforcement covering all seating positions is an effective intervention that can be employed to increase seat belt use and in turn prevent motor vehicle injuries to rear-seated occupants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Behavioral Treatment for Common Childhood Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Gary; Mathews, Judith R.; MacDonald, G. Wayne; McNeill, Gillian; Grantmyre, Jane

    1984-01-01

    Parents often consult family physicians about child rearing, child development, and school-related problems. Behavioral treatment is one method of dealing with such concerns. It involves identifying problems with a child's behavior, working to resolve them by rewarding desirable behavior and withholding rewards for undesirable behavior, and evaluating the outcome. Before treatment begins, it is necessary to establish that the parents feel the child's behavior is a problem; that the child can ...

  8. [Book review] Cowbirds and Other Brood Parasites by Catherine Ortega. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press (1998). The Avian Brood Parasites: Deception at the Nest by Paul A. Johnsgard. New York: Oxford University Press (1997) Parasitic Birds and their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution edited by S.I. Rothstein & S.K. Robinson. New York: Oxford University Press (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    We are in a golden age for the study of brood parasitism, judging from both the quantity and quality of recent scientific publications on cuckoos, cowbirds and parasitic finches by investigators working in Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia. As Johnsgard (1997) remarks in his preface, the evolutionary, ecological, and behavioural questions posed by obligate brood parasites are among the most intriguing contemporary ornithological topics. Rothstein & Robinson (1998) explain that brood parasites make ideal subjects for testing the generality of models for the evolution of social and mating behaviour, foraging behaviour, spatial distribution, and vocal development, because the strategy of providing no parental care removes constraints imposed on other birds. Since Aristotle, people have been fascinated by brood parasites, but only in the past two decades has the number of investigators working on this topic reached a critical mass and created momentum that promises many breakthroughs. New studies are being completed so rapidly that a general book is inevitably out of date on some topics by the time it is published. A complete library on brood parasitism should add two recent volumes (Morrison et al. 1999; Smith et al., in press).to the three reviewed here.

  9. Reduced rearing density increases postrelease migration success of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Hage; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Näslund, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rearing density on the post-release survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during seaward migration. Fish were either reared at conventional hatchery density or at one-third of conventional density. Three hundred one-year old...... during rearing in the hatchery. However, individuals reared at reduced density had less eroded dorsal fins and opercula relative to those from the high-density treatment. In the stream, the downstream migration success was 16% higher for fish reared at reduced density than for conspecifics kept at high......-density, but the timing of migration was similar for both groups. These novel results suggest that conventionally high rearing densities may reduce welfare and the post-release migration success of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon...

  10. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  11. Fine-scale analysis of genetic structure in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, E.; Tollrian, R.; Nürnberger, B.

    2009-09-01

    The dispersal of gametes and larvae plays a key role in the population dynamics of sessile marine invertebrates. Species with internal fertilisation are often associated with very localised larval dispersal, which may cause small-scale patterns of neutral genetic variation. This study on the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix from the Red Sea focused on the smallest possible scale: Two S. hystrix stands (~100 colonies each) near Dahab were completely sampled, mapped and analysed at five microsatellite markers. The sexual mode of reproduction, the likely occurrence of selfing and the level of immigration were in agreement with previous studies on this species. Contrary to previous findings, both stands were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Also, no evidence for spatially restricted larval dispersal within the sampled areas was found. Differences between this and previous studies on S. hystrix could reflect variation in life history or varying environmental conditions, which opens intriguing questions for future research.

  12. Importance of brood maintenance terms in simple models of the honeybee - Varroa destructor - acute bee paralysis virus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple mathematical model of the infestation of a honeybee colony by the Acute Paralysis Virus, which is carried by parasitic varroa mites (Varroa destructor. This is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the dependent variables: number of mites that carry the virus, number of healthy bees and number of sick bees. We study this model with a mix of analytical and computational techniques. Our results indicate that, depending on model parameters and initial data, bee colonies in which the virus is present can, over years, function seemingly like healthy colonies before they decline and disappear rapidly (e.g. Colony Collapse Disorder, wintering losses. This is a consequence of the fact that a certain number of worker bees is required in a colony to maintain and care for the brood, in order to ensure continued production of new bees.

  13. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a seabird with facultative brood reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z.M.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004) that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid (“A”) eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid (“B”) eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival) across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  14. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  15. FITNESS CONSEQUENCES OF PARENTAL BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO OFFSPRING NUMBER IN A PRECOCIAL SPECIES - THE LESSER SNOW GOOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLIAMS, TD; LOONEN, MJJE; COOKE, F

    We investigated the relationship between parental behavior and brood size, and the consequences of this relationship in terms of parental fitness (timing of molt and body mass at onset of molt in same year as breeding, and probability of return, timing of breeding, and clutch size in following year)

  16. Experience in Rearing Common Carder Bees (Bombus pascuorum Scop., with Some Notes on Three Similar Species: Shrill Carder Bee (B. sylvarum L., Red-shanked Carder Bee (B. ruderarius Müll., and Brown-banded Carder Bee (B. humilis Ill. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Ptáček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearing method under controlled conditions known for Bombus terrestris was successful in initiating egg-laying for 83% of B. pascuorum queens. After larvae had hatched, fresh pollen pellets needed to be inserted into brood pockets daily. After the first workers had emerged, colony development was advanced by placing them outdoors and supplying them with a sugar solution and pollen. The bees were able to use tightly pressed pollen from small plastic pots inserted near the brood. This feeding resulted in large colonies that produced dozens of young queens. In contrast, colonies managed in the laboratory were unable to utilize pollen in a similar manner. They raised only a few workers and several queens. Mating young queens was easy. It was stimulated by daylight, but in the case of B. humilis by direct sunshine. Several B. pascuorum and B. sylvarum queens were overwintered and began the new generation under artificial conditions. However, a lack of fresh pollen limited the development of colonies outside of the vegetation period.

  17. Dietary integration with oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil improves growth rate and oxidative status in outdoor-reared, but not indoor-reared, pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, C; Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Branciari, R; Acuti, G; Todini, L; Cavallucci, C; Trabalza-Marinucci, M

    2017-10-01

    The effects of a diet supplemented with oregano essential oil on performance, oxidative status, pork quality traits and sensorial properties were evaluated. In two studies, 72 pigs in indoor or outdoor conditions were assigned to either a control diet or an identical diet supplemented with 0.2% oregano essential oil. Pigs reared outdoor showed lower live weight, average daily gain and average gain:feed ratio compared to indoor pigs. The oregano supplementation improved the growth performance of the outdoor- but not the indoor-reared animals. The serum oxidative status was influenced by the diet. A higher oxidative stability was observed in the oregano-supplemented groups. As for the rearing conditions, the data suggest that after an initial adapting period, the free-range farming systems could be better tolerated by pigs. Meat derived from pigs reared outdoor showed higher pH and a* values. Lightness was influenced by both the diet and the rearing conditions. The control group reared indoor showed shear force values higher than both supplemented groups, while no differences were detected with the control group reared outdoor. In the consumer test performed under blind conditions, the oregano groups achieved higher consistency scores compared with the control. Under informed conditions, the meat derived from the oregano-supplemented pigs reared outdoor received the highest scores for consistency and overall liking regardless of the rearing system. The same result for the overall liking score was obtained in the expectation test. The data obtained showed that dietary oregano essential oil can be effective in reducing performance losses due to the outdoor-rearing system, increasing the oxidative status of the animal and oxidative stability of the meat, without modifying the meat quality traits and improving consumer perceptions of the meat quality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Rear-seat seatbelt laws and restraint use in rear-seated teen passengers traveling in passenger vehicles involved in a fatal collision on a US roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joyce C; Gatollari, Hajere J; Liu, Chang

    2016-10-01

    There is widespread belief that after childhood rear-seated motor vehicle occupants do not need to wear-seat seatbelts to travel safely. This belief is reflected in the fact that, in many states, teen passengers can ride legally unbelted in the rear seat of a passenger vehicle. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2010-2011 was used to examine factors associated with teen use of rear-seat seatbelts (n = 3,655) and with injury outcomes of belted and unbelted rear-seated teen passengers traveling in a passenger vehicle on a US roadway. Multilevel models controlled for nonindependence of cases using SAS Glimmix. Odds ratio (OR) is reported with 95% confidence interval (CI). Slightly more than half (50.8%) of rear-seated teens were restrained, but this declined linearly with age from 65.8% of 13- to 14-year-olds to 43.3% of 18- to 19-year-olds. Overall, 77.0% of rear-seat mortality occurred in unbelted teens. Passengers of belted drivers were more frequently belted (64.1% vs. 19.0%, χ = 586.2, p < 0.0001). Nearly one-fifth (18.5%) of rear-seated teens were ejected, with 95.8% of ejections in unrestrained teens. Presence of a rear-seat seatbelt law was associated with higher restraint use (55.9% vs. 40.0%, χ = 89.0, p < 0.0001). However, in adjusted multilevel, multivariable models, belt status varied by whether the seatbelt law was primary (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.29-1.99) or secondary enforcement (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.98-1.78). Presence of a primary enforced rear-seat seatbelt law was associated with significantly higher belt use. Ejection was associated with higher mortality and being unrestrained. More than three quarters of rear-seated teens who died were unrestrained. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  19. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  20. CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF LIVER AND REPRODUCTION ABILITY OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN A IN FORMULATED FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet on the fatty acid composition of esterified cholesterol of liver and reproduction ability of brood carp females and males. Methodology. The experiment was conducted in pre-spawning period using three groups of brood carp. The control group of carp received standard granulated feed. Experimental groups of brood carps additionally received retynilatsetat in the composition of the above-mentioned fodder. Findings. It was found that the liver of females and males of brood carp of experimental groups, which received vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of feed in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period had shown a dose-dependent reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. At the same time, the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Originality. For the first time it was found that the liver of brood carp females and males, which received increased quantities of vitamin A in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had the reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid

  1. Summary statistics data for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat in Nevada and California—Spatial variation in selection and survival patterns, 2009–16

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides summary statistics of multiple sage-grouse microhabitat characteristics of the Great Basin. These data support the following publication:...

  2. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  3. Getting Back to Work: Cognitive Behavioral Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Job Search Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Benjamin J; Strunk, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about how cognitive behavioral approaches to depression might explain functional impairments associated with the disorder, such as extended periods of unemployment. To address this issue, we examined 5 cognitive behavioral predictors of depressive symptom change and job search outcome. Using a sample of 75 unemployed adults, we examined cognitive style, brooding, dysfunctional attitudes, avoidance, and cognitive behavioral (CB) skills as predictors of change in depressive symptoms, job search self-efficacy, and receipt of a job offer over a 3-month period. CB skills predicted lower depressive symptoms and increased odds of having received a job offer at the follow-up. Brooding predicted change in job search self-efficacy, but not in the expected direction. CB skills appear to predict job search outcomes as well as depressive symptoms. We encourage future work examining how CB skills may affect depressive symptoms, job search behaviors, and other areas of functioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Social enrichment during postnatal development induces transgenerational effects on emotional and reproductive behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Curley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Across species there is evidence that the quality of the early social environment can have a profound impact on neurobiology and behavior. In the present study we explore the effect of communal rearing conditions (3 dams with 3 litters per cage during the postnatal period on offspring (F1 and grand-offspring (F2 anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. Females rearing pups in communal nests exhibited increased levels of postpartum maternal care and communal rearing was found to abolish sex-differences in weaning weights. In adulthood, communally reared offspring were observed to display reduced anxiety-like behavior when placed in a novel environment. When rearing their own offspring under standard conditions, communally reared females demonstrated higher levels of motivation to retrieve pups, built higher quality nests, and exhibited higher levels of postpartum care compared to standard reared females. When exposed to an intruder male, communally reared females were more subordinate and less aggressive. F2 offspring of communally reared females were observed to engage in reduced anxiety-like behavior, have larger litter sizes and an increased frequency of nursing on day PND 1. Analysis of neuropeptide receptor levels suggest that a communal rearing environment may exert sustained effects on behavior through modification of oxytocin and vasopressin (V1a receptor densities. Though Balb-C mice are often considered “socially-incompetent” and high in anxiety-like behavior, our findings suggest that through enrichment of the postnatal environment, these behavioral and neuroendocrine deficits may be attenuated both within and across generations.

  5. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Rethinking waste streams: using food waste to rear mealworms

    OpenAIRE

    Toca, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    In needing to create a better and more sustainable future for our world, changing our diet and finding a  sustainable ‘protein of the future’ is one of the necessary steps we must take. This thesis explores the relatively fresh, but not unheard of, concept of using food waste to rear mealworms for human consumption, in the Swedish context. It talks about why we should switch our protein source and how we can do it, by taking the reader step-by-step through the process of producing alternative...

  7. Asymmetrical Achilles tendon ossification and rare rear heel pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Bakar Siddiq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Achilles tendon ossification is not a frequent association of posterior heel pain in pain physicians’ daily practice. The condition has been reportedly common following rear heel trauma (repetitive heel stress injury, surgery (club foot surgery; however, some endocrino-metabolic, haematological disorders can also contribute to Achilles tendon ossification. Shape of ossified tendon mass varies from discrete (single/multiple to extensive variety; and as per literature review, in bilateral cases they are alike. To be intriguing, here in this write-up, we demonstrate asymmetrical (in terms of clinical features and radioimaging findings, bilateral Achilles tendon ossification in a 70-year-old retired farmer, first time in literature.

  8. Compensatory growth in slaughter pigs reared under organic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, José Adalberto; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compensatory growth is the physiological process leading to accelerated growth following a period of growth retardation. This study assessed different feeding strategies that may induce compensatory growth. Pigs from two sire breeds, reared under organic conditions, were subjected to...... that although compensatory growth does occur by re-alimentation after feed restriction, the compensation is far from always complete. The latter is a crucial aspect that has to be taken into account when considering the application of feeding strategies expected to lead to compensatory growth in organic pig...... production. The expectation of compensatory growth alone does not necessarily justify the application of these strategies. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  9. REARING CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio) IN CLOSED RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM (RAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelko Opačak; Jurica Jug Dujaković; Siniša Ozimec; Ivan Stević; Dinko Jelkić; Roman Safner

    2012-01-01

    Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each) with a control group (C). Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l) consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1), test group B (3 tanks x 500 l) consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1), and the control group (C) was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stoc...

  10. Nutritional impact on health and performance in intensively reared rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Blas Beorlegui, Juan Carlos de

    2012-01-01

    The present work summarizes research related to the definition of nutrient recommendations for feeds used in the intensive production of rabbit's meat. Fibre is the main chemical constituent of rabbit diets that typically contain 320 to 360 and 50 to 90 g/kg of insoluble and soluble fibre, respectively. Instead, the dietary contents of cereal grains (∼120 to 160 g/kg), fat (15 to 25 g/kg) and protein concentrates (150 to 180 g/kg) are usually low with respect to other intensively reared monog...

  11. Access to litter during rearing and environmental enrichment during production reduce fearfulness in adult laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsaeter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke

    2017-01-01

    as adult hens compared to birds reared without access to litter. The hypothesis was tested in a national on-farm study in commercial aviary flocks in Norway. Five rearing farmers divided the pullets into two groups within their rearing houses. While the chicks were enclosed inside the aviary rows during...... reared with paper) were visited. During the visit, the fearfulness of the adult birds was tested in a stationary person test and a novel object test. The data was analysed by ANOVA or logistic regression as appropriate. The access to litter during rearing did not influence the number of birds...... that approached within 25 cm of the stationary person (p = 0:51). All flocks, regardless of rearing treatment, had birds which came within 2 m of the stationary person. The latency to approach within 2 m of the stationary person tended to be influenced by provision of environmental enrichment as adults (p = 0...

  12. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  13. The Planning and Digital Design for Welding Production Line of the Car Rear Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Chun-Yan; Qiao Yin-Hu; Li Feng; Chen Jie-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The last two sub-assembly welding production line of the car rear floor is designed in this paper. Firstly, the welding production line of the car rear floor is complete planned and designed from global aspect by analysis the structure of body-in-white and the car rear floor; Secondly, each working position fixture are designed and the location of all fixture are arranged according to location and spot welding requirements with the CATIA software. Finally, the conveying appliance of wel...

  14. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Čermák L.; Skřivanová E.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addres...

  15. Effect of seat belts on injuries to front and rear seat passengers.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, B R; Kenwright, J.; Rastogi, S

    1985-01-01

    Data on 2520 occupants of cars involved in accidents were analysed in relation to injury and the severity of the crash to investigate the effect of rear seat passengers on injury to restrained and unrestrained front seat occupants and vice versa. Unrestrained front seat occupants showed a higher incidence of serious injury when there were rear seat passengers. The presence of a rear seat passenger did not affect significantly the overall incidence of injury among restrained front seat occupan...

  16. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  17. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Cedar M; Biagi, Carlo A; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Davidsen, Anette Grimsrud; Kondo, Hidehiro; McKnight, Allison; Pedersen, Ole-Petter; Raven, Peter A; Rikardsen, Audun H; Shrimpton, J Mark; Zuehlke, Brett; McKinley, R Scott; Devlin, Robert H

    2010-08-19

    With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  18. Effect of rear end spoiler angle of a sedan car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashud, Mohammad; Das, Rubel Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Automotive vehicle's performance, safety, maneuverability can be influenced by multi-disciplinary factors such as car engine, tires, aerodynamics, and ergonomics of design. With the recent years, inflation in the fuel prices & the demand to have reduced greenhouse emissions has played a significant role in redefining the car aerodynamics. The shape of the vehicle uses about 3% of fuel to overcome the resistance in urban driving, while it takes 11% of fuel for the highway driving. This considerable high value of fuel usage in highway driving attracts several design engineers to enhance the aerodynamics of the vehicle using minimal design changes. Besides, automotive vehicles have become so much faster experiencing uplift force which creates unexpected accidents. This brings the idea of using external devices, which could be attached to the present vehicle without changing the body. This paper is based on the design, developments and numeral calculation of the effects of external device, which will be spoiler that mounted at the rear side of the sedan car to make the present vehicles more aerodynamically attractive. The influence of rear spoiler on the generated lift, drag, and pressure distributions are investigated and reported using commercially available Autodesk Simulation CFD software tool.

  19. Communications: Blood chemistry of laboratory-reared Golden trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Joseph B.; Wiedmeyer, Ray H.; Greer, Ivan E.; Grady, Andrew W.

    1992-01-01

    Golden trout Oncorhynchus aguabonita obtained from a wild stock as fertilized eggs were reared in the laboratory for 21 months. The laboratory-reared golden trout in our study reached sexual maturity earlier and grew more rapidly than wild golden trout do (according to the scientific literature). Male fish averaged 35.6 cm in total length and 426 g in weight, and females averaged 36.2 cm and 487 g. All golden trout were sexually mature when used for hematological analysis. The hematological profile (hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and thrombocytes) of golden trout was similar to that reported elsewhere for other trout species. Male and female golden trout did not have significantly different thrombocyte counts; however, the immobilization treatment used on the fish (anesthesia versus a blow to the head) resulted in significant treatment differences in thrombocyte numbers and interaction effect of sex in treatment for hematocrits. Gravid female golden trout had significantly higher plasma protein and calcium levels than did males. The ionic compositions of plasma (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and chloride) and gallbladder bile (calcium and chloride) were similar to those reported for other salmonids.

  20. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

    2011-01-01

    To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.

  1. [Parent's perspective on child rearing and corporal punishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Miguir Terezinha Vieccelli; Ricas, Janete

    2009-02-01

    To describe parents' current perception of corporal punishment associated to child rearing and its practices. There were studied 31 family members whose children were warded due to child abuse complaints (12) and not warded (19) at a health care unit and a local social service unit in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil) in 2006. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and speech analysis was performed grouped by subjects and categories. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSE: There was limitation of the respondents' speeches based on their production means. There was a diversity of conceptions on child rearing and its practices and corporal punishment was reported by all parents, even among those who expressed strong disapproval of this practice. Speeches were characterized by heterogeneity and polyphony with emphasis on the tradition speech, the religious speech and the popular scientific speech. Respondents did not express concepts of legal interdiction of corporal punishment or its excesses. The culture of corporal punishment of children is changing; tradition approving it has weakened and prohibition has been slowly adopted. Reinforcing legal actions against this practice can contribute to speed up the process to end corporal punishment of children.

  2. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended

  3. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  4. Effects of Hatchery Rearing on the Structure and Function of Salmonid Mechanosensory Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the effects of hatchery rearing on the auditory and lateral line systems of salmonid fishes. Major conclusions are that (1) hatchery-reared juveniles exhibit abnormal lateral line morphology (relative to wild-origin conspecifics), suggesting that the hatchery environment affects lateral line structure, perhaps due to differences in the hydrodynamic conditions of hatcheries versus natural rearing environments, and (2) hatchery-reared salmonids have a high proportion of abnormal otoliths, a condition associated with reduced auditory sensitivity and suggestive of inner ear dysfunction.

  5. Co-Brooding and Co-Reflection as Differential Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Friendship Quality in Adolescents: Investigating the Moderating Role of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Margot; Vanhalst, Janne; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2017-10-06

    Co-rumination has been shown advantageous for friendship quality, but disadvantageous for mental health. Recently, two components have been distinguished, with co-brooding predicting increases in depressive symptoms and co-reflection decreases. The current study aimed to replicate these findings and investigated whether both components also show differential relations with friendship quality. Gender was investigated as a moderator. Path analyses were used on data of 313 adolescents aged 9-17 (50.5% girls). Co-brooding was related to more concurrent and prospective depressive symptoms in girls. Co-reflection predicted less concurrent and prospective depressive symptoms in girls and higher concurrent positive friendship quality for boys and girls. This study underscores the value of studying co-rumination components and suggests that boys and girls in this context differ in their pathways towards depression.

  6. Experience-based behavioral and chemosensory changes in the generalist insect herbivore Helicoverpa armigera exposed to two deterrent plant chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, D.; Loon, van, R.B.; Wang, C. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of larvae of the polyphagous moth species Helicoverpa armigera to two plant-derived allelochemicals were studied, both in larvae that had been reared on a diet devoid of these compounds and in larvae previously exposed to these compounds. In dual-choice cotton leaf disk and pepper fruit disk arena assays, caterpillars reared on a normal artificial diet were strongly deterred by strychnine and strophanthin- K. However, caterpillars reared on an art...

  7. A dataset describing brooding in three species of South African brittle stars, comprising seven high-resolution, micro X-ray computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landschoff, Jannes; Du Plessis, Anton; Griffiths, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Brooding brittle stars have a special mode of reproduction whereby they retain their eggs and juveniles inside respiratory body sacs called bursae. In the past, studying this phenomenon required disturbance of the sample by dissecting the adult. This caused irreversible damage and made the sample unsuitable for future studies. Micro X-ray computed tomography (μCT) is a promising technique, not only to visualise juveniles inside the bursae, but also to keep the sample intact and make the dataset of the scan available for future reference. Seven μCT scans of five freshly fixed (70 % ethanol) individuals, representing three differently sized brittle star species, provided adequate image quality to determine the numbers, sizes and postures of internally brooded young, as well as anatomy and morphology of adults. No staining agents were necessary to achieve high-resolution, high-contrast images, which permitted visualisations of both calcified and soft tissue. The raw data (projection and reconstruction images) are publicly available for download from GigaDB. Brittle stars of all sizes are suitable candidates for μCT imaging. This explicitly adds a new technique to the suite of tools available for studying the development of internally brooded young. The purpose of applying the technique was to visualise juveniles inside the adult, but because of the universally good quality of the dataset, the images can also be used for anatomical or comparative morphology-related studies of adult structures.

  8. Idiopathic brood disease syndrome and queen events as precursors of colony mortality in migratory beekeeping operations in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Tarpy, David R; Lengerich, Eugene J; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2013-02-01

    Using standard epidemiological methods, this study set out to quantify the risk associated with exposure to easily diagnosed factors on colony mortality and morbidity in three migratory beekeeping operations. Fifty-six percent of all colonies monitored during the 10-month period died. The relative risk (RR) that a colony would die over the short term (∼50 days) was appreciably increased in colonies diagnosed with Idiopathic Brood Disease Syndrome (IBDS), a condition where brood of different ages appear molten on the bottom of cells (RR=3.2), or with a "queen event" (e.g., evidence of queen replacement or failure; RR=3.1). We also found that several risk factors-including the incidence of a poor brood pattern, chalkbood (CB), deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and exceeding the threshold of 5 Varroa mites per 100 bees-were differentially expressed in different beekeeping operations. Further, we found that a diagnosis of several factors were significantly more or less likely to be associated with a simultaneous diagnosis of another risk factor. These finding support the growing consensus that the causes of colony mortality are multiple and interrelated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New evidence of brooding in the deep-sea brittle star Astrotoma agassizii Lyman, 1876 from a South Western Atlantic Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecoechea, Juan José; Brogger, Martín I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-09-01

    The reproduction of the brittle star Astrotoma agassizii was studied from deep waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, based on samples collected in August 2012, and May and September 2013. Ten samples from 800 to 1400 m depths off Mar del Plata Canyon were studied. The species was found to be a brooding simultaneous hermaphrodite. Hermaphroditic gonads contained testis and ovaries inside the same sacs. Both, ovary and testis contained different stages of gametogenesis development simultaneously. Gonads contained several stages of oocytes in different stages of gametogenesis. The largest oocyte recorded was 800 μm diameter. Free spermatozoa were observed in the lumen of the testis, together with spermatogenic columns. Five individuals, from a total of 30 examined, resulted brooding, and most contained mature ovotestis at the same time. Incubation occurs in five of the ten bursal sacs, containing 15-20 young juveniles each. Maximum disc diameter recorded for a brood was 1100 μm. Herein we hypothesize that Astrotoma agassizii could be continuous breeder species in the deep-sea.

  10. Improved flight and rearing room design for honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, S F; Currie, R W

    2001-08-01

    A detailed technical description of a flight and rearing room for bees is provided, highlighting improvements made relative to other facilities. A primary innovation was the development of a draft-free air handling system capable of circulating large volumes of air with high rates of fresh air exchange and continuous electrostatic cleaning. This design has lead to a dramatic improvement in the quality of air recirculated in the flight room, and has prevented the recurrence of asthmatic symptoms in researchers to bee-produced aeroallergens. Other improvements include the incorporation of high-frequency fluorescent lamp ballasts and the choice of lamp types that provide a greater proportion of long-wavelength energy. Improvements in control system technology also have permitted more precise regulation of environmental conditions and the maintenance of a simulated diurnal cycle. Honey bees foraged in a manner similar to outdoor conditions and were free of behaviors associated with design problems seen in earlier flight rooms. Observations on bee behavior and colony performance are provided, and the utility of studying chemically based foraging attractants indoors is discussed.

  11. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  12. The Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Carbohydrate Concentrations and Hydrolase Activity, During the Development of Honey Bee Worker Brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjan Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The colony collapse disorder is a growing problem world-wide. For this reason, we were prompted to search for natural and harmless agents that could improve the living conditions of honey bees. This group of agents includes exogenous antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, which boost natural immunity. We analysed the effect of vitamin C supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism in the developing honey bee worker brood. The total carbohydrate content and the concentrations of glycogen, trehalose, maltotriose, fructose, and glucose were estimated. The correlations between sugar content and the activity of the main hydrolases of carbohydrate metabolism - α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, maltase, and sucrase - were determined. The addition of vitamin C to the diet of wintering bees did not impair their sugar metabolism. Vitamin C supplements exerted a positive effect by significantly increasing glycogen and trehalose concentrations in the initial phase of development and in newly emerged workers. Vitamin C did not induce significant changes in the developmental profile of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, except for the earliest stage of larval development when enzyme activity levels were below those noted in the control group.

  13. Reef scent: How brooded coral larvae from a tough coral smell their way to a new home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, N.; Richmond, R. H.; Seneca, F.; Murphy, J.; Martinez, J.; Lyman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are highly diverse marine ecosystems of ecological, economic, and cultural value. With the expected negative effects on reefs from global climate change including rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification, the identification of resilient coral species has become increasingly important. Leptastrea purpurea is an encrusting coral that is found throughout the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. While most corals are broadcast spawners, releasing sperm and eggs to be fertilized in the water column, some corals brood embryos within their tissues after internal fertilization. L. purpurea appears to release planula larvae on a continuous basis from the parent colony as observed during two years of monitoring. The planula larvae show remarkable resilience under a wide range of stressful conditions including temperature, sediment, and chemical stressors, as well as the ability to successfully settle and metamorphose after 180 days in controlled laboratory conditions. Various smells were tested to identify a settlement cue for L. purpurea larvae, and our results suggest that the smell associated with other coral colonies induce larval settlement and metamorphosis. Knowledge of the settlement cues and reproductive biology of this coral is important to our understanding of coral resilience in the face of anthropogenic perturbation.

  14. The relationship between morphological and sexual indices in suitable brood Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Brandt and Ratzeburg, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Falahatkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to reduction of sturgeon stocks in various water bodies, artificial propagation has become significantly important for stock restoration and appropriate broodstock selection is vital in this process. Selection of suitable broodstocks may influence the quality and quantity of obtained eggs and larva. The present study aimed to examine correlation between some morphometric and reproductive parameters to find suitable brood fish for artificial reproduction in Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Forty fish free of any external disease symptom and abnormality were selected for the study. Following biometric measurements including weight, total length, abdominal girth, PV (distance between pectoral and pelvic fins, LX (distance between anal and caudal fins, polarization index (PI, gonadosomatic index, absolute fecundity, and fertilization rate, correlations between these morphometric and biological characteristics with emphasis on breeding were calculated. There was higher correlation between weight-absolute fecundity and length-PV in fish responded to artificial breeding, while correlation between age-PV, length-PV and weight-abdominal girth were higher in those fish not responded to artificial breeding. The results suggests that it is quite possible to select suitable Russian sturgeon spawners for artificial propagation based on combination of body weight, LX, PV, age, abdominal girth and total length, however the most useful criteria for the selection seems to be precise measurement of the polarization index.

  15. Elucidating the multiple genetic lineages and population genetic structure of the brooding coral Seriatopora (Scleractinia: Pocilloporidae) in the Ryukyu Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Akira; Iguchi, Akira; Nagata, Tomofumi; Uyeno, Daisuke; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    The elucidation of species diversity and connectivity is essential for conserving coral reef communities and for understanding the characteristics of coral populations. To assess the species diversity, intraspecific genetic diversity, and genetic differentiation among populations of the brooding coral Seriatopora spp., we conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses using a mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellites at ten sites in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. At least three genetic lineages of Seriatopora (Seriatopora-A, -B, and -C) were detected in our specimens. We collected colonies morphologically similar to Seriatopora hystrix, but these may have included multiple, genetically distinct species. Although sexual reproduction maintains the populations of all the genetic lineages, Seriatopora-A and Seriatopora-C had lower genetic diversity than Seriatopora-B. We detected significant genetic differentiation in Seriatopora-B among the three populations as follows: pairwise F ST = 0.064-0.116 (all P = 0.001), pairwise G''ST = 0.107-0.209 (all P = 0.001). Additionally, only one migrant from an unsampled population was genetically identified within Seriatopora-B. Because the peak of the settlement of Seriatopora larvae is within 1 d and almost all larvae are settled within 5 d of spawning, our observations may be related to low dispersal ability. Populations of Seriatopora in the Ryukyu Archipelago will probably not recover unless there is substantial new recruitment from distant populations.

  16. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mohammadzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here.Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features.After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed.Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2 which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  17. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  18. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing

  19. Evolutionarily advanced ant farmers rear polyploid fungal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Aanen, D.K.; Schiøtt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Innovative evolutionary developments are often related to gene or genome duplications. The crop fungi of attine fungus-growing ants are suspected to have enhanced genetic variation reminiscent of polyploidy, but this has never been quantified with cytological data and genetic markers. We estimated...... the number of nuclei per fungal cell for 42 symbionts reared by 14 species of Panamanian fungus-growing ants. This showed that domesticated symbionts of higher attine ants are polykaryotic with 7-17 nuclei per cell, whereas nonspecialized crops of lower attines are dikaryotic similar to most free...... of the basal higher attine genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex was only slightly enhanced, but the evolutionarily derived crop fungi of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants had much higher genetic variation. Our opposite ploidy models indicated that the symbionts of Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex are likely...

  20. Megaselia scalaris reared on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus laboratory cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Miranda, E; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Martinez-Ibañez, F; Bautista-Garfias, C R

    2011-09-01

    Different laboratory cultures of the acarine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were infested by small Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) flies. Larvae of this species exhibited opportunistic parasitism predominantly on engorged female ticks, causing severe damage to their cuticle through which the flies were able to reach R. microplus internal organs, on which they fed until developing into pupae in the tick's remains. The flies were kept by continuous propagation on fresh ticks over six generations during which the same parasitoid behaviour was observed. Here we report on an ixodid tick laboratory culture used for rearing M. scalaris. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society. No claim to original US government works.

  1. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  2. Description of laboratory reared first zoea of Callinectes danae Smith (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheruparambil Sankarankutty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of laboratory reared first zoea larva of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 is given. The larvae utilized for this study were reared in vitro in a special incubator. A comparison with larvae of other species is also attempted.

  3. Child rearing styles, dental anxiety and disruptive behaviour: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This was to explore the relation between children's dental anxiety, their behaviour during treatment and their parent's rearing style. Also the parents' preparation of the child for dental treatment was related to behaviour and parental rearing style. Methods: The parents of 100 children,

  4. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour as relevant concepts in referred home reared children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, F.Y.; Abrahamse, M.E.; Jonkman, C.S.; Schuengel, C.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; de Vries, A.L.C.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited

  5. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour as relevant concepts in referred home reared children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, F. Y.; Abrahamse, M. E.; Jonkman, C. S.; Schuengel, C.; Lindauer, R. J. L.; de Vries, A. L. C.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour

  6. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No...

  9. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  10. Rearing Adolescents in Contemporary Society: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Responsibilities and Needs of Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Stephen A.; Eastman, Gay

    1991-01-01

    Examines parental responsibilities of rearing adolescent children as well as the factors that can support or undermine a parent's ability to perform them. Integrates current research and theory on child rearing, adolescent and adult development, and parent adolescent relations to present a conceptual framework for parenting adolescents. Discusses…

  11. Machismo in two cultures: relation to punitive child-rearing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F

    1994-07-01

    The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.

  12. The effect of dietary protein on breast meat yield of broilers reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the trial reported here was to determine whether breast meat yield would improve in broilers reared on short daylengths if higher levels of dietary protein were fed. To that end, 3200 Ross 308 International broilers were reared to 35 d in eight light-tight rooms, each room being divided into four pens which ...

  13. Demographic parameters of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on two diets developed for Lygus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two artificial diets developed for rearing Lygus spp., a fresh yolk chicken egg based-diet (FYD) and a dry yolk chicken egg based-diet (DYD), were evaluated as an alternative food source for rearing the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Survival to adult was...

  14. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Parental Involvement and Child-Rearing Beliefs in Asian Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, A. R.; Chew, E.; Carter, M.; Chunn, J.; Jotanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement (PI) and child-rearing beliefs were examined amongst parents whose children attended state-run kindergartens across Singapore. A total of 244 parents completed an online survey consisting of a Child-Rearing Beliefs Scale, a PI Scale, and demographic details. Results indicated respondents were generally low-income earners with…

  15. Environment-dependent plasticity and ontogenetic changes in the brain of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, J.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, S.T.

    2017-01-01

    Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery...

  16. Does Research on Children Reared in Father-absent Families Yield Information on Father Influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequently employed research design for studying paternal influences on child development has been to compare children reared in father-absent families to those reared in father-present families. Research should be directed to the study and conceptualization of the more specific components of experience in the father-child and…

  17. Alternative diets for maintaining and rearing cephalopods in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRusha, R H; Forsythe, J W; DiMarco, F P; Hanlon, R T

    1989-07-01

    The requirement of live marine prey for cephalopod mariculture has restricted its practicality for inland research laboratories, commercial enterprises and home aquarists. We evaluated acceptability and resultant growth on: (a) frozen marine shrimps, (b) live and frozen marine polychaete worms, (c) live and frozen marine crabs, (d) frozen marine fishes, (e) live adult brine shrimp, (f) live freshwater fish and (g) live freshwater crayfish. The diets were presented for periods of 2 to 11 weeks to octopuses, cuttlefishes or squids and in most trials the results were compared to animals fed control diets of live marine shrimps, crabs or fish. Overall, frozen marine shrimp proved to be the best alternative diet tested. Adult Octopus maya on frozen marine shrimp diets grew as well as those on control diets at 2.8% body weight per day (%/d) compared to 2.0%/d on live freshwater crayfish, 1.4%/d on live marine polychaete worms and 0.8%/d on live freshwater fish (Tilapia sp.). Juvenile Octopus maya and Octopus bimaculoides also grew comparably to controls when fed frozen marine shrimps; growth rates ranged from near 3.0%/d at 3 months of age to nearly 2.5%/d at 6 months of age. Thus, these alternatives are acceptable as the octopuses end their exponential growth phase at an age of 3 - 5 months. Attempts to rear O. maya hatchlings and juveniles (up to 1 month of age) on dead foods resulted in high mortality and slow or negative growth. No live or dead alternative diet has been found yet that will promote good growth and survival in hatchling octopuses. Hatchling F3 generation Sepia officinalis (the European cuttlefish) were reared for 6 weeks exclusively on adult brine shrimp (Artemia salina).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Nocardiosis in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnahan, C L; Humphrey, S; Knowles, G; Ha, H J; Pande, A; Jones, J B

    2017-07-01

    An investigation was conducted to identify the cause of mortalities in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Mortalities occurred in juvenile salmon, at a salmon rearing facility in the South Island of New Zealand. The affected fish were from a pen inside the facility with no surrounding pens or other year classes affected. Clinically affected fish presented with skin lesions. The majority of skin lesions were unruptured, boil-like, raised circular masses up to 4 cm in diameter, particularly on the dorsolateral aspects and the flank. A number of fish presented with large ulcers resulting from rupturing of the raised lesions described above. This clinical presentation showed similarities to that of furunculosis caused by typical Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterium exotic to New Zealand. Samples were taken from two representative fish in the field for histopathology, bacterial culture and molecular testing. Histopathological findings included granulomatous lesions in the kidney, liver, spleen and muscle. When stained with Fite-Faraco modified acid fast stain filamentous branching rods were identified within these granulomas. Following bacterial culture of kidney swabs pure growth of small white matt adherent colonies was observed. This isolate was identified as a Nocardia species by biochemical testing and nucleotide sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene. All samples were negative for A. salmonicida based on bacterial culture and PCR testing. Nocardiosis caused by a Nocardia species. Nocardiosis in these fish was caused by a previously undescribed Nocardia species that differs from the species known to be pathogenic to fish: N. asteroides, N. salmonicida and N. seriole. This bacterium is likely to be a new or unnamed environmental species of Nocardia that has the potential to cause disease in Chinook salmon under certain conditions. The clinical presentation of this Nocardia species manifested as raised, boil-like skin lesions which has

  19. Do "whiplash injuries" occur in low-speed rear impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, W H; Schilgen, M; Meyer, S; Weber, M; Peuker, C; Wörtler, K

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out whether in a rear-impact motor vehicle accident, velocity changes in the impact vehicle of between 10 and 15 km/h can cause so-called "whiplash injuries". An assessment of the actual injury mechanism of such whiplash injuries and comparison of vehicle rear-end collisions with amusement park bumper car collisions was also carried out. The study was based on experimental biochemical, kinematic, and clinical analysis with volunteers. In Europe between DM 10 and 20 billion each year is paid out by insurance companies alone for whiplash injuries, although various studies show that the biodynamic stresses arising in the case of slight to moderate vehicle damage may not be high enough to cause such injuries. Most of these experimental studies with cadavers, dummies, and some with volunteers were performed with velocity changes below 10 km/h. About 65% of the insurance claims, however, take place in cases with velocity changes of up to 15 km/h. Fourteen made volunteers (aged 28-47 years; average 33.2 years) and five female volunteers (aged 26-37 years; average 32.8 years) participated in 17 vehicle rear-end collisions and 3 bumper car collisions. All cars were fitted with normal European bumper systems. Before, 1 day after and 4-5 weeks after each vehicle crash test and in two of the three bumper car crash tests a clinical examination, a computerized motion analysis, and an MRI examination with Gd-DTPA of the cervical spine of the test persons were performed. During each crash test, in which the test persons were completely screened-off visually and acoustically, the muscle tension of various neck muscles was recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). The kinematic responses of the test persons and the forces occurring were measured by accelerometers. The kinematic analyses were performed with movement markers and a screening frequency of 700 Hz. To record the acceleration effects of the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle, vehicle

  20. Factors contributing to commercial vehicle rear-end conflicts in China: A study using on-board event data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio; Engström, Johan; Bärgman, Jonas; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-09-01

    In the last 30years, China has undergone a dramatic increase in vehicle ownership and a resulting escalation in the number of road crashes. Although crash figures are decreasing today, they remain high; it is therefore important to investigate crash causation mechanisms to further improve road safety in China. To shed more light on the topic, naturalistic driving data was collected in Shanghai as part of the evaluation of a behavior-based safety service. The data collection included instrumenting 47 vehicles belonging to a commercial fleet with data acquisition systems. From the overall sample, 91 rear-end crash or near-crash (CNC) events, triggered by 24 drivers, were used in the analysis. The CNC were annotated by three researchers, through an expert assessment methodology based on videos and kinematic variables. The results show that the main factor behind the rear-end CNC was the adoption of very small safety margins. In contrast to results from previous studies in the US, the following vehicles' drivers typically had their eyes on the road and reacted quickly in response to the evolving conflict in most events. When delayed reactions occurred, they were mainly due to driving-related visual scanning mismatches (e.g., mirror checks) rather than visual distraction. Finally, the study identified four main conflict scenarios that represent the typical development of rear-end conflicts in this data. The findings of this study have several practical applications, such as informing the specifications of in-vehicle safety measures and automated driving and providing input into the design of coaching/training procedures to improve the driving habits of drivers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  2. EFFECT OF REARING SYSTEM ON THE MUSCLE FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BREEDS WITH DIFFERENT GROWTH SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avellini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the rearing system on the muscle fibre characteristics of two meat chicken breeds such as the Ross and the Livorno characterized by extremely fast and extremely slow growth speed respectively. No differences between the breeds were found in the conventional rearing system except for muscle fibre area. On the other hand, in the free range rearing system, differences in muscle fibre composition were evidenced between the breeds especially in the Ileotibialis lateralis muscle with the Livorno having a greater percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 36,65. A higher percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 46,90 was found in the Ileotibialis lateralis of the free range reared Livorno chickens compared to the conventionally reared ones.

  3. Pen rearing and imprinting of fall Chinook salmon. Annual report 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Novotny, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhvnchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if "thinning" releases were used.

  4. Early development of marine catfishes (Ariidae): from mouth brooding to the release of juveniles in nursery habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A R A; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V; Ramos, J A A; Costa, M F

    2013-06-01

    The development and allometric growth patterns of the ariid catfishes Cathorops spixii and Cathorops agassizii were studied from neurula embryos to juveniles. The ontogenetic sequence revealed that prior to hatching, embryos of both species are well developed, and their axial and appendicular skeletons are well ossified. Embryos of both species grow slowly longitudinally, but positively allometric growth (growth coefficient, β1 > 1) was observed in head width and eye diameter. It is hypothesized that these growth patterns might be related to functional priorities for the development of sensory organs, such as the inner ears (otoliths), the Weberian apparatus, eyes and nostrils, during the embryonic period. The first appearance of vertebrae and otoliths, as well as the ossification of otoliths and the Weberian apparatus, occur earlier in embryos of C. agassizii than in embryos of C. spixii. After hatching, mouth-brooded free embryos of both species grow isometrically. Negatively allometric growth was observed in head width and eye diameter during the yolk-sac period, which is expected given that the sensory organs are already formed. Free embryos of C. agassizii are distinguishable from those of C. spixii by their larger eyes, longer snouts, longer heads and heavier yolk sacs. The end of the yolk-sac period is characterized by a direct change from free embryo to juvenile, without a true larval period. The juveniles of the two species can also be distinguished from each other by the larger eyes of C. agassizii compared with C. spixii, as in adult fishes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Kerapatan dan Kelulushidupan pada Rekrutmen Karang Pocillopora damicornis (Density and Survivorship on the Recruitment of the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis

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    Munasik Munasik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studi rekrutmen karang Pocillopora damicornis telah dilakukan dengan mengamati kerapatan juvenil pada substrat penempelan di dataran terumbu Pulau Panjang, Jepara, Jawa Tengah. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa rekrutmen terjadi sepanjang tahun dan tertinggi pada periode Agustus-Oktober. Laju rekrutmen karang di belakang terumbu (back reef pada sisi bawah angin (selatan lebih tinggi daripada di sisi atas angin (utara Pulau Panjang, tampaknya hal ini berkorelasi dengan kerapatan populasi karang dewasanya. Kerapatan juvenil karang tertinggi pada substrat batu alam terjadi pada sisi bawah permukaan substrat, akan tetapi pertumbuhan juvenil karang tertinggi ditemukan di sisi atas permukaan substrat. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa kerapatan juvenil karang berhubungan dengan kelulusan hidup juvenil karang. Semakin tinggi kerapatan juvenil karang P. damicornis maka semakin rendah kelulusan hidup juvenil karang karena terjadinya peningkatan persaingan sesama juvenil karang dan akibat kekurangan cahaya. Kata kunci: rekrutmen, kerapatan, kelulushidupan, karang Pocillopora damicornis Recruitment of the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis was studied by observing the juvenile density on the settlement plate substrate in reef flat of Panjang Island, Jepara, Central Java. The results show that recruitment occurs throughout the year and the highest in the period from August to October. The rate of recruitment of coral reefs in back reef on the leeward (south is higher than on the windward (north of the island, it seems to be correlated with population density of adult corals. The highest density of juvenile corals on natural substrata occurs on the lower side surface of the substrate, but the highest growth of juvenile are found on the upper side surface of the substrate. This indicates that the density of juvenile corals associated with the survival of juvenile corals. The higher density of juvenile corals P. damicornis, the lower the survival of juvenile corals due

  6. Outcomes of brood parasite-host interactions mediated by egg matching: common cuckoos Cuculus canorus versus Fringilla finches.

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    Johan Reinert Vikan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antagonistic species often interact via matching of phenotypes, and interactions between brood parasitic common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus and their hosts constitute classic examples. The outcome of a parasitic event is often determined by the match between host and cuckoo eggs, giving rise to potentially strong associations between fitness and egg phenotype. Yet, empirical efforts aiming to document and understand the resulting evolutionary outcomes are in short supply. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used avian color space models to analyze patterns of egg color variation within and between the cuckoo and two closely related hosts, the nomadic brambling (Fringilla montifringilla and the site fidelic chaffinch (F. coelebs. We found that there is pronounced opportunity for disruptive selection on brambling egg coloration. The corresponding cuckoo host race has evolved egg colors that maximize fitness in both sympatric and allopatric brambling populations. By contrast, the chaffinch has a more bimodal egg color distribution consistent with the evolutionary direction predicted for the brambling. Whereas the brambling and its cuckoo host race show little geographical variation in their egg color distributions, the chaffinch's distribution becomes increasingly dissimilar to the brambling's distribution towards the core area of the brambling cuckoo host race. CONCLUSION: High rates of brambling gene flow is likely to cool down coevolutionary hot spots by cancelling out the selection imposed by a patchily distributed cuckoo host race, thereby promoting a matching equilibrium. By contrast, the site fidelic chaffinch is more likely to respond to selection from adapting cuckoos, resulting in a markedly more bimodal egg color distribution. The geographic variation in the chaffinch's egg color distribution could reflect a historical gradient in parasitism pressure. Finally, marked cuckoo egg polymorphisms are unlikely to evolve in these systems

  7. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees—New damage categories in Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombong, Ayuka T.; Yusuf, Abdullahi A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Stuhl, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite. PMID:28622341

  8. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees-New damage categories in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganso, Beatrice T; Fombong, Ayuka T; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Pirk, Christian W W; Stuhl, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite.

  9. Alcohol-Impaired Driving: The Influence of Adverse Rearing Environments, Alcohol, Cannabis Use, and the Moderating Role of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Bord, Shiran; Zeichner, Amos

    2017-03-21

    The rate of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) increases during the college years and students who have reported adverse rearing environments appear to be at increased risk for the development of alcohol and drug use behaviors. Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used drugs by college students, and these substances are particularly predictive of substance-impaired driving. The present study aimed to investigate whether adverse rearing environment experiences and level of alcohol and cannabis use are related to the frequency of alcohol-impaired driving and whether anxiety might buffer or accelerate this effect. Data regarding adversity, drug use, anxiety, and AID were obtained from 1,265 students annually, from first to final year of college, over four waves (Mean Age at wave 1 = 18.5 years). Structural equation modeling supported associations among childhood adversity, alcohol, cannabis, and anxiety symptoms. A significant mediation effect was found such that adversity was predictive of AID via alcohol use and cannabis use. Among men, anxiety symptoms accelerated the path from increased cannabis use and decelerated the path from increased alcohol use to AID frequency. Conclusions/Importance: Childhood adversity is a developmental risk precursor to drug use and AID, whereas anxiety might serve a risk or protective factor to AID, contingent on the drug used.

  10. A farewell to brake reaction times? Kinematics-dependent brake response in naturalistic rear-end emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Gustav; Engström, Johan; Lodin, Johan; Bärgman, Jonas; Victor, Trent

    2016-10-01

    Driver braking behavior was analyzed using time-series recordings from naturalistic rear-end conflicts (116 crashes and 241 near-crashes), including events with and without visual distraction among drivers of cars, heavy trucks, and buses. A simple piecewise linear model could be successfully fitted, per event, to the observed driver decelerations, allowing a detailed elucidation of when drivers initiated braking and how they controlled it. Most notably, it was found that, across vehicle types, driver braking behavior was strongly dependent on the urgency of the given rear-end scenario's kinematics, quantified in terms of visual looming of the lead vehicle on the driver's retina. In contrast with previous suggestions of brake reaction times (BRTs) of 1.5s or more after onset of an unexpected hazard (e.g., brake light onset), it was found here that braking could be described as typically starting less than a second after the kinematic urgency reached certain threshold levels, with even faster reactions at higher urgencies. The rate at which drivers then increased their deceleration (towards a maximum) was also highly dependent on urgency. Probability distributions are provided that quantitatively capture these various patterns of kinematics-dependent behavioral response. Possible underlying mechanisms are suggested, including looming response thresholds and neural evidence accumulation. These accounts argue that a naturalistic braking response should not be thought of as a slow reaction to some single, researcher-defined "hazard onset", but instead as a relatively fast response to the visual looming cues that build up later on in the evolving traffic scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral Differentiation and Ovarian Development of Unmated Gynes, Queens, and Workers of Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida 1987 (Formicidae, Ectatomminae

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    Alexsandro Santana Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral differentiation and ovarian development of unmated gynes, queens, and workers of Ectatomma vizottoi were investigated in laboratory conditions. Forty-one behavioral acts were identified and quantified for workers, 19 for queens and 24 for unmated gynes, for an overall species repertoire of 42 different behavioral acts. Ovipositing reproductive eggs was an exclusive task of the queen, whereas workers showed 15 caste-specific behaviors. The most important (frequent behaviors for the queens were brood care, immobility, and reproduction, and for workers were immobility, grooming/interaction, brood care, and foraging. Unmated gynes (not winged primarily showed immobility, brood care, grooming/interaction, and foraging. Analysis of ovarian development showed that unmated gynes had little-developed ovarioles, in contrast to queens. Queens and unmated gynes showed a clear behavioral differentiation, in which queens played the role of reproducers and unmated gynes performed activities belonging to the worker repertoire. Despite the presence of several breeding queens in the colony, functional monogyny was the rule.

  12. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

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    FG Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The plantar surface of the footpads and the hocks of broiler were recorded using infrared thermal images. The incidence of hock burns in broilers reared on new litter was 0.72 times lower than those on reused litter. Broilers reared on new litter presented lower risk (0.75, RR<1 of presenting pododermatitis when compared to those reared on reused litter. When simulating the risk using a larger sample, the simulated risk of broilers presenting footpad and hock lesions when reared on new litter was 38% higher those reared on reused litter.

  13. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The effects of social rearing on preferences formed during filial imprinting and their neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen Michael

    2011-08-01

    Filial imprinting was originally proposed to be an irreversible process by which a young animal forms a preference for an object experienced early in life. The present study examined the effects of experience after imprinting on the stability of preferences of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) for an imprinting stimulus by rearing imprinted chicks socially or in isolation. Chicks reared socially or in isolation retained preferences for the imprinting stimulus; however, social rearing weakened the strength of preferences. The responses of neurons within the intermediate and medial mesopallium--a forebrain region necessary for imprinting were also recorded in socially reared and isolated chicks when presented with the visual component of the imprinting stimulus and novel object. Consistent with existing findings, neurons recorded from isolated chicks responded more strongly to the imprinting stimulus than novel object. However, social rearing diminished the disparity between responses to stimuli such that neurons recorded from socially reared chicks responded similarly to the imprinting stimulus and novel object. These findings suggest that social rearing may impair the retention of preferences formed during imprinting through mechanisms involving the IMM.

  15. Parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in a Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luyer, Jérémy; Laporte, Martin; Beacham, Terry D; Kaukinen, Karia H; Withler, Ruth E; Leong, Jong S; Rondeau, Eric B; Koop, Ben F; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-12-05

    Wild stocks of Pacific salmonids have experienced sharp declines in abundance over the past century. Consequently, billions of fish are released each year for enhancing abundance and sustaining fisheries. However, the beneficial role of this widely used management practice is highly debated since fitness decrease of hatchery-origin fish in the wild has been documented. Artificial selection in hatcheries has often been invoked as the most likely explanation for reduced fitness, and most studies to date have focused on finding signatures of hatchery-induced selection at the DNA level. We tested an alternative hypothesis, that captive rearing induces epigenetic reprogramming, by comparing genome-wide patterns of methylation and variation at the DNA level in hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with those of their wild counterparts in two geographically distant rivers. We found a highly significant proportion of epigenetic variation explained by the rearing environment that was as high as the one explained by the river of origin. The differentially methylated regions show enrichment for biological functions that may affect the capacity of hatchery-born smolts to migrate successfully in the ocean. Shared epigenetic variation between hatchery-reared salmon provides evidence for parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in the absence of genetic differentiation between hatchery and natural-origin fish for each river. This study highlights epigenetic modifications induced by captive rearing as a potential explanatory mechanism for reduced fitness in hatchery-reared salmon.

  16. Addressing Japan's fertility decline: influences of unintended pregnancy on child rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Yabe, Junko; Reich, Michael R

    2006-05-01

    Japan has been experiencing a continuing decline in fertility and an increase in premarital conceptions and abortions among young people. Child rearing is often viewed as a burden. In response, Japan is now seeking ways to improve the child-rearing environment for parents. In this context, we conducted a prospective study among 206 pregnant women in Sukagawa City, Fukushima, to explore the influences of pregnancy intention on child rearing. We found that unintended pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of negative child-rearing outcomes, including lower mother-to-child attachment, increased negative feelings of mothers and a lower level of participation of fathers in child rearing. Unintended pregnancy exacerbates the real and perceived burdens of child rearing. Japan is currently facing a conflict between wanting to reduce unintended pregnancies and increase the national fertility rate. We believe the government needs to address the social challenges affecting people's family lives, which underpin low fertility, rather than focus on fertility decline per se. We suggest Japan seeks to reduce unintended pregnancies and provide support to parents at high risk of child-rearing difficulties. We also suggest adopting a comprehensive approach to improving the lives of young couples, with a focus on adolescents, including life-skills education to prepare for adulthood, marriage and parenthood.

  17. Safety assessment of sugar dusting treatments by analysis of hygienic behavior in honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Jevrosima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a dominant natural defense mechanism against brood diseases. In this study, the influence of sugar dusting treatments on hygienic behavior was evaluated in 44 strong honey bee colonies. Three doses of pulverized sugar, 20, 30 and 40 g, each applied at three-, seven- and fourteen-day intervals were tested. The percentage of cleaned cells (PCC in the total number of those with pin-killed brood served as a measure of the hygienic potential. The effect was dependent on the frequency of treatments: all doses applied every third and seventh day significantly (p<0.001 decreased the PCC in comparison with the untreated control colonies. Nevertheless, sugar did not threaten the hygienic potential, as PPC values remained above 94% following all treatments. Thus, it can be concluded that the tested sugar treatments are safe and can be justifiably implemented into integrated pest management strategies to control Varroa destructor.

  18. Assessment of Vegetable and Fruit Substrates as Potential Rearing Media for Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Costanza; Erba, Daniela; Leonardi, Maria Giovanna; Lupi, Daniela; Savoldelli, Sara

    2017-10-13

    Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is able to consume a wide range of organic matter and is of particular interest for waste management. The nutritional value of preimaginal stages, in particular the protein content, makes this species a valid candidate for use as feed for other organisms. Vegetables and fruits are promising rearing substrates for insects produced for this purpose according to the EU regulation. In order to examine the effects of diets on insect performance and chemical composition, larvae were reared on the following substrates: 1) fruit (apple, pear, and orange); 2) vegetable (lettuce, green beans, and cabbage); and 3) mixed fruits and vegetables. High percentages of survival were observed on all diets, but there were differences among weights of larvae, pupae, and adults, with weights of larvae reared on mixed fruits and vegetables lower than on other diets. Pupae reared on the mixed diet were heaviest, and also morphometric measurements of adults were highest. Larvae reared on fruit diets had the highest fat content, comprising mostly saturated fatty acids; the highest content of essential n-3 fatty acids was found in vegetable reared larvae and that of n-6 in mixed reared larvae. Larvae reared on the mixed diet had the highest protein content. Calcium contents were high and moderate amounts of iron and zinc were found. H. illucens showed the capability to develop on vegetable and fruits diets displaying different nutrient profiles and biological performances. The best-performing rearing strategy should vary in relation to the final use of H. illucens. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  20. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-04-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs.