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Sample records for bronze marcos da

  1. De granito e de bronze: marcos da identidade carbonífera em cidades catarinenses From granite to bronze: coal mining identity signs in Santa Catarina's cities

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    Dorval do Nascimento

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são analisados dois monumentos públicos de cidades do Sul do estado de Santa Catarina para, a partir deles, compreender o envolvimento de tais cidades com os ideais de progresso que, fruto do bom desempenho da indústria carbonífera, contagiou a região em meados do século passado. Monumentos públicos são erguidos para fazer lembrar, destacar na polifonia do espaço urbano determinados valores à coletividade. Referências a momentos passados ou presentes, são eles "lugares de memória" e, como tal, servem como estratégia no forjar de identidades. Para o historiador o monumento público é igualmente um documento, evidência que permite adentrar e desvendar contextos pretéritos.In this article two public monuments located at southern cities of Santa Catarina State are analyzed to understand how these cities were engaged with the progress ideals spread in this region as a result of the good performance of the coal industry in the final period of the last century. Public monuments are built to remember certain values to the collectivity and point out them from the polyphony of the urban spaces. References to past and present moments are "places in memory", and in spite of this are used as strategies to forge the identities. For historians, the public monument is equally a document, evidence that consent one to enter and reveal past contexts.

  2. Equidade em saúde como marco ético da bioética

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    Marcelo Moreira Corgozinho

    Full Text Available Resumo Este texto tem como objetivo contribuir com a aplicação da equidade, enquanto marco ético, na reflexão bioética em temáticas de saúde pública. Foram seguidos os seguintes passos metodológicos: descrição da origem conceitual da equidade; sua aplicação na esfera da saúde pública e, por último, análise da equidade como marco ético inserido na dimensão social da bioética. A raiz conceitual de equidade fundamenta-se no pensamento aristotélico, o qual distingue equidade de justiça no momento em que esta se divide em justo legal e justo natural, compreendidos na noção de justiça política. Na esfera da saúde pública, a noção de equidade parte do pressuposto de que os indivíduos são diferentes e, portanto, merecem tratamento diferenciado, consentâneo com as suas vulnerabilidades. A bioética latino-americana tem como orientação a redução das iniquidades ou disparidades sociais, sendo um de seus frutos a inclusão da equidade entre um dos objetivos da Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos (DUBDH: "Promover o acesso equitativo aos desenvolvimentos médicos, científicos e tecnológicos". Assim, a equidade ganha força como marco ético no processo decisório da alocação de recursos públicos, associada à noção de justiça social.

  3. Direitos da criança e do adolescente: marcos legais e mídia

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    Mariano,Carmem Lúcia Sussel

    2010-01-01

    Esta tese integra-se à produção do Núcleo de Estudos de Gênero, Raça e Idade (NEGRI) do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Psicologia Social da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP), com o estudo do tratamento dado pelo jornal Folha de S. Paulo aos marcos legais contemporâneos que instituem direitos para crianças e adolescentes: a Convenção Internacional sobre os Direitos da Criança, de 1989, a Constituição Federal de 1988 e o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolesc...

  4. Neutralidade de Rede: O caso Comcast v. Netflix e o Marco Civil da Internet

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    Maria Eduarda Cintra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Propósito – O artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre como o Estado brasileiro avançou quanto à defesa do princípio da neutralidade de rede. Para essa análise, será utilizado o caso Comcast vs. Netflix como exemplo para comparar as ações do Estados Unidos e do Brasil sobre o tema. Metodologia/abordagem/design – O texto segue o método de abordagem de análise de problema para poder tirar conclusões sobre as práticas adotadas pelos Estados Unidos e pelo Brasil. Resultados – Foi constatado que o Brasil está na vanguarda sobre governança da internet, especialmente por zelar pela neutralidade de rede. Implicações práticas – O artigo serve para compreensão da discussão sobre neutralidade de rede e, especialmente, sobre o processo do Marco Civil da Internet no Brasil. Originalidade/relevância do texto – O artigo, ao fornecer uma perspectiva comparada entre o Estado americano e brasileiro, mostra como esse bem público, qual seja o da internet neutra e aberta, tem sido preservado.

  5. Marco Civil da Internet: uma lei sem conteúdo normativo

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    Eduardo Tomasevicius Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lei n.12.965, de 23 de abril de 2014, promulgou o denominado Marco Civil da Internet, com o intuito de estabelecer princípios, garantias, direitos e deveres para os usuários de internet no Brasil. Embora se tenha comemorado sua aprovação, por supostamente as demais normas jurídicas vigentes no Brasil - como a Constituição Federal, o Código Civil e o Código Penal - não terem aplicação nas relações sociais entabuladas pela internet, essa lei apresenta poucas inovações e muitas insuficiências e deficiências de cunho jurídico. Somando-se a esse fato a impossibilidade jurídica de regulação de uma rede mundial de computadores por meio de lei de um único país, os problemas gerados pela internet continuarão a afetar a privacidade, honra e imagem das pessoas, ao mesmo tempo em que conquistas, como a da neutralidade da rede, terão pouco impacto na vida das pessoas.

  6. Marcos legais da propaganda de medicamentos: avanços e retrocessos Legal frameworks of drug advertisement: progress and setbacks

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    Carolina Pires Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde o início da civilização brasileira, já existe divulgação de produtos farmacêuticos, sendo os medicamentos os preferidos dos anúncios. A propaganda de medicamentos, enquanto estratégia persuasiva, pode representar risco sanitário, caso não se comprometa com a divulgação de informação correta e segura. Nesse sentido, várias são as tentativas de controle sanitário por parte do Estado, as quais parecem consolidar-se em embates de domínio ético e legal. Em busca de compreender o contexto que norteia a atual conjuntura da problemática sobre propaganda de medicamentos, o presente estudo traça um percurso histórico, a partir dos principais marcos legais: a Junta Central de Higiene (1851, a Lei de Vigilância Sanitária (1976 e a criação da ANVISA (1999. Identificou-se que os marcos acompanham o contexto estrutural do país, contribuindo para a consolidação do campo da regulação hoje.Since the beginning of Brazilian civilization, there is already disclosure of pharmaceutical drugs being the favorite of the ads. The advertising of medicines, while persuasive strategy, may represent health risk, if not compromised with the release of accurate and safe information. For that reason, there are several attempts at sanitary control by the state, which appears to be consolidated in the struggles of the ethical and legal domain. In seeking to understand the context that guides, the current situation of the drug advertising problem, this study provides a historical background, from the main legal frameworks: "Junta Central de Higiene" (1851, "Lei de Vigilância Sanitária" (1976 and the creation of "ANVISA" (1999. It was identified that milestone follows the country structural context, contributing to the consolidation of the regulation's field nowadays.

  7. Anna Justina Ferreira Nery: um marco na história da enfermagem brasileira

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    Maria Manuela Vila Nova Cardoso

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste estudo é Anna Nery (1814-1880, uma mulher anônima, que participou da Guerra do Paraguai (1865-1870. Trata-se de um estudo biográfico de natureza sócio-histórica, que é orientado por princípios da História Nova. O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar a vida de Anna Nery. Alguns aspectos relevantes são levantados neste estudo. Anna Nery deixa o espaço privado do lar para assumir um papel importante no espaço público. A solicitação de Anna Nery é puramente afetiva e não pediu para ser intitulada enfermeira. Anna Nery atendia às exigências que elevariam o status social e moral da enfermeira do século XX e tornou-se símbolo da enfermagem brasileira.

  8. Paism: um marco na abordagem da saúde reprodutiva no Brasil

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    Maria José Martins Duarte Osis

    Full Text Available O Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde Mulher (PAISM foi lançado pelo Ministério da Saúde em 1983, sendo anunciado como uma nova e diferenciada abordagem da saúde da mulher. Paradoxalmente, o PAISM constitui-se também na primeira vez em que o Estado brasileiro propôs explicitamente, e implantou, embora de modo parcial, um programa que contemplava a regulação da fecundidade. Isso suscitou suspeitas acerca de possíveis intenções ocultas de controle da natalidade. Porém, analisando brevemente a história desse Programa e seu significado social, conclui-se que o PAISM foi pioneiro, inclusive no cenário mundial, ao propor o atendimento à saúde reprodutiva das mulheres, no âmbito da atenção integral à saúde, e não mais a utilização de ações isoladas em planejamento familiar. Por isso mesmo, os movimentos de mulheres, de imediato, passaram a lutar por sua implementação. Seu conteúdo inclui plenamente a definição de saúde reprodutiva adotada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde em 1988, ampliada e consolidada no Cairo em 1994 e em Beijing em 1995. Conseqüentemente, a adoção do PAISM representou, sem dúvida, um passo significativo em direção ao reconhecimento dos direitos reprodutivos das mulheres, mesmo antes que essa expressão ganhasse os diversos foros internacionais de luta.

  9. Marcos evolutivos da política à economia nas negociações internacionais ambientais

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    Eloi Martins Senhoras

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa as negociações internacionais relacionadas à temática ambiental, ao tomar como referência o estudo da sua evolução por meio da identificação do transbordamento de uma agenda diplomática de política internacional no início dos anos 1950 em contraposição ao atual período caracterizado por debates de economia internacional.

  10. Marcos evolutivos da política à economia nas negociações internacionais ambientais

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    Eloi Martins Senhoras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente artigo analisa as negociações internacionais relacionadas à temática ambiental, ao tomar como referência o estudo da sua evolução por meio da identificação do transbordamento de uma agenda diplomática de política internacional no início dos anos 1950 em contraposição ao atual período caracterizado por debates de economia internacional.

  11. Da Imperfeição: um marco nos estudos semióticos

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    Lúcia Teixeira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Resenha A resenha apresenta a tradução brasileira que Ana Cláudia de Oliveira realizou do livro Da Imperfeição de A.J. Greimas. Além de conter uma sí­ntese dos conteúdos dos capí­tulos, propõe refletir sobre o impacto da obra nos estudos semióticos. Analisa o projeto teórico do autor, identificando suas principais questões e propostas, e avalia a repercussão da introdução do campo do sensí­vel nas investigações da semiótica, sempre voltadas para o sentido dos textos e do percurso do homem no mundo. Palavras-chave semiótica, sentido, texto. Abstract This review presents us the Brazilian translation that Ana Cláudia de Oliveira did from the book "De l-imperfection" (Da imperfeição by A. J. Greimas. Besides a synthesis of the ideas of the chapters, it also aims to discuss the impact of the work in the semiotic studies. It analyzes as well the author-s theoretical project, identifying its main questions and purposes. The review, in adition examines the reactions to the introduction in the field of the sensitive in the semiotic investigations, always turned to the meaning of the texts and to the human being-s journey in this world. Key words Semiotics, sense, text.

  12. Bronze Elephant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    A rare find among Shang Dynasty bronzes in China, this bronze elephant was unearthed in a hillside in Liling County, Hunan. It was probably buried by slave owners as a sacrifice to the mountains and lakes. The bronze elephant served as a wine vessel. Wine was poured into the large opening at the elephant’s back, and was served through its trunk. It is 22.8 cm tall, 26.5 cm long and weighs 2.8 kg. The body of the vessel was carved with animal motifs. The front of the trunk, for example, is carved into the shape of a phoenix with a hooked beak. A tiger is crouched on the comb of the phoenix, and a snake curls out of its beak. The base of the trunk is decorated with another snake, with its head near the mouth of the elephant. The entire trunk is decorated with scales.

  13. Bronze Saddlery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A number of relics were unearthed when Chinese archaeologists discovered a group of graves in Liaoning Province in April, 1976. Dating back to the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the tombs contained many bronze ornaments for saddles that featured such animals as frogs, snakes, tigers and rabbits.

  14. NANOMEDICAMENTOS E OS DESAFIOS DA ANVISA DIANTE DA INEXISTÊNCIA DE UM MARCO REGULATÓRIO NO BRASIL

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    Liziane Paixão Silva Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A nanotecnologia, em razão de suas propriedades singulares, pode proporcionar inúmeros benefícios em diversas áreas estratégicas: saúde, eletrônica, alimentação, agricultura, meio ambiente entre outras. Um dos ramos mais promissores é o desenvolvimento e comercialização de nanomedicamentos que prometem revolucionar o campo de aplicação da medicina. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, que tem suas atribuições definidas na Lei nº 9.782/1999, é o órgão responsável por fiscalizar a produção e a comercialização desses novos medicamentos. Nesse artigo, será dado enfoque aos desafios da ANVISA considerando a existência de nanomedicamentos no mercado de consumo que não são identificados ou reconhecidos como tais pela vigilância sanitária diante da inexistência de uma norma regulatória nacional.

  15. A metodologia do marco lógico e a gestão da informação: um estudo de caso para Tunas-PR

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    Edmeire Cristina Pereira; Ronald Jesus da Conceição; Blas Enrique Caballero Nunez

    2009-01-01

    Apresenta a Metodologia do Marco Lógico (MML) como uma ferramenta para análise de formulação e avaliação de políticas públicas, de programas e projetos de desenvolvimento sustentável, com vistas ao acesso a financiamentos de projetos por organismos internacionais. São caracterizados o histórico, as bases conceituais da Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e Caribe (CEPAL) e da Agência Sueca de Cooperação Internacional para o Desenvolvimento (ASDI), as etapas e a estrutura da MML, bem como...

  16. Bronze diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; Yadav, Charu; M S, Rukmini; Kamath, Nutan

    2015-04-01

    Thalassemia is a group of disorders characterized by deficient production of the β-globin sub unit of hemoglobin. The mandatory blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia to maintain adequate erythrocyte levels, leads to iron overload. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with thalassemia varies from 6 to 14%. We here by present a known case of thalassemia major in an 18 year old boy. He was diagnosed with thalassemia before the age of one year and is on regular blood transfusion every two weeks since then. The repeated blood transfusion is one of the common causes for haemochromatosis. Iron overload initially leads to glucose abnormalities such as insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which is followed by impaired secretion of insulin. Diagnosed as a case of bronze diabetes, this patient is on insulin therapy for the last two years. Currently the patient is on iron chelation therapy at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

  17. A metodologia do marco lógico e a gestão da informação: um estudo de caso para Tunas-PR

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    Edmeire Cristina Pereira

    Full Text Available Apresenta a Metodologia do Marco Lógico (MML como uma ferramenta para análise de formulação e avaliação de políticas públicas, de programas e projetos de desenvolvimento sustentável, com vistas ao acesso a financiamentos de projetos por organismos internacionais. São caracterizados o histórico, as bases conceituais da Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e Caribe (CEPAL e da Agência Sueca de Cooperação Internacional para o Desenvolvimento (ASDI, as etapas e a estrutura da MML, bem como suas vantagens e desvantagens. Evidencia que o papel da Gestão da Informação para a MML é muito importante, na medida em que pode colaborar com empreendedores e formuladores de políticas públicas de desenvolvimento sustentável, no tocante ao levantamento de fontes primárias e secundárias para a tomada de decisões; gestão da propriedade intelectual (como o registro de marcas e o depósito de patentes, por exemplo; transferência de tecnologia e colaboração na criação de sistemas de informações econômico-sociais e ambientais para o desenvolvimento sustentável, principalmente, de municípios de baixo IDH-M.

  18. Entrevista: Marcos Cueto Interview: Marcos Cueto

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    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Cueto é formado em história e ciências sociais e professor do Departamento de Ciências Sociais e Saúde da Faculdade de Saúde Pública e Administração da Universidade Cayetano Heredia em Lima, Peru. Desde 1991 vem lecionando e pesquisando temas que envolvem a história da saúde pública, bem como as relações com a saúde internacional e a saúde global. Sua preocupação em estabelecer um diálogo entre as ciências sociais e a saúde tem produzido estudos sobre a história das doenças epidêmicas no Peru, a história da saúde pública na América Latina e, mais recentemente, tem realizado pesquisas sobre a história da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde (Opas e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Em 1998, ganhou com a publicação de El regreso de las epidemias: salud y enfermedad en el Perú del siglo XX o prêmio ibero-americano de melhor livro de ciências sociais e humanidades sobre a América Latina publicado em espanhol. Nesta entrevista1, concedida à revista Trabalho, Educação e Saúde em 2006, Cueto expõe reflexões decorrentes de suas últimas pesquisas sobre saúde internacional, saúde global e a atuação dos organismos internacionais como a OMS e a Opas.Marcos Cueto is a history and social sciences graduate and professor at the Department of Social Sciences and Health of the College of Public Health and Administration of Cayetano Heredia University, in Lima, Peru. Since 1991, he has been teaching and researching issues related to the history of public health, in addition to the relationship with international and global health. His concern with setting dialogue between social sciences and health has resulted in studies on the history of epidemics in Peru, the history of public health in Latin America, and, more recently, he has researched the history of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO and of the World Health Organization (WHO. In 1998, he was granted with The Return of Epidemics: Health and

  19. Por uma Nova Concepção de Empresa no Marco da Sociedade do Risco: do lucro inconsequente à responsabilidade socioambiental

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    Daniel Piovanelli Ardisson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to demonstrate the evolution of the legal concept of enterprise between two historical socio-economic milestones: the industrial society of the late nineteenth century and the contemporary risk society. Based on an analysis of economics and commercial law at the end of the nineteenth century, it is initially explained that the legal notion of enterprise then used, influenced by the industrial capitalism, was defined by an economic bias and focused itself exclusively in maximizing production efficiencyand profit.Resumo: O presente artigo busca demonstrar a evolução do conceito jurídico de empresa à luz de dois marcos socioeconômicos históricos: a sociedade industrial do final do século XIX e a sociedade do risco contemporânea. Partindo de uma análise da teoria econômica e do direito comercial ao final do século XIX, expõe-se inicialmente que a noção jurídica de empresa então vigente, influenciada pelo capitalismo industrial, era definida por um viés econômico e se focava exclusivamente na maximização da eficiência produtiva e do lucro.

  20. Aspectos reprodutivos e dieta alimentar dos ninhegos de Rhinoptynx clamator (Aves: Strigidae no campus Marco Zero da Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá-AP Nesting and diet of Rhinoptynx clamator (Aves: Strigidae from Campus Marco Zero da Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá-AP

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    Kurazo Mateus Okada Aguiar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar os aspectos comportamentais de nidificação, alimentação e desenvolvimento dos ninhegos de Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigidae em um fragmento florestal no Campus Marco Zero da Universidade Federal do Amapá. Apenas um ninho foi encontrado, no solo e na base de um tucumã Astrocaryum oleatum. Três ovos brancos com manchas marrons foram observados, cuja medida foi de 41 x 35 mm em média. A incubação durou 28 dias e foi efetuada pela fêmea, e o último filhote a nascer viveu apenas dois dias. Os filhotes sobreviventes foram medidos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Durante a estação reprodutiva foram coletadas algumas pelotas de regurgitação, sendo encontrados três tipos de vertebrados: Rattus sp., Micoureus cf. regina e Columbina talpacoti.We report nesting behavior, feeding and development of nestling of Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigidae in a forest fragment on Campus Marco Zero of Universidade Federal do Amapá. The nest was located on the ground, close to a palm Astrocaryum oleatum and three eggs were observed. These eggs were white whit brown spots and measured 41 x 35 mm in average. Incubation was made by female and lasted 28 days and the last owlet died two days after born. The remaining birds were measured during its development. Feeding items includes Rattus sp., Micoureus cf. regina and Columbina talpacoti.

  1. Estudio de la caída libre desde marcos de referencia no inerciales usando herramientas computacionales

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    John Hernán Díaz Forero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboró una propuesta para la enseñanza e implementación del modelo de Galileo (descripción del movimiento del punto material —partícula— en el espacio y en el tiempo en los cursos de física para ciencias e ingeniería, realizando una clase de física mediante la resolución de problemas no convencionales, específicamente la descripción de la caída libre desde sistemas de referencia no inerciales. En particular, se considera en el espacio bidimensional de coordenadas un observador inercial en el origen de coordenadas, que percibe un sistema de dos partículas con la propiedad masa m, con diferentes posiciones iníciales y velocidades iniciales, que están en presencia del campo gravitacional g , y se resuelve el problema desde sistemas de referencia no inerciales montados en las partículas 1 y 2. Se realizó una animación apoyados en el uso de nuevas tecnologías computacionales (el software Interactive Physics.

  2. Crystallographic analysis of the solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure; Analise cristalografica da solucao solida com estrutura tipo Tungstenio Bronze de niobato de potassio e estroncio dopado com ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfredi, Silvania; Nobre, Marcos A.L., E-mail: silvania@fct.unesp.b [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Lima, Alan R.F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (DQ/UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with KSr{sub 2}(FeNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}} stoichiometry was prepared by high efficiency ball milling method. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Crystalline structure was analyzed by the Rietveld refinements using the FullProf software. The results showed a tetragonal system with the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure - TTB (a = 12.4631 (2) A and c = 3.9322 (6) A, V = 610.78 (2) A{sup 3}). In this work, the sites occupancy by the K{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations on the TTB structure were determined. NbO{sub 6} polyhedra distortion and its correlation with the theoretical polarization are discussed. (author)

  3. Desenvolvimento da Vigilância Epidemiológica de Fronteira no contexto da Globalização: conceitos e marcos teóricos.

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    Robson BRUNIERA-OLIVEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Apresentar e analisar as ações desenvolvidas para a implementação e desenvolvimento de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Fronteiras, nos Blocos Econômicos Multinacionais, particularmente na América do Sul e Brasil. Metodologia. Foi realizado um estudo de revisão narrativa incluindo artigos científicos, documentos técnicos, diretrizes, normas, manuais, pautas de reuniões ou qualquer outro documento que fosse relacionado ao desenvolvimento e implementação de ações e programas de Vigilância Epidemiológica em Fronteiras. O estudo foi baseado nos sites das instituições/organizações multinacionais e nas bases MedLine, PubMed, Scielo e Scopus. Resultados. Foram identificados a criação de órgãos e ações no intuito de implementar e desenvolver a vigilância epidemiológica de fronteiras para os seguintes blocos: União Europeia (Health Security Committee, European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Sistema de alerta rápido e resposta, General Rapid Alert System e Rede de Monitoramento Ad Hoc; Tratado Norte-Americano de Livre Comércio (Border Infectious Disease Surveillance, “Projeto de Vigilância e Alerta Rápido de Doenças Infeciosas” ; Mercado Comum do Sul ( Reunião de Ministros da Saúde do Mercosul, Subgrupo de Trabalho 11 Saúde e Subcomissão Controle Sanitário de Portos, Aeroportos, Terminais e Passos Fronteiriços Terrestres; e União de Nações Sul-Americanas. Conclusões. Os programas e politicas desenvolvidos até o momento refletem o reconhecimento da importância do assunto por parte dos Estados Membros da OMS. Uma maior integração, com troca de informações, incluindo fluxos, frameworks, planos de preparação e o fortalecimento de áreas estratégicas como de energia e transporte deve ser incentivada intra e inter blocos.

  4. Scientific framework of homeopathy: evidence-based homeopathy Marco científico de la homeopatía: homeopatía basada en evidencia Marco científico da homeopatia: homeopatia baseada em evidências

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    Michel Van Wassenhoven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at considering all important aspects of the scientific framework of homeopathic practice, looking at the levels of scientific evidence of each aspect in an objective way, through an extensive review of literature. Levels of evidence considered are: I existence of meta-analyses and/or systematic positive reviews of literature; IIa multiple positive randomized controlled trials (RCTs; IIb some positive RCTs; IIIa positive multiple cohorts studies; IIIb positive studies with some cohorts; IV opinion of experts (clinical and daily practice cases. Conclusions are clear: homeopathy must stay within the framework of medical practice, and it is even a necessity for public health. Keywords: Evidence-Based medicine, Homeopathy, Scientific framework, Literature review.   Marco científico da homeopatia: homeopatia baseada em evidências Resumo O presente artigo aborda aspectos importantes do marco científico da prática homeopática, focando os níveis de evidência de cada um deles de maneira objetica, através de uma revisão extensa da literatura. Os níveis de evidência considerados são: I existência de meta-análises e/ou revisões sistemáticas positivas da literatura; IIa múltiplos estudos randomizados controlados (RCTs positivos; IIb alguns RCTs positivos; IIIa estudos de coortes múltiplas positivos; IIIb estudos com algumas coortes positivos; IV opinião de expertos (casos clínicos da prática cotidiana. As conclusões são claras: a homeopatia deve permanecer dentro do marco da prática médica, sendo, inclusive, uma necessidade para a saúde pública. Palavras-chave: Medicina Baseada em Evidências, Homeopatia, Estrutura ciêntifica, Revisão de literatura.   Marco científico de la homeopatía: homeopat

  5. Disputa política, neutralidade de rede e direitos dos usuários: A cobertura sobre a votação do Marco Civil da Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Mont'Alverne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é entender como os jornais O Estado de S. Paulo e Folha de S. Paulo retrataram, em seus editoriais, a controvérsia cercando a votação do Marco Civil da Internet na Câmara dos Deputados. A ideia é compreender, não somente, como os periódicos viam o projeto de lei, mas também como se posicionavam na discussão, que ia além do Marco Civil e envolvia disputas entre governo e base aliada. O artigo tem, por método, análise de conteúdo aliada à identificação dos enquadramentos – a partir do conceito de Robert Entman – presentes nos textos. Foram identificados 7 enquadramentos no material: divergências entre o governo e a base aliada; defesa da neutralidade de rede; articulação dos oponentes à aprovação do Marco Civil; brechas no projeto; mobilização em favor da aprovação; questionamento sobre a qualidade do serviço prestado pelas teles; e crítica à exigência de data centers instalados no Brasil. A fim de examinar o conteúdo dos textos, os frames foram analisados qualitativamente. Foram observadas, ainda, as personagens e instituições citadas pelos editoriais. Os resultados apontam para a priorização do conflito entre a Presidência e a base aliada na cobertura. Também são abordadas questões de cunho substancial, como brechas no projeto e a defesa da neutralidade de rede. Os jornais adotam uma posição ambígua em relação ao Marco Civil. Ao mesmo tempo em que apoiam o projeto, destacam problemas e interesses diversos que comprometem a lei, além das brechas que ela poderia ter. No caso dos editoriais sobre o Marco Civil, os periódicos não somente oferecem uma interpretação ao leitor, mas procuram apresentar-se como guardiões da audiência, enquanto defendem seus próprios interesses. This study aims to understand how two newspapers, O Estado de S. Paulo and Folha de S. Paulo, portrayed in their editorials the controversy surrounding the vote in the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies on

  6. Gestire il denaro, gestire la salvezza. Tre immagini a sostegno del Monte di Pietà: Marco da Montegallo, Lorenzo d’Alessandro e Vittore Crivelli / Managing money, managing salvation. Three images in support of the Mont of Piety: Marco da Montegallo, Lorenzo d’Alessandro and Vittore Crivelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Capriotti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I francescani dell’Osservanza, attraverso le prediche sulla mercatura, sull’usura e sulla carità, promuovono un tipo d’economia, strettamente connessa al mercato e all’affidabilità imprenditoriale del mercante, il quale deve essere in grado di far circolare fruttuosamente il denaro e poi di investire parte dei suoi introiti in opere caritatevoli o di pubblica utilità, in funzione della sua salvezza. Non di rado tali investimenti si concretizzano nella commissione di immagini, spesso esposte proprio in chiese francescane, o nel sostentamento del Monte di Pietà, un’istituzione bancaria, inventata e difesa dagli osservanti, che, spesso in rivalità col banco ebraico, prestava denaro su pegno. La promozione e la legittimazione di questo istituto, che sin dalla sua nascita genera numerose dispute, anche interne allo stesso ordine francescano, soprattutto per quel che riguarda la liceità o meno dell’interesse, è affidata non solo alle prediche, ma anche alle opere d’arte. Nella Marca appenninica di fine Quattrocento sono state prodotte a tale scopo almeno tre immagini. Simili nel contenuto e nella tipologia, la Figura della vita eterna, ideata dal predicatore osservante Marco da Montegallo, la Madonna del Monte di Caldarola, dipinta dal sanseverinate Lorenzo d’Alessandro, e l’omologa Madonna del Monte di Massa Fermana, realizzata da Vittore Crivelli, si illuminano e si chiariscono a vicenda. The Franciscans of the Osservanza order, through their sermons on commerce, usuryand charity, promote a type of economy, that is closely related to the business market andto the reliability of the merchant, who must be able to make money circulate fruitfully and then to invest part of his benefits on good deeds or public works, to have salvation.These investments are often used in the commission of images, often exposed in Franciscan churches, or in support of the Mont of Piety, a bank, developed and defended by the Osservanti, that, often

  7. O maravilhoso no relato de Marco Polo

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Regina Busanello

    2012-01-01

    A presente dissertação versa sobre a obra conhecida, na tradição italiana, por Il Milione, escrita em Gênova, em 1298, por Marco Polo e Rustichello da Pisa. Trata-se da famosa obra que compartilhou com o mundo os conhecimentos adquiridos pelo viajante veneziano em sua estada na corte de Kublai Khan, Grande Khan do Império Tártaro. No primeiro capítulo desse estudo são tratadas algumas questões estruturais da obra, tais como o narrador, a dupla autoria tema assumido como fundamental para os e...

  8. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  9. 75 FR 14257 - Pricing for Bronze Medals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Bronze Medals AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 1\\5/16\\- inch bronze medals, 1\\1/2\\-inch bronze medals and three-inch bronze medals. Beginning March 25, 2010, the...

  10. Marco Calamari, La scomparsa della rete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chi era in rete prima che fosse invasa dalle moltitudini – scrive Marco Calamari su “Punto Informatico” – temeva principalmente la sua occupazione “militare” da parte degli stati,  tramite una censura e un controllo capillare. Non è andata esattamente così. L’”economia del dono“, per la sua eccellenza tecnica, ha retto alla pressione delle masse e [...

  11. Do bronze ao prata : o processo de melhoria da qualidade na escola tecnica de construção civil do SENAI-SP

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: O movimento pela implantação da qualidade vem, há décadas, mobilizando milhares de pessoas, em busca da melhoria de processos e produtos e da satisfação do cliente. Os princípios que dão fundamento ao movimento pela qualidade total deram origem a vários modelos de gestão. Este trabalho analisa o processo de implantação de um modelo de gestão pela qualidade totalou Centro Nacional de Tecnologia (CENATEC) - baseado nos critérios de desempenho da Fundação para o Prêmio Nacional da Qualid...

  12. LEVANTAMENTO DE BRIÓFITAS BIOINDICADORAS DE PERTURBAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DO CAMPUS MARCO ZERO DO EQUADOR DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAPÁ

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Rodrigues Menezes; Klíssia Calina de Souza Gentil

    2011-01-01

    No mundo todo são conhecidas cerca de 18.000 espécies de briófitas; para o Brasil são citadas 3.125 espécies, distribuídas em 450 gêneros e 110 famílias. Os estudos de briófitas para algumas regiões do Brasil ainda são escassos ou abrangem áreas restritas, como é o caso da região Norte. Essas lacunas de conhecimento não permitem um maior embasamento para discutir a riqueza de espécies entre diferentes regiões brasileiras com detalhes. O presente trabalho foi realizado no campus da Universidad...

  13. Políticas e gestão da educação superior a distância: novos marcos regulatórios? Politics and management of the superior education in the distance: new regulatory landmarks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Dourado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ao problematizar as políticas e gestão atuais para a educação básica e superior, o artigo enfoca os novos marcos regulatórios do processo expansionista e analisa as políticas direcionadas à formação de professores, com especial realce para a educação a distância no setor público. Nessa direção, apresenta e analisa alguns indicadores educacionais e busca apreender, no campo das políticas propostas pelo MEC, o papel da " Nova CAPES" como espaço de regulação das políticas de formação de professores, enfatizando a expansão pública, na modalidade EaD, por meio dos desafios da consolidação da Universidade Aberta do Brasil (UAB.To evaluate the current politics and management for the basic and superior education, the article focuses new regulatory landmarks of the expansion process and analyzes the politics directed to the formation of professors, with special distinction for the education in the distance in the public sector. In this direction, it presents and it analyzes some educational pointers and it searchs to apprehend, in the field of the politics proposals for the MEC, the paper of the " New CAPES" as space of regulation of the politics of formation of professors, emphasizing the public expansion, in the EaD modality, by means of the challenges of the consolidation of the Open University of Brazil (UAB.

  14. Ambivalências éticas do Anonymous Brasil: discursos políticos sobre liberdade e o Marco Civil da Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, André de Nardi Senna

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho busca uma reflexão sobre a identidade moral do net-ativismo e do hacktivismo Anonymous no Brasil. Questiona-se como tal reflexão ilustra as disputas discursivas no âmbito de políticas na rede. A investigação propõe ilustrar as relações entre a ética hacker do Anonymous Brasil e suas posições políticas sobre liberdade na internet. Os Anonymous tratam-se de uma ideia, um coletivo, que se inspiram nos arquétipos da comunidade hacker para reivindicar certos ideais de direitos ...

  15. Marcos referenciais da trajetória das políticas de alimentação e nutrição no Brasil Milestones of the feeding policies and nutrition in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldo Kruse Grande de Arruda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Os marcos que influenciaram a concepção e a implementação de propostas inovadoras no campo da nutrição surgiram na década de 30. O inquérito promovido por Josué de Castro no Recife, em 1933, sobre as condições de vida das classes operárias revelou a ocorrência de déficit calórico e de nutrientes e motivou o desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas acerca da situação alimentar em Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, estabelecendo as relações entre alimentação e salário mínimo. Para dar assistência ao governo na formulação da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição foi criado o Instituto Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição (INAN, em 1972, e elaborado o I Programa Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição (PRONAN, envolvendo 12 subprogramas das diversas estruturas governamentais e, com olhar inovador da desnutrição como uma doença social foi substituído, em 1976, pelo II PRONAN. A extinção do INAN, em 1997, conduziu ao surgimento da Coordenação Geral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição, responsável pela elaboração da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição no contexto da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, criando em 2001 o Programa Bolsa Alimentação. A criação do Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar, em 1993, fomentou a aprovação do Programa Fome Zero. Identifica-se que na realidade brasileira, a avaliação das políticas públicas é um campo tradicionalmente marcado pela carência de procedimentos sistemáticos.The milestones of the concept and implementation of innovative proposals in the field of nutrition appeared in the 30's. The 1933 survey performed by Josué de Castro in Recife focusing the qualify of life of the working classes determined calories' and nutrients' deficiencies and encouraged the development of new researches focusing on the food situation in Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, esta-blishing a relationship between food and minimum wage. To

  16. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. Psicogênese da língua escrita: gênese e estrutura de um marco na história da alfabetização no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    p. 119-130 O nosso objetivo é problematizar historicamente o lugar ocupado pelo livro Psicogênese da língua escrita, de Emilia Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, no cenário nacional dos discursos referentes à aquisição da língua escrita e às práticas escolares de alfabetização. Para tanto, de acordo com a tradição da pesquisa em Epistemologia Genética, fazemos uso dos eixos diacrônico e sincrônico da História do Pensamento Educacional Brasileiro. Diacronicamente, nós identificamos...

  19. Análise das competências em promoção da saúde a partir do marco legal e dos discursosdos profissionais que implementamo Programa Saúde na Escolano Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila TUSSET

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A promoção da saúde (PS destaca-se como eixo orientador das políticas, práticas em saúde pública e da reorientação da formação em saúde, mas sua efetiva operacionalização permanece um desafio. Diversos estudos apontam a relevância de se definir, desenvolver e utilizar as competências necessárias para aprimorar e efetivar o trabalho em PS. A presente pesquisa analisoua presença de domínios de competências em PS (DCPS nos discursos sobre práticas realizadas por profissionaisque implementam o Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE e na normativa que orienta a sua implementação no Distrito Federal (DF. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas (15 profissionais e dois gestores implementadorese análise documental do marco legal do PSE/DF. O referencial metodológico adotado foi a análise de conteúdo, com auxílio do softwareNVivo 8. As categorias de análise foram definidas a priori a partir dos nove DCPS presentes no referencial teórico do Projeto “CompHP”(favorecimento de mudanças; advocacia; parceria; comunicação; liderança; diagnóstico; planejamento; implementação; e avaliação e pesquisa. As práticas relatadas pelos atores expressaram convergências, em diferentes magnitudes, com oito DCPS; o domínio “avaliação e pesquisa” não foi identificado. A normativa não continha os domínios “comunicação” e “advocacia”, e “avaliação” exibiu convergência parcial pois não abrangeu “pesquisa”. É interessante fortalecer os DCPS como referenciais nos documentos e nas práticas do PSE/DF.O“CompHP”, adaptado para os contextos e capacidades locais, pode ser usado para otimizar o desenvolvimento dessas competências; favorecer a construção de práticas com a visão ampliada de PS; e subsidiar o delineamento de instrumentos de avaliação do PSE.

  20. Bronze Dragons and Phoenix Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The table is one of the oldest kinds of furniture in China.Most, however, haven’t survived as they were made ofbamboo or wood, The discovery of this bronze table gives usa chance to see a real object from the Warring States Periodfor the first time. This bronze table was unearthed from the tomb of a kingof the Zhongshan Kingdom during the Warring States Periodat today’s Pingshan County, Hebei Province. The stand isformed from four two-winged dragons and four phoenixes

  1. Marco Grippeling (1966-2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    It was with great sadness that we learnt that our former colleague and friend Marco Grippeling was amongst the victims of the Malaysia Airlines crash.   Marco, a Melbourne-based cyber security specialist, boarded flight MH17 on his way back to Australia after spending his last days with friends and family in his home country of the Netherlands. Marco joined CERN as a Technical Student in the PS Division in 1992.  In 1994 he moved to the LHC Division as a Staff Member, leaving for more exotic horizons in 2000. Marco will always be remembered for his enthusiasm and joie de vivre. Our deepest condolences go to his family and friends at this time. His former colleagues and friends at CERN

  2. Programas de saúde materno-infantil em Moçambique: marcos evolutivos e a inserção da enfermagem Programas de atención de salud materno-infantil en Mozambique: marcos evolutivos e inserción de la enfermería Programs of maternal and infant health in Mozambique: gradual landmarks and the insertion of nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Acácia Ernesto Lourenço

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa centrada nas políticas públicas do governo moçambicano para o setor da saúde, com foco voltado para programas de assistência à saúde materno-infantil. Tem o propósito de apresentar contextos básicos para a reflexão sobre a filosofia da implantação e implementação dos programas e a inserção da Enfermagem, mostrando seus marcos evolutivos. Constatou-se que, na década 70, o Sistema Nacional de Saúde adotou o Programa de Proteção Materno-Infantil, que na década de 80 ficou concebido como Programa de Saúde Materno-Infantil e, posteriormente, na década 90, ficou inserido no Programa Nacional Integrado de Saúde Materno-Infantil e Planejamento Familiar, Programa Alargado de Vacinação, Saúde Escolar e do Adolescente, incluindo Saúde Sexual e Reprodutiva. A inserção da Enfermagem foi evidenciada na implementação das ações assistenciais. Os marcos evolutivos foram: a introdução dos cursos específicos de Enfermagem em saúde materno-infantil do nível básico ao superior e abrangência dos serviços do Programa Nacional Integrado.Pesquisa Centrada en las políticas públicas del gobierno Mozambicano para el setor salud, con foco en los Programas de Asistencia en Salud Materno-infantil, con el propósito de presentar contextos básicos para la reflexión acerca de la filosofia de implantación e implementación de los programas mostrando sus marcos evolutivos e de la inserción de la Enfermería. Se constató que en la década 70, el Sistema Nacional de Salud adoptó el Programa de Protección Materno Infantil, que en la década de 80 se transformó en Programa de Salud Materno-infantil y posteriormente en la década de 90 fue inserido en el Programa Nacional Integrado de Salud Materno- Infantil y Planificación Familia, Programas Ampliado de Vacunación, Salud Escolar y del Adolescente incluyendo la salud Sexual y Reproductiva. La inserción de la Enfermería fue evidenciada en la implantación por medio de

  3. Gold, Silver and Bronze Citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents the gold, silver, and bronze winners of a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total…

  4. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…

  5. New Research on Bronze Age Textile Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Eva Birgitta; Mårtensson, Linda; Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2008-01-01

    presentation of the results from the systematic tests with Bronze Age textile tools. results concerning mesurements of lenght and time consumed.......presentation of the results from the systematic tests with Bronze Age textile tools. results concerning mesurements of lenght and time consumed....

  6. The Bronze Age Smith as Individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Heide Wrobel

    During 1550-1100 BC magnificent decorated bronze objects appear in grave and hoard finds in Northwest Europe. While investigating similarities in the decorative elements of bronze objects belonging to the female gender, it is possible to find traces of the production process. These distinctive fe...

  7. Análise cristalográfica da solução sólida com estrutura tipo Tungstênio Bronze de niobato de potássio e estrôncio dopado com ferro Crystallographic analysis of the solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Lanfredi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with KSr2(FeNb4O15-Δ stoichiometry was prepared by high efficiency ball milling method. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Crystalline structure was analyzed by the Rietveld refinements using the FullProf software. The results showed a tetragonal system with the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure - TTB (a = 12.4631 (2 Å and c = 3.9322 (6 Å, V = 610.78 (2 ų. In this work, the sites occupancy by the K+, Sr2+ and Fe3+ cations on the TTB structure were determined. NbO6 polihedra distortion and its correlation with the theoretical polarization are discussed.

  8. Odontologia e Saúde Suplementar: marco regulatório, políticas de promoção da saúde e qualidade da atenção Dentistry and supplementary health: regulatory framework, health promotion policies and quality of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garbin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A partir do marco regulatório e de um panorama da odontologia na saúde suplementar, este artigo discute as especificidades do setor odontológico no que se refere às políticas de promoção da saúde e qualidade da atenção à saúde propostas pela Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar (ANS. A atuação do Estado na saúde suplementar se dá a partir das leis 9.656/98, que define relações entre operadoras, produtos e seus beneficiários e 9.961/2000, que cria a ANS. Concomitantemente, houve elevado crescimento da odontologia no setor, por conta de mudanças no exercício liberal da profissão, trazendo a necessidade de conhecer a lógica de organização dos serviços quanto à assistência prestada e ao modelo de atenção praticado. A ANS desenvolve ações para estimular as operadoras na implantação de programas de promoção da saúde, na busca por um modelo de atenção integral. Ao mesmo tempo, promove a Política de Qualificação na saúde suplementar, com ênfase na dimensão assistencial, porém na odontologia o enfoque da avaliação ainda é o atendimento individual e fragmentado. Por fim, o grande desafio da odontologia passa pelo seu fortalecimento enquanto política de saúde pública, acessível a toda a população, e pela qualificação da atenção odontológica na saúde suplementar.Based on the regulatory framework and an overview of dentistry in supplementary health, this paper discusses the specifics of the dental sector with respect to health promotion policies and quality of health care services proposed by the National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS. The State's activities in supplementary health are based on law 9.656/98, which defines the relations between operators, products and their beneficiaries, and law 9.961/2000, which created the ANS. Concomitantly there was a great increase in dentistry in the private health plan market, because of changes in the practices of the profession. This required the

  9. Crystallography properties of solid solution of NaSr{sub 2}(NiNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}s}tructure of tetragonal tungsten bronze; Propriedades cristalograficas da solucao de NaSr{sub 2}(NiNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}} de estrutura tetragonal tungstenio bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, C.; Dantas, S.A.; Mikaro, C.; Lima, A.R.F.; Nobre, M.A.L.; Lanfredi, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LaCCeF/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia. Lab. de Compositos e Ceramicas Funcionais

    2009-07-01

    In this work was investigated the crystallographic characterization of single phase and nanometric powders of sodium strontium niobate doped with nickel, with NaSr{sub 2}(NiNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}} stoichiometry, prepared by conventional route from mechanical mixture of oxides / carbonates using the high energy ball milling. The optimization of the parameters as time and calcination temperature for the preparation of the NaSr{sub 2}(NiNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}} solid solution were monitored by X-ray diffraction, using the Rietveld method. The NaSr{sub 2}(NiNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}} single phase powders with tetragonal tungsten bronze type structure were obtained with crystallite size at around 30 nm. From crystallographic parameters was constructed the unitary cellule of the NaSr{sub 2}(NiNb{sub 4})O{sub 15-{delta}} using the CaRIne Crystallography 3.1 program. The occupation of sites by the Na{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} cations and the interatomic distances between nickel and niobium atoms were determined. Changes in structural parameters of sodium strontium niobate by addition of nickel are discussed. (author)

  10. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Rasmussen, Simon; Rasmussen, Morten; Stenderup, Jesper; Damgaard, Peter B; Schroeder, Hannes; Ahlström, Torbjörn; Vinner, Lasse; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Margaryan, Ashot; Higham, Tom; Chivall, David; Lynnerup, Niels; Harvig, Lise; Baron, Justyna; Della Casa, Philippe; Dąbrowski, Paweł; Duffy, Paul R; Ebel, Alexander V; Epimakhov, Andrey; Frei, Karin; Furmanek, Mirosław; Gralak, Tomasz; Gromov, Andrey; Gronkiewicz, Stanisław; Grupe, Gisela; Hajdu, Tamás; Jarysz, Radosław; Khartanovich, Valeri; Khokhlov, Alexandr; Kiss, Viktória; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Longhi, Cristina; McGlynn, George; Merkevicius, Algimantas; Merkyte, Inga; Metspalu, Mait; Mkrtchyan, Ruzan; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Paja, László; Pálfi, György; Pokutta, Dalia; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Price, T Douglas; Saag, Lehti; Sablin, Mikhail; Shishlina, Natalia; Smrčka, Václav; Soenov, Vasilii I; Szeverényi, Vajk; Tóth, Gusztáv; Trifanova, Synaru V; Varul, Liivi; Vicze, Magdolna; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zhitenev, Vladislav; Orlando, Ludovic; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-06-11

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.

  11. Research on the Orientation of Decoration on Bronzes from Yinxu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳洪彬

    2003-01-01

    The study of surface decoration is one important aspect of research on Yinxu 殷墟 bronzes and has been a particular focus of investigations of bronzes from the Three Dynasties. Previous scholars have already made great strides in this line of research and they have provided not only an important precedent for making chronological distinctions among the late Shang bronzes.

  12. Upper limit for magnetoresistance in silicon bronze and phosphor bronze wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, R.; Talley, L.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Woollam, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of silicon bronze and phosphor bronze was measured in magnetic fields from 0 to 14 T and at temperatures between 2 and 300 K. At any fixed temperature, the change in resistivity to 14 T was less than a few parts in 100,000. Thus, these bronzes are excellent for use in high magnetic fields where constant resistance is required. Welding leads to the sample was found to be superior to soldering. The soldered contacts were subject to spurious resistivity changes that resulted from superconducting transitions in the solder.

  13. Marco conceptual de la administración de proyectos

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Chaves, Michael

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo describe el marco conceptual de la administración de proyectos. Además, se da a conocer el apoyo que por medio del Instituto de Administración de Proyectos se puede obtener para manejar proyectos, y se explica cuál es el aporte que tanto la guía PMBOK como la certificación PMP pueden generar a los proyectos y a los equipos de trabajo. Los aspectos desarrollados en este artículo pueden ser útiles para profesionales que deseen conocer sobre qué significa conducir proyectos,...

  14. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic......The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We...

  15. “Neutron metallography” of archaeological bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, S.; Bartoli, L.; Kockelmann, W.; Zoppi, M.; Miccio, M.

    2004-07-01

    Following a first demonstration on the potentials of time-of-flight neutron diffraction in the microstructural characterisation of archaeological bronzes, we present here the results of a further systematic study on the topic. The experiments were performed on standardised specimens and original archaeological bronze findings at the powder diffractometer ROTAX. The possibility to achieve various metallographic data concerning alloy composition, homogeneity, dendritic structure, metal and mineral phases, as well as the effects of hardening, annealing, and re-crystallisation processes was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, we also report a texture analysis on a Roman coin, which provided a clear striking fingerprint thus demonstrating a powerful authentication method.

  16. A abordagem cognitiva em pontos de inclusão digital em cidades da Bahia: marco teórico-metodológico Enfoque cognitivo en puntos de acceso a la inclusión digital en ciudades de Bahía: conceptos y método Cognitive Approach in the Digital Inclusion Point in Bahia's Towns: methodologic Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Coelho Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação visa relatar alguns progressos da pesquisa interessada em compreender o processo de mediação desenvolvido pelos pontos de inclusão digital (PIDs em cidades do estado da Bahia (Brasil. O objetivo é verificar se os modelos de acesso desenvolvidos nos PIDs, considerados como os de maior inclusão digital, favorecem a convergência de recursos (físicos, digitais, humanos e sociais. O marco teórico utilizado na investigação é apresentado, descrevendo os conceitos de tecnologia e de mediação pautada na cognição para contextualizar o objeto, centrando na compreensão da convergência de recursos cognitivos. A metodologia é descritiva, estando em desenvolvimento em 10 cidades.La presente comunicación detalla algunos de los avances de la investigación dedicada a comprender el proceso de mediación desarrollado por los puntos de inclusión digital (PIDs en ciudades del estado de Bahía (Brasil. El objetivo es verificar si los modelos de acceso desarrollados en los PIDs, considerados como los de mayor inclusión digital, favorecen la convergencia de recursos (físicos, digitales, humanos y sociales. Se presenta el marco teórico utilizado en la investigación para describir los conceptos de tecnología y de mediación pautada en la cognición, con el propósito de contextualizar el objeto, se enfoca en la comprensión de la convergencia de recursos cognitivos. El método es descriptivo, y se está aplicando en 10 ciudades.This work shows the progress of the research that intended to understand the mediation process developed by the access points of digital inclusion (PIDs in Bahia's towns (Brazil. It describes the first steps of the research, but progress is being made in concepts that allow us to understand the mediation process, focusing on the convergence of cognitive resources. The general purpose is to verify that the access models developed in Bahia's PIDs, which are considered of greater digital inclusion

  17. Panorama Acadêmico sobre Resíduos Sólidos: Análise da produção cientifica a partir do marco legal do setor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layon Carlos Cezar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo objetiva analisar o panorama da produção científica nacional a respeito dos resíduos sólidos na área da administração, ciências contábeis, economia e turismo, a partir da sanção da Lei nº 12.305/2010 que instituiu a Política Nacional dos Resíduos Sólidos (PNRS. Acredita-se que os estudos obtiveram maior robustez a partir da criação da referida Lei que trouxe inúmeros desafios para os municípios e novos debates científicos para o setor. Para efetivação deste estudo, realizou-se pesquisa bibliográfica no portal eletrônico de indexação de artigos: SPELL. A análise foi realizada por meio de técnicas de bibliometria e metanálise. Os principais resultados apontam para baixa concentração de artigos embasados na PNRS, levando a pressupor, que a política pode estar enfrentando problemas quanto ao seu processo de implementação. A conclusiva deste estudo direciona-se para a visão de que novos debates científicos poderão ganhar maior solidez ao passo que a PNRS for implementada com eficiência ao longo do tempo.

  18. Clay Corner: Recreating Chinese Bronze Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson where students make faux Chinese bronze vessels through slab or coil clay construction after they learn about the history, function, and design of these vessels. Utilizes a variety of glaze finishes in order to give the vessels an aged look. Gives detailed guidelines for creating the vessels. (CMK)

  19. Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

  20. Un marco general para resultados sobre limitaciones de los sistemas formales

    OpenAIRE

    Grimson, Rafael; Departamento de Matemática Universidad de Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se estudian diferentes limitaciones de los sistemas formales y se les da un marco común. Principalmente trabajaremos con limitaciones relacionadas con las nociones de expresabilidad en la aritmética de Peano y de computabilidad. Daremos un principio general que engloba una amplia gama de resultados sobre limitaciones de los formalismos.

  1. As estratégias de cooperação Sul-Sul nos marcos da política externa brasileira de 1993 a 2007 South-South cooperation strategies in Brazilian Foreign Policy from 1993 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gomes Saraiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar as duas vertentes da cooperação sul-sul adotadas pela política externa brasileira entre 1993 e 2007. Por um lado, o artigo examina a política externa brasileira em face da América do Sul: o Mercosul e a cooperação sul-americana em termos mais gerais que, dentro do arco das atuações externas do país, é o tipo de cooperação sul-sul identificada como prioritária. Por outro lado, dedicará também algumas reflexões para a cooperação do Brasil com outros países considerados emergentes e system-affecting, em outros continentes, como é o caso da África do Sul, Índia, China e, em diferente medida, da Rússia.The aim of this article is to analyze the two approaches to South-South cooperation evident in Brazilian foreign policy between 1993 and 2007. On one hand the article examines Brazilian foreign policy towards South America. Specifically, cooperation with Mercosur members and South-American cooperation broadly conceptualized. The region is a foreign policy priority among its south-south cooperation activities. On the other hand, this paper reflects on Brazilian cooperation with other emerging and "system-affecting" countries that belong to other continents, such as South Africa, India and China, and to a certain extent, Russia.

  2. Paism: um marco na abordagem da saúde reprodutiva no Brasil The Program for Integrated Women's Health Care (PAISM: a landmark in the approach to reproductive health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Martins Duarte Osis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde Mulher (PAISM foi lançado pelo Ministério da Saúde em 1983, sendo anunciado como uma nova e diferenciada abordagem da saúde da mulher. Paradoxalmente, o PAISM constitui-se também na primeira vez em que o Estado brasileiro propôs explicitamente, e implantou, embora de modo parcial, um programa que contemplava a regulação da fecundidade. Isso suscitou suspeitas acerca de possíveis intenções ocultas de controle da natalidade. Porém, analisando brevemente a história desse Programa e seu significado social, conclui-se que o PAISM foi pioneiro, inclusive no cenário mundial, ao propor o atendimento à saúde reprodutiva das mulheres, no âmbito da atenção integral à saúde, e não mais a utilização de ações isoladas em planejamento familiar. Por isso mesmo, os movimentos de mulheres, de imediato, passaram a lutar por sua implementação. Seu conteúdo inclui plenamente a definição de saúde reprodutiva adotada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde em 1988, ampliada e consolidada no Cairo em 1994 e em Beijing em 1995. Conseqüentemente, a adoção do PAISM representou, sem dúvida, um passo significativo em direção ao reconhecimento dos direitos reprodutivos das mulheres, mesmo antes que essa expressão ganhasse os diversos foros internacionais de luta.The Program for Integrated Women's Health Care (PAISM was launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1983 as a new and different approach to women's health. Paradoxically, the PAISM also became the first case in which the Brazilian state explicitly proposed and implemented (albeit partially a program regulating fertility. This raised suspicions as to disguised promotion of birth control. However, a brief analysis of the history of this program and its social significance suggests that the PAISM was a pioneering undertaking (even within the international scenario in proposing integrated women's health care as opposed to isolated

  3. 76 FR 7584 - Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, WV; Notice of Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, WV... workers and former workers of Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, West Virginia... activities related to the production of bronze burial markers and memorial products. In the request...

  4. 76 FR 72369 - Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... No. USCG-2011-0968] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf... the vicinity of Marco Island Marriott Beach Resort in Marco Island, Florida during the Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display on Friday, February 17, 2012. The safety zone is necessary to...

  5. Um assunto de silêncios: estudo sobre o \\'Cara-de-bronze\\'

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Sampaio Augusto

    2007-01-01

    Análise e interpretação do conto \\"Cara-de-Bronze\\", escrito por João Guimarães Rosa. Esta obra sintetiza a idéia que o autor tem da poesia, marcada pela extensa tradição de escritos dedicados ao estudo de Saturno e da melancolia. O confronto dessa tradição, a partir da leitura que lhe deu Walter Benjamin, com o conto, descortina aspectos enigmáticos da narrativa, e revela elementos fundamentais da concepção de mundo do autor, importantes para a literatura, a critica literária e a filosofia d...

  6. A diplomacia da energia : os biocombustíveis no Brasil e a construção de seu marco jurídico regulatório internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    A energia é considerada recurso essencial para a melhoria das condições de vida dos povos e seu acesso é altamente relevante para a promoção do desenvolvimento. Diante do dever de produção de energias para sustentar as atividades humanas, de uma previsível escassez de petróleo nos anos vindouros, da importância de encontrar novas fontes de energia e das preocupações com o meio ambiente, os países têm formulado programas políticos e normas jurídicas que visam regular a formatação dessa produçã...

  7. Marcos normativos da anticoncepção de emergência e as dificuldades de sua institucionalização nos serviços públicos de saúde Legal framework of emergency contraception and the difficulties of its institutionalization in public health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Aparecida de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as dificuldades de implementação da Anticoncepção de Emergência (AE nas práticas do Sistema Único de Saúde, no período de 2000 a 2008, mediante revisão crítica da literatura sobre o tema e análise de documentos oficiais. Aponta avanços no âmbito da legislação em saúde para a utilização da AE, os quais permitem oficialmente reconhecê-la no país como alternativa contraceptiva em situações emergenciais, para além dos casos de violência sexual. O levantamento da literatura nacional e internacional, centrada na América Latina e em alguns estudos da Europa, dos EUA e do Canadá, suscita questões referentes à não-incorporação dessas normas nas práticas cotidianas dos serviços de saúde, revelando representações sociais difíceis de serem revertidas em pouco tempo. Documentos oficiais do MS e do CFM foram analisados para construção do marco legal e político-institucional que pauta a discussão. Os resultados mostram paradoxos entre as normas asseguradas e as práticas existentes nos serviços de saúde: dificuldade no acesso e utilização da AE via serviços públicos de saúde; a pílula do dia seguinte (PDS é comumente considerada abortiva por profissionais de saúde, usuárias e seus parceiros; embora pesquisas apontem aumento significativo do uso desse método, há resistência dos serviços a disponibilizá-lo; persiste a ideia recorrente no senso comum de que a AE levaria os usuários, principalmente adolescentes, a abandonar outros métodos contraceptivos de uso regular, inclusive preservativo, fato não confirmado pelos estudos realizados, pois eles indicam que os adolescentes que recorrem à AE são os que usam tal método.This paper discusses the difficulties to implement emergency contraception (EC in Brazilian Public Health Service, from 2000 to 2008, based on critical literature review and analysis of official documents on the theme. It shows advancements in health legislation

  8. The thermal analysis and derivative bronzes cast to plaster moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pisarek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It plaster moulds gets casted the alloys of following metals: Al, Cu, Ag, Au in precise and artistic founding. The investigation of the crys-tallization of bronzes in hot plaster moulds the method of the thermal analysis and derivative (TDA was not realized out so far. Probe TDAg and tripod enabling the execution of measurements on inductive casting machine INDUTHERM-VC 500D were designed for this technology especially. It was confirmed that one the method TDA can identify the crystallization process of the bronze in hot plaster moulds. The investigations of the superficial distribution of the concentration of elements in the microstructure of the studied grades of the bronze on X-ray microanalizer were conducted. It results that they be subject to in bronze CuSn10-C (B10 and the CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C (B555 of strong microsegregation from conducted investigations: Pb, Sn and Sb. The single separates of intermetallic phase κ was identified in the bronze B10 rich first of all in Zn, Sn, Sb and Fe, and two intermetallic phase, one rich were identified in the bronze B555 first of all in Zn, Sb, (Nor, Fe and second rich in Sn, Sb, (Nor, Fe. The most homogeneous microstructure from the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C (BA1055 is characterizes among the studied grades of the bronze in the cast state.

  9. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  10. Gold and Silver Inlaid Bronze Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gold and silver inlaying is a metal processing technique popular during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B. C.) and the Warring States Period (475-221 B. C.). Patterns on the surface of the bronze figure are chiselled out and gold and silver threads (which can be as thin as hair) are inlaid. Finally the whole figure is filed and polished resulting in a splendid artistic work highlighting the different colours of the three different kinds of metal. The artifact shown here was unearthed from Ningxia'...

  11. Double phase conjugation in tungsten bronze crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E J; Clark Iii, W W; Miller, M J; Wood, G L; Monson, B; Salamo, G J; Neurgaonkar, R R

    1990-02-20

    In this paper we report a new method for double phase conjugation particularly suited to the tungsten bronze crystal strontium barium niobate. It has also been observed to produce conjugate waves in BaTiO(3) and BSKNN. This new arrangement is called the bridge conjugator because the two beams enter opposing [100] crystal faces and fan together to form a bridge without reflection off a crystal face. Our measurements indicate that the bridge conjugator is competitive with previously reported double phase conjugate mirrors in reflectivity, response time, ease of alignment, and fidelity.

  12. Electrical properties of complex tungsten bronze ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, R.; Das, Piyush R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper highlights the electrical properties of two new complex tungsten bronze ceramics (K2Pb2Eu2W2Ti4Nb4O30 and K2Pb2Pr2W2Ti4Nb4O30) which were prepared by high temperature mixed oxide method. Variation of impedance parameters with temperature (27-500 °C) and frequency (1 kHz to 5 MHz) shows the grain and grain boundary effects in the samples. The variation of dielectric parameters with frequency is also studied. The ac conductivity variation with temperature clearly exhibits that the materials have thermally activated transport properties of Arrhenius type.

  13. Marco Polo Dances Back to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The national theater’s first dance drama premieres in late December The first original dance drama of China’s National Center for the Performing Arts (NCPA) Marco Polo will debut at the theater on December 22, a move to continue the tradition of launching excellent stage works to celebrate the theater’s anniversary.This December marks the theater’s third birthday.

  14. Research of Tribological Behaviors of a New Aluminum Bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-lin; WANG Zhi-ping; CHEN Chao

    2004-01-01

    The tribological behaviors were investigated in a new high strength and wear resistant aluminum bronze, with its friction coefficient and wear-rate lower than those of ZQAl9-4 and ZQAl10-4-4 alloys in terms of Chinese national standard.The results showed that different tribological behaviors were attributed material itself. Under boundary lubrication condition, major wear mechanisms of aluminum bronze are adhesive wear and attrition wear. Its wearability depends mainly on material microstructure, shedding hard-particles, rakes and small pits that can store lubricant. The new aluminum bronze may find wide application in high sliding speed, heavy load and boundary lubrication condition.

  15. Research of Tribological Behaviors of a New Aluminum Bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJian-lin; WANGZhi-ping; CHENChao

    2004-01-01

    The tribological behaviors were investigated in a new high strength and wear resistant alurninum bronze, with its friction coefficient and wear-rate lower than those of ZQA19-4 and ZQAI10-4-4 alloys in terms of Chinese national standard. The results showed that different tribological behaviors were attributed material itself. Under boundary lubrication condition, major wear mechanisms of aluminum bronze are adhesive wear and attrition wear. Its. wearability depends mainly on material microstructure, shedding hard-particles, rakes and small pits that can store lubricant. The new aluminum bronze may find wide application in high sliding speed, heavy load and boundaty lubrication condition.

  16. The preparation, characterisation and catalytic activity of tungsten bronzes

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Sheena

    1987-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The structure and catalytic aspects of tungsten bronzes have been considered. A series of potassium tungsten bronzes, KxW03, 0.05 =< x =< 0.8, and the corresponding series of sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxW03, 0.05 =< x =< 0.8 were prepared by a thermal method. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was studied in the presence of both an oxidising and a reducing gas. The number and...

  17. Historia del Estadio San Marcos de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Bazán, Mario Miguel

    2009-01-01

    La historia del Estadio San Marcos de la Universidad San Marcos de Lima es pretexto para estudiar sus precarias relaciones con el Estado en contextos de autoritarismo y clientelismo. El estadio, planeado al principio para ser el mayor coliseo deportivo de Perú, se convirtió con la donación del dictador Manuel Odría a la Universidad, en espacio de su futura ciudad universitaria. Señalamos que esta donación se hizo cuando el estadio no había sido concluido porque le resultaba demasiado oneroso ...

  18. Electrodeposited nanocrystalline bronze alloys as replacement for Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovestad, A.; Tacken, R.A.; Mannetje, H.H. [TNO Science and Industry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    Nanocrystalline white-bronze, CuSn, electroplating was investigated as alternative to Ni plating as undercoat for noble metals in jewellery applications. A strongly acidic plating bath was developed with an organic additive to suppress hydrogen evolution and obtain bright coatings. Polarization curves indicate a strong inhibition by the organic additive at the tin equilibrium potential. Mass transfer controlled deposition yields nanocrystalline bronze coating with 0-65 wt% Sn. One or two low temperature equilibrium phases, high temperature equilibrium phases or a non-equilibrium phase were identified by XRD analyses. Bright white bronze, 50 wt% Cu/50 wt% Sn, bronze coatings show improved tarnishing resistance and similar corrosion and wear resistance as undercoat for gold on actual jewellery parts compared to nickel. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Bronze Inscription Calendar and Western Zhou Kings' Reigns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长寿; 莫润先

    2003-01-01

    In the inscriptions of Western Zhou bronzes there are quantities of calendrical data recording years, months and days. Of them are those completely indicating the year of king's reign, the moon, the lunar phase, and the day designated by the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches system. These records are of great significance to studying the Western Zhou calendar, establishing the bronze inscription calendar, and identifying the reigning years of the Western Zhou kings.

  20. Russian meteorite Bronze Age (rock record)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of petroglyphs found in the quartzite grotto near the Skelnovsky small village in the Northern Black Sea in the South of Russia. The aim of the study was the analysis and interpretation of the Early Bronze Age petroglyphs using archaeoastronomical methods. The article presents a comparative analysis of Skelnovsky grotto ancient images and contemporary eyewitness accounts of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite fall and meteorite shower. Some petroglyphs were interpreted by us using ethnographic and folklore material. In this study, the magnetic declination for the geographical coordinates Skelnovsky farm was calculated, and the projection of the whole picture Skelnovskih petroglyphs on the topographical map of the area was built. The proposed location of the meteorite fall was determined with this projection. It is confirmed by satellite pictures, on which are the distinguishable terrain features, typical for the meteorite fall, are visible including the possible impact crater...

  1. Atomically resolved images of lithium purple bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, Melanie; Bienert, Robert; Waelsch, Michael; Podlich, Tatjana; Matzdorf, Rene [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Kassel (Germany); Jin, Rongying [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lousiana State University (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The lithium molybdenum purple bronze Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} is a quasi 1D metal at room temperature showing Luttinger liquid physics. The highly anisotropic conductivity runs along the crystallographic b axis where Mo-O chains, formed by the shared edges of the MoO{sub 6} octahedra, provide the electrical transport. Li{sub 0.9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 17} samples were investigated with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. By cleaving the samples at low temperatures (60 K) we obtained atomically resolved images of the surface. In these images the Mo-O chains are visible, which are covered by layers of MoO{sub 6} octahedra and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  2. Marcos interpretativos para acercarnos al proceso de emergencia del problema de las violencias hacia las mujeres en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da cuenta de los marcos interpretativos adoptados por lasinstituciones, personas y organizaciones respecto a las políticas públicascontra las violencias hacia las mujeres. Primeramente se hace unaaproximación teórica a la noción de marcos interpretativos, seguidamente seexpone el análisis a partir de la variable de permanencia, y finalmente seaborda estos enmarques en el contexto de Colombia, especialmente la violenciaen el ámbito de la familia.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of thin-film sodium tungsten bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, H. E.; Fielder, W. L.; Singer, J.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Thin films of sodium tungsten bronze (NaxWO3) were investigated as reversible sodium ion electrodes for solid electrolytes. The films were made by electron beam evaporation of the three phases, W metal, Na2WO4, and WO3, followed by sintering. The substrates were sodium beta alumina disks and glass slides. X-ray diffraction analyses of the films showed that sintering in dry nitrogen with prior exposure to air lead to mixed phases. Sintering in vacuum with no air exposure produced tetragonal I bronze with a nominal composition of Na0.31WO3, single phase within the limits of X-ray diffraction detectability. The films were uniform and adherent on sodium beta alumina substrates. The ac and dc conductivities of the beta alumina were measured with the sodium tungsten bronze films as electrodes. These experiments indicated that the tetragonal I bronze electrodes were not completely reversible. This may have resulted from sodium ion blocking within the bronze film or at the bronze beta alumina interface. Methods for attempting to make more completely reversible electrodes are suggested.

  4. In memory of Marcos Vidal (1974-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cagan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the untimely death of Marcos Vidal, we have lost a good friend and a creative, brilliant colleague who made important contributions to the field of cancer biology through fruit fly research. Marcos began his research into Drosophila at Ross Cagan's laboratory in 2003, first at Washington University in St Louis and later at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. In 2009 Marcos was appointed as Research Group Leader at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research in Glasgow.

  5. Redes sociais como novo marco interpretativo das mobilizações coletivas contemporâneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Martins

    Full Text Available Os rumos dos movimentos sociais e das mobilizações sociais e culturais na contemporaneidade assinalam o enfraquecimento dos antigos marcos teóricos positivistas que subordinavam a constituição das práticas identitárias a certos critérios reducionistas, como o do utilitarismo econômico e o da ideologia do progresso. No entanto, as mudanças recentes produzidas pelos processos de desterritorialização e reterritorialização nas sociedades complexas impõem novos tipos de atores, conflitos e mediações, sendo as redes uma forma social exemplar dessas mudanças. Mas as redes não se impõem automaticamente como um novo marco interpretativo. É importante explicar que elas são objeto de embate no campo intelectual e que podem conhecer leituras diversas, tanto utilitaristas como antiutilitaristas.

  6. Em aço, bronze e pedra se materializa a memória das comemorações do biênio da colonização e imigração do Rio Grande do Sul: os monumentos em homenagem aos imigrantes = Steel, bronze and stone materializes memory of celebrations of the settlement and immigration biennium in Rio Grande do Sul: the monuments in tribute to immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima, Tatiane de

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As comemorações podem ser entendidas como atos de rememorar o passado representando-o simbolicamente, na busca de unificar e guardar memórias. O presente trabalho analisa a construção e inauguração de monumentos dedicados aos imigrantes durante as comemorações do Biênio da Colonização e Imigração do Rio Grande do Sul, ocorridas nos anos de 1974 e 1975, promovidas pelo governo estadual. Elas tiveram como fim principal homenagear e agradecer aos imigrantes que fizeram parte da construção geográfica, econômica, social e política do Estado. Através do estudo dos monumentos tomamos consciência dos valores históricos representados plasticamente por eles. São nestes lugares de memória que vemos marcas de um passado que não é apenas celebrado e resgatado, mas glorificado ao ser rememorado pelas comunidades que dão vidas a estas obras. No presente trabalho buscaremos analisar as imagens que são produzidas plasticamente pelos monumentos, através dos simbolismos carregados por estas obras de arte, bem como pelos possíveis conflitos relacionados à sua construção e inauguração. Os imigrantes tem sido mostrados nos monumentos em sua homenagem em primeiro lugar como trabalhadores, pois os seus instrumentos de trabalho ocupam um espaço de destaque nestas obras, assim como a família, que também se faz muito presente na demonstração da perspectiva imigrante de uma vida nova e perpetuação da cultura através das gerações. Na continuidade desta análise queremos destacar o Monumento ao Sesquicentenário da Imigração Alemã construído em São Leopoldo e inaugurado durante as comemorações do Biênio, em 1974. O estudo desse monumento se dará a partir do entendimento de que os monumentos são espaços possíveis de pesquisa e de conhecimento. Assim, ao investigarmos as propostas ligadas à construção da obra, olharemos também os discursos produzidos em torno da edificação e as manifest

  7. 75 FR 57825 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Chinese Bronzes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes From the... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Shouyang Studio: The...

  8. 75 FR 15764 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gods of Angkor: Bronzes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gods of Angkor: Bronzes From the...: Bronzes from the National Museum of Cambodia,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  9. Avaliação dos marcos do desenvolvimento infantil segundo a estratégia da atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes na infância Evaluación de los marcos de desarrollo infantil según la estrategia de atención integrada a las enfermedades prevalentes de la infancia Evaluation of the mark of child development according to strategy integrated management of childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Elena Andrade Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetiva avaliar o desenvolvimento de crianças de 0 a 24 meses matriculadas em uma creche de Ipatinga, Minas Gerais, através dos marcos do desenvolvimento infantil propostos pela Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com análise quantitativa dos dados. A amostra foi composta por 20 crianças de 0 a 24 meses, e os dados foram coletados no período de 13 de fevereiro a 6 de março de 2009. Das 20 crianças avaliadas, 4 (20% foram classificadas com "Possível atraso"; 1 (5%, com "Provável atraso"; e 15 (75%, com "Desenvolvimento normal". Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que a ficha de acompanhamento do desenvolvimento proposta pelo Manual para Vigilância do Desenvolvimento Infantil constitui-se em um instrumento de triagem de fácil aplicação, de baixo custo operacional e capaz de realizar a detecção precoce dos atrasos, devendo, portanto, fazer parte das ações do enfermeiro na consulta de puericultura.La investigación tiene por objetivo evaluar el desarrollo de niños de 0 a 2 meses matriculados en una guardería en Ipatinga, Minas Gerais, a través de los hechos importantes del desarrollo infantil propuesto por la Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia. Este es un estudio descriptivo con el análisis de datos cuantitativos. La muestra comprende 20 niños de 0 a 24 meses y los datos fueron recolectados desde el 13 de febrero hasta el 06 de marzo del año de 2009. De los 20 niños evaluados, 4 (20% fueron clasificados como "posible retraso", 1 (5% como "probable retraso" y 15 (75% como "desarrollo normal". Los resultados mostraron que la ficha de acompañamiento propuesta por el Manual para la Vigilancia del Desarrollo Infantil se constituye en una herramienta de triar de fácil aplicación, bajo costo operacional y capaz de llevar a cabo la detección precoz de retrasos y, por lo tanto, hacer parte de las acciones de la enfermera en la

  10. 78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze Age... material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer era. The restrictions, which were originally... archaeological material from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. Import restrictions listed in 19 CFR...

  11. 76 FR 40402 - Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, WV; Notice of Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-72,953 Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division... former workers of Matthews International Corporation, Bronze ] Division, Kingwood, West Virginia (subject..., 2011 (76 FR 7584). Workers were engaged in the production of cast bronze memorial products. The...

  12. Analysis of bell materials: Tin bronzes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaromir Audy; Katarina Audy

    2008-01-01

    The present study was set up to examine the effect of alloying elements (including harmful elements) on metallurgical features (material properties and qualitative parameters) of tin bronzes, with particular reference to church bells from Middle Ages to Current times. A driving force of this study was to identify and demonstrate features related to the quality of church bells made in different centuries. The findings have been derived via metallographic and chemical analysis of specimens of bells from various parts of Australasia and Europe. The bell materials consisted of a mixture of the a phase and the (α+β) eutectoid essentially, in proportions determined by tin content and mould materials during casting. The samples from the 15th century to the one from the 20th century showed a progressive increase in hardness, ranging from the minimum of -280 VHM20g to a maximum of -470 VHM20g for the (α+β) eutectoid, and -160 VHM20g to -230 VHM20g for the a phase. The investigation also shows that the sound decay of the bell decreased with lowering the wt.% of tin and increasing the wt.% of lead and silver. This information is expected to provide an additional interesting knowledge into manufacturing practices and their significance in the quality of church bells over past centuries.

  13. Fabrication of a Bronze Age Sword using Ancient Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, David; Webler, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    A khopesh was cast and forged for the TMS 2016 Bladesmithing Symposium. The khopesh was the first sword style, originating during the Bronze Age in the Near East. The manufacturing process used in this study closely followed Bronze Age techniques to determine the plausibility of open mold casting coupled with cold work and annealing cycles. Forging and annealing cycles substantially increased blade strength and diminished intergranular δ-phase inclusions. While a functional blade was not completed due to casting defects, the process gives valuable insight into the effort required to fabricate a khopesh during the Bronze Age. Forging and annealing cycles following casting were necessary to produce the mechanical properties desired in a sword.

  14. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructural Changes in Aluminium Bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hájek J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to summarise the microstructural changes which take place in aluminium bronzes during heat treatment. Another objective of this study was to map the potential of a certain type of aluminium bronzes for undergoing martensitic transformation. The methods, which were chosen for assessing the results of heat treatment with regard to their availability, included measurement of hardness and observation of microstructure using light and scanning electron microscopy, Additional tools for evaluation of microstructure comprised measurement of microhardness and chemical analysis by EDS. An important part of the experiment is observation of microstructural changes in the Jominy bar during the end-quench test. Upon completing experiments of this kind, one can define the heat treatment conditions necessary for obtaining optimum properties. In addition, the paper presents important findings on how to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes by special heat treatment sequences.

  15. Archaeological investigations of the Bronze Age village of Bagnara di Romagna (RA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cattani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of researches carried out in the area next to the modern village of Bagnara di Romagna (RA, where several evidences related to a Bronze Age settlement have been collected. Recently test trenches and surface collections allowed to retrieve bronze and ceramics dating from the Middle Bronze Age (phase BM2 to the Recent Bronze Age (phase BR2. The analysis of landscape and the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction complete the outline of the region of Imola, Faenza and Lugo during the Bronze Age where are well known the ancient settlements of Solarolo, via Ordiere, Monte Castellaccio end S. Giuliano di Toscanella.

  16. Pantani di Marco Martinelli: una narrazione polifonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Nasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo si analizza il testo drammaturgico Pantani di Marco Martinelli, una veglia epica teatrale di uno dei più noti eroi dello sport italiano degli ultimi anni. Il dramma rilegge anche la storia di Pantani e ricostruisce gli strani avvenimenti che portarono alla sospensione, alla estromissione del ciclista dal Giro d’Italia nel 1999, e in seguito alla sua profonda crisi psicologica e tragica morte in solitudine in un hotel, a soli 34 anni. Oltre alle modalità proprie della veglia rituale, il dramma utilizza anche i metodi del processo giudiziario, e offre testimonianze dettagliate che conducono a una riflessione critica sulla società italiana negli anni del potere politico di Berlusconi e della sua filosofia del consumismo. I tre diversi generi della retorica classica (epidittico, giudiziario e deliberativo si mescolano in questa complessa tessitura teatrale. Coniugando informazioni (processo e rito (veglia, Martinelli riesce a fondere la tragedia greca (forma mimetica e corale e il moderno teatro di narrazione (forma diegetica monologante. Combinando assieme scene intensamente drammatiche, ricordi di imprese sportive epiche, passaggi giocosi e parodici, e giustapponendo vari stili e registri (giornalistico, lirico, parodico, elegiaco, Martinelli crea momenti di forte “straniamento” e sorpresa, e rende particolarmente efficace il rito funebre, la ricostruzione storica della tragica vicenda di Pantani e la critica all’ideologia che ha dominato l’Italia negli anni di Berlusconi. 

  17. Trajetória da política de atenção básica à saúde no Distrito Federal, Brasil (1960 a 2007: análise a partir do marco teórico do neo-institucionalismo histórico A history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil (1960-2007: an analysis based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bernardo Donato Göttems

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a trajetória da política de atenção básica à saúde no Distrito Federal, Brasil, a partir do marco teórico do neo-institucionalismo histórico, identificando as conformações e as tendências predominantes nas gestões da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde (SES-DF no período de 1960 a 2007. O estudo sinaliza que a política de saúde do Distrito Federal apresenta características de dependência da trajetória dos planos de saúde originais na definição de prioridades e metas, bem como na implementação do sistema de saúde. Essa influência, agregada à centralização dos processos decisórios e à limitada participação política, pode contribuir para situar a atenção básica como acessória ao atendimento hospitalar, destituindo-a do seu potencial de produzir mudança no modelo assistencial.This article analyzes the history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil, based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism, identifying the predominant configurations and trends in the various administrations of the State Health Secretariat (SES-DF from 1960 to 2007. The study indicates that the characteristics of the Federal District's health policy are dependent on the history of the original health system plans for setting priorities and goals, as well as for the health system's implementation. This influence, in addition to the centralization of decision-making processes and limited political participation, can contribute to making primary care ancillary to hospital care, thus jeopardizing its potential to produce change in the health care model.

  18. Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-peng; Guo, Jia; Li, Cong-ying; Jiang, Yu-hang; Zartman, Robert E.; Zhang, Zhao-feng

    2016-01-01

    Fine Yin-Shang bronzes containing lead with puzzlingly highly radiogenic isotopic compositions appeared suddenly in the alluvial plain of the Yellow River around 1400 BC. The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in central China is known to have lead isotopic compositions even more radiogenic and scattered than those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Most of the Yin-Shang bronzes are tin-copper alloys with high lead contents. The low lead and tin concentrations, together with the less radiogenic lead isotopes of bronzes in an ancient smelting site nearby, however, exclude Tongkuangyu as the sole supplier of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Interestingly, tin ingots/prills and bronzes found in Africa also have highly radiogenic lead isotopes, but it remains mysterious as to how such African bronzes may have been transported to China. Nevertheless, these African bronzes are the only bronzes outside China so far reported that have lead isotopes similar to those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. All these radiogenic lead isotopes plot along ~2.0–2.5 Ga isochron lines, implying that deposits around Archean cratons are the most likely candidates for the sources. African cratons along the Nile and even micro-cratons in the Sahara desert may have similar lead signatures. These places were probably accessible by ancient civilizations, and thus are the most favorable suppliers of the bronzes. PMID:26988425

  19. Identitarian and power construction strategies during the Bronze Age-Iron Age transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea, Alicia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We put forward a long term explanatory model to account for a series of gold finds all along the Iberian Peninsula Atlantic seaboard during the Bronze Age and the Bronze Age-Iron Age transition, a phenomenon of a unique dimension in the european panorama of the prehistoric gold production. The case study is three different forms of hoarding: hoards containing spirals or chains of spirals; hoards containing torcs of the Sagrajas/Berzocana type; and hoards with Villena/Estremoz type bracelets.
    We analyse some aspects of the production, distribution and consumption of the stated gold material, mainly those referring to manufacturing processes and knowledge transmission phenomena, which has allowed us to characterise different technological domain systems and to define how they interact at the time when a third technological domain appears in scene. Finally we propose a diachronic frame of relations between the three domain systems.

    Desde la perspectiva de la larga duración hemos elaborado un modelo para explicar la aparición de determinados hallazgos con oro en toda la fachada atlántica de la Península Ibérica a lo largo de la Edad del Bronce y durante la transición a la Edad del Hierro, un fenómeno de dimensiones únicas en todo el panorama de la orfebrería prehistórica europea. Se trata de tres tipos diferentes de depósitos: los que contienen espirales o cadenas de espirales; los que contienen torques tipo Sagrajas/Berzocana; y los que contienen brazaletes tipo Villena/Estremoz.
    Analizamos algunos aspectos de la producción, distribución y consumo de este material áureo, sobre todo aquellos referentes a procesos de fabricación y fenómenos de transmisión del conocimiento, lo que nos ha permitido definir distintos ámbitos tecnológicos y sus formas de interactuación en el momento en que un tercer ámbito, de origen mediterráneo, entra a formar parte del escenario. Finalmente, proponemos un marco diacrónico de

  20. The Marcos de Niza Experience: Teaching in a Community Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Julieta Aviles

    1979-01-01

    The author reports on the multicultural, bilingual art program she created for elementary-age children at the Marcos de Niza community center in Phoenix, Arizona. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art education. (SJL)

  1. Kas doktorikooli lõpetajatest saavad doktorid? / Marco Kirm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirm, Marco, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Materjaliteaduse ja materjalide tehnoloogia doktorikool on TÜ Füüsika-keemiateaduskonna ja Füüsika Instituudi juurde loodud institutsioon. Vastab Tartu Ülikooli Füüsika Instituudi teadusdirektor Marco Kirm

  2. Final Critical Habitat for the San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana) occur based on the description provided in the...

  3. Reporting Casting Bronze Plaque Becomes Advisers Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charlie

    1977-01-01

    Describes an advisers' class project (at the University of Oklahoma) which consisted of reporting on the casting of a bronze plaque bearing the names of the first school newspaper, "The Students Gazette," and its editor, Samuel M. Fox, for presentation in Philadelphia to commemorate scholastic journalism's Bicentennial. (MB)

  4. Latium Vetus in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessandri, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present an in-depth analysis of the socio-economic dynamics that took place from the Bronze Age until the middle of the eighth century BC, in the Latium Vetus (Italy). To understand the archaeological record, knowledge of the transformations through time of the various lan

  5. Electrodeposited nanocrystalline bronze alloys as replacement for Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Tacken, R.A.; Mannetje, H.H.'t

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline white-bronze, CuSn, electroplating was investigated as alternative to Ni plating as undercoat for noble metals in jewellery applications. A strongly acidic plating bath was developed with an organic additive to suppress hydrogen evolution and obtain bright coatings. Polarization curv

  6. Going for the Bronze: A Study of Frederic Remington's Sculptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the artist Frederic Remington who was fascinated with the Old West in the United States. Discusses how students can learn about Remington, his art, and the Old West. Presents an art lesson where students create their own bronze horse sculptures in the style of Remington. (CMK)

  7. Microcrystalline hexagonal tungsten bronze. 2. Dehydration dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Vittorio; Griffith, Christopher S; Hanna, John V

    2009-07-06

    Low-temperature (25-600 degrees C) thermal transformations have been studied for hydrothermally prepared, microcrystalline hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) phases A(x)WO(3+x/2).zH(2)O as a function of temperature, where A is an exchangeable cation (in this case Na(+) or Cs(+)) located in hexagonal structural tunnels. Thermal treatment of the as-prepared sodium- and cesium-exchanged phases in air were monitored using a conventional laboratory-based X-ray diffractometer, while thermal transformations in vacuum were studied using synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction. Concurrent thermogravimetric, diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIFT), and (23)Na and (133)Cs magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic studies have also been undertaken. For the cesium variant, cell volume contraction occurred from room temperature to about 350 degrees C, the regime in which water was "squeezed" out of tunnel sites. This was followed by a lattice expansion in the 350-600 degrees C temperature range. Over the entire temperature range, a net thermal contraction was observed, and this was the result of an anisotropic change in the cell dimensions which included a shortening of the A-O2 bond length. These changes explain why Cs(+) ions are locked into tunnel positions at temperatures as low as 400 degrees C, subsequently inducing a significant reduction in Cs(+) extractability under low pH (nitric acid) conditions. The changing Cs(+) speciation as detected by (133)Cs MAS NMR showed a condensation from multiple Cs sites, presumably associated with differing modes of Cs(+) hydration in the tunnels, to a single Cs(+) environment upon thermal transformation and water removal. While similar lattice contraction was observed for the as-prepared sodium variant, the smaller radius of Na(+) caused it to be relatively easily removed with acid in comparison to the Cs(+) variant. From (23)Na MAS NMR studies of the parent material, complex Na(+) speciation was observed with dehydrated and various

  8. Caracterização ultra-sônica de materiais ferroelétricos com estrutura perovskita e tungstênio-bronze Ultrasonic characterization of perovskite and tungsten-bronze ferroelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moreno-Gobbi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Atenuação e velocidade ultra-sônicas e, consequentemente, o módulo de Young de cerâmicas ferroelétricas com estrutura do tipo perovskita e tungstênio-bronze foram medidas entre 2,5 e 30 MHz, à temperatura ambiente, utilizando-se a técnica de pulso-eco. Composições com e sem chumbo foram testadas, mostrando que a presença do cátion Pb2+ representa fator importante no comportamento da atenuação. A dependência da atenuação com a freqüência é mais acentuada no caso dos ferroelétricos com estrutura perovskita. As discussões são baseadas nos modelos de espalhamento por grãos/poros em materiais policristalinos.Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity of ferroelectric ceramics with perovskite and tungsten-bronze structures were measured in a range of 2.5 to 30 MHz at room temperature, using the pulse-echo-overlap technique. Lead and non-lead compositions were analyzed, revealing that Pb2+ in the lattice affects the attenuation behavior. The frequency dependence of attenuation is clearly stronger for the lead materials with perovskite structure. The discussions are based on a qualitative analysis of grain/pore scattering models for polycrystalline materials

  9. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse.... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls,...

  10. Comparative study of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the bronze gudgeon (Coreius heterodon) and largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yaoguang; Peng, Zuogang

    2013-06-01

    The bronze gudgeon (Coreius heterodon) and the congeneric species largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti), two endemic fish species in China, are important economic fishes in local areas. The bronze gudgeon is distributed in Yangtze River and Huanghe River basin, whereas the largemouth bronze gudgeon is distributed only in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of the two species and compared the evolutionary rate differences between the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of C. heterodon and C. guichenoti are 16,611 and 16,612 bp, respectively. Both of the complete mitogenome sequences contain 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA subunits, 22 tRNAs and 1 non-coding control region, which are typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The relative rate test shows that the mitochondrial genome of C. heterodon evolves nearly threefold faster than that of C. guichenoti, which is mostly caused by the higher substitution rates in rRNAs and especially in tRNAs in C. heterodon.

  11. WC/Ni bronze composite material formation by combined methods of laser cladding and cold spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashin, N. S.; Malikov, A. G.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Orishich, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Formation of composite material containing anti-friction bronze CuAl8.5Fe4Ni5Mn1.5 and reinforced by inner bulk profiled frame of WC/Ni was considered. Combined methods of laser cladding and cold spraying were used. Reinforced cold spraying copper-bronze blend deposits on profiled frames of WC/Ni produced by laser cladding were obtained. Dependence of bronze weight concentration in cold spraying copper-bronze deposit on bronze weight part in powder blend was analyzed. Results of non-contact profiling of reinforcing WC/Ni frame, EDS analysis and microhardness tests of obtained reinforced copper-bronze-WC/Ni composites were presented.

  12. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  13. Quantitative multiphase analysis of archaeological bronzes by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Siano, S; Celli, M; Pini, R; Salimbeni, R; Zoppi, M; Kockelmann, W A; Iozzo, M; Miccio, M; Moze, O

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first investigation on the potentials of neutron diffraction to characterize archaeological bronze artifacts. The preliminary feasibility of phase and structural analysis was demonstrated on standardised specimens with a typical bronze alloy composition. These were realised through different hardening and annealing cycles, simulating possible ancient working techniques. The Bragg peak widths that resulted were strictly dependent on the working treatment, thus providing an important analytical element to investigate ancient making techniques. The diagnostic criteria developed on the standardised specimens were then applied to study two Etruscan museum pieces. Quantitative multiphase analysis by Rietveld refinement of the diffraction patterns was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the analysis of patterns associated with different artifact elements also yielded evidence for some peculiar perspective of the neutron diffraction diagnostics in archeometric applications. (orig.)

  14. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

  15. Feast, Food and Fodder in Neolithic-Bronze Age Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between mundane domestic and more formal meals in recent rural Greece, as a prelude to a diachronic examination of the range of commensal behavior through the Neolithic and Bronze Age of the same region. Analysis of recent practices highlights the role of a hierarchy of low- to high-value foods. While Neolithic commensality beyond the household emphasizes equality and collective cohesion, formal commensality takes a strikingly and increasingly diacrit...

  16. NUMERICAL MODELING OF HARDENING OF UNINTERRUPTEDLY-CASTED BRONZE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional numerical model for calculation of thermal fields during solidification of continuously casted bronze casting is developed. Coefficients of heat transfer on borders of calculation areas on the basis of the solution of inverse heat transfer conduction problem are determined. The analysis of thermal fields, depending on loop variables of drawing and the sizes of not cooled zone of crystallizer is curried out.

  17. Investigations on dry sliding of laser cladded aluminum bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiße Hannes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the tribological behaviour of laser cladded aluminum bronze tool surfaces for dry metal forming. In a first part of this work a process window for cladding aluminum bronze on steel substrate was investigated to ensure a low dilution. Therefore, the cladding speed, the powder feed rate, the laser power and the distance between the process head and the substrate were varied. The target of the second part was to investigate the influence of different process parameters on the tribological behaviour of the cladded tracks. The laser claddings were carried out on both aluminum bronze and cold work tool steel as substrate materials. Two different particle sizes of the cladding powder material were used. The cladding speed was varied and a post-processing laser remelting treatment was applied. It is shown that the tribological behaviour of the surface in a dry oscillating ball-on-plate test is highly dependent on the substrate material. In the third part a deep drawing tool was additively manufactured by direct laser deposition. Furthermore, the tool was applied to form circular cups with and without lubrication.

  18. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  19. Tamil Chola Bronzes and Swamimalai Legacy: Metal Sources and Archaeotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sharada

    2016-08-01

    This review explores the great copper alloy image casting traditions of southern India from archaeometallurgical and ethnometallurgical perspectives. The usefulness of lead isotope ratio and compositional analysis in the finger-printing and art historical study of more than 130 early historic, Pallava, Chola, later Chola, and Vijayanagara sculptures (fifth-eighteenth centuries) is highlighted, including Nataraja, Buddha, Parvati, and Rama images made of copper, leaded bronze, brass, and gilt copper. Image casting traditions at Swamimalai in Tamil Nadu are compared with artistic treatises and with the technical examination of medieval bronzes, throwing light on continuities and changes in foundry practices. Western Indian sources could be pinpointed for a couple of medieval images from lead isotope analysis. Slag and archaeometallurgical investigations suggest the exploitation of some copper and lead-silver sources in the Andhra and Karnataka regions in the early historic Satavahana period and point to probable copper sources for the medieval images in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. The general lower iron content in southern Indian bronzes perhaps renders the proximal copper-magnetite reserves of Seruvila in Sri Lanka as a less likely source. Given the lack of lead deposits in Sri Lanka, however, the match of the lead isotope signatures of a well-known Ceylonese Buddhist Tara in British Museum with a Buddha image from Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu may underscore ties between the island nation and the southern Indian Tamil regions.

  20. Portable EDXRF investigation of the patinas on the Riace Bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccolieri, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.buccolieri@unisalento.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Buccolieri, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.buccolieri@unisalento.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donati, Paola, E-mail: paola.donati@beniculturali.it [Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, via di San Michele n. 23, 00153 Roma (Italy); Marabelli, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.marabelli@libero.it [Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, via di San Michele n. 23, 00153 Roma (Italy); Castellano, Alfredo, E-mail: alfredo.castellano@unisalento.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    This paper summarizes the experimental results concerning the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of patinas on two Riace Bronzes, kept in the National Archaeological Museum of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, Southern Italy). The two large Greek sculptures, famous nude bearded warriors both dated in the fifth century BC, are without a doubt, two masterpieces of inestimable historic and artistic value. EDXRF survey had the aim to determinate the chemical composition of the surface of these two bronze statues and to discriminate their different patinas. In particular, the concentration of sulphur, chlorine, tin, manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead was determined by using a portable apparatus. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out in order to identify possible correlations and/or differences of elemental composition among the patinas of these two statues. The information obtained made it possible to improve knowledge about the patinas of the Riace Bronzes, and this may help further studies and subsequent methods of restoration and/or of preservation of the two celebrated Greek sculptures.

  1. O desafio do desenvolvimento frente aos marcos ecológico e de mercado em direção à sustentabilidade no século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Madeira da Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho demonstrar-se-á o desafio do modelo desenvolvimentista atual em direção à preconizada e colimada sustentabilidade. A primeira década deste século XXI foi marcada por dois marcos, um ambiental (as mudanças climáticas e outro de mercado (a crise econômica mundial, que colocaram em cheque o sistema capitalista, tendo em vista as soluções insustentáveis que foram tomadas para enfrentar estes marcos. Foram objeto de análise da pesquisa, a não adesão dos EUA ao Protocolo de Quioto; o contraponto dos países “em desenvolvimento” entre desenvolver-se ora sustentavelmente, ora insustentavelmente; e o fomento do consumo como única alternativa encontrada pelo países para a saída da crise econômica mundial.

  2. O lugar das mídias no processo de construção imaginária do "inimigo" no caso Marco Feliciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali do Nascimento Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da assertiva de que as mídias são componentes da dinâmica social e com ela interagem, este trabalho busca identificar, no fenômeno sociopolítico aqui denominado "caso Marco Feliciano", o lugar das mídias no processo de construção imaginária da configuração coletiva de inimigos. O estudo de caráter exploratório-descritivo se pautou pelo seguinte problema: em que medida e de que forma as mídias brasileiras participaram do processo de construção do imaginário coletivo do inimigo no caso Marco Feliciano de 2013?

  3. The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimary, Donald L.

    With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might…

  4. Marco Polo Parkside,Beijing Opens New Japanese Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Marco Polo Parkside, Beijing opened a new Japanese Restaurant, Matsuko, on January 28,2010. A traditional Japanese sake ceremony was held at the opening ceremony. Hotel General Manager Henk Meyknecht and Zhan Weiguo, CEO of Matsuko, opened the sake barrel and shared the sake with

  5. Ser gestante soropositivo para o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana: uma leitura à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico Ser gestante seropositiva para el Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana-HIV: una lectura bajo el marco teórico del Interaccionismo Simbólico Being pregnant seropositive and having acquired the human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV: a theoretical interpretation under the Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lins de Moura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o contexto do cotidiano vivido por mulheres grávidas soropositivas para o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV, com enfoque na experiência de tornar-se grávida e assumir a gravidez. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista gravada, com 14 gestantes sabidamente soropositivas para o HIV, que vivenciavam o terceiro trimestre de gravidez. O estudo fez uma leitura de dados brutos sobre expectativas e ações de gestantes soropositivas para o HIV, à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico. RESULTADOS: um dos aspectos encontrados mostrou que as mulheres HIV positivo assumem a gravidez, ainda que esta seja inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: os dados são um alerta para os profissionais de enfermagem que devem promover ações educativas para atender às demandas dessa mulher.OBJETIVO: Describir el contexto cotidiano vivido por mujeres embarazadas y seropositivas para el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV, con enfoque en la experiencia de estar embarazada y aceptar ese estado. MÉTODOS: Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista grabada, con 14 gestantes sabidamente seropositivas para el HIV, que se encontraban en el tercer trimestre de embarazo. El estudio hizo una lectura de los datos brutos sobre expectativas y acciones de las gestantes seropositivas para el HIV, bajo el marco teórico del Interaccionismo Simbólico. RESULTADOS: Uno de los aspectos encontrados mostró que las mujeres infectadas con Sida aceptan el embarazo, inclusive cuando ocurre inesperadamente. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos sirven de para los profesionales de enfermería para que promuevan acciones educativas que atiendan las necesidades de esas mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To describe the context of everyday life experienced by pregnant women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, focusing on the experience of becoming pregnant and accepting that condition. METHODS: Data were collected recording interviews with 14 pregnant women known to

  6. Wild West Frisia : the role of domestic and wild resource exploitation in Bronze Age subsistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on reconstructing the daily lives of Bronze Age farmers as well as the landscape for their subsistence practices. Doing so, Wild West Frisia analyses the separate components comprising Bronze Age subsistence (i.e. crop and animal husbandry, hunting and gathering) rather innovativ

  7. 7 CFR 51.1145 - U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Bronze. 51.1145 Section 51.1145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Grades § 51.1145 U.S. No. 1 Bronze. The...

  8. 7 CFR 51.754 - U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Bronze. 51.754 Section 51.754 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Grades § 51.754 U.S. No. 1 Bronze. The requirements for...

  9. 7 CFR 51.684 - U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Bronze. 51.684 Section 51.684 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....684 U.S. No. 1 Bronze. The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No 1 except that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.623 - U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Bronze. 51.623 Section 51.623 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.623 U.S. No. 1 Bronze. The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 1 except...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1814 - U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Bronze. 51.1814 Section 51.1814 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Grades § 51.1814 U.S. No. 1 Bronze. The requirements for...

  12. Haute Couture in the Bronze Age: A History of Minoan Female Costumes from Thera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2008-01-01

    Haute Couture in the Bronze Age from Thera is investigated via frescoes and with a historiographical approach on the reception of Minoan culture in contemporary Greek history......Haute Couture in the Bronze Age from Thera is investigated via frescoes and with a historiographical approach on the reception of Minoan culture in contemporary Greek history...

  13. Marco Zero de Oswald de Andrade : uma proposta de romance mural

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Formoso Cardoso e Silva

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo desta dissertação é estudar que proposta está envolvida na expressão "romance mural", com a qual Oswald de Andrade qualificou Marco Zero, romance publicado em dois volumes (A Revolução Melancólica e Chão) no qual o autor pretendia traçar um panorama da sociedade paulista nos anos 30. Para isso, analisamos as intenções ideológica e estética que guiaram o projeto, através do qual o escritor desejava unir sua experiência na vanguarda literária do Modernismo com a atuação na va...

  14. Determining Foundry Area of Bronze Vessel Using REE in Clay Mould Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The composition of casting clay core might provide clue to the foundry area of the bronze vessels. REE analysis of the residual clay mould was conducted by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results reveal that characteristic of REE of clay mould from different region is dissimilar. It is feasible to restrict the possible foundry area of the bronze vessels on the basis of analysis of REE of clay mould residues on the bronzes. Meanwhile, this paper attempts to determine the foundry area of the bronze vessels unearthed at Jiuliandun tombs of Chu State, dated back to Warring States Period, in Zaoyang City, Hubei Province, and at Zuozhong cemetery, Spring and Autumn Period, in Jingmen City, Hubei Province. REE of clay core provides information on the foundry area of bronze vessels.

  15. Chisels in the italian Bronze Age: technological and typological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speciale, Claudia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bronze chisels are tools used “à percussion posée”; this means they need a minimum length and some functional parts (tang, body, blade; they could have a handle of perishable material and they were used with a hammer to work wood, bronze and other materials. Chisels can be classified following their functional parts; the first element is the shape (rod or socketed chisel; the second one is body section; the third one is tang section. Chronology and distribution of every type were identified to obtain a general view of this class of tools during the Italian Bronze Age.

    Los cinceles de bronce son herramientas que se utilizan en percusión apoyada (à percussion posée, por consiguiente, necesitan una longitud mínima y algunas partes funcionales (empuñadura, cuerpo, hoja; podrían tener un mango de material perecedero. Se utilizan con un martillo en el labrado de la madera, del bronce y de otros materiales. Los cinceles se pueden clasificar de acuerdo con los siguientes elementos funcionales: el primero es la forma (cincel de varilla o de cubo; el segundo es la sección del cuerpo; el tercero es la sección de la empuñadura. La cronología y la distribución de cada tipo se identificaron para obtener una visión general de esta clase de instrumentos durante la Edad del Bronce en Italia.

  16. Investigation of laser cleaning on bronze cultural relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiulan; Wang, Gao; Zhang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The effects of laser cleaning on the corrosion layers of bronze cultural relics were studied using a pulsed fiber laser. The laser cleaning threshold value of the corrosion layers was obtained. It was found that the corrosion layer was removed successfully by employing a laser fluence value of 0.32 J cm-2 and scanning for three times. To obtain experimental evidence, laser con-focal scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the cleaning efficiency of corrosion layers on specimens.

  17. Unified approach for determining tetragonal tungsten bronze crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, M; Saint-Grégoire, P

    2014-05-01

    Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) oxides are one of the most important classes of ferroelectrics. Many of these framework structures undergo ferroelastic transformations related to octahedron tilting deformations. Such tilting deformations are closely related to the rigid unit modes (RUMs). This paper discusses the whole set of RUMs in an ideal TTB lattice and possible crystal structures which can emerge owing to the condensation of some of them. Analysis of available experimental data for the TTB-like niobates lends credence to the obtained theoretical predictions.

  18. Diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓然; 冯吉才; 刘会杰

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze has been studied and the feasibility and appropriate processing parameters have been investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints is bonded joint has been observed by SEM, X-ray and EPMA, and the main factors affecting diffusion bonding have been analyzed. The intermetallic compounds Ti2Cu and TiCu were formed near the interface. The width and quantity of the intermetallic compound increases with the increase of the bonding time. The formation of the intermetallic compounds results in embrittlement of the joint and the poor joint properties.

  19. La docencia en el marco de la responsabilidad social universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis José Vera Guadrón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la docencia en el marco de la responsabilidad social universitaria del profesor en el Programa Educación de la Universidad Nacional Experimental Rafael María Baralt. El tipo de investigación fue descriptiva, con diseño no experimental, de campo y transeccional; los resultados indicaron que los profesores cumplen con la docencia en el marco de la responsabilidad social universitaria. Se concluye que existe conocimiento del contexto institucional para desarrollar la docencia pero desvinculada de la investigación y extensión; se recomienda planificar talleres de formación para evitar la docencia parcelada, sin pertinencia social y científica.

  20. Uranium minerals from the San Marcos District, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortés, Manuel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Esparza-Ponce, Hilda; Montero-Cabrera, María Elena

    2010-05-01

    The mineralogy of the two uranium deposits (Victorino and San Marcos I) of Sierra San Marcos, located 30 km northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico, was studied by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. At the San Marcos I deposit, uranophane Ca(UO2)2Si2O7·6(H2O) (the dominant mineral at both deposits) and metatyuyamunite Ca(UO2)(V2O8)·3(H2O) were observed. Uranophane, uraninite (UO2+x), masuyite Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)·3(H2O), and becquerelite Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 ·(8H2O) are present at the Victorino deposit. Field observations, coupled with analytical data, suggest the following sequence of mineralization: (1) deposition of uraninite, (2) alteration of uraninite to masuyite, (3) deposition of uranophane, (4) micro-fracturing, (5) calcite deposition in the micro-fractures, and (6) formation of becquerelite. The investigated deposits were formed by high-to low-temperature hydrothermal activity during post-orogenic evolution of Sierra San Marcos. The secondary mineralization occurred through a combination of hydrothermal and supergene alteration events. Becquerelite was formed in situ by reaction of uraninite with geothermal carbonated solutions, which led to almost complete dissolution of the precursor uraninite. The Victorino deposit represents the second known occurrence of becquerelite in Mexico, the other being the uranium deposits at Peña Blanca in Chihuahua State.

  1. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission investigation of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sanhita; Kumari, Spriha; Raj, Satyabrata, E-mail: raj@iiserkol.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes. • Origin of transport anomalies in bronzes. • Flat segments of Fermi surfaces are connected by a nesting vector, q. • Nesting driven charge-density wave is responsible for the anomalies. - Abstract: We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density functional ab initio theoretical calculation to study the electronic structure of potassium (K{sub 0.25}WO{sub 3}) and phosphate (P{sub 4}W{sub 12}O{sub 44}) tungsten bronzes. We have experimentally determined the band dispersions and Fermi surface topology of these bronzes and compared with our theoretical calculations and a fair agreement has been seen between them. Our experimental as well as theoretical investigation elucidates the origin of transport anomalies in these bronzes. The Fermi surfaces of these bronzes consist of flat patches, which can be connected with each other by a constant nesting wave vector, q. The scattering wave vectors found from diffraction measurements match with these nesting vectors and the anomalies in the transport properties of these bronzes can be well explained by the evolution of charge-density wave with a partial nesting between the flat segments of the Fermi surfaces.

  2. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaniewski

    Full Text Available The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  3. Chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Kenji, E-mail: kenji-adachi@ni.smm.co.jp; Ota, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Mika; Oshimura, Nobumitsu; Tofuku, Atsushi [Ichikawa Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Ichikawa 272-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-21

    Nanoparticles of alkali-doped tungsten bronzes are an excellent near-infrared shielding material, but exhibit slight chromatic instabilities typically upon applications of strong ultra-violet light or heating in humid environment, which acts detrimentally to long-life commercial applications. Origin of the chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze has been investigated, and it has been found that the coloration and bleaching processes comprised electronic exchanges which accelerate or depress the polaron excitation and the localized surface plasmon resonance. Coloration on UV illumination is evidenced by electron diffraction as due to the formation of H{sub x}WO{sub 3}, which is considered to take place in the surface Cs-deficient WO{sub 3} region via the double charge injection mechanism. On the other hand, bleaching on heating in air and in humid environment is shown to accompany the extraction of Cs and electrons from Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and is concluded to be an oxidation of Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} on the particle surface.

  4. Corrosion characteristics of copper and leaded bronze in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ann, L.J.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel has become more attractive as alternative fuel for automobiles because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable sources. However, corrosion of metals in biodiesel is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. This study aims to characterize the corrosion behavior of commercial pure copper and leaded bronze commonly encountered in the automotive fuel system in diesel engine. Static immersion tests in B0, B50 and B100 fuels were carried out at room temperature for 2640 h. Similar immersion tests in B0, B100 and B100 (oxidized) fuels were also conducted at 60 C for 840 h. At the end of the test, corrosion behavior was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes in surface morphology. Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, MOA (multi-element oil analyzer) to investigate acid concentration, oxidation level with water content and corrosive impurities respectively. Results showed that under the experimental conditions, pure copper was more susceptible to corrosion in biodiesel as compared to leaded bronze. (author)

  5. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  6. The bronze signum from Timacum Maius and its cultic attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bronze signum discussed in this paper was discovered by archaeological ex­cavation on the site of Timacum Maius in 2010. Found in the area of a luxurious Roman-period building, the artefact shows a tapering body with a central conical socket similar to a spearhead socket. It is one of the twenty-three known signa of the so-called classical-type. Most of them were found in the context of the cult of Jupiter Dolichenus, and we also presume the cultic purpose of the bronze signum from Timacum Maius. A similar find comes from Jupiter Dolichenus’ shrine in Egeta on the Danube limes with an inscription that connects it directly with the Dolichenian cult, and with the First Cohort of Cretans (Cohors I Cretum, the unit which had previously been stationed at Timacus Maius. The signum from Timacum Maius is most likely also connected with the cult of Jupiter Dolichenus and chronologically belongs to a period which is much earlier than the Severan age. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  7. Chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kenji; Ota, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Mika; Oshimura, Nobumitsu; Tofuku, Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    Nanoparticles of alkali-doped tungsten bronzes are an excellent near-infrared shielding material, but exhibit slight chromatic instabilities typically upon applications of strong ultra-violet light or heating in humid environment, which acts detrimentally to long-life commercial applications. Origin of the chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze has been investigated, and it has been found that the coloration and bleaching processes comprised electronic exchanges which accelerate or depress the polaron excitation and the localized surface plasmon resonance. Coloration on UV illumination is evidenced by electron diffraction as due to the formation of HxWO3, which is considered to take place in the surface Cs-deficient WO3 region via the double charge injection mechanism. On the other hand, bleaching on heating in air and in humid environment is shown to accompany the extraction of Cs and electrons from Cs0.33WO3 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and is concluded to be an oxidation of Cs0.33WO3 on the particle surface.

  8. MarcoPolo-R: Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2012-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected for the assessment study in the framework of ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-25 program. MarcoPolo-R is an European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a primitive carbon-rich NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 foresees a single primary spacecraft, carrying the Earth re-entry capsule and sample acquisition and transfer system, launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou. The scientific payload includes state-of-the-art instruments, e.g. a camera system for high resolution imaging from orbit and on the surface, spectrometers covering visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, a neutral-particle analyser, a radio science experiment and optional laser altimeter. If resources are available, an optional Lander will be added to perform in-situ characterization close to the sampling site, and internal structure investigations. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be

  9. Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hovsepyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoethnobotanical investigations suggest that at least part of the Early Bronze Age population of Tsaghkasar was settled and practiced agriculture in the high mountainous zone. People there appear to have cultivated hexa‐ and tetraploid wheats (probably bread wheat and emmer and barley (possibly hulled. Bronze Age agriculture in the Southern Caucasus differs from earlier and later period when cultivation of pulses, oil‐producing plants, and other plants was common. This emphasis on the cultivation and use of certain cereal grains at Early Bronze sites such as Tsaghkasar can tentatively be added to a constellation of practices associated with the Kura‐Araxes culture in the South Caucasus.

  10. Glycerol oxidehydration into acrolein and acrylic acid over W/V/Nb bronzes with hexagonal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, F.; Cavani, F.; Chieregato, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; CIRI Energia e Ambiente, Bologna (Italy); Concepcion, P.; Lopez Nieto, J.M.; Soriano, M.D. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Tecnologia Quimica; Liosi, G.; Trevisanut, C. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of hexagonal W-V-Nb-O and W-V-Mo-O bronzes as catalysts for the one-pot oxidehydration of glycerol into acrylic acid. In a previous work, we reported a study on a bi-component bronze W-V-O that allowed us to obtain a 25% acrylic acid selectivity; in the current work, the incorporation of either Nb or Mo in a tri-component bronze structure allowed us to tune the acid and redox properties of the catalyst, so as to study their influence on the overall reaction scheme. (orig.)

  11. Gestão Social nos marcos neoliberais: única alternativa à democracia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gonçalves Dal Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aqui apresentado tem como foco a gestão social nos marcos do neoliberalismo nos anos 1970, momento em que é colocada como estratégia para exaltar o mercado como instância de regulação econômica e política da vida social, em detrimento do cercear da participação da sociedade civil como instância participativa, tendo em vista a construção de uma gestão pública democrática. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é tecer uma discussão sobre as distorções teóricas e práticas em torno do termo sociedade civil, a fim de elucidar o sentido de participação, como lócus de proposições e disputas que permeiam a construção democrática. Isso se contrapõe a ideia de sociedade civil como sinônimo de solidariedade, voluntariado ou terceiro setor. A metodologia do trabalho associou-se à revisão bibliográfica, cujos referenciais contribuíram para uma apresentação crítica sobre a gestão social. Os resultados aqui apresentados apontam para a necessidade de uma maior consolidação dos espaços públicos e da sociedade civil como atores de fundamental importância para a construção de uma gestão pública democrática.

  12. History of a Bronze Age tell and its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gabriella; Füleky, György; Vicze, Magdolna

    2016-04-01

    Százhalombatta-Földvár is the most excessively researched Bronze Age tell site in Hungary. Parallel to the investigation of the settlement structure and activity patterns the changes of the landscape and the effect of human alteration is also studied. Significant changes of the landscape can be detected from the Bronze Age until the recent natural and cultural heritage protection of the area. Archaeological, soil analytical and thin section soil micromorphological methods are used to reconstruct the past 4000 years of the tell and its immediate surroundings. Prior to the Bronze Age the area was covered by forest vegetation, so the initial settling could only be realised after deforestation (2000 BC). The result of the soil corings and the prepared soil thin sections are solid proves of this action. It also became evident that at some areas - so far it seems that at locales where house floors were laid for the very first time - even the topsoil was removed so intensively that only the B horizon of the relict forest soil can be found. This observation needs to be further tested outside the habitation area to define the horizontal extension of the forest clearance and the topsoil removal. The northern side of the settlement is bordered by a natural erosion gully. At 2000 BC it was just a natural depression, but by 1500 BC it was deepened to serve as a fortification ditch. Around 1200 BC the ditch started to be filled in and by 1000 BC it was refilled to such an extent that its surface was utilised again. At about 600 BC (Late Iron Age) a smaller inner rampart was erected on the southern side of the ditch for inner separation. Not much is known about the Roman period of this area (200 AD) but the remnants of a watchtower indicate their presence. During the 18th century AD the area was used for grape cultivation and later for hobby gardens up until the protection of the area in the late 20th century. Since then species of the original vegetation started to grow back

  13. Elements inter-diffusion in the turning of wear-resistance aluminum bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inter-diffusion of elements between the tool and the workpiece during the turning of aluminum bronze using high-speed steel and cemented carbide tools have been studied. The tool wear samples were prepared by using M2 high-speed steel and YW1 cemented carbide tools to turn a novel high strength, wear-resistance aluminum bronze without coolant and lubricant. Adhesion of workpiece materials was found on all tools' surface. The diffusion couples made of tool materials and aluminum bronze were prepared to simulate the inter-diffusion during the machining. The results obtained from tool wear samples were compared with those obtained from diffusion couples. Strong inter-diffusion between the tool materials and the aluminum bronze was observed in all samples. It is concluded that diffusion plays a significant role in the tool wear mechanism.

  14. Influence Cr on Crystallization and the Phase Transformations of the Bronze BA1044

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were introduced in the paper, method of thermal and derivative analysis (TDA, the process of crystallization and phase transformation in the solid state of the aluminium bronze CuA110Fe4Ni4 (BA1044 and with the addition 0.3% Cr. Two intermetallic phase were identified in the microstructure of the bronze BA1044: κFel - rich in Fe and Cu and κFe2 - rich in Fe, and in the microstructure of the bronze BA1044+0.3 % Cr only one phase κFel - rich in Fe, Cu and Cr. The presence of chrome in the bronze BA1044 reduce size the primary crystals of the phase β, reduces the dynamics of the processes of thermal phase transformation in the solid state and lengthens the time their of duration.

  15. Microcrystalline sodium tungsten bronze nanowire bundles as efficient visible light-responsive photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jinhua; Fan, Weiliu; Cui, Guanwei; Sun, Honggang; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhao, Xian; Tang, Bo

    2010-12-14

    Microcrystalline sodium tungsten bronze nanowire bundles were obtained via a facile hydrothermal synthesis, and were applied in water purification as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for the first time.

  16. The hydrothermal synthesis of tetragonal tungsten bronze-based catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Pablo; Solsona, Benjamín; García-González, Ester; González-Calbet, José M; López Nieto, José M

    2007-12-21

    Mixed metal oxides with tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure, showing high activity and selectivity for the gas phase partial oxidation of olefins, have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis from Keggin-type heteropolyacids.

  17. The Bronze "Ding of Flourishing Olympic "for the Main Stadium of the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The bronze "Ding of Flourishing Olympic" for the main stadium of the 2008Olympic Games has been completed by Yuda Group Company. The "Ding of Flourishing Olympic" was designed by Lanzhou Ludu Chunqiu Cultural Disseminating Co. Ltd.

  18. Análisis del futuro marco de referencia internacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionco, G. R.; Arias, E. F.

    La técnica de interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI) se aplica hoy a la astrometría para el cálculo de posiciones precisas de radiofuentes extragalácticas. Por tratarse de objetos lejanos, sus movimientos propios aparentes pueden considerarse nulos; esta propiedad hace que los catálogos de radiofuentes extragalácticas VLBI constituyan la mejor materialización de un sistema de referencia celeste inercial definido cinemáticamente. La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste internacional materializado por las coordenadas ecuatoriales de objetos extragalácticos observados con le técnica VLBI. Para superar la precisión astrométrica actual es necesaria una mejora en la modelización de aquellos fenómenos que pueden introducir desviaciones sistemáticas en el marco de referencia celeste. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto las sistematicidades presentes en los distintos marcos de referencia elaborados con el próposito de materializar el nuevo sistema de referencia celeste de la IAU. Para la comparación de los distintos marcos de referencia se propone un modelo de tres rotaciones diferenciales más un término lineal que procura absorber los efectos sistemáticos presentes en las coordenadas. Se analiza igualmente la estabilidad de la solución cuando se utilizan distintos conjuntos de objetos de definición.

  19. Ley marco de aseguramiento universal en salud, bajo la lupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoncio Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La Ley Marco de Aseguramiento Universal en Salud, concebida en el marco del modelo neoliberal conservador, excluyente y polarizante, fue aprobada en circunstancias en la que persisten grandes contrastes entre sistemas de salud. Por un lado, los países que mantienen subsistemas inconexos y privatizados y, por otro, los que unificados y bajo la responsabilidad del Estado, garantizan a todos el acceso integral, gratuito y de calidad a los servicios de salud. En América y el Caribe, existen países cuyos pobladores carecen de derechos y posibilidades, evidenciando las profundas inequidades que mantienen en exclusión a la mayoría pobre y de extrema pobreza, entre ellos, el Perú muestra indicadores de salud que aún se mantienen en cifras alarmantes y por debajo de los que presentan otras realidades en el mundo. En las últimas tres décadas hubo ensayos frustros de reformas, como la integración funcional del Ministerio de Salud con el Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social, o el Sistema Nacional Coordinado y Descentralizado en Salud. Actualmente se formula la Ley Marco de Aseguramiento Universal, que mantiene los actuales subsistemas sin variación alguna y con sus propias autonomías, ensayando pilotos, estableciendo planes parciales, implementándola de manera progresiva, priorizando la privatización y debilitando la función rectora del Ministerio de Salud, al crear una superintendencia omnipotente, lo cual continuará permitiendo la exclusión social de más de 9 millones de peruanos. Existe, por tanto, la necesidad de plantear la unificación de los subsistemas, para construir un Sistema Único de Salud, capaz de otorgar salud plena, integral, de calidad y sin costo alguno al 100% de ciudadanos.

  20. The multidimensional evaluation and treatment of anxiety in children and adolescents: rationale, design, methods and preliminary findings Avaliação multidimensional e tratamento da ansiedade em crianças e adolescentes: marco teórico, desenho, métodos e resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Abrahão Salum

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the design, methods and sample characteristics of the Multidimensional Evaluation and Treatment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents - the PROTAIA Project. METHOD: Students between 10 and 17 years old from all six schools belonging to the catchment area of the Primary Care Unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre were included in the project. It comprises five phases: (1 a community screening phase; (2 a psychiatric diagnostic phase; (3 a multidimensional assessment phase evaluating environmental, neuropsychological, nutritional, and biological factors; (4 a treatment phase, and (5 a translational phase. RESULTS: A total of 2,457 subjects from the community were screened for anxiety disorders. From those who attended the diagnostic interview, we identified 138 individuals with at least one anxiety disorder (apart from specific phobia and 102 individuals without any anxiety disorder. Among the anxiety cases, generalized anxiety disorder (n = 95; 68.8%, social anxiety disorder (n = 57; 41.3% and separation anxiety disorder (n = 49; 35.5% were the most frequent disorders. CONCLUSION: The PROTAIA Project is a promising research project that can contribute to the knowledge of the relationship between anxiety disorders and anxiety-related phenotypes with several genetic and environmental risk factors.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo é descrever o desenho, os métodos e as características amostrais da Avaliação Multidimensional e Tratamento da Ansiedade em Crianças e Adolescentes - Projeto PROTAIA. MÉTODO: Escolares entre 10 e 17 anos de todas as escolas pertencentes à área de abrangência da unidade de atenção primária do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre foram incluídos no projeto. O projeto compreende cinco fases: 1 triagem comunitária; 2 diagnóstico psiquiátrico; 3 avaliação multidimensional, incluindo fatores ambientais, neuropsicológicos, nutricionais e marcadores biológicos; 4

  1. El marco constitucional vigente de la justicia transicional en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Velásquez, Alejandro; Universidad EAFIT

    2016-01-01

    El artículo aborda el dilema de la justicia transicional desde la perspectiva del derecho constitucional vigente en Colombia. El propósito es presentar cómo dicho marco constitucional puede responder a la aplicación de la justicia transicional, en especial en relación con el problema de la responsabilidad penal de quienes cometieron atrocidades durante el conflicto armado, dentro de un proceso de diálogo y negociación. En otras palabras, el presente escrito está enfocado en presentar cuáles s...

  2. Ejercicio de lectura de Marcos Ramírez

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se hace un análisis de la novela Marcos Ramírez de Carlos Luis Fallas, señalándola como pilar de la tradición costarricense; enmarcándola en la novelística de la llamada Generación del 40, en la literatura nacional. Se analiza la instancia narrativa encontrando que esta novela posee un narrador autodiegético, esto quiere decir que ese plano es una instancia doble, un elemento único en el cual se reúnen dos aspectos diferentes: el personaje, que es agente o paciente de la acción y el narrador,...

  3. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually.

  4. Bronze-Smiths of Pylos and Silver-Smiths of Ur

    OpenAIRE

    Uchitel, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The Pylian tablets marked by the ideogram AES and classified as the Jn series can be subdivided into two subseries dealing respectively with the delivery of bronze from various places to the central authority (Jn 829, 881), and with the distribution of bronze to individual smiths (all the rest). The latter is a unique group of texts, unparalleled in other Mycenaean archives, which provides highly detailed information about the organization of this particular craft in the Kingdom of Pylos.

  5. Effect of Hydrogen Plasma on Model Corrosion Layers of Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtíková, P.; Sázavská, V.; Mika, F.; Krčma, F.

    2016-05-01

    Our work is about plasmachemical reduction of model corrosion layers. The model corrosion layers were produced on bronze samples with size of 10 × 10 × 5 mm3, containing Cu and Sn. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was used as a corrosive environment. The application of reduction process in low-pressure low-temperature hydrogen plasma followed. A quartz cylindrical reactor with two outer copper electrodes was used. Plasma discharge was generated in pure hydrogen by a RF generator. Each corroded sample was treated in different conditions (supplied power and a continual or pulsed regime with a variable duty cycle mode). Process monitoring was ensured by optical emission spectroscopy. After treatment, samples were analyzed by SEM and EDX.

  6. Cavitation erosion behavior of nickel-aluminum bronze weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小亚; 闫永贵; 许振明; 李建国

    2003-01-01

    Cavitation erosion behavior of nickel-aluminum bronze(NAB)weldment in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution was studied by magnetostrictive vibratory device for cavitation erosion.The results show that cavitation erosion resistance of the weld zone(WZ)of the weldment is superior to that of the base metal.SEM observation of eroded specimens reveals that the phases undergoing selective attack by the stress of cavitation erosion at the early stage of cavitation erosion are:martensite in the WZ,α phase in the heat-affected zone(HAZ)and eutectoidal phase in the base metal; the microcracks causing cavitation damage initiate at the phase boundaries.

  7. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Mondio, G.; Serafino, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia ed Ingegneria Elettronica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E.D. [Dipartimento di Lettere e Filosofia dell' Universita di Messina, Polo Universitario dell' Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Paniz, E.; Salici, A. [Carabinieri, Reparto Investigazioni Scientifiche, S.S. 114, Km. 6, 400 Tremestieri, Messina (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  8. [Preparation and optical properties of tantalum tungsten bronze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wan-jun; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xing-liang; Zhang, Rui; Lü, Kai; Wei, Hong-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Tantalum tungsten bronze(TaxWO3)nanowires were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method using TaCl5 and Na2WO4 . 2H20 as raw materials. The morphology, crystal structure and optical properties of synthesized products were characterized by means of XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis and Raman technologies. The XRD results showed that TaxWO3 nanowire exhibited hexagonal structure. By increasing the doping content, the cell parameter was kept increasing gradually till Ta/W= 0. 04, then it remained almost constant. The UV-Vis diffraction spectrum analysis showed that the absorption peaks redshifted, the band gap energy decreased with increasing the doping content. The Raman peaks moved with a downshift, and the peak gradually became broader, which further proved the influence of the tantalum doping for tungsten oxide. The reactions of decomposing liquid rhodamine B solution showed that the nanosized TaxWO3 had a high photo-catalytic activity.

  9. Superconducting properties of the KxWO3 tetragonal tungsten bronze and the superconducting phase diagram of the tungsten bronze family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Gibson, Quinn; Krizan, Jason; Cava, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the superconducting properties of the KxWO3 tetragonal tungsten bronze. The highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc=2.1 K) was obtained for K0.38WO3. Tc decreases linearly with increasing K content. Using the measured values for the upper critical field Hc2 and the specific heat C, we estimate the orbital critical field Hc2(0), coherence length ξ(0), Debye temperature ΘD, and coupling constant λe-p. The magnitude of the specific-heat jump at Tc suggests that the KxWO3 tetragonal tungsten bronze is a weakly coupled superconductor. The superconducting phase diagram of the doped tungsten bronze family is presented.

  10. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E., E-mail: elin@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Centro de Arqueologia (Uniarq), Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Ines Vaz, J.L. [Departamento de Letras, Universidade Catolica, Estrada da Circunvalacao, 3504-505 Viseu (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: > EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. > Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. > Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. > Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  11. 汉语词汇与青铜器文化%Chinese Vocabulary and Bronze Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉

    2015-01-01

    The word “Jin” is representative of Bronze in the Bronze Age. At the same time, as grapheme, the word “Jin” can represent meaning in monosyllable word formation. Therefore, all the mono-syllabic words from the “Jin” department of the Bronze Age are able to depict the culture of the Bronze in the form of words which included the Bronze category, smelting technologg, and the reasons for bronze cul-tural prosperity, Which explain the complementary relationship between vocabulary and culture.%中国在青铜时代通常用“金”来代表青铜器,而“金”作为字素在单音词构词中有显著的表意作用,因此青铜时代的金部单音词以词汇的形式描绘了这一时代的青铜器文化,对青铜器的类别、冶炼以及青铜文化繁荣状况与原因都进行了形象生动的反映,进而诠释了词汇与文化间相辅相成的关系。

  12. Facile Preparation of Molybdenum Bronzes as an Efficient Hole Extraction Layer in Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiantai; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Bin; Zhang, Baohua; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-06-24

    We proposed a facile and green one-pot strategy to synthesize Mo bronzes nanoparticles to serve as an efficient hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells. Mo bronzes were obtained through reducing the fractional self-aggregated ammonium heptamolybdate with appropriate reducing agent ascorbic acid, and its optoelectronic properties were fully characterized. The synthesized Mo bronzes displayed strong n-type semiconductor characteristics with a work function of 5.2-5.4 eV, matched well with the energy levels of current donor polymers. The presented gap states of the Mo bronzes near the Fermi level were beneficial for facilitating charge extraction. The as-synthesized Mo bronzes were used as hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells and significantly enhanced the photovoltaic performance and stability. The power conversion efficiency was increased by more than 18% compared with the polyethylene dioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate-based reference cell. The excellent performance and facile preparation render the as-synthesized solution-processed Mo bronzes nanoparticles a promising candidate for hole extraction layer in low-cost and efficient polymer solar cells.

  13. Investigating Early/Middle Bronze Age copper and bronze axes by micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and neutron imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Elin; Pereira, Marco A. Stanojev; Lopes, Filipa; Marques, José G.; Santos, Joana P.; Araújo, M. Fátima; Silva, Rui J. C.; Senna-Martinez, João C.

    2016-08-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) analysis and neutron imaging techniques, namely 2D radiography and 3D tomography, have been applied for the study of four metal axes from the Early/Middle Bronze Age in Western Iberia, a period characterized by a metallurgical change in the use of copper to bronze. Micro-XRF analysis has shown that one of the axes was produced in copper with some arsenic while the other three were produced in a copper-tin alloy (bronze) with variable tin contents and some arsenic and lead. Neutron radiography and tomography were applied to study internal heterogeneities of the axes in a non-invasive way since the specificities of neutron interaction with matter allow a suitable penetration of these relatively thick copper-based objects when compared to the use of a conventional X-ray radiography. Neutron imaging allowed the visualization of internal fissures and pores and the evaluation of their distribution, size and shape. Relevant information for the reconstruction of ancient manufacturing techniques was gathered, revealing that one ax was produced with the mold in an angle of ≈ 25°, probably to facilitate gas escape during metal pouring. Also, information regarding physical weaknesses of the axes was collected, providing relevant data for their conservation. The combination of these non-destructive techniques allowed the evaluation of the metal composition and the internal structure of the axes. Micro-XRF allowed the distinction among copper and bronze axes, and provided data about the composition of early bronzes for which data is scarce. The neutron imaging study allowed for the first time the visualization of internal heterogeneities in early bronze axes, namely pores and large voids, providing relevant information for the reconstruction of ancient manufacturing techniques and raising pertinent information regarding physical weaknesses of these types of objects.

  14. La competencia federal en el marco del amparo en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Carignani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia la competencia federal en el marco de las acciones de amparo en salud, también conocidas como bioamparos. Para ello, se toman los conceptos y principios que rigen la competencia federal para luego verlos plasmados en las sentencias judiciales analizadas. Se verán fallos paradigmáticos en cuanto a las interpretaciones judiciales y como estas interpretaciones buscan en definitiva salvaguardar el derecho a la salud y su correlativo derecho a la vida. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar en los distintos casos jurisprudenciales propuestos, la competencia federal de los amparos en salud. Para ello partiremos de los conceptos y normas que determinan la competencia federal, y desde allí analizar los casos propuestos. En este orden de ideas, se partirá de la doctrina predominante de competencia federal, sus características y se expondrá una referencia breve de la competencia ratione materiae y ratione personae para establecer el marco teórico del análisis de los casos jurisprudenciales analizados.

  15. Marco de trabajo para gestionar las competencias laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Sandoval

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un marco de trabajo innovador diseñado y desarrollado para posibilitar la realización de estudios inherentes con la gestión por competencia en los entornos laborales de la Administración Pública Venezolana (APV. Se analizaron los principales aspectos involucrados con la Gestión del Talento Humano (GTH, que se basan en la competencia laboral, las cuales mediante su desarrollo efectivo se constituyen en fuente principal para impulsar el logro de los objetivos empresariales orientados en responder las necesidades del entorno laboral y las exigencias del mercado. El desarrollo, se fundamento en el dominio del conocimiento de las competencias laborales y perfiles de cargos que estructura el proceso de gestión sobre tres actividades: 1 identificación, 2 desarrollo y 3 evaluación. El método utilizado, fue proyectivo y permitió obtener un marco de trabajo en el que se describe una metodología, la cual establece formalmente las reglas, estándares, así como secuencias de pasos para la caracterización de la competencia laboral y, sobre todo, la gestión que promueve las tareas y roles para la toma de decisiones.

  16. Marcos interpretativos, identidad e imaginario en el mexica movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Chihu Amparán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el mexica movement, a través de su discurso e imaginario, representados en un conjunto de utopías, símbolos, mitos y creencias, que revitalizan la cultura y el pasado mesoamericano. Se aplica la metodología del análisis de los marcos (frame analysis, con sus cinco partes: el protagonista, el problema, el antagonista, las metas y la audiencia. En el estudio de los movimientos sociales ha prevalecido el análisis de los aspectos políticos y estructurales, aquí a dichos movimientos se les observa en función de sus capacidades como productores de significados, que contribuyen a conformar su identidad colectiva.

  17. La lectura hipermedial. Hacia un marco teórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Suárez, Liliana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer el marco teórico hacia un aprendizaje significativo durante la lectura hipermedial teniendo en cuenta los procesos cognitivos que se ponen en marcha en el transcurso de la práctica lectora. El texto hipermedial se caracteriza por su falta de linealidad y por un lenguaje enriquecido con imágenes, vídeos y sonidos lo que puede causar sobrecarga en la memoria de trabajo, atención dividida y falta de coherencia afectando, en definitiva, la comprensión lectora. Por tanto, es preciso seleccionar los documentos de forma adecuada, así como instruir al aprendiente en estrategias lectoras y de gestión digital que le permitan llevar a cabo la lectura de forma reflexiva y consciente para llegar a un aprendizaje significativo.

  18. Marco Polo’s 'Devisement dou monde' and Franco-Italian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Andreose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript BNF fr. 1116 (F is the best surviving witness of the Devisement dou monde both for the quality of its reading and because it offers the closest version to the original form of the text. The book was written by Marco Polo, who had travelled for 24 years in Asia in the last quarter of the thirteenth century, and Rustichello da Pisa, an Arthurian romance writer, while both were prisoners in Genoa in 1298. The language in which the work was first written – an Old French heavily sprinkled with morphological as well as lexical Italianisms – is considered as a representative example of «Franco-Italian». The great heterogeneity of the texts usually included within this category, however, might provide an incorrect impression as regards both the original linguistic form of the Devisement and the audience to whom it was originally addressed. The language of the MS BNF fr. 1116 does not display strong similarities to the hybrid language used in Northern Italy for chivalric literature, which is traditionally called «Franco-Italian» or «Franco-Venetan». Some linguistic correspondences enable us to connect the MS BNF fr. 1116 with the group of Old French manuscripts copied by Pisan scribes while incarcerated in Genoa prison, following the battle of Meloria (1284. The fragment of the Devisement recently discovered by C. Concina appears to be very similar to F. Both graphic and phonetic evidences suggest that this witness, too, has to be localised to Tuscany.

  19. Monitoring and assessment of regional air quality in China using space observations (Marco Polo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, A. van der; Timmermans, R.; Bai, J.; Zhang, Q.; Wal, L. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project 'MarcoPolo'. The main objective of MarcoPolo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. During the project a new emission inventory will be constructed by combining Chinese and European expertise. It

  20. A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides.

  1. Warm Spraying of High-Strength Ni-Al-Bronze: Cavitation Characteristics and Property Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Sebastian; Kuroda, Seiji; Katanoda, Hiroshi; Gaertner, Frank; Klassen, Thomas; Araki, Hiroshi; Frede, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Bronze materials such as Ni-Al-bronze show exceptional performances against cavitation erosion, due to their high fatigue strength and high strength. These materials are used for ship propellers, pump systems or for applications with alternating stresses. Usually, the respective parts are cast. With the aim to use resources more efficiently and to reduce costs, this study aimed to evaluate opportunities to apply bronze as a coating to critical areas of respective parts. The coatings should have least amounts of pores and non-bonded areas and any contaminations that might act as crack nuclei and contribute to material damages. Processes with low oxidation and high kinetic impacts fulfill these criteria. Especially warm spraying, a nitrogen-cooled HVOF process, with similar impact velocities as cold gas spraying but enhanced process temperature, allows for depositing high-strength Ni-Al-bronze. This study systematically simulates and evaluates the formation and performance of warm-sprayed Ni-Al-bronze coatings for different combustion pressures and nitrogen flow rates. Substrate preheating was used to improve coating adhesion for lower spray parameter sets. Furthermore, this study introduces an energy-based concept to compare spray parameter sets and to predict coating properties. Coatings with low porosities and high mechanical strengths are obtained, allowing for a cavitation resistance similar to bulk material.

  2. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  3. Characterization of corroded bronze Ding from the Yin Ruins of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, He [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, 28, Xianning West Road, 710049 Xi' an (China)]. E-mail: ling121212@sohu.com; Qingrong, Zhao [Anyang Museum, Anyang 455000 (China); Min, Gao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, 28, Xianning West Road, 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents the result of scientific examinations carried out on the soil-buried archaeological bronzes Ding from Yin Ruins of China. Eight of typical fragments from different bronze Ding were selected as researched samples according to their deterioration characteristics. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to understand the corrosive morphological characteristics, to clear the nature of patina and to analyze the elementary composition of bronze Ding. The results indicated that it is not possible to distinguish the original lustrous metallic surface in most samples because of the corrosive crust. The substrate of bronze Ding contains74-86% Cu, 1.1-4.6% Pb, and 10-18% Sn, which is in agreement with the historical investigation in the ritual vessels of Shang time. Copper-containing compounds were the main constituents of natural patina: Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl existed as corrosion product in all the powdery or crack surface; Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was the main corrosive product in a compact and hard corrosive surface. This study provides useful information for the restoration and protection of bronze Ding in Yin Ruins.

  4. Fabricating Aluminum Bronze Rotating Band for Large-Caliber Projectiles by High Velocity Arc Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Fang, Ling-hui; Chen, Xiao-lei; Zou, Zhi-qiang; Yu, Xu-hua; Chen, Gang

    2014-02-01

    The necessity of finding new rotating band materials and developing corresponding joining technologies for large-caliber projectiles has been revealed by the recent increase in the ballistic performance of high loads. In this paper, aluminum bronze coatings were fabricated by the high velocity arc spraying (HVAS) technique. Microstructure and microhardness of the prepared coatings were investigated. Ring-on-disk dry sliding wear tests were conducted in an ambient condition to examine the tribological behavior of the coatings. Quasi-static engraving processes of rotating bands made of as-sprayed aluminum bronze coating and bulk copper were studied using rate-controlled push test methodology on an MTS 810 Material Testing System. The results show that the as-sprayed aluminum bronze coatings have a dense microstructure with porosity of about 1.6%. Meanwhile, the as-sprayed coating presents a higher microhardness than pure copper. The friction coefficient of coatings is about 0.2-0.3 in the steady state. Tribological mechanisms of the as-sprayed coatings were discussed. The engraving test results show that the aluminum bronze rotating band presents high bonding strength and good plasticity. The HVAS aluminum bronze coating should be a possible substitute for the state-of-the-art copper rotating band.

  5. Corrosion of Bronzes by Extended Wetting with Single versus Mixed Acidic Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gianni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of bronzes was examined in the context of single-acid versus mixed-acid (as in urban acid rain solutions. Two bi-component bronzes (copper with either 3% Sn or 7% Sn that closely represent those of historic artifacts were immersed for five weeks in conditions designed to replicate those experienced by statues and ornaments in cities where rainfall and humidity constantly produce an electrolyte layer on the surfaces of bronzes. Ions, acids, and particles of pollutants can dissolve in this layer, resulting in a variety of harsh corrosion processes. The kinetics of corrosion and the properties of the resulting patinas were monitored weekly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit potential measurements. The sizes and appearances of the corrosion products were monitored and used to estimate the progress of the corrosion, whose crystalline structures were visualized using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by spectrocolorimetry. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that greater damage (in terms of color change and corrosion product formation did not correspond to deficiencies in protection. The mixed-acid solution did not corrode the bronzes, as would be expected from the additive effects of the single acids. The postulated mechanisms of metal dissolution appear to be specific to a particular bronze alloy, with the tin component playing an important role.

  6. Geochemical and hydrologic data for San Marcos Springs recharge characterization near San Marcos, Texas, November 2008--December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    During 2008–10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected geochemical and hydrologic data in Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas, to define and characterize the sources of recharge to San Marcos Springs. Precipitation samples were collected for stable isotope analysis at 1 site and water-quality samples were collected at 7 springs, 21 wells, and 9 stream sites in the study area between November 2008 and December 2010. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed in three springs, two wells, and at one stream site. Three continuous stream-gaging stations were installed to measure gage height and a stagedischarge rating was developed at two of the three sites. Depth to water below land surface was continuously measured in two wells.

  7. Exploring the bronzing effect at the surface of ink layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Mathieu; Mallet, Maxime; Deboos, Alexis; Chavel, Pierre; Kuang, Deng-Feng; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Besbes, Mondher; Cazier, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical phenomenon responsible for the colored shine that sometimes appears at the surface of ink layers in the specular direction, often called bronzing or gloss differential. It seems to come from the wavelength-dependent refractive index of the ink, which induces a wavelength-dependent reflectance of the ink-air interface. Our experiments on cyan and magenta inkjet inks confirm this theory. Complex refractive indices can be obtained from measurements of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of a transparency film coated with the ink. We propose a correction of the classical Clapper-Yule model in order to include the colored gloss in the prediction of the spectral reflectance of an inked paper. We also explored effects of scattering by the micrometric or nanometric roughness of the ink surface. The micrometric roughness, easy to model with a geometrical optics model, can predict the spreading of the colored gloss over a large cone. Electromagnetic models accounting for the effect of the nanometric roughness of the surface also predict the attenuation of short wavelengths observed under collimated illumination.

  8. The effect of uric acid on outdoor copper and bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, E; Bowden, D J; Brimblecombe, P; Kenneally, H; Morselli, L

    2009-03-15

    Bird droppings are often quoted as a decay agent for outdoor goods, in particular buildings and statues. Undoubtedly, they represent one of the major causes of aesthetic damage on outdoor materials, but the real chemical damage they are able to induce, in particular on metals, is not so well studied. This work focused on the short term role of uric acid, the main constituent of bird urine, with respect to copper, which make such an important contribution to architectural elements of buildings and outdoor sculpture. Preliminary results of laboratory tests and analyses on real exposed samples showed that uric acid chemically affects copper and bronzes: the surface of the metal is modified and copper urates formed. Also natural patina, formed on statues and roof, react with uric acid, even if it seems to afford some protection toward bird droppings. In general, experimental results confirm that the potential chemical damage by bird droppings is significant when considering external cultural heritage such as statues, metal monuments and buildings with historic copper roofs.

  9. A case of bronze turkey twins developing from hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaziak, K; Michalczuk, M; Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Ż; Niemiec, J

    2015-04-01

    A double-yolked egg that was laid by an 11-month-old bronze turkey hen on 2 April, 2013 was reported. The presented case of developing turkey twin embryos is the first ever described case for this species. The egg weighed 125 g and had 74.6 mm in length and 53.0 mm in width. The embryos died between the 23rd and 24th day of incubation. Both twin 1 and twin 2 were fully developed with body weights of: 37.7 g and 40.3 g, respectively. The likely causes of death include inappropriate arrangement of embryos and insufficient gas exchange in the last period of incubation. The embryos were arranged along the long axis of the egg, one underneath the other, and were closely adhering to one another. The twins were different in plumage pigmentation. In twin 1, a spontaneous mutation of plumage pigmentation (B) was observed, whereas twin 2 showed appropriate pigmentation (b+) in respect to parents.

  10. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E; Wilson, Andrew S; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Nosch, Marie Louise; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-05-21

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility.

  11. Electrical properties of rare earth based tungsten bronze vanadates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.B. Mohanty; P.S. Sahoo; R.N.P. Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Barium based tungsten bronze (TB) oxides having high dielectric constant and low loss,can be effectively used as transducers,actuators,capacitors and also in memory devices.All these characteristics stimulated the researchers to replace toxic and hazardous lead based materials by barium based TB materials from industry.In the present research work,polycrystalline samples of Ba4SrRTi3V7O30 (R=Dy,Sm,La) were synthesized by a high temperature solid state reaction technique.Preliminary structural (X-ray diffraction) analyses of these compounds showed the formation of single-phase orthorhombic structures at room temperature having average crystallite size of the order of some nanometer for all the compounds.The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) provided information on the quality of the samples and showed more or less homogeneous distribution of grains over the entire surface of the samples.Detailed dielectric study in a wide temperature range (30-500 ℃) showed ferro to para phase transition for Dy and Sm substituted samples whereas no such transition was observed for La substituted samples.Both the grain and grain boundary resistances exhibited negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior much like semiconductors.The dc conductivity of all the compounds obeyed Arrhenius relation.

  12. Understanding metal–insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanhita Paul; Satyabrata Raj

    2015-06-01

    We have carried out angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and spectromicroscopy studies to understand the metal–insulator transition (MIT) observed in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaWO3. The experimentally determined band structure is compared with the theoretical calculation based on full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method. It has been found that there is a good gross agreement between experiment and theory. ARPES spectra on the insulating sample show that the states near F are localized due to the random distribution of Na in WO3 lattice which causes strong disorder in the system. Our spectromicroscopy measurements on both insulating and metallic samples do not approve percolation model to explain MIT in NaWO3. Photoemission spectroscopy on metallic samples does not show any Na-induced impurity band (level), which was one of the models to explain MIT. Electron-like Fermi surface(s) has been found from our experiment for metallic samples at the (X) point which shows good agreement with band calculation.

  13. Laser recleaning of a Bronze Age prehistoric dolmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurelio, G.; Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Albanese, A.

    2007-05-01

    Dolmen La Chianca (XVI-XV century B.C.) is one of the most important megalithic buildings in Europe for its state of conservation and for the great number of findings that were discovered there (human remains, ceramic vases, pendants, bronze objects, obsidian and silica blades etc.). The building was defaced by many writings made using different markers (permanent black, correction ink pen, ballpoint pen, pencil, water-based coloured markers). The writings were removed by using a Nd-YAG laser source (λ 1064 nm with pulse duration; t 8 ns ; f 2 to 20 Hz ; energy per impulse up to 280 mJ). Degradation mapping and laser cleaning with photographs, taken before, during and after the process in situ, were carried out, then different laser parameters and techniques were used to remove different ink types. A first laser cleaning was operated on the same building in 1999 by Daurelio, but vandals defaced newly the monument, then a new restoration became necessary.

  14. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a... Mill Products (JUL 1997) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Established price means a price...

  15. Izumo and the East Asian Bronze Culture%出云与东亚的青铜文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍

    2003-01-01

    The origin of bronzes in Yayoi Japan can be traced to their counterparts in Xia-Shang-Zhou China. It must have happened that ancient Chinese bronze weapons and small bells used aspractical implements were first spread into Japan through northeastern China and the Korean Peninsulaand then developed gradually into bronzes exclusively for sacrificial use. Among the bronzes unearthed inbatches from hoards in the Izumo area within the coastland of the Sea of Japan, the spearheads may havebeen made in the north of Kyushu, the small bells must have come from the Kinai region, and the over300 swords were probably local products. The repeated discovery of Yayoi bronze hoards in the Izumoarea suggests that this region was absolutely not an unpopulated land. On the contrary, as a very im-portant district, it should be fully affirmed to have played a considerable role in the development of an-cient Japanese history.

  16. MarcoPolo-R: Mission and Spacecraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacocke, L.; Kemble, S.; Chapuy, M.; Scheer, H.

    2013-09-01

    The MarcoPolo-R mission is a candidate for the European Space Agency's medium-class Cosmic Vision programme, with the aim to obtain a 100 g sample of asteroid surface material and return it safely to the Earth. Astrium is one of two industrial contractors currently studying the mission to Phase A level, and the team has been working on the mission and spacecraft design since January 2012. Asteroids are some of the most primitive bodies in our solar system and are key to understanding the formation of the Earth, Sun and other planetary bodies. A returned sample would allow extensive analyses in the large laboratory-sized instruments here on Earth that are not possible with in-situ instruments. This analysis would also increase our understanding of the composition and structure of asteroids, and aid in plans for asteroid deflection techniques. In addition, the mission would be a valuable precursor for missions such as Mars Sample Return, demonstrating a high speed Earth re-entry and hard landing of an entry capsule. Following extensive mission analysis of both the baseline asteroid target 1996 FG3 and alternatives, a particularly favourable trajectory was found to the asteroid 2008 EV5 resulting in a mission duration of 4.5 to 6 years. In October 2012, the MarcoPolo-R baseline target was changed to 2008 EV5 due to its extremely primitive nature, which may pre-date the Sun. This change has a number of advantages: reduced DeltaV requirements, an orbit with a more benign thermal environment, reduced communications distances, and a reduced complexity propulsion system - all of which simplify the spacecraft design significantly. The single spacecraft would launch between 2022 and 2024 on a Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle from Kourou. Solar electric propulsion is necessary for the outward and return transfers due to the DeltaV requirements, to minimise propellant mass. Once rendezvous with the asteroid is achieved, an observation campaign will begin to characterise the

  17. Tool wear mechanism in turning of novel wear-resisting aluminum bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪东惠; 夏伟; 张大童; 郭国文; 邵明

    2003-01-01

    Tool wear and wear mechanism during the turning of a wear-resisting aluminum bronze have been stud-ied. Tool wear samples were prepared by using M2 high-speed steel and YW1 cemented carbide tools to turn a novelhigh strength, wear resisting aluminum bronze without coolant and lubricant. Adhesion of workpiece materials wasfound on tool's surface. Under the turning condition used in this study major wear mechanisms for turning aluminumbronze using M2 high-speed steel tool are diffusion wear, adhesive wear and plastic deformation and shear on thecrater. Partial melting of high-speed steel on the rake plays a role in the tool wear also. Major wear mechanisms forturning aluminum bronze using YW1 cemented carbide tool are diffusion wear, attrition wear and sliding wear. Tocontrol the machining temperature is essential to reduce tool wear.

  18. Boiling heat transfer on single phosphor bronze and copper mesh microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orman Łukasz J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental results of boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethyl alcohol on surfaces covered with single layers of wire mesh structures made of phosphor bronze and copper. For each material two kinds of structures have been considered (higher and lower in order to determine the impact of the height of the structure on boiling heat transfer. The wire diameter of the copper meshes was 0,25 mm and 0,32 mm, while of the bronze meshes: 0,20 mm and 0,25 mm. The structures had the same mesh aperture (distance between the wires – 0,50 mm for copper and 0,40 for bronze but different wire diameter and, consequently, different height of the layers. The tests have been performed under ambient pressure in the pool boiling mode. The obtained results indicate a visible impact of the layer height on the boiling heat transfer performance of the analysed microstructures.

  19. [Phase transition analysis of ancient bronze mirror surface tin amalgam in heating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-yun; Qin, Ying

    2010-10-01

    Taking advantage of theta-theta scanning (vertical goniometer) sealed and ceramic X-ray tube full-automatic diffractometer, which can be heated and detected at the same time when the temperature is between normal temperature and 1200 degrees C, and X-ray fluorescence, and combining surface feature with character, high tin bronze mirror which had been daubed "tin amalgam" was detected and analyzed. It can prove that phase with Hg will disappear gradually when the sample is heated to the temperature higher than the boiling point of Hg; It indicates that bronze surface cannot be as a proof of "tin amalgam" used whether it contains Hg, moreover, it is not necessary that bronze mirror is covered with "tin amalgam" in terms of application.

  20. Enhanced electrochemical performance of ammonium vanadium bronze through sodium cation intercalation and optimization of electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Liu, Xin; Li, Huan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-03-15

    A new type of platelet-like ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4)2V6O16 is first used as cathode material for Na-ion battery. The discharge capacity and cycling stability is improved by the intercalation of Na(+) and using NaPF6 as electrolyte. Raman spectrum shows that the crystalline structure of (NH4)2V6O16 is changed after the intercalation of Na(+) to (NH4)2V6O16. Furthermore, the obtained sodium ammonium vanadium bronze shows smaller charge transfer resistance than (NH4)2V6O16, which would favor superior discharge capacity and good cycling stability. Additionally, NaPF6 is prior to NaClO4 as electrolyte for ammonium vanadium bronze cathode materials.

  1. Bronze and Iron Age Finds from Romuald's Cave, Istria: 2014 Excavation Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Ivor; Ahern, James C M; Mihelić, Sanjin; Premuzić, Zrinka

    2015-12-01

    Archaeological excavations in Romuald's Cave (Lim Channel, Istria, Croatia) have yielded evidence of human activity stretching back to the Middle Palaeolithic. This paper reports on recent Bronze Age/Early Iron Age discoveries uncovered during excavations as part of the Croatian National Science Foundation funded project: "Archaeological Investigations into the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the Lim Channel, Istria". Fragmentary skeletal remains from at least two individuals were excavated, and a direct radiocarbon date from one of the remains is commensurate with a Bronze Age attribution. The recovered ceramics confirm this age attribution, although they range from the Middle Bronze Age to incipient Iron Age in character. Furthermore, the ceramics indicate that the human activities in Romuald's Cave were associated with the nearby settlements of Gradina and St. Martin.

  2. A parametric study on the dynamic behavior of porous bronze at various strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Hu, Jianxing; Lei, Jianyin; Wang, Zhihua; Zhao, Longmao

    2016-10-01

    An experimental investigation on the porous bronze at various strain rates is firstly carried out in this study to explore the effects of relative density and strain rate in the mechanical behavior. Furthermore, a multi-parameter constitutive model of describing the rate-dependent behavior for porous bronze is developed. The parameters in the constitutive model are density dependent, and the specific forms of these parameters as functions of relative density are obtained. It can be concluded from the test results and constitutive model that the high relative density leads to increase in yield strength and energy absorption capacity of the materials and the strain rate also has positive effects on the yield strength and energy absorption capacity of porous bronze.

  3. Medical image registration algorithms assesment Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Pennec, X

    2006-01-01

    Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grids to tackle such computations on medical image databases. We demonstrate MOTEUR, a service-based workflow engine optimized for dealing with data intensive applications. MOTEUR eases the enactment of the Bronze Standard and similar applications on the EGEE production grid infrastructure. It is a generic workflow engine, based on current standards and freely available, that can be used to instrument legacy application code at low cost.

  4. Experimental cultivations for an evaluation of crop productivity in the Po plain during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialetizia Carra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the field researches carried out on the Bronze age site of Solarolo, the University of Bologna has started a program of experimental archaeology including the cultivation of ancient cereals. The main aim stress on the reconstruction of ancient economic aspects an particularly the production of crops. The use of several kinds of cereals not modified by modern genetic transformations, similar to those found during the excavations in the Bronze Age site, allows to start a discussion on main topics concerning ancient cultivations during the Bronze Age, supported by methodological, technical and ethnoarchaeological parameters. The scientific method applied along the experimental activities, accompanied by computations of productivity, offers elements to verify the estimations recorded by classical sources.

  5. Synthesis of one-dimensional potassium tungsten bronze with excellent near-infrared absorption property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chongshen; Yin, Shu; Huang, Lijun; Sato, Tsugio

    2011-07-01

    Potassium tungsten oxide nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal reaction route in the presence of sulfate. After reduction under a reductive atmosphere of H(2)(5 vol %)/N(2), the potassium tungsten oxide transformed to potassium tungsten bronze. Because of the lack of free electrons, the potassium tungsten oxide (K(x)WO(3+x/2)) showed no NIR shielding performance; however, the potassium tungsten bronze (K(x)WO(3)) showed promising optical characteristics such as high transmittance for visible light, as well as high shielding performance for near-infrared lights, indicating its potential application as a solar filter. Meanwhile, the potassium tungsten bronze (K(x)WO(3)) showed strong absorption of near-infrared light and instantaneous conversion of photoenergy to heat.

  6. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. It has been suggested, based on zooarchaeological and genetic analyses that wild horses from the Iberian Peninsula were involved in the process, and the overrepresentation of mitochondrial D1 cluster in modern...... Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group....... Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian origin. Moreover, Bronze Age Iberian sequences displayed the lowest nucleotide diversity values when compared with modern horses, ancient wild horses and other...

  7. A História da enfermagem em Pernambuco: um olhar da ABEn (1968-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Maria da Silva Abrão

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma tentativa de contribuir com a história da enfermagem ao levantar questões relevantes, marcos e influências que através da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem foram vislumbrados na época. Através de depoimento oral e análise de documentos pudemos destacar ampla atuação da associação relacionadas à questões trabalhistas, normatização do exercício profissional, formação profissional, atividades sócio-culturais e educativas da enfermagem em Pernambuco.

  8. Bronze and Iron Age sites in Srem and the stratigraphy of Gomolava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic excavation at Gomolava conducted almost interruptedly between 1953 and 1985 provided an almost full insight into the human occupation of the southern Pannonian Plain from the Early Neolithic to the successive arrival of Celts and Romans. This fact makes it possible for many of the excavated short-lived or horizontally-stratified settlements to be defined in relation to Gomolava's stratigraphic sequence. As a result, the paper attempts to establish a relative chronology for Bronze and Iron Age sites in the area between the Sava and Danube rivers. By way of illustration, it offers four maps suggesting synchronous developments. Thus Map 1 shows chronological parallelism between the Early Bronze Age layers and late Vučedol and Vinkovci sites (such as Pećine near Vrdnik, or Belegiš, Vojka and Batajnica belonging to the final Eneolithic and Early Bronze, while Map 2 shows synchronisms between Gomolava IVb-c and the Vinkovci layers at the sites of Gradina on the Bosut, Gradac at Belegiš, Petrovaradin Fortress, and Asfaltna Baza on the outskirts of Zemun. The end of the Bronze Age represented by Gomolava IVb1 to IVc is shown to be synchronous with the settlements, necropolises and hoard horizons of an Ha A1 and A2 date. Finally, Early Iron Age sites are easy to fit in with the Srem sites owing to systematic excavations at Gradina on the Bosut near Šid, Kalakača near Beška and numerous hoards of bronze artefacts marking a clear boundary between the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. At Gomolava this transition is reflected in horizons Va to Vd: the earliest is represented by black channeled pottery of the Gava type, while the other three are connected with the evolution of the Bosut-Basarabi complex.

  9. Vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age by using microscopic structure of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structure of charcoals was determined in two sites of Bronze Age, Chifeng area by using the scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that these charcoals are all timbers of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). It has powerful climatic indicative significance. Based on the assemblage of pollen composition, their eco-climatic index and character of community, the vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age was obtained. The reconstruction showed that the zonal vegetation was Mongolian oak forest and Chinese pine forest in the loess hills in the Chifeng area, which suggested that the climatic condition was warmer and wetter at that time than present time.

  10. Processing and characterization of in-situ aluminum bronze titanium carbide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Balathandan S.

    The present study was carried out to develop a process for manufacturing in-situ aluminum bronze titanium carbide (TiC) friction drums using the centrifugal casting method and to characterize the material under optimum performance. The in-situ method of manufacturing is based on the reactive gas injection technique (RGI). The gas used in this study is high purity methane (CH 4). It was found that the methane gas injection time into the molten bath of aluminum bronze alloyed with titanium promotes the formation of titanium carbide (TiC) in the bronze matrix. The maximum amount of TiC incorporated in the matrix was 3.1 wt.%. This lead to 11.5 wt.% incorporation of TiC in the inner diameter of centrifugal castings as carbide particles drifted towards this region due to the centrifugal forces and their relatively low density. The hardness and strength of these composites when compared with the as cast condition was improved by heat treatment. However, the alloy ductility was decreased at the expense of the strength. It was found that the wear resistance properties of the composites were superior to those of pure cast and heat treated aluminum bronze currently in use. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy indicated that the composite surfaces did not scratch deeply when wearing against a hardened 4340 steel. The wear resistance of the as cast aluminum bronze was inferior to that of heat treated one. Moreover, the heat treated aluminum bronze showed a lack of high abrasion resistance. The frictional coefficient was relatively low for the as cast aluminum bronze as a result of adhesive wear behavior for the load and speed chosen in this present investigation. The corrosion studies showed that these composites do not lead to improved corrosion resistance in marine water environments. Apparently, there is a galvanic corrosion of TiC to bronze. In addition, pitting was observed on the corroded surfaces and increased with the volume fraction of TiC. Model validation was

  11. Pressure Effects on Solid State Phase Transformation of Aluminium Bronze in Cooling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-Yan; CHEN Yan; LIU Yu-Wen; LI Fei; LIU Jian-Hua; PENG Gui-Rong; WANG Wen-Kui

    2009-01-01

    Effects of high pressure (6 GPa) on the solid state phase transformation kinetic parameters of aluminum bronze during the cooling process are investigated, based on the measurement and calculation of its solid state phase transformation temperature, duration and activation energy and the observation of its microstructures. The results show that high pressure treatment can reduce the solid phase transformation temperature and activation energy in the cooling process and can shorten the phase transformation duration, which is favorable when forming fine-grained aluminum bronze.

  12. Symbolic Metal Bit and Saddlebag Fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age Donkey Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, Guy; Nahshoni, Pirhiya; Motro, Hadas; Oren, Eliezer D.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE) at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit) and pack animals (saddlebags). The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources. PMID:23484046

  13. On the mechanism of catalytic hydrogenation of thiophene on hydrogen tungsten bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongjie; Chen, Zhangxian; Gan Wei Kiat, Vincent; Huang, Liang; Cheng, Hansong

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenation of unsaturated organosulfur compounds is an essential process through which these species are converted into cleaner and more useful compounds. Hydrogen bronze materials have been demonstrated to be efficient catalysts in hydrogenation of simple unsaturated compounds. Herein, we performed density functional theory calculations to investigate hydrogenation of thiophene on hydrogen tungsten bronze. Various reaction pathways were investigated and the most favourable routes were identified. Our results suggest that the reaction proceeds with moderate barriers, and formation of tetrahydrothiophene is facile both thermochemically and kinetically. The present study provides a useful insight into the design of hydrogenation thiophene and its derivatives and effective hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

  14. Symbolic metal bit and saddlebag fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age donkey burial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bar-Oz

    Full Text Available Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit and pack animals (saddlebags. The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources.

  15. Formation and Oxidation of Hydrogen Molybdenum Bronze on platinum electrode in sulfuric acid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin LU; Jun Hua DU; Wei Shan Li; Jia Mo FU

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen molybdenum bronze (HxMoO3) can be electrodeposited on platinum and oxidized in two steps to the hydrogen molybdenum bronze with less amount of hydrogen HyMoO3 (y

  16. Symbolic metal bit and saddlebag fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age donkey burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, Guy; Nahshoni, Pirhiya; Motro, Hadas; Oren, Eliezer D

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE) at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit) and pack animals (saddlebags). The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources.

  17. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  18. Correlation of mechanical properties with nondestructive evaluation of babbitt metal/bronze composite interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Taszarek, B. J.; Frohlich, S.; Gungor, M. N.

    1988-09-01

    Interfaces of the babbitt metal-bronze composite were examined ultrasonically and were fractured using the Chalmers test method. It was found that the ultrasonic results correlated with the bond strength, the ductility, and the degree of bonding at the tested interface. Specifically, high ultrasonic reflection percentages were associated with low bond strength, low ductility, and low percentages of bonded regions. The fracture mechanism in the bonded area of the babbitt-bronze interface is related to the presence of the intermetallic compound, Cu6Sn5, at the interface. It is suggested that the non-destructive ultrasonic technique can detect the bond integrity of babbitted metals.

  19. A bioprospecção na Colombia : um exemplo de conflito entre as capacidades de ciencia e tecnologia e o marco regulatorio

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Alberto Duarte Torres

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Na prática da bioprospecção se apresentam uma série de divergências e conflitos de distinta natureza, que fazem dela um objeto muito interessante de estudo, como os diferenciados poderes de negociação das partes (países do Norte e países do Sul); a interação entre diferentes tipos de conhecimento (tradicional e científico); a complexidade de um marco legal no nível internacional e a possibilidade de que os países em desenvolvimento, ricos em biodiversidade, aumentem suas capacidades p...

  20. Hacia un marco conceptual para repensar la accesibilidad cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Landini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La accesibilidad de la población al sistema de salud constituye una de las principales preocupaciones de las políticas sanitarias. No obstante, son pocos los trabajos que profundizan conceptualmente en dicha noción. La mayor parte de ellos diferencia entre disponibilidad, accesibilidad y aceptabilidad, o entre accesibilidad geográfica, financiera, administrativa y cultural. En el presente trabajo se discute y analiza la noción de accesibilidad, definiéndosela como un proceso de articulación conflictiva entre demanda y oferta en salud. A la vez, se focaliza en la noción de accesibilidad cultural, la cual es repensada como una interfaz social, es decir, como un espacio conflictivo en el que se articulan marcos de sentido diferentes, en este caso el de los profesionales y el de los pacientes. Esto permite abordar los procesos complejos de apropiación, traducción y reconfiguración de los conocimientos y recomendaciones que se dan en este vínculo.

  1. El teatro im/posible en TV de Marco Paolini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Puliani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto cultural italiano, la comercializacion de obras de teatro ha dejado de ser un producto orientado a un consumidor concreto para transformarse en muchos casos en un producto de largo consumo. De hecho, en las últimas décadas cadenas de televisión, editoriales, revistas especializadas y medios de comunicación escritos han estado editando y comercializando obras de teatro de manera satisfactoria y con una notable acogida de público y crítica. En este sentido, la obra editada y comercializada de Marco Paolini ha tenido (y tiene un papel fundamental. La edición televisada de espectáculos como Il racconto del Vajont, Miserabili, Il Milione o Ausmerzen. Vite indegne di essere vissute, son ejemplo de como un espectáculo teatral puede perfectamente tener cabida en un contexto televisivo, además de poder entenderse como un inestimable punto de partida para una reflexión sobre las posibilidades que ofrece la adaptación a un medio televisado.

  2. Ancient bronze horse muzzles of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés Estallo, Ignasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse muzzles and Bronze muzzles are unique equestrian tools that have been referred to in scattered accounts throughout history. Nevertheless, the majority of these objects have received short descriptions and an overall study is still missing. The lack of a comprehensive study hinges on the over looked importance of these items and the superficial manner that have characterized their documentation. Both these reasons have limited observations on chronology and archaeological investigation. The recent identification of new unpublished exemplars among the Museums’ collections in Barcelona and Lleida has encouraged the authors of this paper to start a new study dedicated to these objects. Starting from a catalogue inclusive of all muzzles and muzzles currently known in the Iberian Peninsula, an attempt will be made to propose an accurate description, typological classification and, for some of the items, a revision of the decorative scenes that have marked their place in bronze horse muzzle and muzzle chronology. The formal development and the chronological framework here proposed refer to those of the exemplars found in Greece and in Italy. The broadening of the geographical area will allow reconsideration of those social phenomena that have in the past determined the diffusion of elements in horse tack throughout most of the western Peninsula in the Mediterranean.

    Los bozales y las muserolas en bronce para caballo constituyen unos excepcionales complementos ecuestres cuyo conocimiento se encuentra disperso en una extensa bibliografía. De muchos ejemplares apenas se ha publicado una breve descripción y nunca hasta el presente han sido objeto de un estudio monográfico, quizás por el desaliento que produce el desconocimiento de su procedencia en unos casos, o la superficial noticia del contexto de aparición en la mayoría de ellos, hecho que ha limitado las consideraciones cronológicas y de asociación. La identificación de nuevos

  3. Preflight study of San Marco D/L GaAs solar cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The solar array for the San Marco D/L spacecraft is described and the performance of 4 GaAs solar cell panels are examined. In comparison to the typical Si solar cell panel for San Marco D/L, it is shown that each GaAs solar cell panel provides at least 23 percent more specific power at maximum output and 28 deg C. Also described here, are several measurements that will be made to evaluate the relative performance of Si and GaAs solar cell panels during the San Marco D/L flight.

  4. Kinkaleri : teater peab tekitama küsimuse, mitte andma vastuse / Marco Mazzoni ; interv. Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazzoni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    1995. a. Itaalias asutatud kuuest kunstnikust - Matteo Bambi, Luca Camilletti, Massimo Conti, Marco Mazzoni, Gina Monaco ja Cristina Rizzo - koosnevast eksperimentaalteatrist Kinkaleri ja Kanuti Gildi saalis 7. ja 8. nov. esiettekandele tulevast lavastusest "Yes, Sir!"

  5. Characterisation of a Proto-historic bronze collection by micro-EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Elin, E-mail: elin@itn.pt [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Araújo, M. Fátima [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Silva, Rui J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vilaça, Raquel [CEAUCP-FCT, Instituto de Arqueologia, Departamento de História, Arqueologia e Artes, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Coimbra, Palácio de Sub-Ripas, 3000-395 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► A collection of Proto-historic metal artefacts was analysed by micro-EDXRF. ► Composition of major and minor elements has been determined. ► Artefacts were manufactured in a bronze alloy with a low impurity pattern. ► The alloy shows parallels with indigenous Late Bronze Age Iberian productions. -- Abstract: Studies concerning European Proto-historic metallic artefacts can provide important clues about technological transfers during a period of time characterised by diverse cultural interactions. A collection of Proto-historic metallic artefacts from Medronhal (western Iberian Peninsula) composed by rings, bracelets and a fibula related to different cultural affiliations were investigated by micro-EDXRF to provide a major and a minor elemental characterisation. Results show that the Medronhal collection was manufactured in a Cu–Sn alloy (binary bronze) with similar Sn contents among the various types of artefacts and a low impurity pattern. Results of the type and quality of metal were compared to other artefact collections to infer about metallurgical parallels. Strong parallels with indigenous Late Bronze Age Iberian metallurgical productions were found.

  6. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Ileana [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varvara, Simona, E-mail: svarvara@uab.ro [Department of Exact Sciences and Engineering, “1 Decembrie 1918” University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga St., 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Gaina, Luiza [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria, E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All four investigated antibacterial drugs act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surface. • In the presence of antibiotics, a 3RC electric circuit simulates the corrosion system. • The electrochemical results indicate as best inhibitors Doxy, followed by Strepto. • HOMO–LUMO energy gap increases in the order: Doxy > Strepto > Cipro > Amoxi. • The thin protective film on bronze is reinforced by the presence of the antibiotics. - Abstract: The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} and HOMO–LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

  7. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    To improve methods used to study prehistoric cremation rituals, cremation urns from the Danish late Bronze Age were examined using Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography (Digital X-ray). During microexcavation, the digital images were used as registration tool. Our results suggest...

  8. Corrosion investigation of fire-gilded bronze involving high surface resolution spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, G.; Chiavari, C.; Avila, J.; Esvan, J.; Raffo, S.; Bignozzi, M. C.; Asensio, M. C.; Robbiola, L.; Martini, C.

    2016-03-01

    Gilded bronzes are often affected by severe corrosion, due to defects in the Au layer and Au/Cu alloy galvanic coupling, stimulated by large cathodic area of the gilded layer. Galvanic corrosion, triggered by gilding defects, leads to products growth at the Au/bronze interface, inducing blistering or break-up of the Au layer. In this context, fire-gilded bronze replicas prepared by ancient methods (use of spreadable Au-Hg paste) was specifically characterised by compiling complementary spectroscopic and imaging information before/after accelerated ageing with synthetic rain. Fire-gilded bronze samples were chemically imaged in cross-section at nano-metric scale (XPS). We have found a net surface enrichment in Zn and Sn after fire-gilding and presence of metallic Hg, Pb and Cu within the Au layer. Moreover, the composition distribution of the elements together with their oxidation has been determined. It was also revealed that metallic phases including Hg and Pb remain in the gilding after corrosion. Moreover, selective dissolution of Zn and Cu occurs in the crater due to galvanic coupling, which locally induces relative Sn species enrichment (decuprification). The feasibility advantages and disadvantages of chemical imaging using HR-SRPES to study artworks have been investigated on representative replicas.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.

    2011-01-01

    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight pin

  10. La médaille de bronze du CNRS à un physicien clermontois

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Evey year, the National center for scientific research (CNRS), rewards around fifty of searchers at various stages of their career. The bronze medal rewards the first work of a searcher, making of him a specialist in his field; Philippe Crochet was awarded this medal

  11. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen; Brandström Durling, Mikael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Ellegren, Hans; Willerslev, Eske; Lidén, Kerstin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. It has been suggested, based on zooarchaeological and genetic analyses that wild horses from the Iberian Peninsula were involved in the process, and the overrepresentation of mitochondrial D1 cluster in modern Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group. Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian origin. Moreover, Bronze Age Iberian sequences displayed the lowest nucleotide diversity values when compared with modern horses, ancient wild horses and other ancient domesticates using nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. We conclude that the excessive clustering of Bronze Age horses in the Lusitano group C, the observed nucleotide diversity and the local continuity from wild Neolithic Iberian to modern Iberian horses, could be explained by the use of local wild mares during an early Iberian domestication or restocking event, whereas the D1 group probably was introduced into Iberia in later historical times.

  12. Dating archaeological copper/bronze artifacts by using the voltammetry of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Capelo, Sofia; Pasíes, Trinidad; Martínez-Lázaro, Isabel

    2014-08-25

    A method for dating copper/bronze archaeological objects aged in atmospheric environments is proposed based on the specific signals for cuprite and tenorite corrosion products measured through the voltammtry of microparticles method. The tenorite/cuprite ratio increased with the corrosion time and fitted to a potential law that yielded a calibration curve usable for dating purposes.

  13. Exposition and Synthesis of Benin Bronze Casting: Emphasis on the Olotan Casters of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeta, Chris Funke

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of Western education to Nigeria has brought in its wake great strides toward development. Changes in Benin dates far back to the dawn of the 20th century. This paper investigates the critical role of education in development. The paper integrates interview data collected from bronze casters in Benin. The first section of the paper…

  14. Strangers in a strange land: Egyptians in southern Palestine during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Sparks

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available When the Institute of Archaeology was formally established in 1937, it became responsible for housing Sir Flinders Petrie’s collection of archaeological material from Palestine. This unique inheritance has great value as a research collection, as its curator demonstrates here in her discussion of interaction between Egypt and Palestine in the Bronze Age.

  15. Study on surface properties of gilt-bronze artifacts, after Nd:YAG laser cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeyoun [Division of Restoration Technology, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namchul, E-mail: nam1611@hanmail.net [Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science, Kongju National University, Gongju, 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongmyoung [Laser Engineering Group, IMT Co. Ltd, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    As numerous pores are formed at plating gilt-bronze artifacts, the metal underlying the gold is corroded and corrosion products are formed on layer of gold. Through this study, the surfaces of gilt-bronze are being investigated before and after the laser irradiation to remove corrosion products of copper by using Nd:YAG laser. For gilt-bronze specimens, laser and chemical cleaning were performed, and thereafter, surface analysis with SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS were used to determine the surface characteristics. Experimental results show that chemical cleaning removes corrosion products of copper through dissolution but it was not removed uniformly and separated the metal substrate and the gold layer. Nevertheless, through laser cleaning, some of the corrosions were removed with some damaged areas due to certain conditions and brown residues remained. Brown residues were copper corrosion products mixed with soil left within the gilt layer. It was due to surface morphology of uneven and rough gilt layer. Hence, they did not react effectively to laser beams, and thus, remained as residues. The surface properties of gilt-bronze should be thoroughly investigated with various surface analyses to succeed in laser cleaning without damages or residues.

  16. Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy Exhibition of Bronze Inscriptions——Origin of Ancient Chinese Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To commemorate the 35th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan, and carry forward the traditional culture of the Chinese nation, the Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy Exhibition of Bronze Inscriptions-Origin of Ancient Chinese Writing jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the Shaanxi Provincial People’s Association for

  17. LEED STUDY OF NAXWO3 TUNGSTEN BRONZE - STRUCTURAL RELAXATION OF A PEROVSKITE SURFACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEACOR, SD; HIBMA, T

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a low energy electron diffraction study of the sodium tungsten bronze, NaxWO3, x = 0.8, surface. Temperature dependent changes of both polished and cleaved surfaces indicate structural phase transitions of the surface structure, and reflect the general trend in structural phase tra

  18. Isotopic dietary reconstruction of humans from Middle Bronze Age Lerna, Argolid, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantaphyllou, S.; Richards, M. P.; Zerner, C.; Voutsaki, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of 39 human bone and 8 animal samples from Middle Bronze Age (or Middle Helladic, MH, ca. 2100-1700 BC) Lerna, Greece. The isotopic data indicate that the humans had a C-3 terrestrial diet while certain individuals appe

  19. Electrodeposition and corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline white bronze (CuSn) coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Lekka, M.; Willemsen, R.M.R.; Tacken, R.A.; Bonora, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    For jewellery applications electroplated white bronze (CuSn) was investigated as undercoating for noble metal finishes as alternative to nickel. A strongly acidic plating bath was developed with an organic additive to suppress hydrogen evolution and obtain bright coatings. An electrochemical study o

  20. Study on acoustical properties of sintered bronze porous material for transient exhaust noise of pneumatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxiang; Zhao, Shengdun; Ishihara, Kunihiko

    2013-05-01

    A novel approach is presented to study the acoustical properties of sintered bronze material, especially used to suppress the transient noise generated by the pneumatic exhaust of pneumatic friction clutch and brake (PFC/B) systems. The transient exhaust noise is impulsive and harmful due to the large sound pressure level (SPL) that has high-frequency. In this paper, the exhaust noise is related to the transient impulsive exhaust, which is described by a one-dimensional aerodynamic model combining with a pressure drop expression of the Ergun equation. A relation of flow parameters and sound source is set up. Additionally, the piston acoustic source approximation of sintered bronze silencer with cylindrical geometry is presented to predict SPL spectrum at a far-field observation point. A semi-phenomenological model is introduced to analyze the sound propagation and reduction in the sintered bronze materials assumed as an equivalent fluid with rigid frame. Experiment results under different initial cylinder pressures are shown to corroborate the validity of the proposed aerodynamic model. In addition, the calculated sound pressures according to the equivalent sound source are compared with the measured noise signals both in time-domain and frequency-domain. Influences of porosity of the sintered bronze material are also discussed.

  1. The study of bronze statuettes with the help of neutron-imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langh, R.; Lehmann, E.; Hartmann, S.; Kaestner, A.; Scholten, F.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently fabrication techniques of Renaissance bronzes have been studied only with the naked eye, microscopically, videoscopically and with X-radiography. These techniques provide information on production techniques, yet much important detail remains unclear. As part of an interdisciplinary s

  2. Dating Archaeological Copper/Bronze Artifacts by Using the Voltammetry of Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Doménech-Carbó, Maria Teresa; Capelo, Sofia; Pasíes, Trinidad; Martínez-Lázaro, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A method for dating copper/bronze archaeological objects aged in atmospheric environments is proposed based on the specific signals for cuprite and tenorite corrosion products measured through the voltammtry of microparticles method. The tenorite/cuprite ratio increased with the corrosion time and fitted to a potential law that yielded a calibration curve usable for dating purposes.

  3. Ultrahigh resolution imaging of local structural distortions in intergrowth tungsten bronzes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, A I; Sloan, J; Haigh, S

    2007-01-01

    Details of the local structure of a complex tungsten bronze, K(x)WO(3) have been determined using focal series exit wave reconstruction. Octahedral rotations in different structural regions of the same crystal have been directly measured from the exit wave phase and correlated with variations in cation occupancy determined from the exit wave modulus.

  4. Protection of bronze artefacts through polymeric coatings based on nanocarriers filled with corrosion inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Martina Salzano; Buonocore, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Giuliani, Chiara; Ingo, Gabriel M.; Lavorgna, Marino

    2016-05-01

    Protective coatings based on polymers synthesized from renewable sources (chitosan or an amorphous vinyl alcohol based polymer) have been prepared for the protection of bronze artifacts from corrosion. Besides acting as an effective barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, the efficiency of the coatings has been improved by adding corrosion inhibitor compounds (benzotriazole or mercaptobenzothiazole) to the formulations. The liquid medium of the formulations has been carefully selected looking at maximizing the wettability on the bronze substrate and optimizing the solvent evaporation rate. The minimum amount of inhibitor compounds has been optimized by performing accelerated corrosion tests on coated bronze substrates. The inhibitors have been directly dissolved in the coating-forming solutions and/or introduced by means of nanocarriers, which allow to control the release kinetics. The free dissolved inhibitor molecules immediately provide a sufficient protection against corrosion. On the other hand, the inhibitor molecules contained in the nanocarriers serve as long-term reservoir, which can be activated by external corrosion-related stimuli in case of particularly severe conditions. Particular attention has been paid to other features which affect the coating performances. Specifically, the adhesion of the protective polymer layer to the bronze substrate has been assessed, as well as its permeability properties and transparency, the latter being a fundamental feature of protective coating for cultural heritages. Finally, the protective efficiency of the produced smart coatings has been assessed through accelerated corrosion tests.

  5. The Agro Pontino region, refuge after the Early Bronze Age Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakels, C.; Sevink, J.; Kuijper, W.; Kamermans, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was discovered that the Middle to Late Holocene infi ll of the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) held a tephra layer originating from the Avellino eruption of the Vesuvius volcano. The eruption is dated to 1995 ± 10 calBC and took therefore place during the Early Bronze Age. Thi

  6. Early Bronze Jericho : High-precision C-14 dates of short-lived palaeobotanic remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, HJ; Van Der Plicht, J; Mook, W.G.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable series of high-precision radiocarbon dates in a stratified archaeological context are of great importance for interdisciplinary chronological and historical studies. The Early Bronze Age in the Near East is characterized by the beginning of the great civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia,

  7. A Survey of the Study of the Research on Bronze Characters%金文语音研究述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀源

    2011-01-01

    There are three aspects in the study of Bronze characters: the probing of the Rhythmic beats, complementary study on the phonetics of the Ancient Chinese with the application of phonetics of Bronze characters, investigations of the phonology of the Bronze characters.%学者们对金文语音的研究可以分为三个方面:一、金文韵读的探求;二、利用金文语音对上古音研究进行补苴;三、探求金文音系。

  8. Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pisarek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigations of the process of solidification of the bronze CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C (B555 and CuSn10-C (B10 in the hot plaster mould show in the work. For four temperatures of casting: 1200 ° C, 1180 ° C, 1160 ° C and 1140 ° C was conducted the investi-gation: the size of contraction cavity, the fulfillment of the mould cavity formative the casts of test slats about the thickness: 4 mm, 0,8 mm and 0,5 mm. It was conducted the investigation the processes sets in the arrangement the cast-mould and X-ray analysis phase XRD of compound coming into being in indirect layer created among mould and cast in the result of the thermal decomposition of the anhy-drite. It results that the temperature 1140 ° C is the optimum temperature of casting the bronze to hot plaster mould from carried out investiga-tions. The minimum thickness of the wall of the cast from the bronze B555 is 0.5 mm, and from the bronze B10 0.8 mm.The realization of casts about thinner walls is made difficult because of giving off formed gases in the result of the thermal decomposition of the anhydrite. The products of the decomposition of the anhydrite react with elements steps in the chemical composition of studied bronzes, create in the arrangement the cast-mould the indirect layer folded from: sulphites, sulphides, oxides and clean metals (Pb or their compounds, especially Sn and Sb.

  9. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD GENÉTICA AL CÁNCER: ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES BIOÉTICAS BAJO EL MARCO LEGAL VENEZOLANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS JG. FLORES-ANGULO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer es una enfermedad que se caracteriza por la proliferación rápida e incontro- lada de las células. Existen varios factores de riesgo asociados, entre ellos, el hereditario tal vez sea el más importante, ya que, aunque el fenotipo tiene una gran dependencia de las condiciones ambientales, la base de la carcinogénesis es el daño genético no letal. En este sentido, el estudio de los marcadores genéticos de susceptibilidad adquiere capital importancia, ya que estos permiten identificar a los individuos con alto riesgo genético, estimar su pronóstico y respuesta al tratamiento, adquiriendo la medicina un carácter más predictivo y preventivo. No obstante, esto podría desencadenar problemas éticos de gran impacto, especialmente difíciles de solucionar en una sociedad carente de un marco legal adecuado. Es importante, así, realizar un análisis del Sistema Legal Venezolano (SLV que protege la información del genoma humano y sus repercusiones bioéticas. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda e interpretación del marco normativo venezolano vigente, de publicaciones inherentes al cáncer, su susceptibilidad y tecno- logía diagnóstica. Las conclusiones derivadas son: 1 No es recomendable la oferta masiva de pruebas para la detección de riesgo genético debido a sus repercusiones psicosociales y laborales, 2 El desarrollo del SLV vinculado a la protección del genoma es bastante limitado, y 3 Es necesaria la adecuación del SLV al inminente desarrollo científico, para así controlar el impacto bioético de la información obtenida y garantizar el acceso a un asesoramiento genético, psicológico y legal, para así, establecer puntual- mente el marco de responsabilidades.

  10. Sciades herzbergii oxidative stress biomarkers: an in situ study of an estuarine ecosystem (São Marcos' Bay, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho-Neta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of environmental contamination on wild fish, sites were sampled in São Marcos' Bay. The first is located near the ALUMAR/ALCOA port, a potentially contaminated area. The second, located near the Coqueiro beach, was used as a reference area. The activity of antioxidant defence catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST in S. herzbergii was compared with the biometric data and gonadosomatic index (GSI. The result showed that GSI decreased significantly in females (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da contaminação ambiental em peixes amostrados em dois locais da Baía de São Marcos. O primeiro ponto está localizado próximo ao porto da ALUMAR/ALCOA, considerado como uma área potencialmente contaminada. O segundo ponto, situado na praia do Coqueiro, foi usado como uma área de referência. Dados da atividade da enzima de defesa antioxidante catalase (CAT e da glutationa S-transferase (GST em S. herzbergii foram comparados com os dados biométricos e o índice gonadossomático (GSI. Resultados mostraram que o GSI diminuiu significativamente em fêmeas (p <0.05 no local contaminado. A atividade da CAT foi mais alta nos peixes do local contaminado. Uma diferença significativa foi observada na atividade de GST de S. herzbergii no local contaminado e no local de referência (p <0.05. GSI possibilitou uma nova abordagem quanto à natureza da resposta de destoxificação nessa espécie de bagre porque este índice não apresentou correlação com as enzimas no local potencialmente contaminado, mas apresentou no local de referência. Assim, sugere-se que a boa correlação da GST/CAT e GSI poderia estar relacionada à reprodução dos animais no local de referência, mas não no local potencialmente contaminado. Se esse for o caso, pode-se concluir que GST/CAT e GSI podem ser utilizados como bons biomarcadores para avaliar contaminação aquática.

  11. Fundo Nacional da Assistência Social: da teoria à prática social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Lessí Inês Farias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por escopo analisar o financiamento da assistência social no contexto dos ajustes fiscais realizados no Brasil no período 1990-2003. Para tanto, inicialmente, explicita-se o marco político-legal da política de Assistência Social. A seguir, é analisada a execução orçamentária do Fundo Nacional da Assistência Social desde a sua criação até 2003

  12. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, E; Araújo, M F; Silva, R J C; Senna-Martinez, J C; Vaz, J L Inês

    2011-09-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction.

  13. Habitabilidad de la vivienda de interés social prioritaria en el marco de la cultura. Reasentamiento de comunidades negras de Vallejuelos a Mirador de Calasanz en Medellín, Colombia. Habitability of the priority-affordable housing within the framework of culture. Resettlement of black communities from Vallejuelos to Mirador de Calasanz in Medellin, Colombia. Habitabilidade na habitação social prioritário no quadro da cultura. Reassentamento de comunidades pretas de Vallejuelos em Mirador de Calasanz em Medellín, Colômbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Marina Mena Romaña

    2011-07-01

    solutions built by the municipal administration in the context of public housing policy in Medellin. Methodologically, Mirador de Calazans was taken as a case study that characterizes the vast majority of the projects developed since 2001 to date, especially those built in the Pajarito Macroproject (northwest of Medellin. The method is qualitative and part of an ethnographic approach, which was conducted from life stories and general comments. The interest of this article explains the pervasiveness of this type of construction, lack of social responsibility when running housing, restrictive living conditions in the population and loss of identity that is generated in the different social groups. A moradia é habitada por diferentes pessoas e culturas que elas próprias implantam, pois a cultura é parte das suas vidas, fornecem identidade para os moradores e mesmo são transmitidas às moradias. Portanto, o modelo estandardizado implementado nas moradias chamadas de interesse prioritário (VIP, especificamente aquele desenhado para reassentamento de população, é uma limitante física que choca nos padrões culturais da população e gera conflitos associados à convivência. Neste artigo, indaga-se pela complexidade de morar em soluções habitacionais construídas pela administração municipal no marco da política pública de habitação de Medellín. Metodologicamente, o caso de estudo foi o Mirador de Calasanz, por caracterizar a maior parte dos projetos desenvolvidos desde 2001 até hoje, especialmente aqueles construídos no Macroprojeto de Pajarito (zona noroeste de Medellín. O método for qualitativo e parte duma perspectiva etnográfica, no qual foram realizadas entrevistas abertas, historias de vida e observação geral. O interesse deste artigo é explicado na propagação massiva deste tipo de edificações, falta de responsabilidade social na hora de construir moradias, condições restritivas em que as pessoas moram e a perda de identidade gerada nas

  14. Da escuridão para a luz: origem e extensão da Bíblia em braille no Brasil. Dissertação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adriano Lovera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available LOVERA, Marcos Adriano. Da escuridão para a luz: origem e extensão da Bíblia em braille no Brasil. Dissertação (Mestrado 2013. 176p. - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte

  15. Influence of Metal-Coated Graphite Powders on Microstructure and Properties of the Bronze-Matrix/Graphite Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Li, Pu; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yan-qing; He, Jian-sheng; He, Ke

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the bronze-matrix/x-graphite (x = 0, 1, 3 and 5%) composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy route by using Cu-coated graphite, Ni-coated graphite and pure graphite, respectively. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosive behaviors of bronze/Cu-coated-graphite (BCG), bronze/Ni-coated-graphite (BNG) and bronze/pure-graphite (BPG) were characterized and investigated. Results show that the Cu-coated and Ni-coated graphite could definitely increase the bonding quality between the bronze matrix and graphite. In general, with the increase in graphite content in bronze-matrix/graphite composites, the friction coefficients, ultimate density and wear rates of BPG, BCG and BNG composites all went down. However, the Vickers microhardness of the BNG composite would increase as the graphite content increased, which was contrary to the BPG and BCG composites. When the graphite content was 3%, the friction coefficient of BNG composite was more stable than that of BCG and BPG composites, indicating that BNG composite had a better tribological performance than the others. Under all the values of applied loads (10, 20, 40 and 60N), the BCG and BNG composites exhibited a lower wear rate than BPG composite. What is more, the existence of nickel in graphite powders could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the BNG composite.

  16. Influence of Metal-Coated Graphite Powders on Microstructure and Properties of the Bronze-Matrix/Graphite Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Li, Pu; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yan-qing; He, Jian-sheng; He, Ke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the bronze-matrix/x-graphite (x = 0, 1, 3 and 5%) composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy route by using Cu-coated graphite, Ni-coated graphite and pure graphite, respectively. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosive behaviors of bronze/Cu-coated-graphite (BCG), bronze/Ni-coated-graphite (BNG) and bronze/pure-graphite (BPG) were characterized and investigated. Results show that the Cu-coated and Ni-coated graphite could definitely increase the bonding quality between the bronze matrix and graphite. In general, with the increase in graphite content in bronze-matrix/graphite composites, the friction coefficients, ultimate density and wear rates of BPG, BCG and BNG composites all went down. However, the Vickers microhardness of the BNG composite would increase as the graphite content increased, which was contrary to the BPG and BCG composites. When the graphite content was 3%, the friction coefficient of BNG composite was more stable than that of BCG and BPG composites, indicating that BNG composite had a better tribological performance than the others. Under all the values of applied loads (10, 20, 40 and 60N), the BCG and BNG composites exhibited a lower wear rate than BPG composite. What is more, the existence of nickel in graphite powders could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the BNG composite.

  17. Examination of MARCO activity on dendritic cell phenotype and function using a gene knockout mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Komine

    Full Text Available We have reported the upregulation of MARCO, a member of the class A scavenger receptor family, on the surface of murine and human dendritic cells (DCs pulsed with tumor lysates. Exposure of murine tumor lysate-pulsed DCs to an anti-MARCO antibody led to loss of dendritic-like processes and enhanced migratory capacity. In this study, we have further examined the biological and therapeutic implications of MARCO expression by DCs. DCs generated from the bone marrow (bm of MARCO knockout (MARCO⁻/⁻ mice were phenotypically similar to DCs generated from the bm of wild-type mice and produced normal levels of IL-12 and TNF-α when exposed to LPS. MARCO⁻/⁻ DCs demonstrated enhanced migratory capacity in response to CCL-21 in vitro. After subcutaneous injection into mice, MARCO⁻/⁻ TP-DCs migrated more efficiently to the draining lymph node leading to enhanced generation of tumor-specific IFN-γ producing T cells and improved tumor regression and survival in B16 melanoma-bearing mice. These results support targeting MARCO on the surface of DCs to improve trafficking and induction of anti-tumor immunity.

  18. The aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos River headsprings, Hays County, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean L.D. Worsham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The San Marcos River in Central Texas has been well studied and has been demonstrated to be remarkably specious. Prior to the present study, research on free-living invertebrates in the San Marcos River only dealt with hard bodied taxa with the exception of the report of one gastrotrich, and one subterranean platyhelminth that only incidentally occurs in the head spring outflows. The remainder of the soft-bodied metazoan fauna that inhabit the San Marcos River had never been studied. Our study surveyed the annelid fauna and some other soft-bodied invertebrates of the San Marcos River headsprings. At least four species of Hirudinida, two species of Aphanoneura, one species of Branchiobdellida, and 11 (possibly 13 species of oligochaetous clitellates were collected. Other vermiform taxa collected included at least three species of Turbellaria and one species of Nemertea. We provide the results of the first survey of the aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos Springs, along with a dichotomous key to these annelids that includes photos of some representative specimens, and line drawings to elucidate potentially confusing diagnostic structures.

  19. The aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos River headsprings, Hays County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, McLean L. D.; Gibson, Randy; Huffman, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The San Marcos River in Central Texas has been well studied and has been demonstrated to be remarkably specious. Prior to the present study, research on free-living invertebrates in the San Marcos River only dealt with hard bodied taxa with the exception of the report of one gastrotrich, and one subterranean platyhelminth that only incidentally occurs in the head spring outflows. The remainder of the soft-bodied metazoan fauna that inhabit the San Marcos River had never been studied. Our study surveyed the annelid fauna and some other soft-bodied invertebrates of the San Marcos River headsprings. At least four species of Hirudinida, two species of Aphanoneura, one species of Branchiobdellida, and 11 (possibly 13) species of oligochaetous clitellates were collected. Other vermiform taxa collected included at least three species of Turbellaria and one species of Nemertea. We provide the results of the first survey of the aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos Springs, along with a dichotomous key to these annelids that includes photos of some representative specimens, and line drawings to elucidate potentially confusing diagnostic structures. PMID:27853397

  20. Superconducting Properties of the K$_{{x}}$WO$_{3}$ Tetragonal Tungsten Bronze and the Superconducting Phase Diagram of the Tungsten Bronze Family

    OpenAIRE

    Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Gibson, Quinn; Krizan, Jason; Cava, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the superconducting properties of the K$_{x}$WO$_{3}$ tetragonal tungsten bronze. The highest superconducting transition temperature ($T_{c}=2.1$K) was obtained for K$_{0.38}$WO$_{3}$. $T_{c}$ decreases linearly with increasing K content. Using the measured values for the upper critical field $H_{c2}$, and the specific heat $C$, we estimate the orbital critical field $H_{c2}$(0), coherence length $\\xi$(0), Debye temperature $\\Theta _{D}$ and coupling constant $\\lambda _{ep}$. The ma...

  1. Bronze beds. From hellenistic model to the Roman Cisalpine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacobello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo presenta una panoramica generale su una particolare e pregiata classe di arredi domestici quali sono i letti con decorazione in bronzo in età romana. Partendo dai modelli greco-ellenistici  e dalla loro introduzione a Roma, ci si sofferma sulla loro tipologia e sugli elementi da cui erano costituiti, per quindi affrontare nello specifico le problematiche inerenti a ritrovamenti di letti in bronzo in Cisalpina. Pezzi eccezionale per completezza e realizzazione sono le gambe di letto tricliniare rinvenute a Modena da una ricca domus della città; tali esemplari, già oggetto di studi ricostruttivi, sono in questa sede esaminati in particolare per la scena plastica che li decorava che presenta l’ immagine di Ercole contro il Centauro. L’ipotesi avanzata è che possa essere una testimonianza della propaganda per immagini di Antonio in un frangente particolare quali le lotte civili che interessarono i territori dell’Italia settentrionale nella tarda repubblica.

  2. DIFFUSION COUPLE BETWEEN HIGH STRENGTH WEAR-RESISTING ALUMINUM BRONZE AND MACHINING TOOLS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion couples of tool materials (prepared from commercially available high speed steel and YW1 carbide tools) and the wear-resisting aluminum bronze (KK) were prepared by casting to study the diffusion pattern and phase formation sequence in order to clarify the diffusion wear of the tools during the turning of the wear-resisting aluminum bronze. Optical micrographs show that good contact was obtained at the tool material-KK interface. After annealed at 900 ℃ for 6 h, strong inter-diffusion across the interface was observed. Microprobe analysis was used to study the elemental distribution across the interface and X-ray diffractometry was used to study the phases formed at the interface.

  3. Marks of heliacal rising of Sirius on the sundial of the Bronze Age

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa N; Nevsky, Mikhail Yu

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of interdisciplinary research made with the help of archaeological, physical and astronomical methods. The aim of the study were analysis and interpretation corolla marks of the vessel of the Late Bronze Age, belonging to Srubna culture and which was found near the Staropetrovsky village in the northeast of the Donetsk region (Central Donbass). Performed calculations and measurements revealed that the marks on the corolla of Staropetrovsky vessel are marking of horizontal sundial with a sloping gnomon. Several marks on the corolla of the vessel have star shape. Astronomical calculations show that their position on the corolla, as on "dial" of watch, indicates the time of qualitative change the visibility of Sirius in the day its heliacal rising and the next few days in the Late Bronze Age at the latitude of detection of Staropetrovsky vessel. Published in the article the results of astronomical calculations allow to state that astronomical year in the Srubna tradition began wi...

  4. The influence of modification by superdispersed powders on the lead-tin-base bronze structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkov, I. V.; Martyushev, N. V.; Popelyukh, A. I.; Alpeisov, A. T.; Drozdov, Yu Yu; Zykova, A. P.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents data on the influence of additives of the pre-treated aluminium oxide powder on the structure of cast lead-tin-based bronzes. Different quantities of the modifier, based on the superdispersed aluminum oxide powder, were added to the bronze melt. The studies have shown that addition of a small amount of aluminum oxide powder (0.07... 0.25 %) allows modifying the micro structure of the obtained castings. This modification includes grain refinement, reduction of the matrix dendrites size of tin solid solution in copper, as well as formation of spherical inclusions of the low-melting phase - lead. In this case, the addition of such modifier influences weakly the morphology and the quantity of solid eutectoid inclusions based on electron compound Cu31 Sn8.

  5. Connections: the relationships between Neolithic and Bronze Age Megalithic Astronomy in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Gail

    2015-01-01

    It has already been empirically verified that for many Bronze Age monuments erected in Scotland between 1400-900 BC, there was a concerted effort on behalf of the builders to align their monuments to astronomical bodies on the horizon. It has also been found that there are two common sets of complex landscape and astronomical patternings, combining specific horizon qualities, like distance and elevation, with the rising and setting points of particular astronomical phenomena. However, it has only been very recently demonstrated by us that that the visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland were first established nearly two millennia earlier, with the erection of the mooted first standing-stone 'great circles' in Britain: Callanish and Stenness of Scotland (see G. Higginbottom and R. Clay, The Origins of Standing Stone Astronomy in Britain submitted to Journal of Archaeological Science & available on ArXiv). In the current paper we...

  6. Radiocarbon dating of ancient bronze statues: Preliminary results from the Riace statues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagnile, L., E-mail: lucio.calcagnile@unile.i [CEDAD, Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); D' Elia, M.; Quarta, G. [CEDAD, Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Vidale, M. [Istituto Centrale per il Restauro, Piazza San Francesco di Paola, 9, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The low amount of material needed for the measurements makes AMS radiocarbon a technique suitable for the dating of ancient bronze artefacts through the analysis of the organic residues contained into the casting cores. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on the organic remains extracted from the casting cores of the Riace bronzes, among the most famous and well preserved sculptures of the Greek-Classical period. Although different dating hypotheses have been suggested on the base of stylistic considerations, no conclusive answers are, so far, available. The sample selection and preparation protocols of the different kind of organic materials (charred wood, vegetal remains and animal hairs) are described as well as the interpretation of the results in the frame of the current dating hypotheses and available analytical information about the casting technology.

  7. Combined effects of graphite and sulfide on the tribological properties of bronze under dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Hirai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the tribological properties of penetrated-graphite bronze containing micro-sized sulfide under dry conditions. The graphite penetration was carried out by means of roller burnishing. Micro shot peening was also applied in order to fabricate micro dimples in the penetrated graphite. The graphite area fraction was approximately 50%. The tribological properties were evaluated using a face-to-face type testing apparatus under dry conditions. The results showed that the friction coefficient of the sulfide-containing bronze decreased and the seizure resistance properties significantly increased. The friction distance until seizure occurrence was improved to more than 2.5 times. Furthermore, the friction coefficient was low and stable until the end of the experiment. It was inferred that the friction resistance was decreased and stabilized when the transfer layer was without Fe content.

  8. Comparative modeling of Bronze Age land use in the Malatya Plain (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıkan, Bülent; Restelli, Francesca Balossi; Masi, Alessia

    2016-03-01

    Computational modeling in archeology has proven to be a useful tool in quantifying changes in the paleoenvironment. This especially useful method combines data from diverse disciplines to answer questions focusing on the complex and non-linear aspects of human-environment interactions. The research presented here uses various proxy records to compare the changes in climate during the Bronze Age in the Malatya Plain in eastern Anatolia, which is situated at the northern extremity of northern Mesopotamia. Extensive agropastoral land use modeling was applied to three sites of different size and function in the Malatya Plain during the Early Bronze Age I period to simulate the varying scale and intensity of human impacts in relation to changes in the level of social organization, demography, and temporal length. The results suggest that even in land use types subjected to a light footprint, the scale and intensity of anthropogenic impacts change significantly in relation to the level of social organization.

  9. Recent research on horse-harness of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Kruszynski

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more scholars have focused their attention on the problem of the provenance and distribution of horse-harness elements of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (Ha C-D in Central and Western Europe in an attempt to compare them with similar objects from the vast areas of the Eurasian steppes. This research has provoked many different opinions and controversies. The main aim of this article is to summarise this research with special attention focused on bits and cheek-pieces, to show their distribution relative to other horse-harness elements and their role in the interpretation of the class of horse-warriors and horse-users in the societies of the Polish Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

  10. Nanosecond laser ablation of bulk Al, Bronze, and Cu: ablation rate saturation and laserinduced oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    R. Maisterrena-Epstein; S. Camacho-López; L. Escobar-Alarcón; M. A. Camacho-López

    2007-01-01

    In this work we report about the characteristics of nanosecond laser ablation, in atmospheric air, of bulk Al, Bronze, and Cu. Average per pulse laser ablation rate and its dependence on ablation depth is presented for these three metals. We will demonstrate and discuss some distinctive features of the ablation saturation effect of the above metals. We will also present results on laser-induced oxidation of the metals which results off the ablation event. We studied the laser-induced oxidatio...

  11. An attempt to date an antique Benin bronze using neutron resonance capture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, M. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: blaauw@iri.tudelft.nl; Postma, H. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Mutti, P. [IRMM, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Neutron resonance capture analysis was applied to a bronze commemorative plaque from the West-African country Benin. By comparison with recently published element compositions of Benin memorial heads, the alloy of the plaque could be dated to the period 1725-1897 AD. In the analysis procedure, the object was not damaged, cleaned or altered, and very little long-lived radioactivity was induced.

  12. Process development of making bearings and bushings from continuous-cast SAE 660 bronze alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chill, J. L.

    A process for making bearings and bushings offers considerable potential. The ability to minimize machining and scrap loss, especially for middle and large diameter bearings, should help to lower manufacturing costs appreciably. In addition, the substantial improvement of mechanical properties resulting from rolling offers the increased performance over as-cast SAE 660 bronze bearings in terms of better load carrying ability and wear resistance.

  13. Electronic Transport Properties of Sodium Tungsten Bronzes Nao.54WO3 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yue; Yuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of ternary sodium tungsten bronzes have been prepared by the electrolysis of molten Na2W04-W03 system. X-ray powder diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results reveal that the obtained samples are of cubic phase with empirical formula of Na0.54W03. Electrical resistivity measurement indicates a metallic conducting behavior without any anomaly from 5-300 K.

  14. Electrolytic surface hardening of steel,cast iron and aluminium-bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhas Keshav Paknikar

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hardening process was developed in USSR in the 1950s. The process was developed but was not commercially exploited. There is no evidence of work done on this process in India. The author has done this original work applied to different materials like steel,cast iron and aluminum-bronze. This paper gives details of microstructural transformations along with hardness value achieved. There is vital scope for this process to become viable for surface hardening and selective hardening of small components.

  15. Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Lara M; Martiniano, Rui; Murphy, Eileen M; Teasdale, Matthew D; Mallory, James; Hartwell, Barrie; Bradley, Daniel G

    2016-01-12

    The Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions were profound cultural shifts catalyzed in parts of Europe by migrations, first of early farmers from the Near East and then Bronze Age herders from the Pontic Steppe. However, a decades-long, unresolved controversy is whether population change or cultural adoption occurred at the Atlantic edge, within the British Isles. We address this issue by using the first whole genome data from prehistoric Irish individuals. A Neolithic woman (3343-3020 cal BC) from a megalithic burial (10.3× coverage) possessed a genome of predominantly Near Eastern origin. She had some hunter-gatherer ancestry but belonged to a population of large effective size, suggesting a substantial influx of early farmers to the island. Three Bronze Age individuals from Rathlin Island (2026-1534 cal BC), including one high coverage (10.5×) genome, showed substantial Steppe genetic heritage indicating that the European population upheavals of the third millennium manifested all of the way from southern Siberia to the western ocean. This turnover invites the possibility of accompanying introduction of Indo-European, perhaps early Celtic, language. Irish Bronze Age haplotypic similarity is strongest within modern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh populations, and several important genetic variants that today show maximal or very high frequencies in Ireland appear at this horizon. These include those coding for lactase persistence, blue eye color, Y chromosome R1b haplotypes, and the hemochromatosis C282Y allele; to our knowledge, the first detection of a known Mendelian disease variant in prehistory. These findings together suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago.

  16. On the Origin of Bronze Belt Plaques of Ancient Nomads in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUEn; 丁小雷

    2003-01-01

    The bronze plaques decorated with animal, human or geometric designs were the ornaments on the leather belts of the nomadic people, such as Xiongnu (Hun) and Xianbei (Sienpi) in Northern China in the Qin and Han Dynasties. These plaques had unique regional and ethnical characteristics. There have been many different ideas on the origination of this kind of plaques. The author plans to give his own opinion hereby on this issue.

  17. Microwave and conventional sintering of premixed and prealloyed Cu-12Sn bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to study the sintering behavior of the Cu-12Sn bronze system in both, a microwave furnace as well as a conventional furnace. The powders prepared by premixed and prealloyed routes were sintered in the range of solid state, transient and supersolidus liquid phase sintering conditions. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, densification parameter, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples.

  18. Review for the Volume “Alexei Marco. Destinul unui bijutier din Moldova” / Alexei Marco. The Destiny of a Jeweler from Moldova – Author Liliana Condraticova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume “Alexei Marco. The Destiny of a Jeweler from Moldova” review historiographical sources on jewelry art study, both worldwide and from Moldova. The historiographic presentation, performed with great professionalism in the use of historical sources, is perfected by the art critic’s sensitivity of Liliana Condraticova. The attraction of gold is alchemized, the metal being transformed into art. To simple economic value is added the esthetic human value.

  19. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of benzotriazole on archeological bronze in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassairi, Hèla; Bousselmi, Latifa; Khosrof, Slim; Triki, Ezzeddine

    2013-12-01

    An archaeological bronze artefact was a Punic coin excavated from the north east of Tunisia in 2001. The composition of the copper alloy revealed a content of 3.5 % of tin and 1.4 % of lead with the presence of some sulphur heterogeneity. The surface presents some roughnesses and cracks and is covered by a corrosion layer of 20-40 μm thickness. The use of benzotriazole (BTA) as an inhibitor has become a standard element for the preservation of cuprous-based metals. In order to investigate the behaviour of BTA in an acidic medium, an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) investigation was performed to characterize the electrochemical behaviour of the interface of the archaeological bronze sample/acidic medium without and with BTA addition. Impedance diagrams obtained at different immersion times show that the presence of the inhibitor prevents the diffusional process observed in the absence of BTA. The inhibition of the pre-polarized bronze surface revealed that the mechanism of action of the benzotriazole molecule in an acidic medium is governed by the chemisorption process.

  20. Exploration and characterisation of novel bronze patinas derived from simple coordination complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devantier, Ashley E; Murch, Susan J; McNeil, W Stephen

    2011-01-21

    The chemical reactions of aqueous solutions containing simple transition-metal salts and bidentate nitrogen ligands on bronze surfaces results in a series of brightly coloured patinas. Chemically and physically robust patinas involve a chemical oxidation of the copper atoms within the bronze surface, either by an applied ferric salt or atmospheric dioxygen. The combination of Fe(NO(3))(3)·9H(2)O and 2,2'-bipyridine produces a coloured patina that is either red or blue, depending on whether oxygen was present during application, due to the presence of [Fe(bpy)(3)](2+) or [Fe(bpy)(3))](3+), respectively. Application of pyrazine produces a bright orange patina, due to the formation of Cu(i) coordination polymers on the bronze surface. Application of Fe(NO(3))(3)·9H(2)O and tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) yields a forest green coloration, believed to be due to a bimetallic copper-iron complex, while TMEDA alone affords the sapphire blue of [Cu(TMEDA)(2)](2+). These patinas were characterized with ESI-TOF MS, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and IR spectrophotometry, to determine the molecular basis for the patina chromophores.

  1. Density-functional studies of tungsten trioxide, tungsten bronzes, and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ingham, B; Chong, S V; Tallon, J L

    2005-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide adopts a variety of structures which can be intercalated with charged species to alter the electronic properties, thus forming `tungsten bronzes'. Similar optical effects are observed upon removing oxygen from WO_3, although the electronic properties are slightly different. Here we present a computational study of cubic and hexagonal alkali bronzes and examine the effects on cell size and band structure as the size of the intercalated ion is increased. With the exception of hydrogen (which is predicted to be unstable as an intercalate), the behaviour of the bronzes are relatively consistent. NaWO_3 is the most stable of the cubic systems, although in the hexagonal system the larger ions are more stable. The band structures are identical, with the intercalated atom donating its single electron to the tungsten 5d valence band. Next, this was extended to a study of fractional doping in the Na_xWO_3 system (0 < x < 1). A linear variation in cell parameter, and a systematic change in the po...

  2. Effect of microstructure on the breakage of tin bronze machining chips during pulverization via jet milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Elham; Ghambari, Mohammad; Farhangi, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, jet milling was used to recycle tin bronze machining chips into powder. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the microstructure of tin bronze machining chips on their breakage behavior. An experimental target jet mill was used to pulverize machining chips of three different tin bronze alloys containing 7wt%, 10wt%, and 12wt% of tin. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as sieve analysis, were used to follow the trend of pulverization. Each alloy exhibited a distinct rate of size reduction, particle size distribution, and fracture surface appearance. The results showed that the degree of pulverization substantially increased with increasing tin content. This behavior was attributed to the higher number of machining cracks as well as the increased volume fraction of brittle δ phase in the alloys with higher tin contents. The δ phase was observed to strongly influence the creation of machining cracks as well as the nucleation and propagation of cracks during jet milling. In addition, a direct relationship was observed between the mean δ-phase spacing and the mean size of the jet-milled product; i.e., a decrease in the δ-phase spacing resulted in smaller particles.

  3. Wear Behavior of the Lead-Free Tin Bronze Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Yangli; Zhang, Siquan

    2011-12-01

    Copper-coated carbon nanotubes were prepared by the electroless plating route. The structure and component of copper/carbon tubes were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that the surface of the carbon tubes was covered by the copper particles. Copper/carbon tubes were used as the substitute of part of tin and all of lead in the tin bronze matrix, and the tribological properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced Cu-4 wt pct Sn-6 wt pct Zn composites were studied. The effects of the carbon nanotube volume fraction and sliding distance in unlubricated ball-on-disc wear test were investigated. The 3 vol pct carbon nanotube-reinforced Cu-4 wt pct Sn-6 wt pct Zn composite shows the Vickers hardness of 126.9, which is approximately 1.6 times higher than that of Cu-6 wt pct Sn-6 wt pct Zn-3 wt pct Pb tin bronze. The wear rate and average friction coefficients of 3 vol pct carbon nanotube-reinforced Cu-4 wt pct Sn-6 wt pct Zn composite were lower than those of the Cu-6 wt pct Sn-6 wt pct Zn-3 wt pct Pb tin bronze, respectively.

  4. Nordic and Celtic: religion in southern Scandinavia during the late bronze age and early iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Görman

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of modern archeological research it is today possible to gain much information even from non-written material, This paper covers the late bronze age and early iron age, ca. 1000 B.C. —O. It is based on material from Denmark, the Southwest of Sweden, and the Southeast of Norway. This region formed a cultural unity since the sea bound the area together. Our main sources of knowledge of Nordic religion during this time span are votive offerings and rock-carvings. During the bronze age and early iron age the Nordic peasant population had intensive contacts with the Southeastern and Centralparts of Europe. A great quantity of imported objects bear evidence of widespread connections. The inhabitants of the Nordic area not only brought home objects, but also ideas and religious conceptions. This is clearly reflected in the iconography. The cultures with which connections were upheld and from which ideas were introduced were those of Hallstatt and La Tène. They were both Celtic iron age cultures prospering in Central Europe at the same time as the late bronze age and early iron age in the Nordic area. This means that the new symbols in the Nordic area come from a Celtic environment. Consequently, Celtic religion such as it may be found in the pre-Roman period, can clarify the meaning of the conceptions, linked with these symbols.

  5. Analysis of the Quintilii’s Villa Bronzes by Spectroscopy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stranges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the characterization, with different diagnostic tests, of three fragments of bronze artefacts recovered from the Villa of the Quintilii (located in the south of Rome. In particular, the sample alloys were investigated by different chemical and morphological analysis. Firstly, an analysis of the alloy, implemented through the electronic spectroscopy, was taken to discriminate the bronze morphology and its elemental composition. Subsequently, a surface analysis was realized by molecular spectroscopy to identify the alteration patinas on surfaces (such as bronze disease. Two diagnostic techniques are used for the alloy analysis: scanning electron microscopy (SEM connected to the EDX spectroscopy (to study the morphology and alloy composition and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES (to identify the oxidation state of each element. Moreover, for the study of surface patinas, IR and Raman spectroscopies were implemented. All studies were performed on the “as received” samples, covered by a thin layer of excavated soil and on samples processed in an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid (10%, to remove patinas and alterations.

  6. Ferroelectric Transition and Curie—Weiss Behavior in Some Filled Tungsten Bronze Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric transitions in filled tungsten bronze ceramics Sr4R2Ti4Nb6O30, Sr5RTi3Nb7O30 (R=La, Nb, Sm & Eu) and Ba4Nd2Ti4Nb6O30 are investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Curie—Weiss law fitting to the dielectric constant. The magnitude of the Curie-Weiss constant C ~ 105 suggests displacement-type ferroelectric transition in the present compounds. The large ΔT difference between dielectric maximum temperature Tm and Curie—Weiss temperature T0) values indicate the difficult formation of ferroelectric domains or polar nanoregions in the present compounds and also the characteristics of the first order ferroelectric transition. Three categories are suggested for the ferroelectric transition in the above tungsten bronzes. The ferroelectric transition exhibits large thermal hysteresis. According to the DSC results, gradual recovery of the endothermic peak occurs after aging at temperature below the Curie point, indicating the gradual stability of the ferroelectric phase after cooling from the high-temperature para-electric phase. The relationship between the Curie—Weiss law fitting parameters and the nature of the ferroelectric transition is modified for the filled tungsten bronzes.

  7. Three dimensional finite element analysis and optimal design of cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liangbao; Fang, Yuefei

    2005-12-01

    The three-dimensional finite element model of the body of cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate is established to calculate its deformation and stress. By calculation, we obtain the law of deformation and stress under static water pressure. Then we optimize the structure of the body of cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate vie above calculation results. To validate the effect of proposed method, an engineering example of 1000mm×1500mm gate in a certain sewage process plant is introduced. The comparisons are made between the calculation results of the proposed method and those obtained by conventional design. The comparison results show that three dimensional finite element methods can obtain the actual stress and deformation of the gate body under static water pressure. In addition, we further optimize the structure and dimension of the cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate. The final optimization results show that the proposed method can reduce the weight of the gate by 20% compared those results by conventional design.

  8. Characterisation of artificial patinas on bronze sculptures of the Carlo Bilotti Museum (Rome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Municchia, A.; Bellatreccia, F.; D'Ercoli, G.; Lo Mastro, S.; Reho, I.; Ricci, M. A.; Sodo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Two bronze sculptures, Ettore e Andromaca, a reproduction of a plaster model by Giorgio de Chirico, and Cardinale, a cast made from an original by Giacomo Manzù, stand outside the Carlo Bilotti contemporary art museum in Villa Borghese park (Rome). The composition of the artificial brown patina present on the statues' surface, which was applied for aesthetic purposes, is unknown. This paper reports analysis carried out to identify the composition of the artificial patina and describe the corrosion products formed in outdoor conditions. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray microanalysis were performed on sample fragments and powder scrapings taken from the bronze statues. X-ray powder diffraction was used whenever possible and subject to conservation priorities. Our data revealed, in the artificial brown patina, the formation of copper oxides (cuprite and tenorite) on the surface of both sculptures as possible result of oxidisation treatments performed with a blowtorch before the artificial patination process began. Furthermore, a copper nitrate (gerhardtite) was identified as an ingredient in the preparation applied to the bronze surfaces. The green areas revealed the presence of corrosion products as copper sulphate hydroxide (brochantite) and copper sulphate-chloride (connellite), which form under acid rains conditions.

  9. Marcos de acción colectiva en los sitios web del Movimiento Global Ecoaldeas

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Salazar, Claudio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    En esta investigación doctoral se estudian los marcos de acción colectiva del Movimiento Global de Ecoaldeas, como expresión de una acción social transformadora que promueve espacios de movilización a nivel planetario y particularidades en sus repertorios de movilización a nivel local. El objetivo general de esta Tesis consiste en el estudio de los marcos de acción colectiva contenidos en las representaciones que el Movimiento Global de Ecoaldeas ofrece sobre sí mismo y su entorno en sus sit...

  10. Gravity Investigations with the MarcoPolo-R Radio Science Experiment RSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andert, T. P.; Pätzold, M.; Bellerose, J.; Barriot, J. P.; Oberst, J.; Hahn, M.; Tellmann, S.; Remus, S.; Förstner, R.; Häusler, B.

    2013-09-01

    The ESA sample return mission MarcoPolo-R is one of the current candidate M3 missions. It will rendezvous with a primitive Near Earth Asteroid (NEA), scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth [3] The determination of the global physical properties of the mission target, the Near Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5, is among others one science objective of the MarcoPolo-R mission. In this context one key parameter is the gravity field, especially GM (gravitational constant times the mass) and the low order gravity coefficients C20 and C22 of the asteroid.

  11. A systematic approach to Bronze corrosion products and the methods of treatment , applied on three bronze anklets from Dhamar museum , Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three bronze anklets were found during the archaeological excavation of Yemeni mission 2002 A.D, in Gabal al- lawd , Jawf area , Yemen , they dated back to Minaean period in Yemen [sixth century B.C – 24 B.C] , and now they are situated in Dhamar regional museum .They were suffered from the deterioration aspects , two of these anklets had a thick corrosion products of pale green / brown , the third anklet had a rust-colored Black and Brown with the presence of small parts and scattered pale green. The aim of this paper is to examine, in detail, the corrosion of the selected objects that was grown during the long-term burial and identify its products that will help us to understand the corrosive factors and the degradation mechanisms , as well as their constituting metals in order to carry out scientific treatment and conservation .For this purpose ,samples from the objects were examined by Metallographic Microscope (ME , Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, the corrosion products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence( XRF was used to determine the objects metallic constituents . XRD data showed that the corrosion products constitute of cuprite , atacamite , and paratacamite , whereas XRF analysis declared that the anklets compose of bronze alloy . Microscopic examination reveals that the three anklets were suffered from the deterioration spots , which dispersed on the metal surface . Chemical cleaning was chosen for treating the objects , finally they were isolated to preserve them against further attack.

  12. Como antigas estátuas de bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lubrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A interpretação de América usando motivos classicistas como modelos imperiais de apropriação, "antiquização", é uma das principais estratégias retóricas nos relatos de viagens de Alexander von Humboldt, Relation historique du voyage aux régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent (1814-1831. A partir da experiência colonial, esse discurso está carregado de tensão. O conceito de antiguidade é, assim, desautorizado e desconstruído. Os leitores são testemunhas da dissolução do classicismo europeu como dispositivo político-estético produzido pela diferença cultural."Antiquifying" America is a central rhetorical strategy in Alexander von Humboldt's Relation historique du voyage aux régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent (1814-1831. Over the course of the colonial experience, tension infuses the discourse and problems in the use of classicist motifs as imperial models of appropriation become apparent: metaphoric and metonymic references collide; positive and negative connotations overlap; incompatible modes of temporalization contrast with one another; colonial and dissident identifications coincide. The concept of "antiquity" is de-authorized, deconstructed. Readers witness the dissolution of European classicism as a politico-aesthetic 'dispositif' due to the experience of cultural difference.

  13. Study of Traverse Speed Effects on Residual Stress State and Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Bronze Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Within a research project regarding cavitation erosion-resistant coatings, arc spraying was used with different traverse speeds to influence heat transfer and the resulting residual stress state. The major reason for this study is the lack of knowledge concerning the influence of residual stress distribution on mechanical properties and coating adhesion, especially with respect to heterogeneous aluminum bronze alloys. The materials used for spray experiments were the highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze). Analyses of cavitation erosion behavior were carried out to evaluate the suitability for use in marine environments. Further microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive coating properties. Residual stress distribution was measured by modified hole drilling method using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It was found that the highest traverse speed led to higher tensile residual stresses near the surface and less cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings. Moreover, high oxygen affinity of main alloying element aluminum was identified to severely influence the microstructures by the formation of large oxides and hence the coating properties. Overall, Mn-Al-Bronze coatings showed lower residual stresses, a more homogeneous pore and oxide distribution and less material loss by cavitation than Ni-Al-Bronze coatings.

  14. Study of Traverse Speed Effects on Residual Stress State and Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Bronze Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Within a research project regarding cavitation erosion-resistant coatings, arc spraying was used with different traverse speeds to influence heat transfer and the resulting residual stress state. The major reason for this study is the lack of knowledge concerning the influence of residual stress distribution on mechanical properties and coating adhesion, especially with respect to heterogeneous aluminum bronze alloys. The materials used for spray experiments were the highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze). Analyses of cavitation erosion behavior were carried out to evaluate the suitability for use in marine environments. Further microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive coating properties. Residual stress distribution was measured by modified hole drilling method using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It was found that the highest traverse speed led to higher tensile residual stresses near the surface and less cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings. Moreover, high oxygen affinity of main alloying element aluminum was identified to severely influence the microstructures by the formation of large oxides and hence the coating properties. Overall, Mn-Al-Bronze coatings showed lower residual stresses, a more homogeneous pore and oxide distribution and less material loss by cavitation than Ni-Al-Bronze coatings.

  15. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seishiro Hirano

    Full Text Available The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2-3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways.

  16. Muid võimalusi ei ole! / Kristina Norman, Marco Laimre ; intervjueerinud Elena Šmakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Norman, Kristina, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    53. Veneetsia biennaalil "Making Worlds" ("Konstrueerides maailmu") Eestit esindavast Kristina Normani Tõnismäe pronkssõduri monumenti käsitlevast kunstiprojektist "After-War" ("Järelsõda"). Projekti kuraator Marco Laimre. Eesti ekspositsioon on avatud Palazzo Malipieros 6. juunist 22. novembrini. Biennaali nõukogu otsustas anda suured Kuldsed Lõvid elutöö eest Yoko Onole ja John Baldessarile

  17. Project Marco Polo: Bridging the Gap between Natural and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Frederick L.; Rea, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Describes Project Marco Polo in which students, teachers, and staff from "National Geographic" and the U.S. Navy traveled to Japan. Reports that they studied Japanese culture, oceanography, and natural science while on the trip. Includes excerpts from field journals kept by the participants, photographs of the trip, and a map. (DK)

  18. Il Doge and Easter Processions at San Marco in Early Modern Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    –1800. Traditional representational features – from the early Middle Ages – e.g. of the women at Christ’s grave had been incorporated into these ducal processions during the sixteenth century with special roles for the doge. The complex of solemn processions from the ducal palace around the San Marco piazza...

  19. Cultural landscapes, social networks and historical trajectories : A data-rich synthesis of Early Bronze Age networks (c. 2200-1700 BC) in Abruzzo and Lazio (Central Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenberg, van E.A.; Rossenberg, Ericus Anthonius van (Erik)

    2012-01-01

    This study wants to help Central Italy claim its place in Bronze Age studies and make a crossover between landscape and network approaches in archaeology. It starts from a methodological consideration of archaeological synthesis in Bronze Age studies. Approaching landscapes as networks of places, th

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V/Cu-10Sn bronze diffusion-bonded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO He; CAO Jian; FENG Ji-cai

    2009-01-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V/Cu-10Sn bronze diffusion-bonded joint were studied via scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS). Diffusion bonding of Ti6Al4V to Cu-10Sn bronze was investigated at different holding time. Four obvious interracial layers were observed in the joint. It is revealed that the bonding joint has high shear strength up to 102 MPa bonded at 830 ℃, bonding pressure 10 MPa and bonding time 15 min. Shear test results show that the fracture takes place between the reaction layer and the Cu-10Sn bronze substrate, and the shear strength is strongly related to the formation of Cu-Ti-Sn intermetallic compounds.

  1. Corrosion and wear behaviors of Al-bronzes in 5.0% H2SO4 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-sheng; WANG Zhi-ping; LU Yang; YUAN Li-hua; XIAO Rong-zhen; ZHAO Xu-dong

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state corrosion and wear behaviors of two Al-bronzes, Cu-14Al-X and QAl9-4, in 5.0% H2SO4 solution were investigated. It is found that wear loss of bronzes in 5.0% H2SO4 solution is lower than that in water or in air, namely, it exhibits negative synergy between corrosion and wear. Further analysis shows that corrosive solution plays an important role in cooling of specimen during the sliding wear to prevent the reduction of the surface hardness of specimen, induced by frictional heat. On the other hand, the bronzes suffer a de-alloying corrosion, and a noble copper subsurface and patina form on the specimen surface in corrosive solution, which has a passive function for further corrosion. The noble copper subsurface experiences strain hardening during the corrosion and wear, resulting in the increase of the surface hardness thus the increase in wear resistance.

  2. Abertura floral de Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´após rmazenamento a frio seguido de “pulsing” Floral opening of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´after cold storage followed by pulsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a abertura de inflorescências e a vida de vaso de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ colhido precocemente, montou-se um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado bifatorial 2 x 6 com cinco repetições, realizado no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. As hastes foram armazenadas a 2ºC ou 5ºC por sete dias, sendo em seguida tratadas com soluções de “pulsing” por 24h e mantidas em vasos com água de torneira, renovada a cada dois dias. As soluções utilizadas foram: Água (testemunha; Tiosulfato de Prata-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Ácido Giberélico-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Hipoclorito de Sódio-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxiquinolina-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1(Tecto 100. Com exceção da testemunha, as outras soluções continham 2% de Sacarose. Com estes tratamentos, observou-se que não foi possível uma abertura perfeita da inflorescência, mas a vantagem foi de prolongar a sua vida, podendo-se colocá-las no mercado num momento mais oportuno.The study of opening of inflorescences and the vase life (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ early picked of chysanthemum, was carried out in an experiment entirely set up in bifactorial 2 x 6 with five repetitions, at the Department of Fitotecnia of Santa Maria’s Federal University. The stems were stored at 2ºC or 5ºC for 7 days, prior to being treated with pulsing solutions for 24 hours and maintained in vases with distilled water, renewed every two days. The solutions used as follows: Water (control; Silver Thiosulfate-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Giberelic Acid-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Sodium Hipochloride-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxyquinoline-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1 (Tecto 100. With the exception of the control, all solutions contained 2% sucrose. Perfect opening of the flower was not achieved, but vase life could be extended in order to place them in the

  3. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD GENÉTICA AL CÁNCER:ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES BIOÉTICAS BAJO EL MARCO LEGAL VENEZOLANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Angulo Carlos JG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El cáncer es una enfermedad que se caracteriza por la proliferación rápida e incontrolada de las células. Existen varios factores de riesgo asociados, entre ellos, el hereditario tal vez sea el más importante, ya que, aunque el fenotipo tiene una gran dependencia de las condiciones ambientales, la base de la carcinogénesis es el daño genético no letal. En este sentido, el estudio de los marcadores genéticos de susceptibilidad adquiere capital importancia, ya que estos permiten identificar a los individuos con alto riesgo genético, estimar su pronóstico y respuesta al tratamiento, adquiriendo la medicina un carácter más predictivo y preventivo. No obstante, esto podría desencadenar problemas éticos de gran impacto, especialmente difíciles de solucionar en una sociedad carente de un marco legal adecuado. Es importante, así,  realizar un análisis del Sistema Legal Venezolano (SLV que protege la información del genoma humano y sus repercusiones bioéticas. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda e interpretación del marco normativo venezolano vigente, de publicaciones inherentes al cáncer, su susceptibilidad y tecnología diagnóstica. Las conclusiones derivadas son: 1 No es recomendable la oferta masiva de pruebas para la detección de riesgo genético debido a sus repercusiones psicosociales y laborales, 2 El desarrollo del SLV vinculado a la protección del genoma es bastante limitado, y 3 Es necesaria la adecuación del SLV al inminente desarrollo científico, para así controlar el impacto bioético de la información obtenida y garantizar 夏商周青铜器铅同位素示踪研究数据库的构建%A Lead Isotope Ratio Data Base of Ancient Chinese Bronzes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正耀

    2005-01-01

    A data base of lead isotope ratio of ancient Chinese bronzes is set up. There are 2 888 members, including bronze objects, casting remains, and related ores, etc. in the file. The file contents of data base are made from analysis work on Chinese bronze previously carried out in several laboratories in China, Japan and USA. The main body of the file contents is formed from records, analysis data, reference documents, and images. The data base is designed for sharing information in provenance study on raw metal material for bronze production in China Bronze Age.

  4. Estudo comparado da narrativa infantil e xuvenil de ficción científica nas literaturas galega e portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Mociño González, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Esta tese de doutoramento inscríbese nas liñas de investigación da Rede Temática “Las Literaturas Infantiles y Juveniles del Marco Ibérico e Iberoamericano/As Literaturas Infantís e Xuvenís do Marco Ibérico e Iberoamericano” (LIJMI/LIXMI) e aborda, dende unha perspectiva comparatista, o estudo da ficción científica nos polisistemas portugués e galego. Con este traballo téntase responder á necesidade de ir cubrindo baleiros e liñas deficitarias no estudo da Literatura Infantil e...

  5. Craniofacial morphology in Austrian Early Bronze Age populations reflects sex-specific migration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Alessandro; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Bookstein, Fred; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    The Early Bronze Age (2.300-1.500 BC) in lower Austria consists of three synchronous regional manifestations (Únetice, Unterwölbling, and Wieselburg cultures). The bearers of these cultures inhabited a relatively small geographic area and shared similar ecological conditions, but previous studies revealed population differences in skeletal morphology. We analyzed the cranial morphology of 171 individuals of these populations with a geometric morphometric approach in order to compare different migration scenarios. We find significant mean form differences between populations and between sexes. In a principal component analysis, the Wieselburg population, located southwest of the Danube, largely separates from the Únetice population north of the Danube, whereas the southwestern Unterwölbling group, which played a central role in trading bronze objects, overlaps with both. The Böheimkirchen group, inhabiting the southwestern Danubian area in the later phase of the Early Bronze Age, differs from the chronologically older Unterwölbling group. Geographic distance between six sites and position relative to the river Danube accounted for 64% of form distance variation; the effect of the river Danube was considerably larger than hat of geographic distance per se. As predicted for a patrilocal system in which females have a larger marriage domain than males, we found that female mean forms are more similar to each other than male mean forms. Geographic conditions explained more than twice as much variation in females as in males, suggesting that female migration was more affected by geographical constraints than male migration was.

  6. Nanoscale building blocks in a novel lithium arsenotungsten bronze: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pei [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mangir Murshed, M., E-mail: murshed@uni-bremen.de [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Huq, Ashfia [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Grossmann, Henrike K.; Mädler, Lutz [Foundation Institute of Materials Science (IWT), Department of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, Badgasteiner Strasse 3, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alekseev, Evgeny V. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich, and Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen, Jägerstraße 17-19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Gesing, Thorsten M. [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    We report on a novel compound Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} obtained by solid-state reaction and characterized by diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The bronze-type compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a=724.38(3) pm, b=1008.15(4) pm, c=4906.16(17) pm and Z=8. The structure is built up by chains of WO{sub 6} octahedra interconnected by AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra and WO{sub 6} octahedra forming a polyhedral arrangement as seen in intergrowth tungsten bronzes. The X-ray single crystal structure refinement allows solving the complex arsenotungstate framework. The powder neutron diffraction data analysis locates the lithium atoms. Thermal analysis showed that Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} is stable up to its melting at 1135(3) K followed by a decomposition at 1182(5) K. The Kubelka–Munk treatment of the UV–vis spectrum revealed a wide band gap in the range of 2.84–3.40 eV depending on the presumed electron transition type. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} showing different schematic components. - Highlights: • A report on a novel compound Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} obtained by solid-state reaction. • Chains and nano-blocks of WO{sub 6} octahedra and AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra formed a structure like intergrowth tungsten bronzes. • X-ray diffraction allowed solving the complex arsenotungstate framework. • Powder neutron diffraction data analysis locates the lithium atoms. • UV–vis spectrum revealed the band-gap.

  7. Phosphate tungsten bronze series: crystallographic and structural properties of low-dimensional conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, P; Pérez, O; Labbé, P

    2001-10-01

    Phosphate tungsten bronzes have been shown to be conductors of low dimensionality. A review of the crystallographic and structural properties of this huge series of compounds is given here, corresponding to the present knowledge of the different X-ray studies and electron microscopy investigations. Three main families are described, monophosphate tungsten bronzes, Ax(PO2)4(WO3)2m, either with pentagonal tunnels (MPTBp) or with hexagonal tunnels (MPTBh), and diphosphate tungsten bronzes, Ax(P2O4)2(WO3)2m, mainly with hexagonal tunnels (DPTBh). The general aspect of these crystal structures may be described as a building of polyhedra sharing oxygen corners made of regular stacking of WO3-type slabs with a thickness function of m, joined by slices of tetrahedral PO4 phosphate or P2O7 diphosphate groups. The relations of the different slabs with respect to the basic perovskite structure are mentioned. The structural description is focused on the tilt phenomenon of the WO6 octahedra inside a slab of WO3-type. In this respect, a comparison with the different phases of the WO3 crystal structures is established. The various modes of tilting and the different possible connections between two adjacent WO3-type slabs involve a great variety of structures with different symmetries, as well as the existence of numerous twins in MPTBp's. Several phase transitions, with the appearance of diffuse scattering and modulation phenomena, were analysed by X-ray scattering measurements and through the temperature dependence of various physical properties for the MPTBp's. The role of the W displacements within the WO3-type slabs, in two modulated structures (m = 4 and m = 10), already solved, is discussed. Finally, the complexity of the structural aspects of DPTBh's is explained on the basis of the average structures which are the only ones solved.

  8. Micro-EDXRF surface analyses of a bronze spear head: Lead content in metal and corrosion layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: elin@itn.pt; Valerio, P.; Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Instituto de Arqueologia, Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, Cidade Universitaria, Campo Grande, 1600-214 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-09-21

    A bronze spear head from Central Portugal dated to Late Bronze Age has been analyzed by non-destructive micro-EDXRF in the metal surface and corrosion layers. The artifact had previously been analyzed using a conventional EDXRF spectrometer having a larger incident beam. The quantification of the micro-EDXRF analyses showed that lead content in corrosion layers can reach values up to four times higher than the content determined in the metal surface. Results obtained with the higher energy incident beam from the EDXRF equipment, although referring mainly to the corrosion layers, seem to suffer some influence from the surface composition of the metallic alloy.

  9. Effect of Graphite Content and Granularity on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Bronze Alloyed Powder Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chen-hong; CHEN Guang-zhi; GE Qi-lu

    2005-01-01

    The bronze alloyed powder composite containing nanoparticles was developed by hot pressing. The effects of the content and granularity of graphite on hardness, machinability, bending strength, compression strength, and friction and wear behavior of the composites were studied. The microstructures of the specimens were analyzed by SEM. The results showed that the graphites are distributed in net when nanographites are added, resulting in the decrease of mechanical properties and abrasive resistance. When the content of nanographite is 10%, the composite is brittle. The graphite is distributed in the form of block when micrographite is added, improving the mechanical properties and abrasive resistance. Wear track was studied by SEM.

  10. Notes about the Early Bronze Age site of “Grotta dei Banditi”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pacciarelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Grotta dei Banditi is a cave located in the Vena del Gesso Romagnola (a Miocenic Gypsum Geological Formation near Brisighella. Excavations made in 1973 have revealed a thick stratum (from 1,30 to about 3 meters, in which have been found stratified hearths and abundant finds of the Early Bronze Age. The pottery may be assigned to an advanced – but probably not final – stage of this period, according with a 14C date (1890-1750 BC 1 ?.

  11. Tests of Lead-bronze Bearings in the DVL Bearing-testing Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G

    1940-01-01

    The lead-bronze bearings tested in the DVL machine have proven themselves very sensitive to load changes as in comparison with bearings of light metal. In order to prevent surface injuries and consequently running interruptions, the increase of the load has to be made in small steps with sufficient run-in time between steps. The absence of lead in the running surface, impurities in the alloy (especially iron) and surface irregularities (pores) decreases the load-carrying capacity of the bearing to two or three times that of the static load.

  12. Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of KSr_2Nb_5O_(15) with Tungsten Bronze Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gaoke; LI Yiqiu; WANG Junting; TU Haibin; YU Xinyi

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten bronze(TB)type potassium strontium niobate KSr_2Nb_5O_(15) was prepared by solid-state reaction method,and was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and UV-vis diffuse spectrum.The photocatalyst shows high photocatalytic activity of photodegrading acid red G.The effects of photocatalyst dosage and initial concentration of acid red G on the photodegradation process were studied.The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of acid red G by KSr_2Nb_5O_(15) catalyst follows the first order reaction.

  13. Beneath the Wine-Dark Sea: Marine Imagery and Artefacts from the Bronze Age Aegean

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Emma

    2007-01-01

    Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 This project began as an attempt to explain why the Minoan islanders developed and nurtured this marine interest, while neighbouring island cultures did not. In order to understand the enduring popularity of the sea in Minoan art, it is necessary to examine the wider social and religious role of the sea in Bronze Age Crete. As an avid scuba diver, I am also eager to apply marine biological research to identify behaviour...

  14. Electrolytic surface hardening of steel,castiron and aluminium-bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Keshav Paknik a r

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic hardening process w as developed in USSR in the 1950s. The process w as developed but w as not com m ercially exploited. There is no evidence of w ork done on this process in India. The author has done this originalw ork applied to different m aterials like steel, castiron and alum inum -bronze.This paper gives details ofm icrostructuraltransform ations along w ith hardness value achieved. There is vitalscope for this process to becom e viable for surfacehardening and selective hardening ofsm allcom ponents.

  15. Compositional analyses of a Reutlingen Bronze Age sword discovered at Giurgiu, Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A; Avram, A; Badica, T; Olariu, Agata; Alexandrescu, Emilian; Avram, Alexandru; Badica, Teodor

    2003-01-01

    The compositional scheme of a Bronze Age sword, found near the town of Giurgiu in Romania has been determined by the method of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), at the tandem accelerator of the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering from Bucharest, Magurele, Romania. The results of the analyses and the comparison with the composition of other swords from the same geographic area, the Danubian plane from Bulgaria and Transylvania regions, show that the sword from Giurgiu could be relatively associated with the swords from Bulgaria, having also the same stylistic, temporal and geographical similitude.

  16. Dielectric properties of tetragonal tungsten bronze films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Josse, Michaël; Maglione, Mario

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) films have been synthesised on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from Ba2LnFeNb4O15 ceramics (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction measurements evidenced the multi-oriented nature of films with some degrees of preferential orientation along (111). The dependence of the dielectric properties on temperature and frequency has been investigated. The dielectric properties of the films are similar to those of the bulk,...

  17. Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

  18. THE PALEODEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF OYLUM HOYUK POPULATION (THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE, KİLİS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşen Açıkkol Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    In this study skeleton remaining of 72 individuals excavated from Middle Bronze Age layers of Oylum Höyük (mound) situated in Kilis province, were studied. Sex and age of skeletons, unearthed between 2007-2012, were determined and life tables of the population were formed. Mortality of infants and children of Oylum population was very high. Death rates were determined as 36.6 % for 0-5 years of age group, 57.75 % for 0-15 years of age group. 34.62 % of infants and children from 0-5 years of a...

  19. The Agro Pontino region, refuge after the Early Bronze Age Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy?

    OpenAIRE

    Bakels, C.; Sevink, J.; Kuijper, W.; Kamermans, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was discovered that the Middle to Late Holocene infi ll of the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) held a tephra layer originating from the Avellino eruption of the Vesuvius volcano. The eruption is dated to 1995 ± 10 calBC and took therefore place during the Early Bronze Age. This was a violent eruption, covering large parts of Campania, the region in which the volcano is situated, with its ashes. The local population had time to fl ee, but did not return for a period of h...

  1. Una perspectiva filosófica de la ciencia hoy en día: Entrevista con Alfredo Marcos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    [ES] En el invierno de 2012, el Prof. Alfredo Marcos respondió una serie de preguntas sobre filosofía de la ciencia para el primer número de Disputatio. En esta entrevista, Alfredo Marcos presenta los fundamentos históricos y filosóficos de la ciencia en sentido amplio y nos presenta cómo funciona su aplicación en diferentes ámbitos: comunicación de la ciencia, investigación clínica, política ambiental, poética de la ciencia. [EN] At the winter of 2012, the Prof. Dr. Alfredo Marcos answere...

  2. Para uma Crítica da Razão Psicométrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patto Maria Helena Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da presença de testes e de laudos psicológicos na escola pública de 1º grau, o artigo discute, no marco teórico do materialismo histórico, aspectos epistemológicos e políticos do psicodiagnóstico.

  3. Identidad de los abogados y formación universitaria en un marco de crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Héctor Efrón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo, realizado en el marco del Seminario sobre Perspectivas Filosófico-Políticas de la Educación Contemporánea a cargo del Prof. Dr. Carlos Cullen, tiene como objetivo efectuar una breve una aproximación a la idea de identidad de los abogados, para posteriormente abordar algunos enfoques sobre el derecho y justicia, haciendo un rápido pasaje hacia una muy simplificada referencia a la formación de abogados en el marco de lo que entendemos como una crisis de identidad profesional y, que se presenta temporalmente acompañando una revisión de la justicia como valor y como fin esencial del Estado.

  4. Desarrollo latinoamericano en el marco de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Pinazo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace varios años que el pensamiento heterodoxo latinoamericano en lo relativo a la problemática del desarrollo se encuentra atravesado por profundas discusiones. En este marco, el primer objetivo de este trabajo es repasar críticamente las ideas centrales de lo que entendemos es la formación de un nuevo consenso sobre la temática, que bajo el nombre de neoestructuralismo o neodesarrollismo, pretende ser tanto una crítica al recetario neoliberal, como una superación del viejo desarrollismo. Un segundo objetivo es vincular este repaso con el análisis de las transformaciones del sector automotriz argentino. Con ello se busca mostrar la necesidad de retomar el método histórico como herramienta para reconocer las posibilidades de desarrollo de los países latinoamericanos en el marco de la división internacional del trabajo.

  5. A Note on the 'Medieval' Passion Liturgy in San Marco, Venice, in the Eighteenth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2008-01-01

    Begravelsen af hostien langfredag eftermiddag i San Marco foregik på stort set samme måde fra det 16. til det 18. århundrede. Og dog er der mindre ændringer, der på én gang kaster lys over og vanskeliggør forståelsen af transmissionen af denne ceremoni i disse århundreder. Artiklen diskuterer - på...

  6. Genetic variants of MARCO are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in a Gambian population

    OpenAIRE

    Lack, Nathan A.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.; Sakamoto, Kaori; Hill, Philip C.; Sirugo, Giorgio; Newport, Melanie J.; Gordon, Siamon; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Vannberg, Fredrick O.

    2013-01-01

    Background The two major class A scavenger receptors are scavenger receptor A (SRA), which is constitutively expressed on most macrophage populations, and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), which is constitutively expressed on a more restricted subset of macrophages, (e.g. alveolar macrophages) but whose expression increases on most macrophages during the course of infection. Although the primary role of SRA appears to be clearance of modified host proteins and lipids,...

  7. Kaasaegses kunstis valitseb turvalisus / Marco Scotini, Andris Brinkmanis ; intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Scotini, Marco, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Intervjuu Milano Nuova Accademia di Belle Art'i visuaalkunstide ja kuraatoriõppe osakonna juhataja, kaasaegse kunsti ajaloo ja kuraatoriõppe professori Marco Scotini ja sama akadeemia õppejõu Andris Birkmanisega. M. Scotini pidas Kumus loengu "Kuraator loomemajanduse ajastul. Teisel pool institutsionaalset kriitikat". Muutunud kaasaja kunstimaailmast: institutsioonide kontrollist, estetiseeritud kunsti valitsemisest biennaalidel, riigi kontrollimehhanismi asendumisest majanduslikuga, kuraatoritööst, retrospektiivnäituste rohkusest jm.

  8. Investigation on corrosion stratigraphy and morphology in some Iron Age bronze alloys vessels by OM, XRD and SEM-EDS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Hasanpour, Ata; Davami, Parviz

    2016-04-01

    The recently study of the corrosion in some bronze artefacts from the Sangtarashan Iron Age site, western Iran, was established to identify corrosion morphology and mechanism in these objects. The corrosion layers in 22 samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The results showed that a thin corrosion crust has formed on the surface of bronzes with a triple-layer structure, including two internal and one external corrosion layers. The formation of these layers is due to copper leaching from the bronze surface. The internal corrosion part has been a compact, tin-rich corrosion/oxidation product (noble patina) with some evidences from original metallurgical aspects of the bronze as well as a very thin layer beneath the tin-rich layer. External corrosion products have been identified as basic copper carbonates, malachite and azurite. Based on the results, the corrosion morphology in the Sangtarashan Iron Age bronzes is due to long-term burial in an appropriate environment in a moderately corrosive soil. Although it is the first time to investigate Iron Age bronzes from Iran, this corrosion morphology is partially similar to type I corrosion morphology observed in archaeological bronze objects; nevertheless, some deviations are visible in comparison with previously established patterns.

  9. EN BUSCA DE UN BUEN MARCO DE REFERENCIA PREDICTIVO PARA LA INFLACIÓN EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pincheira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo investigamos la precisión y estabilidad de las proyecciones de corto plazo de la inflación en Chile provenientes de una determinada subfamilia exten-dida de modelos SARIMA que denominamos ESARIMA. Las proyecciones ESARIMAson comparadas con las provenientes de encuestas y de simples modelos univaria-dos, incluyendo algunos que han sido tradicionalmente utilizados como marcos de referencia predictivos en la bibliografía. Nuestros resultados indican que el error cuadrático medio fuera de muestra de las proyecciones ESARIMA es menor que el de los métodos univariados considerados, cuando el horizonte predictivo varía de 1 a 4 meses. En horizontes superiores, los peores representantes de nuestra familia ESARIMA comienzan a ser superados por los mejores marcos de referencia univaria-dos. Al comparar con la encuesta de expectativas económicas, los resultados van en la dirección opuesta: la encuesta es más precisa que la subfamilia ESARIMA en todos los horizontes. En general nuestros resultados son estadísticamente significativos a niveles de confianza usuales. Observamos también que la familia ESARIMA ofrece proyecciones más estables que los marco de referencia univariados, pero menos estables que las provenientes de la encuesta de analistas.

  10. Alterations of the gut microbiome of largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti) suffering from furunculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Ji, Cheng; Shen, Zhixin; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Xujie; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhang, Lanli; Zhao, Yuanli; Liu, Xinhua; Li, Aihua

    2016-07-28

    High-throughput sequencing was applied to compare the intestinal microbiota in largemouth bronze gudgeon either healthy or affected by furunculosis. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant bacterial phyla in the gut of both diseased and healthy fish. The abundance of Proteobacteria differed significantly between the two groups of fish, mainly due to the overwhelming prevalence of Aeromonas in the diseased fish (81% ± 17%), while the genus was unevenly spread among the apparently healthy fish (33% ± 33%). The bacterial diversity in the intestine of diseased fish was markedly lower than in healthy fish. Analysis revealed the significant dissimilarity between the gut microbiota of diseased and healthy fish. The bacterial profiles in the gut were further characterized with the 28 phylotypes that were shared by the two groups. In diseased fish, two shared OTUs (OTU0001 and OTU0013) were closely related to Aeromonas salmonicida, their total proportion exceeding 70% of the sequences in diseased fish, while averaging 5.2% ± 4.6% in the healthy fish. This result suggested the presence of healthy carriers of pathogenic A. salmonicida among the farmed fish, and the gut appeared as a probable infection source for furunculosis in largemouth bronze gudgeon.

  11. $Nb_{3}Sn macrostructure, microstructure, and property comparisons for bronze and internal Sn process strands

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, P J; Larbalestier, D C

    2000-01-01

    The variation in irreversibility field, B*(T), with temperature has been measured for Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting strands manufactured for ITER using vibrating sample and SQUID magnetometers. The high performance strands were developed for both high transport critical current density, J/sub c/, and low hysteresis loss. Despite a wide variety of designs and components, the strands could be split into two distinctive groups, based on the extrapolated irreversibility fields, which lie about 10% lower than the upper critical field. "Bronze-process" strands exhibited consistently higher B*(T) (28 T to 31 T) compared with "internal Sn" process (24 T to 26 T) conductors. The intrinsic critical current density of the superconductor, J/sub c (sc)/, and the specific pinning force of the grain boundaries, Q/sub gb/, were evaluated using the measured J/sub c/, and image analysis of the macro- and micro-structures. A bronze-processed Nb(-Ta)/sub 3 /Sn was found to have a higher J/sub c(sc)/ but lower Q/sub gb/ than Nb/sub...

  12. Ancient bronze coins from Mediterranean basin: LAMQS potentiality for lead isotopes comparative analysis with former mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Italiano, A.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II-X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a "fingerprint" depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.

  13. The Pranemuru project and the radiocarbon chronology of the Sardinian Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinos, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available New C-14 data collected by a Spanish team working in the Sardinian Pranemuru area, allow usthe possibility of revising the C-14 Chronology for the Nuragic Bronze Age and discussing the reliability of some of the dates, as well as the way they have been published, and their matching with the new official chronology for the Sardinian Bronze and Iron Ages, built on Dendro and C14 sequences for the Italian Peninsula.

    La obtención por parte del Proyecto Pranemuru de cerca de una veintena de dataciones radiocarbónicas para una microregión en época nurágica, de las que aquí se recogen discuten catorce, abre la posibilidad de revisar la cronología de la Edad del Bronce en Cerdeña, a la luz de las dataciones recogidas desde los años 90 por Trump (1990 y Tykot (1994 y, más recientemente, por Webster (2001, discutir la validez de las fechas en función de los criterios de recogida de muestra, contexto arqueológico, desviación estándar y forma en que ha sido publicada, así como contrastarla con la cronología propuesta recientemente para la Protohistoria sarda, de acuerdo con la Dendrocronología y Cronología Radiocarbónica para la Italia peninsular (Lo Schiavo 2002.

  14. Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo. A Bronze Age hoard with metallic materials from the southern Iberian Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbina Martínez, Dionisio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of the preliminary study carried out on a new group of metallic materials of the Final Bronze Age, recovered at the end of 2008 in the archaeological excavations at the settlement of Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo, Spain. Its geographical situation far away from the main zones of distribution of this type of finds, the singularity of the materials, and the evidence of Atlantic and Mediterranean relations make these materials a remarkable sample for the study of the Final Bronze Age in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Se exponen los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre un nuevo conjunto de materiales metálicos del Bronce Final recuperado a finales de 2008 en las excavaciones arqueológicas del yacimiento de Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo, España. La localización geográfica del hallazgo, lejos de las principales zonas de dispersión conocidas para este tipo de conjuntos, la singularidad de los objetos que integra, y las relaciones atlánticas y mediterráneas que evidencian sus materiales, lo convierten en un ejemplo destacado para el estudio de este período en el centro de la Península Ibérica.

  15. Structure and thermal expansion of the tungsten bronze Pb₂KNb₅O₁₅.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Fangfang; Rong, Yangchun; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Fang, Liang; Huang, Qingzhen; Xing, Xianran

    2014-05-21

    The structure and thermal expansion behavior of the tetragonal tungsten bronze oxide Pb2KNb5O15 were investigated by neutron powder diffraction and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Below the Curie temperature, T(C) (orthorhombic phase, T(C) ≈ 460 °C), the cell parameters a and c increase with temperature, while b decreases. The thermal expansion coefficients are α(a) = 1.29 × 10(-5) °C(-1), α(b) = -1.56 × 10(-5) °C(-1), and α(c) = 1.62 × 10(-5) °C(-1). Temperature-dependent second harmonic generation (SHG), dielectric, and polarization-electrical field (P-E) hysteresis loop measurements were performed to study the symmetry and electric properties. We show that the distortion and cooperative rotation of NbO6 octahedrons are directly responsible for the negative thermal expansion coefficient along the polar b axis. It is suggested that Pb-O covalency, especially in the large and asymmetric pentagonal prisms, may be related to orthorhombic distortion and abnormal spontaneous polarization along the b axis. This study shows that tungsten bronze families are possible candidates for exploring negative thermal expansion materials.

  16. Shellfish from the Bronze Age Site of Clos des Châtaigniers (Mathieu, Normandy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Mougne

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides initial results on the use of shellfish by the inhabitants of Clos des Châtaigniers, Normandy (France during the Late Bronze Age. The settlement is located at Mathieu, 10km from the coast. The French National Institute of Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP conducted excavations on this site in 2010, under the direction of David Giazzon. A semi-circular domestic enclosure from the end of the Late Bronze Age was discovered. The diet of the inhabitants of Mathieu was partly based on mussels, which were found in large quantities. These shells were collected at low tide on a rocky to muddy/rocky shore. They were then transported inland to be eaten fresh or processed. Other marine invertebrates were also present on this site. Some of them were collected with the mussels. In fact, they were mixed with or fixed to this bivalve. Many other small fragments of shells are present on the site and could have come from the stomach contents of fish.

  17. Analyzing Lead Content in Ancient Bronze Coins by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Archaeometry Laboratory with Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Mary Kate; Whissel, Greg; Dumas, Ashley; Golden, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    A unique, interdisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and classics has led to the development of an experiment for nonscience majors. This instrumental analysis experiment was designed for use in an archaeology course to quantify the amount of lead in ancient bronze coins. The coins were corroded beyond visual identification, so provenance…

  18. Synthesis, characterization and time dependent phase transformation of Li{sub 0.4}WO{sub 3} bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Shahidur; Murshed, M. Mangir; Gesing, Thorsten M. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Chemische Kristallographie Fester Stoffe

    2014-07-01

    Lithium tungsten bronzes with a nominal composition of Li{sub 0.4}WO{sub 3} were synthesized by solid state reactions in silica tubes at 973 K and various low pressures. Samples were characterized using X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction, and neutron powder diffraction. The air pressure inside the sealed quartz tubes played roles for the formation of Li{sub 0.4}WO{sub 3} phases with different symmetries. Whereas using a pressure of 10{sup -7} MPa a pure body centered cubic (Im anti 3) tungsten bronze was formed, at higher pressures (>10{sup -7} MPa) a mixture of Im anti 3 and primitive cubic (Pm anti 3m) perovskite tungsten bronzes were observed with pressure dependent phase fractions. While keeping the synthesized samples under open atmospheric conditions the Im anti 3 phase gradually transformed into a tetragonal perovskite (P4/nmm) tungsten bronze. The slow cubic into tetragonal phase transformation has been explained in terms of the mobility of lithium within two different crystallographic sites.

  19. Mechanical properties and the structure of chromium-zirconium bronze after dynamic channel-angular pressing and subsequent aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zel'dovich, V. I.; Dobatkin, S. V.; Frolova, N. Yu.; Khomskaya, I. V.; Kheifets, A. E.; Shorokhov, E. V.; Nasonov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the structure and mechanical properties of the low-alloy chromium-zirconium bronze Cu-0.14% Cr-0.04% Zr have been investigated after a high-strain-rate (104-105 s-1) deformation by the method of dynamic channel-angular pressing (DCAP) and following annealings at 300-700°C. A significant increase in the mechanical properties of the investigated bronze after DCAP and after DCAP and subsequent aging at temperatures of 400-450°C has been established. Thus, compared to the initial quenched state the ultimate tensile strength increases by a factor of 2.6 and 2.8 and the yield stress, by a factor of 3.3 and 5.1, respectively, with the retention of satisfactory plasticity. It has been shown that, upon DCAP and subsequent annealings, in the low-alloyed bronze under investigation there occurs a decomposition of the α solid solution with the precipitation of nanosized particles. This leads to a significant strengthening of the bronze and to an increase in its thermal stability compared with the pure copper subjected to DCAP.

  20. A simple hydrothermal method for the large-scale synthesis of single-crystal potassium tungsten bronze nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhanjun; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou; Gao, Bifen; Yang, Wensheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2006-10-10

    The large-scale synthesis of single-crystal K(x)WO(3) tungsten bronze nanowires has been successfully realized by a hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Uniform K(0.33)WO(3) nanowires with diameters of 5-25 nm and lengths of up to several micrometers are obtained. It is found that the morphology and crystallographic forms of the final products are strongly dependent on the sulfate and citric acid, which may act as structure-directing and soft-reducing agent, respectively. Some other influential factors on the growth of tungsten bronze nanowires, such as temperature and reaction time, are also discussed. It is worth noting that other alkali metal tungsten bronzes such as (NH(4))(x)WO(3), Rb(x)WO(3), and Cs(x)WO(3) could also be selectively synthesized by a similar route. Thus, this novel and efficient method could provide a potential mild route to selectively synthesize various tungsten bronze on-dimensional nanomaterials.

  1. 3D scanning and printing as conversation tools: an innovative treatment of a vandalized bronze statue, The Thinker by Rodin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Beentjes; R. van der Molen

    2011-01-01

    This contribution discusses the innovative treatment of a severely vandalized bronze sculpture, The Thinker by Auguste Rodin, from the Singer Museum in Laren, The Netherlands. Additional aspects of this controversial treatment such as decision making and documentation are also discussed. In 2007 the

  2. Síntese e caracterização estrutural do niobato de potássio e estrôncio com estrutura tipo Tetragonal Tungstênio Bronze TTB Synthesis and structural characterization of strontium potassium niobate oxide with tetragonal tungstenium bronze TTB type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lanfredi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fase nanoestruturada KSr2Nb5O15, foi sintetizada pelo método de mistura mecânica de óxidos por moagem de alta eficiência e por via química, utilizando o método dos precursores poliméricos, em forno tipo tubo sob atmosfera de O2 durante 10 h. A análise por difração de raios X dos pós calcinados a 1150 ºC foi realizada pelo método de Rietveld utilizando-se o software FullProf. A análise dos parâmetros estruturais obtidos via método de Rietveld mostrou um sistema tetragonal com estrutura tipo tetragonal tungstênio bronze. A partir das reflexões observadas, há apenas evidência da regra [(0kl k = 2n], a qual é compatível com o grupo espacial centrossimétrico P4bm, o qual foi utilizado para o refinamento. O volume da célula unitária obtido na análise dos pós de KSr2Nb5O15 obtidos por síntese química e por moagem de alta eficiência foi 611,90 ų e 611,95 ų, respectivamente.The nanostructured KSr2Nb5O15 phase was synthesized by both routes, the high efficiency milling and the polymeric precursor, in a furnace under O2 atmosphere during 10 h. The Rietveld X-ray diffraction analysis of the calcined powders at 1150 ºC was performed using the FullProf software. The XRD pattern analysis showed a tetragonal system with the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure. From the observed reflections, there is only evidence of the rule existence [(0kl k = 2n], which is compatible with the centrosymmetric space group P4bm, which was used for the refinement. The unit cell volume obtained for the KSr2Nb5O15 powders prepared by chemical synthesis and by high efficiency milling were equal to 611,90 ų and 611,95 ų, respectively.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EGYPT AND PALESTINE IN THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (CA.2000-1550/1500 BCE.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoDantong

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between Egypt and Palestine during the Bronze Age has been discussed since the 1940s. For the period of the Middle Bronze Age, the problem is both chronological and interpretative. The end of the Middle Bronze Age is fixed by the initial military activities of Dynasty 18 in Palestine around the end of the 16th century BCE. But the dates for the beginning of this period and the transition from one archaeological phase to another are still debated. Lacking a generally accepted solution, the chronology adopted here is that of Dever --- the transition from MB Ⅰ to MB Ⅱ occurred around 1800 BCE,

  4. INSPIRE and MarCO - Technology Development for the First Deep Space CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    INSPIRE (Interplanetary NanoSpacecraft Pathfinder In a Relevant Environment) and MarCO (Mars Cube One) will open the door for tiny spacecraft to explore the solar system. INSPIRE serves as a trailblazer, designed to demonstrate new technology needed for deep space. MarCO will open the door for NanoSpacecraft to serve in support roles for much larger primary missions - in this case, providing a real-time relay of for the InSight project and will likely be the first CubeSats to reach deep space. Together, these four spacecraft (two for each mission) enable fundamental science objectives to be met with tiny vehicles. Originally designed for a March, 2016 launch with the InSight mission to Mars, the MarCO spacecraft are now complete and in storage. When launched with the InSight lander from Vandenberg Air Force Base, the spacecraft will begin a 6.5 month cruise to Mars. Soon after InSight itself separates from the upper stage of the launch vehicle, the two MarCO CubeSats will deploy and independently fly to Mars to support telecommunications relay for InSight's entry, descent, and landing sequence. These spacecraft will have onboard capability for deep space trajectory correction maneuvers; high-speed direct-to-Earth & DSN-compatible communications; an advanced navigation transponder; a large deployable reflect-array high gain antenna; and a robust software suite. This talk will present an overview of the INSPIRE and MarCO projects, including a concept of operations, details of the spacecraft and subsystem design, and lessons learned from integration and test. Finally, the talk will outline how lessons from these spacecraft are already being utilized in the next generation of interplanetary CubeSats, as well as a brief vision of their applicability for solar system exploration. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  5. Psychometric Study of the admission examination 2008-1 to the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce D., Carlos; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Escurra M., Miguel; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    In the subsequent exploratory descriptive study, we formulated the following investigation question: Does the 2008-I admission exam of the Major National University of San Marcos, cover all the psychometric requirements demanded by an evaluation of that kind of nature? The General Objective of the investigation is to: Identify the basic psychometric characteristics which the 2008-I admission exam of the Major National University of San Marcos has presented, consisting in the reliability of th...

  6. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šatović, D., E-mail: dsatovic@alu.hr [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Desnica, V. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-11-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion.

  7. marco organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velásquez H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ha sido ampliamente reconocida la importancia de la predicción en la toma de decisiones, y se han encontrado evidencias de que uno de los métodos más efectivos es el ajuste de los pronósticos obtenidos a partir de modelos matemáticos usando juicios informados. No obstante, existe una amplia cantidad de factores que pueden afectar la calidad y credibilidad de las predicciones; en este trabajo se examinan aquellos factores relacionados con las políticas organizacionales, y se proponen varias estrategias para su mitigación.

  8. Un estudio del dolor en el marco de la conducta verbal: de las aportaciones de W. E. Fordyce a la Teoría del Marco Relacional (RFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gutiérrez Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio teórico se presenta una aproximación al análisis de los eventos privados en general y del dolor en particular desde una perspectiva funcionalcontextual bajo las aportaciones recientes de la conducta verbal, las relaciones arbitrarias entre eventos y la derivación de funciones psicológicas. Se hace una revisión de cómo los analistas de conducta han abordado el estudio del dolor como factor de control de otros comportamientos y, partiendo de la integración de estas aportaciones con los recientes avances del análisis de la conducta verbal, se propone la Teoría del Marco Relacional (RFT como formulación mejor articulada a la hora de ofrecer una explicación contextual del dolor. A raíz de la investigación en marcos relacionales y regulación verbal, se describe un novedoso planteamiento de los problemas clínicos de dolor como formas del trastorno de evitación experiencial (TEE que supone una aproximación a la psico(patología más parsimoniosa que la tradicional basada en la clasificación sindrómica. Además, son examinados los avances terapéuticos que se han derivado de esta concepción verbal-relacional de los problemas psicológicos, presentándose la terapia de aceptación y compromiso (ACT como un sistema terapéutico dirigido a alterar las clases de regulación verbal inefectivas y favorecer actuaciones ajustadas a los valores personales.

  9. Tempero baiano no desenvolvimento urbano: análise de competitividade do segmento empresarial da alta gastronomia de Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA, Paulo Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação refere-se a uma pesquisa que buscou identificar o grau de competitividade do segmento empresarial da alta gastronomia da cidade do Salvador, na realidade empírica de 2012. Adotou-se neste estudo uma metodologia qualitativa descritiva semiestruturada com abordagens investigativas adaptadas da “análise estrutural da indústria” de Porter (1999), que sustenta o referencial teórico principal. Buscou amparo ontológico, religioso e histórico para uma análise nos marcos da gastronomi...

  10. Earthquake and the Catastrophic End of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, A.

    2009-04-01

    The reasons for the catastrophic and wide spread political as well as physical collapse in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean areas that define the end of the Bronze age ca. 1225 BC to 1175 BC remain a major enigma. It has been attributed by historian to attacks by outsiders with the most favored group being the (enigmatic) so-called sea people. Unfortunately there is no real evidence for this. However combined geological, geophysical and archaeological evidence suggests that earthquakes may have played a key role in this extraordinary collapse during the late 13th and early 12th centuries . Based on the instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean region during the 20th century, several events that have clear historical information, and the geography of seismically active faults it is obvious that numerous earthquakes of magnitude 6·5 or greater (enough to destroy modern buildings, let alone those of antiquity) occurred here frequently in the past. Furthermore major earthquakes often occur in this region in groups, known as ‘‘sequences'' or ‘‘storms'', in which one large quake is followed days, months, or a few years later by others elsewhere on the plate boundary fault lines. When a map of the areas in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean region shaken by 20th century  earthquakes of magnitude 6·5 and greater and with an intensity of VII or greater is overlaid on Robert Drews' map of sites destroyed in these same regions during the so-called ‘‘Catastrophe'' near the end of the Late Bronze Age, it is readily apparent that virtually all of these LBA sites lie within the affected (‘‘high-shaking'') areas. This would suggest that a major ‘‘earthquake storm'' may have occurred in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean during the years 1225-1175 . This ‘‘storm'' may have interacted with societal, political and economic forces at work in these areas c. 1200  and

  11. Armorican arrowhead biographies: Production and function of an Early Bronze Age prestige good from Brittany (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brittany can pride itself on the Armorican arrowheads found in Early Bronze Age graves (2150-1700 BC. In the present state of knowledge, these are the only specialized craft products in knapped flint produced in this region at the western edge of continental Europe. Admired since the 19th century, these flint arrowheads have never really been studied. Due to the wealth of graves and grave-goods, a relatively precise study can be undertaken of the development of these craft products, despite the low number of reliable radiocarbon dates.These arrowheads are characterized by a well-defined type (pointed tang and oblique barbs most often combined with ogival form. Raw materials show the selection of a high quality yellow translucent flint, of which the origin has to be sought at more than 400 kilometers (Lower Turonian flint from Cher Valley. From a technical point of view, Armorican arrowheads reveal a great mastery of retouch by pressure-flaking. This skill is written in stone by the perfection of forms, the extreme thinness (until 2,5 mm thick and very long barbs (until 25 mm long. Such work could not have been done without the use of copper, even bronze, awls. Moreover, some marks may testify to the implication of these tools. On 549 arrowheads that have reached to us, none of them presents diagnostical impact features. However, use-wear analysis indicates that most of them were hafted (adhesive traces, bright spots, blunt edges. These facts suggest that they are less functional arrowheads than objects for the show. In the graves, Armorican arrowheads are frequently set down carefully in wooden boxes taking the shaft off.The Armorican arrowheads with their exotic raw materials, their high-degree of technicality, and their absence of use, have all features of a prestige good. They have been discovered by dozens in few graves under barrows with very rich funeral items (bronze daggers decorated with golden pins, precious bracers, silver beakers

  12. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  13. Resgate histórico da Associção Brasileira de Enfermagem da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita de Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado com o objetivo de descrever a trajetória da ABEn - Paraíba desde sua criação até os momentos atuais. Através de revisão bibliográfica e análise das atas das reuniões destacam-se os antecedentes históricos, a criação e evolução da Escola de Enfermagem da Paraíba e da ABEn - Paraíba, sua estrutura organizacional e os eventos que constituíram os marcos históricos da ABEn - Paraíba.

  14. Effect of additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si on the technological properties of aluminum-iron-nickel bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of additives of Cr, Mo, W and / or Si CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze, cast into sand moulds, the bronze technological properties such as: porosity, volumetric shrinkage Sv, linear shrinkage s and prone hot to cracking. The study relate to the newly developed grades aluminum-iron-nickel bronze, with additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si. In order to determine the technological properties of the test castings were made in the form of moulding sand, which made the mould cavities designed patterns. To evaluate the porosity and volumetric shrinkage was used for digital image analysis method. Volumetric shrinkage was determined using developed, the new method, the surface shrinkage Svp designation, and then converting it to the volumetric shrinkage, using prepared relation Sv=f(Djs*Svp. It was found that made the bronze alloy additions to reduce the size of pores surface area of gas and shrinkage in the test bronze. The probability of microporosity with an area of 0.002560÷0.120647 mm2 can be described by gamma distribution. Changing the chemical composition of the grades tested bronze strongly alter the first volumetric shrinkage Sv, and less to change the linear shrinkage s. The increase in gas porosity and shrink in bronze reduces the volumetric shrinkage and linear. The addition of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si to the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5 does not change its prone to hot cracking.

  15. Promoción de la lectura en el marco educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Monar van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación ofrece una visión teóricopráctica de la promoción de la lectura en un marco educativo concreto. Por una parte, se muestra el estado de la cuestión centrándose en el marco legislativo, la investigación y la promoción de la lectura virtual y, más en concreto, en el caso del País Valenciano, donde se ubica la investigación práctica llevada a cabo. A partir de la UNESCO, la LOE y los planes de lectura se plantea una panorámica de la legislación actual. Diferentes estudios realizados por especialistas en la materia enriquecen la visión y con las plataformas virtuales se completa la descripción teórica planteada. Por otra parte, se realiza un trabajo de campo cualitativo con el objetivo de evaluar los beneficios de la web, el blog y el wiki en el aula para la promoción lectora durante el curso escolar 2010-2011 con tres grupos de tres centros diferentes. El trabajo consiste en observar la aplicación de las plataformas digitales para la promoción de la lectura en el aula y en analizar su utilidad a través del estudio de casos, el grupo de discusión y la triangulación. La investigación concluye con unas reflexiones que invitan al lector a acercarse a la promoción de la lectura en el marco educativo con tecnologías virtuales.

  16. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Renteria-Villalobos, M. [Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31410, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Tenorio, R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  17. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  18. Thorium isotopes in colloidal fraction of water from San Marcos Dam, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Lares, M.; Melgoza, A.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.

    2013-07-01

    The main interest of this stiidy is to assess the contents and distribution of Th-series isotopes in colloidal fraction of surface water from San Marcos dam, because the suspended particulate matter serves as transport medium for several pollutants. The aim of this work was to assess the distribution of thorium isotopes (232Th and 230Th) contained in suspended matter. Samples were taken from three surface points along the San Marcos dam: water input, midpoint, and near to dam wall. In this last point, a depth sampling was also carried out. Here, three depth points were taken at 0.4, 8 and 15 meters. To evaluate the thorium behavior in surface water, from every water sample the colloidal fraction was separated, between 1 and 0.1 μm. Thorium isotopes concentraron in samples were obtained by alpha spectrometry. Activity concentrations obtained of 232Th and 230Th in surface points ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Bq ṡ L-1, whereas in depth points ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 Bq ṡ L-1, respectively. The results show that 230Th is in higher concentration than 232Th in colloidal fraction. This can be attributed to a preference of these colloids to adsorb uranium. Thus, the activity ratio 230Th/232Th in colloidal fraction showed values from 2.3 to 10.2. In surface points along the dam, 230Th activity concentration decreases while 232Th concentration remains constant. On the other hand, activity concentrations of both isotopes showed a pointed out enhancement with depth. The results have shown a possible lixiviation of uranium from geological substrate into the surface water and an important fractionation of thorium isotopes, which suggest that thorium is non-homogeneously distributed along San Marcos dam.

  19. Maceió é uma cidade mítica: o mito da origem em Nise da Silveira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o mito da origem da liberdade em Nise da Silveira a partir de histórias de sua infância, de seu apelido Caralâmpia - inspirador de Graciliano Ramos para compor A Terra dos Meninos Pelados - e de seu nome, retirado dos sonetos de Cláudio Manuel da Costa. As originais contribuições de Nise da Silveira no campo da saúde mental passam a ser vistas pelos grupos que dela se aproximaram como frutos de sua genialidade, encontrando explicações nos relatos autobiográfi cos de Nise da Silveira, consagrados por seus (perseguidores. O campo da saúde mental no Brasil abrange dois períodos: o da campanha prómanicomial, de 1829 até as primeiras décadas do século XX; e o da campanha antimanicomial, que tem seu marco inicial no Movimento de Trabalhadores de Saúde Mental, em 1978. Entre um movimento e outro, os trabalhos desenvolvidos nas décadas de 1930, 40 e 50 do século XX fi cam esquecidos e os autores desse período passam a ser designados pioneiros, instaurando uma variante da busca do mito das origens.

  20. Analysis of neutron diffraction profiles in bronze archaeological statuettes produced by solid lost wax casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Alessandra; Fiori, Fabrizio; Gysens, Jacqueline; Manescu, Adrian; Rustichelli, Franco

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of a research aiming to assess the suitability of neutron/x-ray non-destructive techniques for the characterization of archaeological objects, two bronze items were studied by neutron diffraction. The origins of two small statues are, respectively, Egyptian (XXI-XXX Dynasties, c1070-343 B.C.) and Etruscan (IV-III centuries B.C.), belonging to a private collection. By hard x-ray diffraction we previously verified that both statuettes have a coarse microstructure (big grains). From historical considerations we believe that both items were produced by solid lost wax processes of casting. This processing technique does not completely justify the presence of microstrains; as a consequence, due to unexpected neutron diffraction peak broadening, a non-uniform Sn wt% is suspected. In the present work we discuss this deduction by means of Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction profiles.

  1. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valério, P., E-mail: pvalerio@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C., E-mail: rjcs@fct.unl.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Soares, A.M.M., E-mail: amsoares@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Araújo, M.F., E-mail: faraujo@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Gonçalves, A.P., E-mail: apg@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Soares, R.M., E-mail: ruigusmao@hotmail.com [UNIARQ, Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, Alameda da Universidade, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM–EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu–Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities.

  2. A 3-phase model for mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification in DC casting of bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J.; Grasser, M.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.; Riedle, J.; Eberle, R.

    2012-01-01

    A three-phase Eulerian approach is used to model the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) during solidification in DC casting of technical bronze. The three phases are the melt, the solidifying columnar dendrites and the equiaxed grains. They are considered as spatially interpenetrating and interacting continua by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, species and enthalpy for all three phases. The so defined solidification model is applied to a binary CuSn6 DC casting process as a benchmark to demonstrate the model potentials. Two cases are studied: one considering only feeding flow and one including both feeding flow and equiaxed sedimentation. The simulated results of mixed columnar and equiaxed solidification are presented and discussed including the occurrence of CET, phase distribution, feeding flow, equiaxed sedimentation and their influence on macrosegregation.

  3. Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmy, V; Preeji, V; Parvin, A; Santhoshkumar, K; George, S

    2011-05-01

    Amphibian skin secretion is considered as a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present work describes the successful identification of three novel peptides named brevinin-1TEa, brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb present in the skin secretion of Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis. The deduced open reading frame encoding the biosynthetic precursor of brevinin-1TEa consisted of 70 amino acid residues and brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb consisted of 71 and 72 amino acids, respectively. All the three peptides showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative than against Gram-positive bacteria. On the basis of the antibacterial and haemolytic activity, brevinin-2TEb is the most potent peptide reported in the present study. Further research on these peptides may provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various microbial diseases.

  4. Influence of heat treatment on tribological behaviors of novel wrought aluminum bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫文; 倪东惠; 夏伟; 邱诚; 陈维平

    2002-01-01

    Influence of heat treatment on mechanica l properties and tribologica l behaviors of Ti and B modified wrought aluminum bronze were studied. The res ults show that different strength and plasticity combination of the alloy after solu tion treatment can be obtained by adjusting the ageing temperature. When aged at 45 0 ℃, the tensile strength σb, yield strength σ0.2, elongatio n δ and hardness of the alloy are 1 050 MPa, 780 MPa, 4.5%, HB282, respectively. When aged at 650 ℃, those of the alloy are 905 MPa, 600 MPa, 12%, HB232, respectively. Under boundary l ubri cation condition with pressure above 22.2 MPa, alloy with low temperature agei ng has the best wear property. However, under the condition involving impact or sh ock loading, alloy with high temperature ageing is preferable. If the load is no t heavy, the alloy under extrusion state is favorable for wear-resisting parts.

  5. Performance evaluation of grid-enabled registration algorithms using bronze-standards

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Montagnat, J

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating registration algorithms is difficult due to the lack of gold standard in most clinical procedures. The bronze standard is a real-data based statistical method providing an alternative registration reference through a computationally intensive image database registration procedure. We propose in this paper an efficient implementation of this method through a grid-interfaced workflow enactor enabling the concurrent processing of hundreds of image registrations in a couple of hours only. The performances of two different grid infrastructures were compared. We computed the accuracy of 4 different rigid registration algorithms on longitudinal MRI images of brain tumors. Results showed an average subvoxel accuracy of 0.4 mm and 0.15 degrees in rotation.

  6. Investigation on Deformation Behavior of Nickel Aluminum Bronze by Neutron Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hong; Lv, Yuting; Lu, Weijie; Sun, Guangai

    2016-05-01

    The deformation behavior, deformation microstructures, and generated inter-phase stresses of nickel aluminum bronze were investigated by in situ neutron diffraction instrument and transmission electron microscopy in this paper. Lattice strains calculated by both peak shifting and broadening by Gaussian fitting of α and κ phase neutron diffraction peak profiles at both holding stress conditions and unloaded stress conditions were compared. Twining and stacking faults in α matrix were observed after deformed by different tensile stresses. Compressive internal/residual stress in α matrix and tensile internal stress in κ phase in elasto-plastic region were calculated based on neutron diffraction analysis. The piled-up dislocations around hard κ phases increase with increasing the deformation degree, which raise the stress concentration near α/ κ interface and increase the internal stresses.

  7. Structural Analysis and Electrical Property of Tungsten Bronze Prepared by Rare Earth Gaseous Permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中华; 李昕; 陈刚; 苏铭汉; 韦永德

    2004-01-01

    The cubic sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO3(x=0.854 and 0.814)were prepared by rare earths gaseous permeation method. Structural analysis was carried out by Rietveld method from powder X-ray diffraction data. The X-ray diffraction profile calculated with cubic P32 models are in good agreement with the observed X-ray diffraction patterns. There is only a little difference in W-O bond and Na-O bond between Na0.854WO3 and Na0.814WO3. Conductivity measurements indicate that NaxWO3 show anomalous semiconducting behavior and percolation model was used to interpret it.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bronze objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankova, V.; Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Penkova, P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of solids, liquids and gases. In this work, the method was applied for investigation of archaeological bronze objects. The analytical information obtained by LIBS was used for qualitative determination of the elements in the material used for manufacturing of the objects under study. Quantitative chemical analysis was also performed after generating calibration curves with standard samples of similar matrix composition. Quantitative estimation of the elemental concentration of the bulk of the samples was performed, together with investigation of the surface layer of the objects. The results of the quantitative analyses gave indications about the manufacturing process of the investigated objects.

  9. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  10. A mineralogical study of Late Bronze Age ceramics from Palatca (Transylvania, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Ghergari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper studies the mineralogical and petrographical characteristics of 28 ceramic fragments that were excavated in the village of Palatca, Transylvania (Romania. Optical microscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, grain size analyses, and porosity measurements were used to investigate the samples. Our objective was to describe or reconstruct the corresponding products and to elucidate the manufacturing process, the firing techniques, and the transformation pathways. Based on our results, we conclude that the Late Bronze Age ceramics (1600-1300 BC were produced from clay and temper material such as river sand and ceramoclasts. It has been modeled by hand and fired between 800 and 950°C. For most samples, we can narrow the temperature range to 850-900°C. We interpret the data further from a geoarchaeological point of view with respect to the historical evolution of the local culture.

  11. Aromatic quinoxaline as corrosion inhibitor for bronze in aqueous chloride solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Saoudi; A Bellaouchou; A Guenbour; A Ben Bachir; E M Essassi; M El Achouri

    2010-06-01

    A new corrosion inhibitor, viz. 3-ethyl-6-méthyl-quinoxalin-2-one, 1-benzyl-6-methyl-quinoxalin- 2-one, 2-benzyloxy-3,6-dimethyl-quinoxaline, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-quinoxalin-2-one, were synthesized in the laboratory. Their influence on the inhibition on corrosion of bronze in aqueous chloride solution (3% NaCl) was studied by electrochemical polarization methods and weight-loss measurements. The impact of temperature on the effectiveness of the substances mentioned above has been determined between 20 and 60°C. The results showed that the corrosion resistance was greatly enhanced in the presence of inhibitor and that the effectiveness depends on some physicochemical properties of the molecule, related to its functional groups. These compounds act through the formation of a protective film on the surface of the alloy.

  12. Abnormal thermal conductivity in tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba6-xSrxNb10O30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H.; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Ba6-xSrxNb10O30 solid solution with 0 ≤ x ≤ 6 crystallizes in centrosymmetric tetragonal "tungsten bronze" structure (space group P4/mbm). We report on the x dependence of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline samples measured in the 2-400 K temperature interval. Substitution of Sr for Ba brings about a significant decrease in thermal conductivity at x ≥ 3 accompanied by development of a low-temperature (T ≈ 10-30 K) "plateau" region reminiscent of a glass-like compounds. We explain this behaviour based on a size-driven site occupancy and atomic displacement parameters associated with an alkaline earth atomic positions in the title compounds.

  13. Dielectric properties of tetragonal tungsten bronze films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Josse, Michaël; Maglione, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) films have been synthesised on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from Ba2LnFeNb4O15 ceramics (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction measurements evidenced the multi-oriented nature of films with some degrees of preferential orientation along (111). The dependence of the dielectric properties on temperature and frequency has been investigated. The dielectric properties of the films are similar to those of the bulk, i.e., ɛ ˜150 and σ ˜10-6 Ω-1 cm-1 at 1 MHz and room temperature. The films exhibit two dielectric anomalies which are attributed to Maxwell Wagner polarization mechanism and relaxor behaviour. Both anomalies are sensitive to post-annealing under oxygen atmosphere and their activation energies are similar Ea ˜0.30 eV. They are explained in terms of electrically heterogeneous contributions in the films.

  14. Tetragonal tungsten bronze compounds: relaxor versus mixed ferroelectric-dipole glass behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanovich, V A

    2010-06-16

    We demonstrate that recent experimental data (Castel et al 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 452201) on the tungsten bronze compound (TBC) Ba(2)Pr(x)Nd(1-x)FeNb(4)O(15) can be well explained in our model predicting a crossover from ferroelectric (x = 0) to orientational (dipole) glass (x = 1), rather then relaxor, behavior. We show that, since a 'classical' perovskite relaxor like Pb(Mn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3) is never a ferroelectric, the presence of ferroelectric hysteresis loops in the TBC shows that this substance actually transits from ferroelectric to orientational glass phase with x growth. To describe the above crossover theoretically, we use the simple replica-symmetric solution for the disordered Ising model.

  15. Towards novel multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials: dipole stability in tetragonal tungsten bronzes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Andrei; Miller, Andrew J; Arnold, Donna C; Morrison, Finlay D

    2014-02-28

    We discuss the strategy for development of novel functional materials with the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure. From the starting composition Ba6GaNb9O30, the effect of A- and B-site substitutions on the dielectric properties is used to develop an understanding of the origin and stability of the dipolar response in these compounds. Both tetragonal strain induced by large B-site cations and local strain variations created by isovalent A-site substitutions enhance dipole stability but result in a dilute, weakly correlated dipolar response and canonical relaxor behaviour. Decreasing cation size at the perovskite A2-site increases the dipolar displacements in the surrounding octahedra, but insufficiently to result in dipole ordering. Mechanisms introducing small A-site lanthanide cations and incorporation of A-site vacancies to induce ferroelectricity and magnetism are presented.

  16. PRODUCTION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF CHROMIUM BRONZE ALLOYED MECHANICALLY WITH THE MELTING OF NANOCRYSTALLINE MODIFYING LIGATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactive mechanical alloying is an effective technology for production of nanocrystalline modifying modifiers and ligatures. During smelting chromium bronzes use of mechanically alloyed modifying ligatures allow to exclude from the technology the environmentally hazardous high-temperature process of production of cast ligatures and to reduces reduce the optimum temperature of the melt alloying process copper at 50–100 °C by reducing its duration 2, 5–3,5 times This excluded process requires expensive furnace equipment. Mechanically alloyed modifying ligatures allow the formation of dispersion-strengthened heat-resistant materials with sub -,/ microcrystalline structure type bases, which are strength, hardness, conductivity and temperature of the onset of recrystallization about 15–20% superior to the base, which increases the resistance of the welding electrodes by 1.8–2.2 times. 

  17. Marco legal do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar: uma releitura para alinhar propósitos e prática na aquisição de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio pretende discutir a aquisição de alimentos para o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar à luz do seu marco legal vigente, na perspectiva de promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis e culturalmente articulados que contribuam para a promoção das condições de saúde da população escolar brasileira e para o desenvolvimento local. Apresentase análise da legislação em vigor do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, evidenciando a intencionalidade de influenciar o sistema alimentar brasileiro e o padrão alimentar de sua população a partir da alimentação escolar, destacandose as lacunas que desafiam a efetivação de mudanças substanciais na execução do programa. Partindo dessa análise e com base no elevado e crescente consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados no Brasil, e considerando as desvantagens desses alimentos diante de alimentos pouco ou não processados, desenvolvese proposta para orientar a construção de uma pauta de alimentos que seja consistente com o marco legal vigente do programa e com seus objetivos. Argumentase que a predominância de alimentos pouco ou não processados na alimentação escolar pode ser estratégia para o resgate do patrimônio alimentar saudável e para o fortalecimento do desenvolvimento local se resultar da aproximação com a agricultura familiar.

  18. El trabajo y la asociacion sindical en el marco de las reformas laborales en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Dorado, Angela María

    2014-01-01

    El documento reflexiona sobre el trabajo y la asociación sindical como derechos constitucionales en el marco del denominado Estado Social de Derecho en Colombia, a la luz de la crisis del sistema económico capitalista, en virtud de la cual, mediante estrategias como la globalización, el neoliberalismo y la financiarización, tal Estado Social de Derecho entra en contradicción en la realización efectiva de los mencionados derechos. Se describe el desenvolvimiento, desarrollo y contenido del Est...

  19. Las Inteligencias Múltiples como marco para atender a los alumnos con adaptaciones curriculares no significativas

    OpenAIRE

    Martí-Saumell, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Nuestra investigación se centra en estudiar las metodologías educativas que facilitan la atención a la diversidad desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de las Inteligencias Múltiples y con una orientación teórico-práctica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio será analizar y seleccionar aquellas metodologías educativas que facilitan la atención a la diversidad dentro del aula, así como analizar el marco que ofrece la Teoría de las Inteligencias Múltiples para atender a la diversidad. A partir de estos ...

  20. Finanzas públicas bajo competencia política : Marco federal y evidencia de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rumi, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Tres trabajos de investigación independientes indagan en la relación que establecen la competencia entre partidos políticos y las finanzas públicas en un marco federal. ¿Cómo afectan las consecuencias de esa pugna entre partidos a la política fiscal? A partir de los datos que se desprenden de la evidencia empírica sujeta a diferentes escenarios, tanto para el gobierno nacional como para las jurisdicciones subnacionales, esta tesis aborda ese interrogante para el que propone nuevos instrumento...

  1. Marco legal en la protección ambiental de los bosques nativos

    OpenAIRE

    POHL SCHNAKE, VERÓNICA; Vallejos, Víctor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Con este trabajo se pretende contribuir al debate en torno a los bosques nativos de nuestro país en el marco de la reciente ley 26.331/07 de "Presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental de los bosques nativos" y su aún más reciente reglamentación. Se realiza en primer término una breve referencia al encuadre de la legislación ambiental en nuestro país, luego se presentan algunos resultados del Primer Inventario Forestal del año 2001. En una segunda instancia se analizan los principales aspec...

  2. El laberinto de las sombras: desaparecer en el marco de la guerra contra las drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Robledo Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se propone un análisis de la desaparición de personas como un hecho sociohistórico que se ha transformado sustancialmente en las últimas dos décadas en México, tanto en la práctica como en el discurso, con el paso de un contexto de guerra sucia a un contexto de guerra contra las drogas. Las desapariciones, que antes se explicaban bajo el marco de la represión política, hoy ofrecen contornos menos claros sobre motivos y actores asociados al fenómeno. Este documento es fruto de...

  3. Oportunidades para el sector eléctrico colombiano dentro del marco del protocolo de Kyoto

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Castrillón, Jairo Andrés

    2008-01-01

    La preocupación mundial por el Cambio Climático Global es creciente debido a los Gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI), la Convención Marco de Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático (UNFCCC) ha motivado en 1997 el Protocolo de Kyoto (PK) a tomar medidas correctivas para reducir GEI en no menos del 5.2% respecto a los niveles de las de 1990. Para reducir los costos de transacción y las cargas económicas de estos países, se han diseñado diferentes mecanismos: Comercio de Emisiones (CE), Implementac...

  4. Competitividad y desarrollo empresarial de las pyme en el marco de la ley 1429 de 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Rodríguez, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Artículo de reflexión como (requisito para optar el título de Contador Público).-- Universidad de San Buenaventura, Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Contables, Programa de Contaduría Pública, 2014 Es de suma importancia, para el desarrollo económico de nuestro país, el análisis de impacto que han generado las medidas de formalización y generación del empleo, en el marco de la Ley 1429 de 2010; Este estudio identifica los elementos actuales que afectan la competitividad, los retos del...

  5. Marco de intervención logopédica en dislexia del desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Defior, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar un marco de referencia para logopedas sobre la intervención psicoeducativa de la dislexia evolutiva. En primer lugar, se recogen los principales aspectos que debe incluir la intervención individual realizada por el logopeda, como son la mejora de la fluidez lectora, de las habilidades fonológicas y, en la mayoría de las ocasiones, de la comprensión lectora. Es fundamental que exista una relación de colaboración entre el logopeda y el ...

  6. La familia en el marco de la justicia transicional: retos y reconocimientos

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando Valencia Grajales

    2016-01-01

    Dentro del marco del proceso de paz en Colombia existen una gran cantidad de interrogantes que afectan a la sociedad colombiana, sin embargo uno de los elementos que no han sido tenidos en cuenta de forma directa son los efectos producidos durante los últimos 60 años sobre la configuración de la familia, esta situación será estudiada dentro del proyecto de investigación “familia, victimas y justicia transicional”. Este texto intenta una revisión histórica-holística al concepto de Familia, sus...

  7. El marco conceptual del Plan General de Contabilidad Pública de 2010: aspectos principales

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Vaz, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal que se persigue con este trabajo no es otro que acercarnos al conocimiento del marco conceptual del Plan General Contable de las entidades públicas, analizando los aspectos más característicos de este plan y su evolución por una parte, y efectuando una comparativa con el Plan General Contable de 2007 por otra, para ello y tras una introducción, se ha dividido el trabajo en dos partes. En la primera parte, son objeto de estudio las principales modificaciones que se ha...

  8. MARCO MOLES Y PERELLÓ LA CRUZ. LA EXPRESIÓN EXISTENCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Miró, Juan

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se intenta reivindicar una serie de valores que consideramos muy importantes y que cada vez se van haciendo más escasos en la práctica artística, a través de la obra de dos creadores contemporáneos, Antonio Marco Moles (Alquerías del Niño Perdido (Castellón), 1929) y Vicente Perelló La Cruz (Valencia 1933-2008). Unos artistas que, avanzando a contracorriente, han conseguido unas realizaciones de gran densidad significativa y profundidad, que son una sugestiva aportación a l...

  9. Marco epistemológico de la enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    María Mercedes Durán de Villalobos

    2002-01-01

    El marco epistemológico de la enfermería pretende mostrar, de manera panorámica, la evolución del conocimiento de la enfermería. En primera instancia, se parte de una clarificación del significado de disciplina profesional y de los componentes de la disciplina: perspectiva, dominio, definiciones y conceptos y patrones del conocimiento. A partir de la definición de la disciplina de la enfermería como el estudio del cuidado de la experiencia o vivencia de la salud humana, s...

  10. Governança na internet: um estudo sobre o Marco Civil brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Vilela Rodrigues Rezende; Meyrielle Rodrigues de Lima

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo tiene como propósito realizar un estudio sobre la legislación que rige el uso de Internet en Brasil, en el Marco Civil de Internet (Ley 12.965/2014). Se trata de una investigación descriptiva, de naturaleza cua litativa, basada en recopilación bibliográfica y estudio comparativo. Se ex pone inicialmente un breve histórico de Internet en Brasil y su panorama actual. Luego, se presenta el concepto de gobernanza en Internet y los su cesos que marcaron ...

  11. CONFRONTACIÓN GENERACIONAL : Intervenciones terapéuticas en el marco de terapia grupal multifamiliar

    OpenAIRE

    Toporosi, Susana; Ragatke, Susana; Rabain, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; En el Servicio de Adolescencia del HNRG, Área de Salud Mental, desarrollamos desde 2001 una experiencia con grupos terapéuticos multifamiliares. En ellos se detecta la calidad de proceso de confrontación generacional que se despliega en cada familia. Desde un marco conceptual psicoanalítico se intenta posibilitar que los adolescentes desplieguen su confrontación y que los padres sean soporte de dicho proceso sin reprimirlo, negarlo, escindirlo o desmentirlo.Confrontaci...

  12. El marco penal de la pequeña delincuencia patrimonial y perspectivas de reforma

    OpenAIRE

    CORTINA ZAPICO, IVAN

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende un acercamiento a la figura del hurto, a través de un análisis de los elementos caracterizadores del tipo penal a la luz de la evolución doctrinal y jurisprudencial, exponiendo el marco normativo vigente tras las sucesivas reformas del Código Penal de 1995 y analizando las novedades planteadas en la futura reforma penal que se encuentra actualmente en tramitación parlamentaria. En este sentido, el trabajo gira en torno a una triple comparativa entre el tratamie...

  13. Archaeological fieldwork in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina (Monachil, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New archaeological fieldwork has been carried out from November 2003 to May 2004 in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina, due to the interest of the regional government of Andalusia in displaying the settlement for visitors. The aim of this fieldwork has been the systematic excavation of a large settlement area partially known thanks to the excavations developed at the beginning of 1980s. A first toccupation period belonging to the Argaric Culture has been documented, highlighting specially the funerary ritual characterized by individual inhumations located below dwellings. After a gap in the occupation of the settlement a new social group belonging to the Late Bronze Age Culture of Southeast of Spain inhabits the Cerro de la Encina.

    El interés de la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía por la musealización del yacimiento del Cerro de la Encina ha motivado el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones arqueológicas cuya primera fase se ha desarrollado entre Noviembre de 2003 y Mayo de 2004. Los trabajos han consistido en la excavación sistemática de un área de poblado de grandes dimensiones parcialmente conocida por las investigaciones realizadas a principios de los años 80. Los resultados han sido del máximo interés documentándose un primer momento de ocupación perteneciente a la Cultura de El Argar en el que destaca su espectacular registro funerario integrado dentro de las áreas de habitación. Tras un periodo de abandono del yacimiento se produce una nueva ocupación correspondiente a una comunidad del Bronce Final del Sureste.

  14. Erosion of tungsten and its brazed joints with bronze irradiated by pulsed deuterium plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakushin, V., E-mail: vlyakushin@mephi.ru; Polsky, V.; Kalin, B.; Dzhumaev, P.; Polyansky, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Suchkov, A.; Fedotov, V.

    2013-11-15

    This work presents results on erosion of mono- and polycrystalline tungsten and its brazed joints with bronze substrates under irradiation by high-temperature pulsed (τ{sub p} ∼ 20 μs) deuterium plasma flows, with a power density q = 19–66 GW/m{sup 2} and pulses numbering from 2 to 10, simulating the expected plasma disruptions and ELMs in fusion reactors. The surface erosion and heat resistance of tungsten and brazed joints were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and erosion coefficients were determined by target mass loss. It is found that for both types of tungsten the surface starts to significantly crack even under relatively weak irradiation regimes (q = 19 GW/m{sup 2}, N = 2), at which point surface melting is not observed. Local melting becomes visible with an increase of q up to 25 GW/m{sup 2}. In addition, there is formation of blisters with a typical size of 1–2 μm on the surface of monocrystalline samples and craters up to 2 μm in diameter on polycrystalline samples. In addition, craters ∼10–30 μm in diameter are formed on defects similar to those observed under unipolar arcs. At that point, the erosion coefficients change to within ranges of 0.2–0.7 × 10{sup −5} kg/J m{sup 2}. It is found that at q = 50 GW/m{sup 2}, the brazed joints of monocrystalline tungsten with bronze of Cu-0.6% Cr-0.08% Zr have the highest heat resistance.

  15. Strain Rate Dependency of Bronze Metal Matrix Composite Mechanical Properties as a Function of Casting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lloyd; Joyce, Peter; Radice, Joshua; Gregorian, Dro; Gobble, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of tungsten carbide (WC)-filled bronze castings fabricated by centrifugal and sedimentation-casting techniques are examined, in this study. Both casting techniques are an attempt to produce a functionally graded material with high wear resistance at a chosen surface. Potential applications of such materials include shaft bushings, electrical contact surfaces, and brake rotors. Knowledge of strain rate-dependent mechanical properties is recommended for predicting component response due to dynamic loading or impact events. A brief overview of the casting techniques for the materials considered in this study is followed by an explanation of the test matrix and testing techniques. Hardness testing, density measurement, and determination of the volume fraction of WC particles are performed throughout the castings using both image analysis and optical microscopy. The effects of particle filling on mechanical properties are first evaluated through a microhardness survey of the castings. The volume fraction of WC particles is validated using a thorough density survey and a rule-of-mixtures model. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) testing of various volume fraction specimens is conducted to determine strain dependence of mechanical properties and to compare the process-property relationships between the two casting techniques. The baseline performances of C95400 bronze are provided for comparison. The results show that the addition of WC particles improves microhardness significantly for the centrifugally cast specimens, and, to a lesser extent, in the sedimentation-cast specimens, largely because the WC particles are more concentrated as a result of the centrifugal-casting process. Both metal matrix composites (MMCs) demonstrate strain rate dependency, with sedimentation casting having a greater, but variable, effects on material response. This difference is attributed to legacy effects from the casting process, namely

  16. Late Bronze Age in Alcáçova de Santarém (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda, Ana Margarida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The field work that took place in the restaurant area in Jardim das Portas do Sol (Alcáçova de Santarém recovered well-preserved archaeological layers dated to the Late Bronze Age, lying directly underneath the Iron Age phase. The excavation made it possible to collect an important set of ceramics that incorporate printed and incised decoration, which can be easily decoration related to the Cogotas 1 cultural background. Burnished decorations, with grooves on the inner surface and outer strips, are less common. The formal repertoire does not deviate from what is known about the Late Bronze Age in central and southern Iberian Peninsula. The data allow us to propose a chronology centered in the early 1st millennium BCE for this occupation.Durante los trabajos de campo, realizados en el área del restaurante del Jardim das Portas do Sol, se documentaron, por primera vez en Alcáçova de Santarém, niveles conservados del final de la Edad del Bronce, inmediatamente infrapuestos a los de la Edad del Hierro. Su excavación permitió recoger un conjunto de materiales cerámicos que incorpora varios fragmentos decorados por impresión e incisión, que pueden ser fácilmente relacionados con el universo cultural de Cogotas 1. Las decoraciones bruñidas con surcos en la superficie interna y con franjas al exterior son mucho menos frecuentes. El repertorio formal no difiere del conocido para el Bronce Final del centro y sur de la Península Ibérica. Los datos permiten proponer una cronologia del inicio del 1 milenio a.n.e. (siglo IX para esta ocupación.

  17. Bronze age cosmology and rock art images. Solar ships, deer and charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, G.

    Bronze Age societies were technologically complex. The impressive production of metal artefacts embodies clearly their astronomical culture and cosmological viewpoint. Same ascertainment is valid also for rock art. In fact, around the European landscape were discovered several cliffs engraved with solar ships, deer and charts. How one could be interpret them? Which is the hidden mentality? From the end of 3rd millennium-early 2nd millennium B. C. deep technological transformations are made by metals. New inventions such metal extraction for weapon production, horse pulling chariot used for war and the bull pulling one used for trade may shorten the culture and material distances between Central Europe and South Mediterranean area. Indeed, taphonomic studies indicate a specific modification of the human body mortuary traditional disposition (orientated to significant astronomical targets) below a substantial transformation of mortuary apparatus with spot evidence of weapons (halberds, swords, knifes) and ornaments (double spiral, lunar shape pectorals). The famous Trundhold Solar chart, the 2nd millennium terracotta chart form Dupljaja, the solar boats petroglyph in Bohusland and the horse rider carved on Philippi's cliffs were conceived by the same mentality: communion with the divinity. Culture expressions as communicate manifestation attested in rock art were produced by the same mentality presented in Bronze Age art-crafts such as, 1. Culture epidemiologic patterns dispersion took place through out iconographic motives, and, 2. Animals can play a double face function inside an analogical-mythological system: a. animal-reflex; b. animal-agent. The question is: Could such petroglyphs help us to "read" archaeoastronomical properly in an archaeological site?

  18. Tonbs and a Ruined Bronze Foudry of the Western Zhou Period Discovered on the Zhouyuan Site in Shaanxi%陕西周原遗址发现西周墓葬与铸铜遗址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周原考古队

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, the Zhouyuan Archaeological Team excavated a batch of Western Zhou tombs and a late Western Zhou bronze foundery on the Zhouyuan site, to the west of Zhuangli Village. Of them Tomb M9 is the best in condition and the richest in bronzes among the early Western Zhou burials discovered so far on the Zhouyuan site. Its complete sets of funeral objects provide a standard for studying into the formation of Western Zhou ritual and the dating of early Western Zhou bronzes. The ruined bronze foundry yielded quantities of pottery molds and models, fragments of furnace walls, and lumps of bronze, slag and burnt clay. The pottery molds and models are mainly for making horse-and-chariot fittings. The finds are valuable to the study of the Western Zhou burial institution, Zhou bronze-casting technology, and the layout of the Zhouyuan settlement.

  19. 注重建筑的完整性及其与环境之间的复杂关系——访Marco Piva设计事务所创始人Marco Piva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Greta Gabaglio; 黄婧

    2015-01-01

    Marco Piva毕业于米兰理工大学,1977年创立了DADA事务所,是激进时代具有代表性的事务所之一。1987年至1990年Marco Piva被任命为意大利总统委员会ADI成员以及意大利工业设计协会成员。1987年Marco Piva创立意大利国际设计协会IDA,连接起意大利设计界与国际范围内其他设计行业的交流。1990年Marco Piva设计事务所成立。1988年至1991年Marco Piva担任欧洲共同体"春日项目"意大利专员,致力于创新与技术的交流与传播。

  20. Bronze Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    During the Spring and Autumn, and the Warring States Periods (770 -221 B.C.) tribes in the western borders such as Wu Shi, Yi Qu, Gou Yan etc. led a nomadic life and were accomplished hunters. According to historical records, these tribesmen were trained in archery, hunting and riding from a very early age. Their gallantry, endurance and worship of force were cultivated from childhood.

  1. Bronze Drum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Drums were frequently used to direct the army to move ahead or retreat as well as to dance at feasts and at sacrificial rites to gods or ancestors. According to legend, Emperor Huangdi who ruled before 2140 B.C. had a

  2. Comunicação de marca. Aportes da publicidade impressa na comunicação da identidade de marca

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Evelinda Peralta Vasquez

    2006-01-01

    Esta pesquisa visa aprofundar a contribuição da Publicidade Impressa na Comunicação da Identidade de Marca. Para tal fim, o marco teórico está delimitado basicamente em duas áreas: a Identidade e a Comunicação. Assim, como a identidade pessoal, a Identidade de Marca também possui uma série de elementos que a caracteriza. A empresa que oferecer uma oferta diferenciada, com uma marca fortemente construída e devidamente comunicada, facilitará sua preferência. A Publicidade Impressa forma parte d...

  3. Ética del discurso: ¿un marco filosófico para la neuroética?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortina, Adela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroethics requires a framework of philosophical ethics from which to interprete, integrate and criticiseneuroscientific progress in moral field. This article sets out to: 1 Show to what extent this framework is necessary; 2 Tackle the question of the method for constructing this framework; 3 Compile the main tópoi of the neurosciences that the framework has to interpret and integrate; 4 Propose the ethics of discourse as a philosophical framework for neuroethics; 5 Display certain shortcomings of this framework and put forward the dialogical ethics of cordial reason as being more appropriate.La Neuroética necesita un marco de ética filosófica desde el que interpretar, integrar y criticar el progreso neurocientífico en el ámbito moral. Este artículo intenta: 1 Mostrar en qué medida este marco es necesario. 2 Abordar la cuestión del método adecuado para construirlo. 3 Compilar los principales tópoi de las neurociencias que el marco debería interpretar e integrar. 4 Mostrar cómo la ética del discurso puede ser un marco adecuado para la neuroética. 5 Señalar algunas insuficiencias de ese marco y sugerir para superarlas una ética de la razón cordial.

  4. FIRST REPORT OF SITTING ANOMOEPUS TRACKS IN EUROPEAN LOWER JURASSIC (LAVINI DI MARCO SITE - NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO AVANZINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeontologic site at Lavini di Marco, near to Rovereto (Trento, reveals a wide fossil tidal flat of Early Jurassic age (Calcari Grigi Formations – lower Member; Hettangian to lower Sinemurian . An extensive set of dinosaur prints were discovered a few years ago and are now the subject of ichnological and paleobiological studies. The prints which are described in present short note are believed to represent the right and left foot of the same individual, set in a side-by-side, sub-parallel, sitting posture. The prints can be classified as Anomoepus Hitchcock 1848. Amongst recognised ichnospecies, most of the charachteristics of the prints here described point to Moyenisauropus dodai Ellenberger 1974 (recte Anomoepus dodai Olsen & Galton 1984 of Lesotho. By contrast, the prints found at Lavini di Marco differ from the Anomoepus found in central-east Europe. These characters would seem to confirm the Gondwanic origins of the Rovereto ichnofauna as previously supposed from the study of other taxa. 

  5. MODELOS DE LIDERAZGO POSITIVO: MARCO TEÓRICO Y LÍNEAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es doble, en primer lugar, se define el marco teórico del liderazgo positivo así como las razones de su aparición. Este surge vinculado al paradigma de la psicología organizacional positiva, en cuyo ámbito, se han desarrollado las diferentes formas de liderazgo que lo integran (i.e. transformacional, de servicio, espiritual, auténtico y positivo. Aunque el constructo no parece unívocamente delimitado, los diferentes tipos que se incluyen bajo esta denominaciónpresentan una gran afinidad y elementos comunes. En segundo lugar, se revisan aspectos prácticos vinculados a la investigación empírica que constatan el impacto de este tipo de liderazgo en las organizaciones y se subraya la relación entre estas formas de liderazgo y variables organizacionales positivas. Finalmente, se analizan futuras líneas de investigación para el desarrollo de este marco conceptual.

  6. Governança na internet: um estudo sobre o Marco Civil brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vilela Rodrigues Rezende

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como propósito realizar un estudio sobre la legislación que rige el uso de Internet en Brasil, en el Marco Civil de Internet (Ley 12.965/2014. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva, de naturaleza cua litativa, basada en recopilación bibliográfica y estudio comparativo. Se ex pone inicialmente un breve histórico de Internet en Brasil y su panorama actual. Luego, se presenta el concepto de gobernanza en Internet y los su cesos que marcaron las discusiones acerca de esta temática. Se aborda el Marco Civil de Internet en Brasil, el histórico de su creación y los principios que lo rigen. Se concluye que es un importante instrumento oficial regla mentario para asegurar la libertad y los derechos del usuario. Su concep ción se fundamentó en la participación de la sociedad civil, lo que puede considerarse inédito en lo que se refiere a la creación de leyes reglamenta rias. Se considera que esta sea una ley sofisticada en cuanto a sus directri ces, lo que la vuelve una de las más progresistas del mundo. Pese a todo lo anterior, su trayectoria democrática de creación le otorga un carácter ge neralista y superficial.

  7. Reflexiones sobre el marco conceptual de la contabilidad financiera: El caso de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto María Sierra González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el auge del proceso de normalización contable ha surgido una creciente preocupación académica y profesional por el establecimiento de un conjunto coherente de conceptos que sustenten el debido proceso en la emisión de normas de contabilidad y auditoría. Desde finales de los años sesenta, los organismos internacionales emisores de normas han buscado construir un marco conceptual para la contabilidad financiera, elaborado con base en la observación de la práctica contable y las metodologías de investigación propias de la filosofía de las ciencias. En Colombia, el proceso de normalización empezó hacia 1986 con la expedición del Decreto 2160. Esta medida revela la necesidad de construir políticas de estandarización de las prácticas contables y de generar un debate sobre la temática del marco conceptual en el contexto de la jurisdicción local y del desarrollo de la profesión y la disciplina contable, como herramienta fundamental del crecimiento económico y el bienestar social.

  8. LA RECOGIDA DE BASURA EN MEGA-CIUDADES: En el marco de la sostenibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Tron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La comprensión de las sociedades urbanas complejas sólo es posible cuando se estudia tanto el sector formal como el informal que las conforma. Para explicar ambos modelos, el rubro de los Residuos surge como una de las herramientas más competentes, capaz de distinguir entre ellos, incluso cuando la demanda de la sociedad supera su marco legislativo. Un cambio de enfoque en el que se defi ne a los residuos sólidos en función a su potencial como recurso, contextualiza realidades muy divergentes. Con esta acepción, la gestión de residuos dentro de las ciudades de Tokio, México, Madrid y Paris puede ser estudiada a profundidad, denotando sus principales diferencias operativas y principales vulnerabilidades. En este artículo se demuestra cómo, una vez evidenciadas las particularidades, es posible relacionar la interacción de las ciudades frente a los vacíos del marco normativo. Una comparación que destaca la capacidad innata de las sociedades a adaptarse a dichas imperfecciones, llegando a una mejor comprensión de los alcances del sector informal que, particularmente dentro de los países en desarrollo, contribuye a la efi ciencia del sistema urbano.

  9. Magnetization and Inter-Filament Contact in HEP and ITER Bronze-Route Nb3Sn Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Bottura, L; Devred, A; Jewell, M; Richter, D; Senatore, C

    2011-01-01

    Magnetization measurements are relevant tests for the characterization of superconductors. Practically they are the only measurements that allow estimating the critical current density at low fields of low temperature superconductors, the effective filament size and the hysteresis losses. For this purpose CERN, in collaboration with the University of Geneva, has carried out magnetization measurements on five types of Nb3Sn wires: three bronze route strands used in the ITER project; one Powder In Tube (PIT) and one Internal Tin (IT) wires used for developing next generation accelerator magnets. The field dependent magnetization has been determined using three set-ups: a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) and a special system used for the production control of LHC strands. Samples of different lengths have been tested to check the different coupling between the filaments. Unexpectedly, it was found that the magnetization of the tested bronze wires was stro...

  10. Magnetization and Inter-Filament Contact in HEP and ITER Bronze-Route Nb(3)Sn Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Devred, A; Richter, D; Bessette, D; Jewell, M; Bottura, L

    2011-01-01

    Magnetization measurements are relevant tests for the characterization of superconductors. Practically they are the only measurements that allow estimating the critical current density at low fields of low temperature superconductors, the effective filament size and the hysteresis losses. For this purpose CERN, in collaboration with the University of Geneva, has carried out magnetization measurements on five types of Nb(3)Sn wires: three bronze route strands used in the ITER project; one Powder In Tube (PIT) and one Internal Tin (IT) wires used for developing next generation accelerator magnets. The field dependent magnetization has been determined using three setups: a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) and a special system used for the production control of LHC strands. Samples of different lengths have been tested to check the different coupling between the filaments. Unexpectedly, it was found that the magnetization of the tested bronze wires was str...

  11. Influence of various surface pretreatments on adherence of sputtered molybdenum disulfide to silver, gold, copper, and bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1973-01-01

    Solid film lubricants of radio frequency sputtered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) were applied to silver, gold, copper, and bronze surfaces that had various pretreatments (mechanical polishing, sputter etching, oxidation, and sulfurization). Optical and electron transmission micrographs and electron diffraction patterns were used to interpret the film formation characteristics and to evaluate the sputtering conditions in regard to the film and substrate compatibility. Sputtered MoS2 films flaked and peeled on silver, copper, and bronze surfaces except when the surfaces had been specially oxidized. The flaking and peeling was a result of sulfide compound formation and the corresponding grain growth of the sulfide film. Sputtered MoS2 films showed no peeling and flaking on gold surfaces regardless of surface pretreatment.

  12. Bones from the labyrinth: Faunal evidence for management and consumption of animals at Neolithic and Bronze Age Knossos, Crete.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaakidou, V.

    2005-01-01

    Animals feature extensively in the iconography and written records of Bronze Age Crete, and in archaeological debates ranging from initial colonisation in the 7th millennium BC, through expansion of settlement across the island in the 4th-3rd millennia, to surplus mobilisation and feasting by the 2nd millennium palaces. To date, however, faunal remains---the most widely available evidence for human use of animals---have been neglected: detailed reports of large assemblages are non-existent an...

  13. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  14. An innovative approach of structural instabilities in tetragonal tungsten bronze crystals through the concept of rigid unit modes

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Mikhail; Saint-Grégoire, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) oxides are one of the most important classes of ferroelectrics. Many of these framework structures undergo ferroelastic transformations related to octahedron tilting deformations. Such tilting deformations are closely related to the Rigid Unit Modes (RUMs). This paper discusses the whole set of RUMs in an ideal TTB lattice and possible crystal structures which can emerge owing to the condensation of some of them. Analysis of available experimental data for the...

  15. Hollow Sodium Tungsten Bronze (Na0.15WO3) Nanospheres: Preparation, Characterization, and Their Adsorption Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo Guanke; Guo He; Liu Hui; Zhang Jingyan; Hou Jing; Shen Guangxia; Cheng Ping; Guo Shouwu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report herein a facile method for the preparation of sodium tungsten bronzes hollow nanospheres using hydrogen gas bubbles as reactant for chemical reduction of tungstate to tungsten and as template for the formation of hollow nanospheres at the same time. The chemical composition and the crystalline state of the as-prepared hollow Na0.15WO3nanospheres were characterized complementarily, and the hollow structure formation mechanism was proposed. The hollow Na0.15WO3nanospheres sho...

  16. MEASURING AND MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE BEARING PAD MADE OF PLASTIC MATRIX AND FINE BRONZE ELASTIC SPRINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the normal PTFE plastic and strengthened PTFE plastic for bearing pad are measured. The mechanical properties of the composite material for bearing pad, which is made of the aforementioned plastics as matrix reinforced by fine bronze elastic springs, are modeled and relaxation modulus of the material are presented. The difference between these two kinds of PTFE is studied. The results show that the complex modulus of PTFE plastics for bearing pad is higher than that of normal PTFE plastics.

  17. Combatentes do gueto, guerreiros da periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rebecca Ferrari Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combatente do gueto, guerreiro da periferia, militante da causa (... Combatente do gueto é o nome de uma rua atrás do Palácio do Governo (...” conta Jairo, taxista, a propósito de sua inspiração poética, durante as filmagens de Povo lindo, povo inteligente – O Sarau da Cooperifa, documentário dirigido por Sérgio Gagliardi e Maurício Falcão, produzido, em 2008, pela DGT Filmes. O filme narra a história e os bastidores do sarau que acontece na zona sul da cidade de São Paulo, em Campo Limpo, no bar do Zé Batidão. “A periferia não tem museu, não tem teatro nem cinema, o único espaço público que tem é o bar”, explica Sérgio Vaz, um dos idealizadores do movimento que contempla na produção poética, da periferia para a periferia, a força da contestação social. A cultura como arena para a luta entre os signos monossêmicos e a pluralidade sígnica proposta pelo artista que faz da palavra ruído incômodo. O sarau da Cooperifa, o sarau do Binho também já foram objetos de estudos acadêmicos, como a tese As redes de escritura nas periferias de São Paulo, de Marco Antônio Bin, defendida no Programa de Ciências Sociais da PUCSP, em maio de 2009

  18. Multipeak self-biased magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in four-phase Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This letter develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME structure Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT (MTBP consisting of a magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer, a elastic Be-bronze plate, and a piezoelectric 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-PT plate. By using the magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer and the elastic Be-bronze plate, multi-peak self-biased ME responses are obtained in MTBP structure. The experimental results show that the MTBP structure with two layers of Metglas foil has maximum zero-biased ME voltage coefficient (MEVC. As frequency increases from 0.5 to 90 kHz, eleven large peaks of MEVC with magnitudes of 0.75-33 V/(cm Oe are observed at zero-biased magnetic field. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-peak self-biased ME structure may be useful for multifunctional devices such as multi-frequency energy harvesters or low-frequency ac magnetic field sensors.

  19. Multipeak self-biased magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in four-phase Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyan; Lu, Caijiang; Bing, Han

    2015-04-01

    This letter develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) structure Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT (MTBP) consisting of a magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer, a elastic Be-bronze plate, and a piezoelectric 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) plate. By using the magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer and the elastic Be-bronze plate, multi-peak self-biased ME responses are obtained in MTBP structure. The experimental results show that the MTBP structure with two layers of Metglas foil has maximum zero-biased ME voltage coefficient (MEVC). As frequency increases from 0.5 to 90 kHz, eleven large peaks of MEVC with magnitudes of 0.75-33 V/(cm Oe) are observed at zero-biased magnetic field. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-peak self-biased ME structure may be useful for multifunctional devices such as multi-frequency energy harvesters or low-frequency ac magnetic field sensors.

  20. A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F W; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G

    2015-01-01

    There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating places the transition into the Bronze Age in the 11th century B.C. with likely origins in a southward expansion of technological expertise rooted in the early states of the Yellow and Yangtze valleys, China. We have redated Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha, as well as the sites of Ban Na Di and Ban Lum Khao, and here present 105 radiocarbon determinations that strongly support the latter model. The statistical analysis of the results using a Bayesian approach allows us to examine the data at a regional level, elucidate the timing of arrival of copper base technology in Southeast Asia and consider its social impact.

  1. Bronze Age pottery from the Aeolian Islands: definition of Temper Compositional Reference Units by an integrated mineralogical and microchemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, D.; Levi, S. T.; Fragnoli, P.; Renzulli, A.; Santi, P.; Paganelli, E.; Martinelli, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    An integrated microchemical-petrographic approach is here proposed to discriminate the provenance of archaeological pottery artefacts from distinct production centres. Our study focuses on a statistically significant sampling ( n=186) of volcanic temper-bearing potteries representative of the manufacturing and dispersion among the islands of the Aeolian Archipelago during the Bronze Age. The widespread establishment of new settlements and the abundant recovery of Aeolian-made ceramic in southern Italy attest for the increased vitality of the Archipelago during the Capo Graziano culture (Early Bronze Age-Middle Bronze Age 2; 2300-1430 BC). Potteries from three of the main known ancient communities (Lipari, Filicudi and Stromboli) have been studied integrating old collections and newly excavated material. Volcanic tempers have been first investigated through multivariate analyses of relative abundances of mineral and rock clasts along with petrographic characters. In addition, we performed in-situ mineral chemistry microanalyses by Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation—Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to assess major and trace element composition of the most common mineral phases. Four Temper Compositional Reference Units have been recognised based on compositional trends. Two units (AI and AX) are unequivocally distinct by their peculiar trace element enrichment and petrographic composition; they mostly contain samples from the sites of Lipari and Stromboli, respectively. Units AIV and AVIII, restricted to the sites of Filicudi and Stromboli, show distinct petrographic characters but overlapped geochemical fingerprints.

  2. Isotopic Evidence For The Primary Production, Provenance And Trade Of Late Bronze Age Glass In The Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J.; Evans, J.; Nikita, K.

    The earliest known man made glass comes from Mesopotamia and dates to the 23rd century BC. By the 16th century BC the first glass vessels appear in Mesopotamia, but the earliest evidence for the fusion of glass from raw materials has been found at the 13th century BC Egyptian site of Qantir. Chemical analyses of this elite Late Bronze Age material have produced compositional distinctions between glasses found in Mesopotamia and Egypt. It is however debatable whether trace element concentrations provide a (geological) provenance for the glasses. By using neodymium and strontium isotopes to fingerprint well-dated chemically analysed 15th to 11th century BC glass samples, we show that independent primary production probably occurred in both Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 14th century BC, and that both of these areas exported glass to Greece. We also discuss the technological implications for glass manufacture and colouring that these new data provide. The results add significant new scientific evidence for glass trade between Late Bronze Age palatial societies. Moreover, it is the first time that this methodology has been used to investigate Bronze Age glass.

  3. Arranjo produtivo local e desenvolvimento sustentável: uma relação sinérgica no município de marco (CE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Alves Medeiros Alvarenga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Com a evolução do próprio conceito de desenvolvimento, mediante o fortalecimento do paradigma da sustentabilidade, torna-se necessária uma evolução das discussões em torno dos arranjos produtivos locais (APLs que incorpore ponderações acerca de tais dimensões. Dessa forma, este estudo tem como objetivo geral analisar a ocorrência de práticas de desenvolvimento sustentável, com base no modelo triple bottom line, em um arranjo produtivo local. Para tanto, escolheu-se como campo empírico de estudo um APL de móveis localizado no município de Marco, no Estado do Ceará. Sua escolha para este trabalho se deveu tanto às características desse tipo de atividade, que, por depender da extração e utilização de recursos naturais, principalmente a madeira, apresenta grande relação com questões da dimensão ambiental da sustentabilidade, quanto ao reconhecimento do forte desempenho econômico do APL de Marco, que fez com que a cidade fosse reconhecida como um dos maiores polos moveleiros do Norte e Nordeste do país. Procurou-se identificar demonstrações econômicas (profit, sociais (people e ambientais (planet, bem como verificar a ocorrência de sinergia na relação arranjo produtivo e desenvolvimento sustentável. Na revisão da literatura, foram construídos tópicos sobre a abordagem teórica de arranjos produtivos locais, o papel do empresário político ou empresário coletivo, o desenvolvimento sustentável e o modelo triple bottom line. A metodologia fundamentou-se em abordagem qualitativa, cujas técnicas de coleta foram a entrevista semiestruturada, a observação e um corpus documental. Foram escolhidos intencionalmente e por acessibilidade seis empreendedores. Pode-se concluir que, com base no modelo triple bottom line, estão presentes algumas características de desenvolvimento sustentável, principalmente relacionadas às dimensões ambiental (planet e econômica (profit. A dimensão social (people ainda precisa ser

  4. La obligatoriedad del Departamento de Gestión Ambiental Empresarial y su marco normativo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrera Flórez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Incidencia en la degradación del medio ambiente ha traído consigo que las empresas e industrias comiencen a concientizarse en el contexto de una nueva ética empresarial. Desde hace algunos años se ha hablado del concepto de Responsabilidad Social empresarial, no obstante, este proceso se veía muy alejado dentro del marco de lo ambiental, es por ello que desde la convención de Estocolmo se da vida a una serie de reglamentaciones internas en nuestro país que hace que las empresas comiencen a retomar su posición en la responsabilidad que les atañe; para referirse al proceso mediante elcual dichas empresas deciden voluntariamente contribuir al logro de una sociedad mejor y de un medio ambiente más limpio. Junto a esta línea de actuación, han surgido otros instrumentos que, asimismo, deben integrarse en esta nueva ética empresarial. El presente ensayo describe el estado en cuestión en nuestro Estado colombiano en cuanto a la obligatoriedad de mantener una oficina de Gestión Ambiental Empresarial Palabras claveResponsabilidad social, gestión empresarial, desarrollo sostenible, político del medio ambiente, normatividad.AbstractThe impact on environmental degradation has resulted in companies and industries begin to become aware in the context of a new business ethics. Now a days there has been explain the concept of business social responsibility, however, this process was very far within the framework of environmental, that is why from the Stockholm convention start a series of internal regulations in our country where companies begin to resume his position of responsibility as they are concerned, to refer to the process by which these companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment. Along this way of action, other instruments have emerged also be integrated into this new business ethics. This article describes the situation in our Colombian State regarding to

  5. Observaciones sobre algunos criterios de diseño sísmico de edificios con marcos de concreto reforzado

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Luna Arroyo; Arturo Tena Colunga

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis de las disposiciones de las Normas Técnicas Complementarias para Diseño y Construcción de Estructuras de Concreto (NTCC-96) del Reglamento de construcciones para el Distrito Federal (RCDF-93) basado en una comparación con diferentes reglamentos internacionales, dicha comparación se enfoca en las disposiciones para marcos dúctiles y marcos no dúctiles contemplando las diferencias desde el punto de vista conceptual, numérico e intuitivo. Se toma como base de la comparaci...

  6. Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bauer, Alison K; Arredouani, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression......, consistent with SRA function in binding oxidized lipids. SR-AI/II-/- mice showed similar enhanced acute lung inflammation after beta-epoxide or another inhaled oxidant (aerosolized leachate of residual oil fly ash). In contrast, subacute ozone exposure did not enhance inflammation in SR-AI/II-/- versus SR-AI...

  7. Bronze Age metal artefacts found on Cyprus - metal from Anatolia and the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stos-Gale, Zofia A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of Bronze Age metal artefacts excavated on archaeological sites in Cyprus have been analysed for their lead isotope and elemental composition in the Isotrace Laboratory, University of Oxford, in the years 1982-2002. In parallel, but in particular after 1995, hundreds of samples of minerals and slags collected from the mines and smelting sites around the Troodos Mountains were also analysed. Most of the results were published in various articles over the years, but the interpretation of some of the lead isotope data needs a current revision in view of new research conducted in Spain, Sardinia and southern France. It has been known that the lead isotope data for metal artefacts from the Cypriot Bronze Age sites shows that not all of the copper is consistent with origin from the Cypriot ores. In addition, the lead and silver artefacts found there must have been imported, because there are no lead or silver ores on Cyprus. The re-evaluation of the data shows that about 11 % of the analysed metal artefacts are consistent with the origin from the deposits in the Aegean and Turkey, while about 14 % with sources in the Western Mediterranean. This paper discusses in detail the current interpretation of the research into the sources of imported metal found in the Bronze Age context on Cyprus.

    Cientos de objetos de metal de la Edad del Bronce excavados en yacimientos de Chipre han sido analizados para conocer su composición elemental y sus isótopos de plomo en el Isotrace Laboratory de la Universidad de Oxford entre los años 1982 y 2002. Especialmente con posterioridad a 1995 cientos de muestras de minerales y escorias recogidas de minas y sitios de reducción de minerales localizadas en el entorno de las montañas de Troodos también fueron analizadas. La mayoría de los resultados fueron publicados en varios artículos a lo largo del tiempo, pero la interpretación de algunos análisis de isótopos de plomo necesitan de una revisión a

  8. The Bronze Age in the Northwestern of Iberian Peninsula: an analysis from funerary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettencourt, Ana M. S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of the funerary practices and of their integration in the different chronological-cultural contexts where they develop, the author works out a new interpretation of the mechanism of negotiation of power and the promotion of social identity through the Bronze Age of the NW Iberian Peninsula. When studying an area so wide she distinguishes two great trends in the type and distribution of the funerary architectures throughout the Bronze Age that she associates with different ways of interaction with, and perception of, the world. Thus, she argues that the necropolises of “cloudy” tombs (cists without tumuli, plain graves and pits, located in areas of great agricultural potential and close to the settlements, may have been constructed by sedentary communities, very involved in agricultural activities, with a great sense of territoriality and a great control over, and deep knowledge of, the territory. On the other hand the communities involved with mountain landscapes, eventually more related to cattle and with ways of life that would imply greater mobility, were responsible for the construction of more visible funerary structures, such as small tumuli of megalithic tradition, located away from the settlements. In relation to the social role of the corpse, the author argues for the Early Bronze Age, that, the occupation of new territories, the emergence of a new form of community interaction with the environment and the emergence of new mechanisms of power and legitimacy of the territory were materialized in burial practices and in the social role of some corpses, in copper and gold grave goods. This social role was represented in old and new places. From the Middle Bronze Age she assumes that the corpse loses importance in collective terms and that death becomes more familiar. The new settings of power negotiation and social identity are transferred to other contexts of action more connected with the sphere of the living

  9. Alloy characterization of a 7th Century BC archeological bronze vase — Overcoming patina constraints using Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manso, M. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Fisica da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte da Caparica (Portugal); Faculdade de Belas-Artes da Universidade de Lisboa, Largo da Academia Nacional de Belas-Artes, 1249-058 Lisboa (Portugal); Schiavon, N. [Hercules Laboratory, University of Évora, Palácio do Vimioso,Largo Marquês de Marialva 8, 7000-809 Évora Portugal (Portugal); Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera, CSIC, Solé Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arruda, A.M. [Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa (UNIARQ), Alameda da Universidade, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Sampaio, J.M. [BioISI — Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Brunetti, A., E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it [Department of Political Science and Communication, University of Sassari, Via Piandanna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the composition of a bronze alloy using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For this purpose, a 7th Century BC archeological vase from the SW Iberian Peninsula, displaying a well formed corrosion patina was analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Realistic MC simulations of the experimental setup were performed with the XRMC code package which is based on an intensive use of variance-reduction techniques and uses XRAYLIB a constantly updated X-ray library of atomic data. A single layer model was applied for simulating XRF of polished/pristine bronze whereas a two-or-three-layer model was developed for bronze covered respectively by a corrosion patina alone or coupled with a superficial soil derived crust. These simulations took into account corrosion (cerussite (PbCO{sub 3}), cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O), malachite (Cu{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}), litharge (PbO)) and soil derived products (goethite (FeO(OH)) and quartz (SiO{sub 2})) identified by means of X-ray diffraction and Raman micro analytical techniques. Results confirm previous research indicating that the XRF/Monte Carlo protocol is well suited when a two-layered model is considered, whereas in areas where the patina + soil derived products' crust is too thick, X-rays from the alloy substrate are not able to exit the sample. Quantitative results based on MC simulations indicate that the vase is made of a lead–bronze alloy: Mn (0.2%), Fe (1.0%), Cu (81.8%), As (0.5%), Ag (0.6%), Sn (8.0%) and Pb (8.0%). - Highlights: • We study an archeological bronze vase with patina corrosion using XRF spectrometry. • The experimental setup is modeled using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. • Combining MC simulations with XRF it is possible to derive concentrations. • We demonstrated that this is possible without removing the patina.

  10. A family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes: Oxides consisting of periodic arrays of interacting magnetic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneemeyer, L.F. [Department of Chemistry, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043 (United States); Siegrist, T., E-mail: tsiegrist@fsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Besara, T. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Lundberg, M. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Sun, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6056 (United States); Singh, D.J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6056 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes, reduced ternary molybdates of composition LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44,} was synthesized and a detailed structural study carried out. Bond valence sum (BVS) calculations clearly show that the molybdenum ions in tetrahedral coordination are hexavalent while the electron count in the primitive unit cell is odd. Yet, measurements show that the phases are semiconductors. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of samples containing several different rare earth elements was measured. These measurements verified the presence of a 6.5 K magnetic phase transition not arising from the rare earth constituent, but likely associated with the unique isolated ReO{sub 3}-type Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} structural subunits in this phase. To better understand the behavior of these materials, electronic structure calculations were performed within density functional theory. Results suggest a magnetic state in which these structural moieties have an internal ferromagnetic arrangement, with small ~1/8 μ{sub B} moments on each Mo. We suggest that the Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} units behave like pseudoatoms with spin 1/2 derived from a single hole distributed over the eight Mo atoms that are strongly hybridized with the O atoms of the subunit. Interestingly, while the compound is antiferromagnetic, our calculations suggest that a field-stabilized ferromagnetic state, if achievable, will be a narrow band half-metal. - Graphical abstract: LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44} phases comprise corner sharing tetrahedral and octahedral molybdenum ions. The MoO{sub 6} octahedra form Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} units that are well separated and act like pseudo-atoms, accommodating 11 electrons each. - Highlights: • Single crystal X-ray diffraction refinements of LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44} single crystals for Ln=Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy and Ho. • DFT calculations based on LaMo{sub 16}O{sub 44}. • [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36}] units behaving as superatoms with a net magnetic moment of 1 µ

  11. Relative sea-level change in the central Cyclades (Greece) since the Early Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Aegean is a focus of important cultural achievements in Europe since the Neolithic period. The resulting abundance of archaeological remains, many of them below sea-level represent an advantageous area for the study of local relative sea-level change. We have carried out detailed mapping of Despotiko Island (SW of Antiparos) and its surrounding. Despotiko is situated almost exactly in the center of the Cyclades (as defined nowadays), more so than Delos, and therefore is very well suited for sea-level studies of the Cyclades. This beneficial location, combined with a spacious and protected bay, additionally may explain its former importance as stepping-stone in the Aegean Sea. The island is uninhabited at present, but Early Bronze Age settlement sites and graveyards as well as a large Archaic sanctuary proof its former importance. The sanctuary is situated on a gently northeast dipping slope in the northeast part of Despotiko, in range of sight of the Órmos Despotiko. Since 1997 large parts of this important sanctuary have been excavated during several excavation campaigns. Tectonically, Despotiko, Antiparos and Paros, belong to the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline of the Central Hellenides, a stack of metamorphic tectonic nappes, mainly comprising variable types of gneiss, schist, marble and amphibolite, and tectonic slices of unmetamorphosed sediments on top, separated by low-angle normal faults from the metamorphic units below. Submerged archaeological structures at the sea bottom of the Órmos Despotiko, a Classical marble inscription from the sanctuary and partly submerged agriculture trenches at the east coast Despotiko, indicate that the relative sea-level in this area was some 3 m lower during the Early Bronze Age and still more than 1 m lower during Classical time. These values of relative sea-level rise indicate a subsidence component additional to the global sea-level rise in the investigated time period. Neglecting possible vertical tectonic movements and

  12. Marco conceptual para la evaluación de programas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Rojas, Eiliana

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación como disciplina es un área relativamente nueva de las Ciencias Sociales; consecuentemente, su incorporación explícita en los programas y sistemas de salud ha llegado algo tardíamente. Este artículo presenta elementos de un marco conceptual para concebir y utilizar la evaluación en programas de salud. Se define la evaluación como una herramienta para la toma de decisiones, se discuten tendencias y temáticas de actualidad en el campo y también conceptos clave tales como teoría del programa y valoración de necesidades. Finalmente, se esboza una primera aproximación a dos constructos de gran interés en la evaluación de programas de salud: calidad y equidad.

  13. Cultura innovativa para la universidad de servicio en el marco de la responsabilidad social universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ramos Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue formular estrategias para impulsar el desarrollo de una cultura innovativa para la universidad de servicio en el marco de la responsabilidad social universitaria. La metodología fue de tipo descriptiva, de campo, no experimental, transeccional, tomando como población las universidades públicas del estado Zulia. Los resultados develan la necesidad de fortalecer una cultura de grupo y de trabajo en equipo, como manera de integrar el valioso capital humano de las universidades -una de sus mayores fortalezas-, como mecanismo viable para incrementar el sentido de pertenencia y compromiso con la institución y las políticas institucionales.

  14. Marco Sterpos, Scrivere teatro nel regime. Giovacchino Forzano e la collaborazione con Mussolini

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Si l’historiographie du fascisme a longtemps mis de côté l’étude de la culture pendant le régime fasciste, considérant qu’il s’agissait d’un régime barbare, par essence ennemi de toute forme de culture, depuis une quinzaine d’année celle-ci a fait l’objet de plusieurs analyses, qu’elles portent sur des artistes, des domaines artistiques ou des champs intellectuels précis ou sur la question plus générale de l’existence et des contenus d’une culture fasciste. Marco Sterpos se place ici d’emblée...

  15. Interacción universidad y entorno: marco para el emprendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Emilio Sanabria-Rangel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El documento desarrolla el tema de la relación universidad-entorno, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la vinculación con el sector productivo como parte del desarrollo de la función de extensión universitaria. El propósito fundamental es proporcionar un marco de referencia para la creación o justificación de las unidades de emprendimiento universitarias como mecanismo de enlace para el desarrollo de la función extensión desde una de sus aproximaciones: el enfoque empresarial. Como resultado, se evidencian los enfoques, los modelos, los mecanismos y las estrategias de interacción universidad-entorno; se realiza una reflexión sobre el emprendimiento como medio para dicha interacción y se muestran las condiciones estructurales que favorecen el emprendimiento universitario.

  16. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  17. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia Rentería-Villalobos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  18. Uranium in the surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River environment (Chihuahua, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  19. Marco conceptual para la evaluación de programas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiliana Montero Rojas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación como disciplina es un área relativamente nueva de las Ciencias Sociales; consecuentemente, su incorporación explícita en los programas y sistemas de salud ha llegado algo tardíamente. Este artículo presenta elementos de un marco conceptual para concebir y utilizar la evaluación en programas de salud. Se define la evaluación como una herramienta para la toma de decisiones, se discuten tendencias y temáticas de actualidad en el campo y también conceptos clave tales como teoría del programa y valoración de necesidades. Finalmente, se esboza una primera aproximación a dos constructos de gran interés en la evaluación de programas de salud: calidad y equidad.

  20. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  1. Resistência sindical a mudanças nos marcos regulatórios das relações de trabalho no Brasil e em países selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Marques Lobo

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa episódios da história recente da luta sindical em defesa de determinados marcos regulatórios das relações de trabalho no Brasil, na Suécia, na Alemanha e nos Estados Unidos. Considera-se que, a despeito do impacto das oscilações da economia e do mercado de trabalho sobre a capacidade de ação concertada dos trabalhadores em defesa de seus interesses, alguns direitos são mais susceptíveis que outros, conforme o país. A constatação de que essa variação ocorre mesmo em ambientes econômicos parecidos, e submetidos a uma mesma tendência geral, permite formular a hipótese de que fatores situados além da esfera econômica também pesam na definição de certas agendas, na intensidade das preferências expressas pelos atores sociais e, por conseguinte, na persistência de certos direitos. Situada na fronteira entre a história e a sociologia, a abordagem aqui processada tem como ponto de partida as análises de Richard Locke e Kathlen Thelen (1998, que sugerem que o impacto das pressões por mudanças nos marcos regulatórios das relações de trabalho pode afetar não apenas os interesses dos atores, mas também o universo simbólico dentro do qual estes constituem suas identidades. As fontes que serviram de base para as análises referentes ao Brasil são pesquisas realizadas pelo Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socioeconômicos (Dieese e documentos produzidos pela Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, central sindical majoritária no período analisado. Os demais casos foram analisados com base em fontes bibliográficas. Ao analisar momentos específicos que marcaram o conflito trabalhista em diferentes países em plena era neoliberal, verificou-se que o peso da tradição, associado ao projeto fundador do sindicalismo em cada situação analisada, contribui para prevalência de certas agendas e determina a intensidade da resistência dentro de cada cenário nacional.

  2. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian

    2007-03-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p valuestungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (ptungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it is expected that the use of this new material in these applications will not be associated with toxic risks to aquatic life.

  3. Teoría de los marcos relacionales y la trasformación de las funciones del estímulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dymond

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de los marcos de relaciones es una teoría y tecnología moderna del lenguaje y la cognición que hace gran énfasis en la trasformación de funciones de estímulo de acuerdo con las relaciones múltiples del estímulo. Revisamos la investigación reciente sobre la trasformación de las funciones de estímulo y argumentamos que la trasformación derivada posee importancia clínica, no solo porque da cuenta de la emergencia de nuevas respuestas ante estímulos previamente neutrales en ausencia de condicionamiento directo, sino porque también ayuda a explicar el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de evitación y su rápida generalización. Posteriormente se delinean posibles restricciones sobre el efecto de la trasformación derivada por formas físicas del estímulo. En conclusión, el análisis básico y aplicado en curso del fenómeno de la trasformación de funciones representa uno de los más importantes desafíos y oportunidades para el análisis moderno de la conducta

  4. Los países del Este y la transición al mercado: hacia la formación del marco institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Macias

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available La transición al mercado ha sido para los países del Este de Europa el paso de la euforia inicial al desengaño generalizado. Las medidas adoptadas por los nuevos dirigentes con el propósito de reanimar la economía y sacarla de la crisis han conducido a lo contrario: la caída de la producción, la aparición del desempleo y el desplome del nivel de vida. Esta situación lleva al autor a través del artículo y a la luz de los acontecimientos recientes en la región, que han conducido a una modificación de las formas de propiedad dominantes existentes durante el período del socialismo real, a plantear la necesaria redefinición del marco socio-institucional que conduzca no sólo al desmonte del sistema centralista-burocrático de gestión, sino que se dirija también, y ésto es lo fundamental, al normal funcionamiento de una economía de mercado. Es esto último lo que el artículo se encarga de desglosar mientras explica, en ese nuevo contexto, los cambios que se deben realizar tanto en el factor humano corno en los sistemas legal y contable.

  5. Potential of 5-methyl 1-H benzotriazole to suppress the dissolution of α-aluminum bronze in sulfide-polluted salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazeer, Ahmed Abdel; Ashour, E.A. [National Research Centre, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Dokki, Cairo 12622 (Egypt); Allam, Nageh K., E-mail: nageh.allam@aucegypt.edu [National Research Centre, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Dokki, Cairo 12622 (Egypt); Energy Materials Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

    2014-03-01

    This work investigates the inhibition effect of 5-methyl 1-H benzotriazole (MBT) on the dissolution behavior of α-aluminum bronze in clean and sulfide-polluted salt water using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing MBT concentration and decreases with the increasing temperature. The adsorption process of MBT is spontaneous and follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. MBT possesses excellent inhibiting effect for the corrosion of α-Al-bronze, which acts as a mixed type inhibitor. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the adsorption process were determined. The presence of sulfide ions (2 ppm) decreases the inhibition efficiency of MBT against the corrosion of Al-bronze alloy in chloride solutions from 94.7% to 89% as also confirmed via SEM images. The results obtained from the different techniques were in good agreement, which prove the validity of these tools in the measurements of the tested inhibitor. - Highlights: • MBT is an excellent mixed corrosion inhibitor for bronze. • There is a competitive adsorption between MBT and sulfide ions to adsorb on bronze surface. • The adsorption of MBT is spontaneous and follows Langmuir model. • CPE decreases significantly with the increasing MBT concentration.

  6. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; McGill, Ian R

    2008-05-15

    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C. Most of the spheres had disintegrated completely to a fine powder by day 14. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from the spheres was linear over time; all r>0.974; all Ptungsten-bronze per day, respectively. These rates of metal release were compared to those in published studies to determine whether the simultaneous ingestion of eight spheres of 3.48 mm diameter would pose a toxic risk to birds. The potential absorption rates of iron and tin (0.54 mg Fe/day, and 3.89 mg Sn/day) from eight tungsten-bronze spheres of total mass 1.42 g would not prove toxic, based on empirical studies of tin and iron ingestion in waterfowl. The release of 43.17 mg copper/day from eight tungsten-bronze spheres, while exceeding the daily copper requirements of domesticated birds, is far below the levels of copper known to cause copper toxicosis in birds. We conclude that sintered tungsten-bronze material made into gunshot, fishing weights, or wheel balance weights, would not pose a toxic risk to wild birds when ingested.

  7. Microstructure, microhardness and dry friction behavior of cold-sprayed tin bronze coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueping; Zhang, Ga; Li, Wen-Ya; Dembinski, Lucas; Gao, Yang; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, two types of tin bronze coatings (Cu-6 wt.% Sn and Cu-8 wt.% Sn) were prepared by cold spray process. The as-sprayed coatings were subjected to a vacuum heat treatment at 600 °C for 3 h. The coating microstructure, microhardness and tribological performance were characterized. The effects of the tin content and the vacuum heat treatment on the microstructure, microhardness and tribological behavior of the coatings were investigated. It is found that the as-sprayed CuSn6 (As6) and CuSn8 (As8) coatings exhibit practically an identical porosity. Meanwhile, As8 presents a higher microhardness than As6. In addition, the increase of the tin content in the powder feedstock leads to a lower wear rate. After a heat treatment, coating porosities are significantly reduced. However, the coating hardness is significantly decreased and the coating presents a much decreased wear resistance. For the as-sprayed coatings, such factors as ploughing and particle delamination could determine the sliding process. The heat treatment results in a distinct modification of the tribological behavior. For the annealed coatings, the adhesion, between the coating and the counterpart, could play a dominant role in the sliding process.

  8. Aerobic swimming performance of juvenile largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti) in the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhiying; Li, Liping; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Yingping; Johnson, David

    2012-06-01

    Largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti), a fish species once abundant in the Yangtze River, has been rapidly declining in recent years. One important factor, among many, is the interruption of the free-flowing rivers by dams. To obtain data that can be applied to the design of an effective fishway for C. guichenoti and other species in the fish community, a laboratory study of juvenile C. guichenoti's swimming ability and energetics was conducted in a flume-type respirometer equipped with a high-speed video camera system to record swimming behavior. The critical swimming speed (Ucrit ), standard metabolic rate (SMR), and maximum metabolic rate (MO2,max ) were determined during steady swimming at four water temperatures (10, 15, 20, and 25°C). A power function accurately describes the relationship between oxygen consumption rate (MO2 ) and swimming speed (U) at the four temperatures. The Ucrit , SMR, MO2,max , and metabolic scope increased with increasing temperature. The relationship between cost of transport (COT) and U was characteristically inverse bell-shaped, with minimum COT at Uopt = 4.5-5.0 body lengths per second (bl sec(-1)). This investigation provides data on the swimming ability of C. guichenoti that will add to the basic science required for fishway design.

  9. The water clock of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa N; Nevsky, Mikhail Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the article presents the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted with the help of archaeological, physical and astronomical methods. The aim of the study was to analyze and interpret marks and drawings applied to the surface of the vessel of the Bronze Age (Srubna culture) found near the Staropetrovsky village (Donetsk region, Ukraine) near the border between the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The carried out calculations and measurements possible to prove that staropetrovsky vessel is the most ancient water clock, discovered on the territory of Europe, and have approximately the same age as the oldest known ancient Egyptian water clock. Such vessels - water clocks were needed for Srubna population to mark sundial, which had recently been discovered in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on the analysis of marks on the outside of the vessel, it was revealed that Staropetrovsky vessel is unique ancient complex device for measuring time and at the same time using a water clock, and with the help of a ...

  10. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Casali, F.; Morigi, M.P. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Carson, D.; Chiari, G. [Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maish, J. [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  11. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

    2015-03-01

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

  12. Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Comas, David; Gasparini, Paolo; Zalloua, Pierre; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-06-01

    The Armenians are a culturally isolated population who historically inhabited a region in the Near East bounded by the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Caucasus, but remain under-represented in genetic studies and have a complex history including a major geographic displacement during World War I. Here, we analyse genome-wide variation in 173 Armenians and compare them with 78 other worldwide populations. We find that Armenians form a distinctive cluster linking the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus. We show that Armenian diversity can be explained by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3000 and ~2000 bce, a period characterized by major population migrations after the domestication of the horse, appearance of chariots, and the rise of advanced civilizations in the Near East. However, genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1200 bce when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran. Finally, we show that Armenians have higher genetic affinity to Neolithic Europeans than other present-day Near Easterners, and that 29% of Armenian ancestry may originate from an ancestral population that is best represented by Neolithic Europeans.

  13. Optical spectra of Nd{sup 3+} in niobates of the tetragonal tungsten bronze family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalli, Enrico [INFM and Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Parma, Viale delle Scienze 17/a, 43100 Parma (Italy); Calestani, Gianluca [INFM and Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Parma, Viale delle Scienze 17/a, 43100 Parma (Italy); Bovero, Enrico [INFM and Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Parma, Viale delle Scienze 17/a, 43100 Parma (Italy); Belletti, Alessandro [INFM and Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Parma, Viale delle Scienze 17/a, 43100 Parma (Italy); Migliori, Andrea [CNR-IMM, Sezione di Bologna, Via P Godetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2004-02-18

    Nd:Ba{sub 2}NaNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (Nd:BNN), Nd:Ba{sub 2}KNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (Nd:BKN) and Ba{sub 1.90}Nd{sub 0.26} Li{sub 0.42}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (BNdLN) single crystals with the tetragonal tungsten-bronze (TTB) structure have been grown by means of the 'flux growth' method. The 10 and 298 K absorption and emission spectra and the room temperature decay curves have been measured and discussed in the light of the crystallographic information. The room temperature absorption spectra of Nd:BKN and BNdLN have been analysed in the framework of Judd-Ofelt theory and the {omega}{sub {lambda}} ({lambda} = 2, 4, 6) intensity parameters have been evaluated. The structural and emission properties of a new TB phase, Nd:Ba{sub 2}LiNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (Nd:BLN), have also been reported because they are useful in the discussion concerning the site occupancy of the active ions in these materials.

  14. High temperature performance of arc-sprayed aluminum bronze coatings for steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-li; LI De-yuan; WANG Shui-yong

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behavior of arc-sprayed aluminum bronze coatings on steel substrate was studied during isothermal exposures in air at 900 ℃. The surface morphologies and interface of the coatings after isothermal oxidation at 900 ℃ for different times were observed. The experiments showed that the coatings on steel substrate were not deteriorated and the substrate was protected well, being exposed to high temperatures up to 900 ℃. The coatings withstood more than ten times thermal shock tests without any coating separation. The thermal expansion coefficient of the coatings was measured, revealing not much difference between it and that of steel substrate. After exposure at high temperature, the coatings were still adhered to steel substrate well.Isothermal mass gain of the coatings at elevated temperature in dry air was measured by means of a thermal balance and the oxidation behavior was evaluated by oxidation kinetic curves, exhibiting the oxidation kinetics curve accorded with a parabolic law.The parabolic rate constant of the oxidation kinetic curve is 1.02× 10-9 g2·cm-4·s-1 for the first 60 min and from 150 min to 2 880 min the constant is 5.1 × 10-12 g2·cm-4·s-1.

  15. Astronomical Interpretation of the Signs on the Vessel of the Bronze Age (Central Donbass)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa N; Nevsky, Mikhail Yu

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of multidisciplinary study carried out with the help of archaeological and astronomical methods. The aim of the study was to analyze and interpret the signs - elements of the composition, incised on the outer side surface of the vessel of the Late Bronze Age, owned to Srubna culture and discovered near the Staropetrovsky village in the northeast of the Donetsk region. The measurements and astronomical calculations revealed that all signs have astronomical meaning. Fourray star has been interpreted as the star Sirius. The sign polyline has been interpreted as an analog of graphic of equation of time in which the testimony of a water clock correspond with average solar time, and the testimony of a sundial - the true solar time. Sign wheel has been interpreted as a complex of lines, reflecting the regularity changing the direction of the shadows from the gnomon at sunset at the equinoxes and solstices. The sign thin polyline has been interpreted as a symbol of change of height of...

  16. Effect of Annealing Atmosphere on the Mechanical Property of Free-cutting Phosphor Bronze Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present work is focused on the influence of annealing atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical property of free-cutting phosphor bronze alloy. The annealing of the alloy was conducted in the three kinds of annealing atmosphere such as air, vacuum and nitrogen. After annealing, a discernable difference in recystallized grain size and lead particle size was not appeared with different annealing atmosphere. The tensile strength of the alloy annealed in air or nitrogen atmosphere was higher than that of those annealed in vacuum atmosphere. In thecase of the alloy annealed in vacuum atmosphere, the mechanical strength was reduced by vaporization of zinc. In the case of annealing in nitrogen and in air atmosphere, the sweating of lead was occurred. However, the inverse segregation of lead was suppressed by copper oxide layer on the surface annealed in air. This copper oxide layer leads to a decrease of the yield during fabrication process. Therefore, annealing of the alloy in nitrogen atmosphere is favorable in terms of the mechanical strength and yield.

  17. On the energetics of cation ordering in tungsten-bronze-type oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gerhard Henning; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Grande, Tor

    2015-11-11

    Oxides with the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure are well-known ferroelectrics that show a large flexibility both with respect to chemical composition and cation ordering. Two of the simplest compounds in this family are lead metaniobate (PbNb2O6 or PN) and strontium barium niobate (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 or SBN). While PN is a classical ferroelectric, SBN goes from ferroelectric to relaxor-like with increasing Sr content, with a polar direction different from that in PN. The partially occupied sublattices in both systems give the possibility for cation order-disorder phenomena, but it is not known if or how this influences the polarization and ferroelectricity. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate how cation and cation vacancy ordering influences the energetics of these compounds, by comparing both the energy differences and the barriers for transition between different cation configurations. We extend the thermodynamic model of O'Neill and Navrotsky, originally developed for cation interchange in spinels, to describe the order-disorder phenomenology in TTB oxides. The influence of order-disorder processes on the functional properties of PN and SBN is discussed.

  18. Stratospheric Ozone destruction by the Bronze-Age Minoan eruption (Santorini Volcano, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoux, Anita; Scaillet, Bruno; Bekki, Slimane; Oppenheimer, Clive; Druitt, Timothy H

    2015-07-24

    The role of volcanogenic halogen-bearing (i.e. chlorine and bromine) compounds in stratospheric ozone chemistry and climate forcing is poorly constrained. While the 1991 eruption of Pinatubo resulted in stratospheric ozone loss, it was due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic sulfate aerosols involving chlorine of anthropogenic rather than volcanogenic origin, since co-erupted chlorine was scavenged within the plume. Therefore, it is not known what effect volcanism had on ozone in pre-industrial times, nor what will be its role on future atmospheres with reduced anthropogenic halogens present. By combining petrologic constraints on eruption volatile yields with a global atmospheric chemistry-transport model, we show here that the Bronze-Age 'Minoan' eruption of Santorini Volcano released far more halogens than sulfur and that, even if only 2% of these halogens reached the stratosphere, it would have resulted in strong global ozone depletion. The model predicts reductions in ozone columns of 20 to >90% at Northern high latitudes and an ozone recovery taking up to a decade. Our findings emphasise the significance of volcanic halogens for stratosphere chemistry and suggest that modelling of past and future volcanic impacts on Earth's ozone, climate and ecosystems should systematically consider volcanic halogen emissions in addition to sulfur emissions.

  19. Analysis of antique bronze coins by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, M. Orlić; Bišćan, M.; Kregar, Z.; Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Dobrinić, J.; Milošević, S.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a feasibility study of applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to data obtained by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with the aim of determining correlation between different samples. The samples were antique bronze coins coated in silver (follis) dated in the Roman Empire period and were made during different rulers in different mints. While raw LIBS data revealed that in the period from the year 286 to 383 CE content of silver was constantly decreasing, the PCA showed that the samples can be somewhat grouped together based on their place of origin, which could be a useful hint when analysing unknown samples. It was also found that PCA can help in discriminating spectra corresponding to ablation from the surface and from the bulk. Furthermore, Partial Least Squares method (PLS) was used to obtain, based on a set of samples with known composition, an estimation of relative copper concentration in studied ancient coins. This analysis showed that copper concentration in surface layers ranged from 83% to 90%.

  20. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures.

  1. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  2. GIS-based landform classification of Bronze Age archaeological sites on Crete Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Athanasios V.; Teeuw, Richard M.; Sarris, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Various physical attributes of the Earth’s surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes. This work examines the influence of landform classification on the settlement locations of Bronze Age (Minoan) Crete, focusing on the districts of Phaistos, Kavousi and Vrokastro. The landform classification was based on the topographic position index (TPI) and deviation from mean elevation (DEV) analysis to highlight slope steepness of various landform classes, characterizing the surrounding landscape environment of the settlements locations. The outcomes indicate no interrelationship between the settlement locations and topography during the Early Minoan period, but a significant interrelationship exists during the later Minoan periods with the presence of more organised societies. The landform classification can provide insights into factors favouring human habitation and can contribute to archaeological predictive modelling. PMID:28222134

  3. Insights into the production technology of north-Mesopotamian Bronze Age pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekmans, T.; Adriaens, A.; Pantos, E.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of north-Mesopotamian Bronze Age pottery production (3rd millennium BC, early Dynastic and early Akkadian period), the mineralogy of pottery excavated from the site of Tell Beydar (Syria) has been studied in order to make inferences concerning the clay preparation and firing techniques of that period. The fired pottery finds have been classified by archaeologists into three distinct groups on the basis of their aesthetic and visual appearance and their mechanical strength: standard, cooking and “metallic” ware. SR X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected from 100 individual shards as well as from local clays and one unbaked object, an inscribed tablet. The XRD data is supplemented by SEM-EDS, XRF and polarising microscopy studies of 200 polished thin sections. The synthesis of the results from this extensive study quantifies the basic physical characteristics of the ensemble: the standard ware required no specific clay preparation and firing procedures. The body of the cooking ware contains large inclusions which result in a body texture intended to make them resistant to repeated thermal cycles. Both standard and cooking ware are made of a calcareous clay, typical of pottery from the Middle East. The metallic ware, however, are of a much finer quality with a distinctly different mineralogy than the other two groups.

  4. Electrochemical and spectroscopic evidences of corrosion inhibition of bronze by a triazole derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermaj, A. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Paris (France); Laboratoire Electrochimie, Corrosion et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Hajjaji, N. [Laboratoire Electrochimie, Corrosion et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Joiret, S. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Paris (France); Rahmouni, K. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Paris (France); Laboratoire Electrochimie, Corrosion et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Srhiri, A. [Laboratoire Electrochimie, Corrosion et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Takenouti, H. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Paris (France); Vivier, V. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Paris (France)]. E-mail: vivivier@ccr.jussieu.fr

    2007-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the bronze (Cu-8Sn in wt%) was investigated in 3% NaCl aqueous solution, in presence and in absence of a corrosion inhibitor, the 3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione (PTS). The inhibiting effect of the PTS was evidenced for concentrations higher than 1 mM for the cathodic process whereas its effect was clearly seen with a concentration as low as 0.1 mM for the anodic process. A significant positive shift of the corrosion potential was also observed, and its inhibiting effect increased with both its concentration and the immersion time of the sample. From voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments, the inhibiting efficiency of the PTS was found to be in the 94-99% range for 1 mM concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersion analysis of the specimen surface show the presence of sulphur on the surface. Raman micro-spectrometry study confirms the protective effect of the PTS in aqueous solution through three types of interactions with the electrode, namely the adsorption of the inhibitor in a flat configuration, the formation of copper-thiol molecules, and when copper is released, the formation of a polymeric complex.

  5. Structure and physical properties of EuTa2O6 tungsten bronze polymorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H.; Forbes, S.; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    2014-08-01

    A tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) polymorph of EuTa2O6 was prepared and analyzed. EuTa2O6 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric Pnam space group (with unit cell: a = 12.3693, b = 12.4254, and c = 7.7228 Å) isomorphous with orthorhombic β-SrTa2O6. In contrast to early reports, we see no evidence of deviation from paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior among the Eu2+ 4f7spins in EuTa2O6 down to 2 K. Dielectric constant shows a broad peak at ca. 50 K with dielectric dispersion resembling diffuse phase transition. The relaxation time, however, follows a simple (non-freezing) thermally activated process with an activation energy of 92 meV and an attempt frequency of f0 = 5.79 × 1012 Hz. A thermal conductivity of EuTa2O6 shows a low-temperature (T ≈ 30 K) "plateau" region reminiscent of a glass-like behaviour in Nb-based TTB compounds. This behaviour can be attributed to the loosely bound Eu2+ ions occupying large tricapped trigonal prismatic sites in the EuTa2O6 structure.

  6. Origin of ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal tungsten-bronze-type oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gerhard Henning; Aschauer, Ulrich; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Grande, Tor

    2016-05-01

    The origin of ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal tungsten-bronze- (TTB-) type oxide strontium barium niobate (SBN) is investigated using first-principles density functional calculations. We study in particular the relationship between the polarization and the cation and vacancy ordering on alkali-earth metal lattice sites. Lattice dynamical calculations for paraelectric structures demonstrate that all cation configurations that can be accommodated in a 1 ×1 ×2 supercell result in a single unstable polar phonon, composed primarily of relative Nb-O displacements along the polar axis, as their dominant instability. The majority of the configurations also have a second octahedral tilt-mode instability which couples weakly to the polar mode. The existence of the tilt mode is strongly dependent on the local cation ordering, consistent with the fact that it is not found experimentally. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity in the SBN system is driven by a conventional second-order Jahn-Teller mechanism caused by the d0 Nb5 + cations, and demonstrate the strong influence of the size of Sr and Ba on the lattice distortions associated with polarization and octahedral tilting. Finally, we suggest a mechanism for the relaxor behavior in Sr-rich SBN based on Sr displacement inside pentagonal channels in the TTB structure.

  7. Dielectric and Pyroelectric Properties of La- and Pr-Modified Tungsten-Bronze Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, B. N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2013-08-01

    The polycrystalline materials Li2Pb2R2W2Ti4Nb4O30 (R = La, Pr) of the tungsten-bronze structural family have been synthesized using a high- temperature mixed-oxide method. Room-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of single-phase compounds. Room-temperature scanning electron micrography of the pellet samples shows a uniform distribution of well-defined different sizes of grains on the surface of the samples, confirming the formation of single-phase compounds. Study of the frequency and temperature dependence of the dielectric constant and loss tangent suggests the existence of dielectric dispersion in the materials. The ferroelectric phase transition in the samples has been studied based on the variation of fitting parameters (calculated from a theoretical model) with temperature. Studies of pyroelectric properties [figure of merit (FOM) and coefficient] show that the materials have reasonably high FOM useful for pyroelectric detectors. The variation of alternating-current (AC) and direct-current (DC) conductivity with inverse absolute temperature (obtained from dielectric data) follows a typical Arrhenius relation. The low leakage current and negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior of the samples have been verified from J- E plots.

  8. THE PALEODEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF OYLUM HOYUK POPULATION (THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE, KİLİS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşen Açıkkol Yıldırım

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study skeleton remaining of 72 individuals excavated from Middle Bronze Age layers of Oylum Höyük (mound situated in Kilis province, were studied. Sex and age of skeletons, unearthed between 2007-2012, were determined and life tables of the population were formed. Mortality of infants and children of Oylum population was very high. Death rates were determined as 36.6 % for 0-5 years of age group, 57.75 % for 0-15 years of age group. 34.62 % of infants and children from 0-5 years of age group died before they completed their 1st year. Lifespan of males were longer than females (25 for females, 33 years for males. Average age of adults was 29. Mortality for females was highest in young adult period (18-30 ages however it becomes more prominent at adulthood period (30-45 years in males. Oylum Höyük population has one of the shortest lifespan among ancient Anatolian populations with its very high subadult death ratios. Paleopathological data states that, individuals were exposed to serious stress during growth period and reproductive period is the most dangerous period for females.

  9. A Male Aggregation Pheromone in the Bronze Bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Thaumastocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations in Uruguay have doubled in the past decade, with Eucalyptus spp. leading this growth. The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae, originally restricted to Australia, is an important emerging pest of Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern hemisphere. T. peregrinus feeds on mature Eucalyptus leaves, causing them to turn brown and often fall from the tree. Although population dynamics and behavioural patterns are not clearly understood, circumstantial observations suggest that males and nymphs aggregate. We used gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to analyze volatile organic compounds emitted by virgin males and females, and characterized a male-specific compound, 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate, based on mass spectral data and chromatographic comparison with a synthetic standard. We also performed Y-olfactometer bioassays to test the attraction of virgin males and females toward live virgin males, male volatile extracts, and synthetic 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate. Males were attracted toward conspecific males, while virgin females showed no preference, suggesting that male volatiles are not involved in sexual communication. Further olfactometer tests showed that males were attracted to male volatile extracts and to synthetic 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate. The ecological significance of this compound and its potential use for the management of T. peregrinus in Eucalyptus forests will be further investigated.

  10. Fabricating Superior NiAl Bronze Components through Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast NAB components. Although heat treatment, friction stir processing, and fusion welding were implemented to eliminate porosity, improve mechanical properties, and refine the microstructure of as-cast metal, their applications are limited to either surface modification or component repair. Instead of traditional casting techniques, this study focuses on developing NAB components using recently expanded wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM. Consumable welding wire is melted and deposited layer-by-layer on substrates producing near-net shaped NAB components. Additively-manufactured NAB components without post-processing are fully dense, and exhibit fine microstructure, as well as comparable mechanical properties, to as-cast NAB alloy. The effects of heat input from the welding process and post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT are shown to give uniform NAB alloys with superior mechanical properties revealing potential marine applications of the WAAM technique in NAB production.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Bronze Age horses recovered from Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Dawei; Han Lu; Xie Chengzhi; Li Shengnan; Zhou Hui; Zhu Hong

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis was carried out on 9 Bronze Age horses recovered from Dashanqian and Jinggouzi archaeological sites in Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China to explore the origin of Chinese domestic horses. Both mtDNA 16S rRNA gene and control region (D-loop) fragments of ancient horses were amplified and sequenced. The analysis of the highly conservative 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the burial environment of Chifeng region is suitable for the preservation of ancient DNA (aDNA). Combing 465 mtDNA D-loop sequences representing different breeds from East Asia, Central Asia, Near East and Europe, we constructed a phylogenetic network to investigate the relationship between ancient and modern horses. The phylogenetic network showed that the 9 horses were distributed into different modem horse clusters which were closely related to them representing a certain ge-ographical distribution. Our results showed that the maternal genetic line of the ancient horses in Chifeng region was highly diversified,which contributed to the gene pool of modern domestic horses and suggested a complex origin of domestic horses in China.

  12. Effect of phase morphologies on the mechanical properties of babbitt-bronze composite interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, P. K.; Gungor, M. N.; Logsdon, W. A.; Ijiri, Y.; Taszarek, B. J.; Frohlich, S.

    1990-02-01

    Interfaces of two different babbitt-bronze composites were tested ultrasonically and then were fractured using the Chalmers test method. The primary distinction between the two composites was in the copper content. Use of less copper in the babbitt resulted in interfaces with higher strength, lower ductility, less cracking, and less unbonded area. The differences appeared to stem from the structure of the intermetallic compounds found at the interface, namely, the Cu3Sn and the Cu6Sn5 layers. The low-copper composite failed within a thick, dendrite-like Cu6Sn5 layer, while the high-copper one separated at the interface between a smooth Cu6Sn5 layer and the babbitt metal. The rough interface morphology seemed responsible for the low-copper composite’s increased strength. The correlation between mechanical and ultrasonic properties was poor for the low-copper composite but excellent for the high-copper one. These results suggest that interface morphology can significantly affect mechanical as well as ultrasonic properties.

  13. Un marco de referencia de cinco dimensiones para la evaluación auténtica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, Judith; Bastiaens, Theo; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Gulikers, J. T. M., Bastiaens, Th. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Un marco de referencia de cinco dimensiones para la evaluación auténtica. (translation from English). Cuajimalpa, México: Aseguramiento de la Calidad en la Educacion y en el Trabajo.

  14. William R.Johnson,Board Chairman and CEO of HJ.Heinz Company has won the Marco Polo Award 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thanks to the contribution in promoting the talents visit and trade communication between America and China,William R.Johnson,Board Chairman and CEO of H.J.Heinz Company has won the Marco Polo Award.Zhang Jianguo,Vice President of China Foreign Experts Bureau granted the award to him.

  15. Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskus kui kunstidiiler / Rael Artel, Kai Kaljo, Marco Laimre, Marge Monko ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    23. augustini 2010 saab KKEK juhataja kohale kandideerida. Vestlusringis osalenud vabakutseline kuraator Rael Artel, Tallinna Ülikooli dotsent, kunstnik Kai Kaljo, EKA fotoosakonna professor, kunstnik Marco Laimre ja EKA fotoosakonna dotsent, kunstnik Marge Monko arutavad, millist rolli peaks KKEK täitma praegu, 21. sajandi teisel kümnendil avatud maailma tingimustes

  16. Una perspectiva filosófica de la ciencia hoy en día: Entrevista con Alfredo Marcos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available [ES] En el invierno de 2012, el Prof. Alfredo Marcos respondió una serie de preguntas sobre filosofía de la ciencia para el primer número de Disputatio. En esta entrevista, Alfredo Marcos presenta los fundamentos históricos y filosóficos de la ciencia en sentido amplio y nos presenta cómo funciona su aplicación en diferentes ámbitos: comunicación de la ciencia, investigación clínica, política ambiental, poética de la ciencia. [EN] At the winter of 2012, the Prof. Dr. Alfredo Marcos answered a series of questions on philosophy of science for the premier issue of Disputatio. In this interview, Alfredo Marcos presents the philosophical and historic underlying grounds of science, and how does it work its application on different fields: divulgation of science, clinical investigation, environmental policies, and poetics of science.

  17. The formyl peptide receptor like-1 and scavenger receptor MARCO are involved in glial cell activation in bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that the scavenger receptor MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure mediates activation of the immune response in bacterial infection of the central nervous system (CNS. The chemotactic G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR formyl-peptide-receptor like-1 (FPRL1 plays an essential role in the inflammatory responses of host defence mechanisms and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin CRAMP/LL-37 is up-regulated in bacterial meningitis, but the mechanisms underlying CRAMP expression are far from clear. Methods Using a rat meningitis model, we investigated the influence of MARCO and FPRL1 on rCRAMP (rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expression after infection with bacterial supernatants of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP and Neisseria meningitides (NM. Expression of FPRL1 and MARCO was analyzed by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in a rat meningitis model. Furthermore, we examined the receptor involvement by real-time RT-PCR, extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement in glial cells (astrocytes and microglia and transfected HEK293 cells using receptor deactivation by antagonists. Receptors were inhibited by small interference RNA and the consequences in NM- and SP-induced Camp (rCRAMP gene expression and signal transduction were determined. Results We show an NM-induced increase of MARCO expression by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in glial and meningeal cells. Receptor deactivation by antagonists and small interfering RNA (siRNA verified the importance of FPRL1 and MARCO for NM- and SP-induced Camp and interleukin-1β expression in glial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated a functional interaction between FPRL1 and MARCO in NM-induced signalling by real-time RT-PCR, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement and show differences between

  18. Contando uma bela história: a trajetória da ABEn - Bahia

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    Ieda Pessoa de Alcântara

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata este trabalho de contar a história da ABEn-Ba desde sua criação até os dias atuais, traçando um paralelo com a trajetória da ABEn Nacional e destacando os grandes marcos deste caminhar de cinqüenta e três anos. Fica evidente que a história repetiu-se ao colocar no destino da ABED/ABEn - Ba um começo relacionado à fundação da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal da Bahia, pois a vivência na Associação experimentada pelas professoras - enfermeiras em seus estados de origem, que as impulsionou para a criação da Seção Ba. História semelhante teve a Regional Feira de Santana, também formada após a criação do Curso da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Ao longo da sua história a ABEn - Ba vem primando por ser uma entidade democrática sempre atenta às lutas da categoria, na defesa da saúde da população brasileira, bem como, na busca do fortalecimento da Entidade.

  19. Implicaciones del marco teórico de lo imaginario en la Psicología Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Aracena Vicente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio abordaremos dos de las principales concepciones sobre los mecanismos implicados en la construcción significativa del mundo. Hablamos de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales (TRS, formulada desde la psicología, y del marco teórico de lo imaginario, formulado principalmente desde la antropología y la filosofía. Procederemos exponiendo, primero, la TRS y, posteriormente, los acercamientos al marco teórico de lo imaginario desde diferentes disciplinas, para señalar las aportaciones que ofrece este último a la psicología social, aportaciones éstas que complementan las de la TRS. Así, este estudio tiene como objetivos realizar un análisis teórico de la TRS y del marco teórico de lo imaginario y especificar las contribuciones e implicaciones del marco teórico de lo imaginario a la psicología social (y, más concretamente, a la psicología cultural de modo a observar cómo el concepto de imaginario social incluye y trasciende al de representación social(RS. Consideraremos las implicaciones ontológicas, epistemológicas, metodológicas y para la salud de la utilización del marco teórico de lo imaginario en la psicología cultural. En este sentido, propondremos la adopción de dicho concepto por la psicología, considerando que el mismo es fundamental por su capacidad explicativa, comprensiva, interpretativa y crítica.

  20. Custos da ampliação da licença-paternidade no Brasil

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    Sergio Almeida

    Full Text Available Resumo Há uma crescente literatura empírica documentando que educação e cuidado parental de qualidade estão associados com um melhor desenvolvimento emocional e cognitivo da criança. Diante disso, governos de vários países vêm promovendo mudanças nas suas leis trabalhistas, com o objetivo de dar suporte financeiro e legal (proteção do emprego para as mães e também os pais com crianças recém-nascidas. O Brasil aprovou recentemente o Marco Legal da Primeira Infância (Lei n. 13.257/2016, que ampliou a licença-paternidade de 5 para 20 dias. Pouco se sabe, entretanto, sobre o impacto econômico desse tipo de política pública. O presente trabalho procura quantificar os custos intertemporais do custo econômico direto da extensão da licença-paternidade para o Brasil. Para isso utilizam-se microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, indicadores do mercado de trabalho brasileiro e uma série de projeções populacionais para construir cenários estáticos para estimativas da probabilidade de os pais solicitarem o uso da licença. Os resultados indicam que a extensão da licença-paternidade para 20 dias tem baixo custo – cerca de R$ 100 milhões por ano no cenário mais provável, o que representa 0,01% da arrecadação federal em 2014. Conquanto a magnitude dos benefícios seja ainda desconhecida no Brasil, os resultados sugerem que esse tipo de intervenção será provavelmente custo-efetiva.

  1. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Moreira Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medicinal, industrial and food applications of ionizing radiation. The text leads the reader to reflect on the subject and to consider its various aspects with scientific and technological maturity.

  2. Representa??es sociais da dengue: aproxima??es e afastamentos entre o discurso da comunidade e da m?dia impressa.

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, Miriam Ross

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se apreender as representa??es sociais (RS) da dengue elaboradas por moradores de uma zona urbana de risco e das not?cias veiculadas pela m?dia impressa. Utilizou-se a Teoria das Representa??es Sociais como aporte te?rico. A tese foi dividida em duas partes (i) marco te?rico e (ii) estudos emp?ricos: uma pesquisa de campo e outra documental. O primeiro estudo contou com 563 participantes, dos quais 263 s?o estudantes do Ensino M?dio, a maioria do sexo masculino (56%), com idades e...

  3. Problemas da sociologia da arte

    OpenAIRE

    Bastide, Roger

    2006-01-01

    A partir de um balanço das realizações consideradas pelo autor como as mais relevantes no campo da sociologia da arte até o final dos anos de 1940, o texto propõe novos rumos para a disciplina, considerando o modo como a arte é socialmente produzida como linguagem e valor.

  4. Analyses of Composition and Structure on the Ancient Bronze Black Mirror“Hei-Qi-Gu”and Search Into the Treating Process of Its Surface Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范崇正; Suzuki Minoru; Inoue Miyoshi; Abe Tadahiro; Muraua Mitsuo; Asashi Ishikawa; 吴佑实; 李志超

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese ancient bronze black mirror"Hei-Qi-Gu"is famous for its black colour,brightsurface and anti-corroding property.In the present work,methods of SEM,IR,EPMA,Memhrane-XRD,and AFM were employed to detect the composition and structure of several pieces of Hei-Qi-Gu fragments.Itwas found that after casting,the surface of the bronze mirror was treated by a special process,and most ofCu was moved away while Sn and Si were rich in the surface layer.The oxides SnO2 and SiO2 on the surfacein a very small particle size are particularly stable and they protect the bronze alloy successfully.The surface layer and the transition layer have been dissected mainly,and some important informa-tion has been obtained.The special treating process of the mirror surface is searched and discussed.

  5. Electronic band structure and Fermi surfaces of the quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze, P4W12O44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sato, T.; Sarma, D. D.; Takahashi, T.; Wang, E.; Greenblatt, M.; Raj, S.

    2014-02-01

    The electronic structure of quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze, P4W12O44, has been investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. Experimental electron-like bands around \\Gamma point and Fermi surfaces have similar shapes as predicted by calculations. Fermi surface mapping at different temperatures shows a depletion of density of states at low temperature in certain flat portions of the Fermi surfaces. These flat portions of the Fermi surfaces satisfy the partial nesting condition with incommensurate nesting vectors q_1 and q_2 , which leads to the formation of charge density waves in this phosphate tungsten bronzes. The setting up of charge density wave in these bronzes can well explain the anomaly observed in its transport properties.

  6. The fallacy of "equal treatment" in Brazil's bill of rights for internet users A falácia da "igualdade de tratamento" na carta brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Sidak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Brazilian bill of rights for internet users," or "marco civil," has been under consideration at the brazilian congress since 2011. Marco civil's provisions for network neutrality have been particularly controversial. Proponents of network neutrality in Brazil advocate for the "equal treatment" of all data packets, including banning internet service providers from offering to content providers the option to purchase enhanced quality of service in the delivery of data packets. These network neutrality rules conflict with the other goals and principles of marco civil-particularly goals to promote internet access, to foster innovation, and to protect the constitutional right of freedom of speech and the free flow of information.A "carta Brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet," ou "marco civil," tramita no congresso Brasileiro desde 2011. As disposições do marco civil relativas à neutralidade de rede são particularmente controversas. Os defensores da neutralidade de rede no Brasil advogam pela "igualdade de tratamento" de todos os pacotes de dados, inclusive proibindo que provedores de serviço de acesso à internet ofereçam aos provedores de conteúdo a opção de adquirir uma melhor qualidade de serviço na entrega de pacotes de dados. Essas disposições relativas à neutralidade de rede conflitam com outros objetivos e princípios do marco civil - especialmente os objetivos de promover o acesso à internet, promover a inovação, e garantir o direito constitucional de liberdade de expressão e informação.

  7. Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of annealing time 30, 60 and 120 min at 1000°C for quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 bronze in 10% water solution of NaCl, on the microstructure and mechanical properties. The presented results concern the species newly developed aluminum-iron-nickel bronze, with additions W and Si.In order to determine changes in the microstructure of the hardened bronze metallographic studies were performed on cylindrical samples of diameter 10 mm, on the metallographic microscope with digital image analysis, X-ray phase analysis, EDX point with the digital recording on the computer. Specified percentage of the microstructure of martensite and bainite, participation of proeutectoid α phase in the microstructure, grain size of former β phase, the amount of dissolved κ phase.It was found that in the microstructure of bronze in the cast state, there are a number of intermetallic phases of κ type. At interphase boundaries of primary intermetallic faceted precipitates, especially rich in tungsten (IM_W, nucleate and grow dendritic primary intermetallic κI phases, with chemical composition similar to the type of Fe3Si iron silicide.Dissolved, during the heating, in the β phase are all the intermediate phase included in the microstructure, with the exception of primary intermetallic phases of tungsten and κI. Prolongation of the isothermal annealing causes coagulation and coalescence of primary phases. In microstructure of the bronze after quenching obtained the α phase precipitation on the grain boundary of secondary β phase, coarse bainite and martensite, for all annealing times. With the change of annealing time are changed the relative proportions of individual phases or their systems, in the microstructure. In the microstructure of bronze, hold at temperature of 1000°C for 60 min, after quenching martensitic microstructure was obtained with the primary phases, and the least amount of bainite.

  8. European asteroid sample return mission: MarcoPolo-R and its future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission study to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) carried out at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions ''How does the Solar System work?'' and ''What are the conditions for life and planetary formation?''. The returned material will allow us to study in terrestrial laboratories some of the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes, to explore initial stages of habitable planet formation, to identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid. In fact, only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. In addition to addressing these major science goals, the MarcoPolo-R mission study (ESA/SRE (2013)4) also involved innovative European technologies for which ESA technical development programs are still under way. As a result of the several industrial studies, ESA designed a remarkably cost-effective and robust asteroid sample return mission scenario. The spacecraft has been defined making use of low-cost units for most of the sub-systems. The key sample return capabilities, i.e. asteroid navigation, touch and go, sampling mechanism and the re-entry capsule have reached at ESA a validation status to enter implementation phase. In this new era of international effort and interest of sample return with the selected missions of Hayabusa-2 (JAXA) and OSIRIS-Rex (NASA), the development of sample return technology represents in Europe a crucial

  9. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  10. Chronological aspects of the funerary deposit and Bronze Age fortified settlement of Chao Samartín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Valdés, Ángel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chao Samartín hillfort, in western Asturias, was initially fortified at the end of the Bronze Age. A large building enclosed within several defensive lines was present at the settlement around the 8th century B.C., its excavation yielding important bronze artefacts. A small stone urn containing a human female cranium has been recently uncovered by the main gate of this fortress. The aim of this contribution is to present a set of new radiocarbon dates that allow us to ascertain the placement of this burial within the chrono-archaeological context of the Final Bronze Age settlement.

    El castro de Chao Samartín, en el occidente de Asturias, remonta su condición de asentamiento fortificado a finales de la Edad del Bronce. Durante el siglo VIII a.C. defensas monumentales delimitaban un recinto en el que se alzaba, en posición principal, una cabaña de grandes dimensiones de la que procede un interesante repertorio de materiales metálicos fabricados en bronce. Junto a la puerta de acceso al recinto, al pie de la fortificación, se instaló una pequeña cista que contenía el cráneo de una mujer joven. Este artículo presenta las nuevas dataciones que permiten establecer la antigüedad del depósito y su contextualización crono-arqueológica con el establecimiento del Bronce Final.

  11. Phase relations and chemical vapor transport of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze In{sub x}WO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Udo, E-mail: steiner@mw.htw-dresden.de

    2014-08-25

    Highlights: • Phase relations of hexagonal bronze In{sub x}WO{sub 3} with neighboring phases. • Chemical vapor transport experiments using NH{sub 4}Cl as transport agent. • Single crystals of In{sub x}WO{sub 3} up to a few mm in size were prepared. • Selective synthesis of crystals of the indium poor and indium rich phase boundary. - Abstract: Phase pure powder samples of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze In{sub x}WO{sub 3} (x = 0.25–0.35) were synthesized by solid state reaction at 1173 K. The phase relations of In{sub x}WO{sub 3} with neighboring binary and ternary phases were determined in the phase diagram In–W–O. Systematic chemical vapor transport experiments were carried out on source materials with compositions corresponding to miscellaneous two-phase and three-phase regions using NH{sub 4}X (X = Cl, Br, I) as transport agent. Crystals of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze were deposited beside In{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12} with composition corresponding to the indium poor phase boundary and dimensions up to a few mm in a temperature gradient 1173 K → 1073 K starting from ternary mixtures In{sub x}WO{sub 3}/In{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}/In{sub 0.02}WO{sub 3}. Sole deposition of In{sub x}WO{sub 3} single crystals with composition x ≈ 0.33 was observed from ternary mixtures In{sub x}WO{sub 3}/W{sub 18}O{sub 49}/WO{sub 2} with a migration rate of about 0.5 mg/h (transport agent NH{sub 4}Cl)

  12. Extent of Variation of the Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Reservoir: the Case of the Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli Butler (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Salvador; Borja, Marisé; Ferré, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that around 200 cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have already been cloned, only a few Cry proteins are toxic towards a given pest. A crucial step in the mode of action of Cry proteins is binding to specific sites in the midgut of susceptible insects. Binding studies in insects that have developed cross-resistance discourage the combined use of Cry proteins sharing the same binding site. If resistance management strategies are to be implemented, the arsenal of Cry proteins suitable to control a given pest may be not so vast as it might seem at first. The present study evaluates the potential of B. thuringiensis for the control of a new pest, the geranium bronze (Cacyreus marshalli Butler), a butterfly that is threatening the popularity of geraniums in Spain. Eleven of the most common Cry proteins from the three lepidopteran-active Cry families (Cry1, Cry2, and Cry9) were tested against the geranium bronze for their toxicity and binding site relationships. Using 125I-labeled Cry1A proteins we found that, of the seven most active Cry proteins, six competed for binding to the same site. For the long-term control of the geranium bronze with B. thuringiensis-based insecticides it would be advisable to combine any of the Cry proteins sharing the binding site (preferably Cry1Ab, since it is the most toxic) with those not competing for the same site. Cry1Ba would be the best choice of these proteins, since it is significantly more toxic than the others not binding to the common site. PMID:12147511

  13. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  14. Roman Bronze Vessels From the Late Sarmatian Burial of the Lebedevka Burial-Ground in Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treister Mikhail Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying cultural monuments – bronze vessels, a jug and a basin from the barrow no. 1/1967 of the Lebedevka Late Sarmatian burial mound (Western Kazakhstan, dating back to the middle of the 3rd century AD at the latest. These items do not find exact parallels among the bronze vessels of provincial Rome. Although the shape of the jug handle with a curved leaf turned upright between two horizontally arranged swan heads has parallels on the so-called “composite jug with handles” (“gegliederten Henkelkrügen”, the cylindrical form of the jug’s neck peculiar of the glass jugs of allegedly Syrian manufacture of the second half of the 3rd-4th centuries AD is very unusual. Even more unusual is a basin with horizontally bent rim and elaborate handles with pearls on a high narrow stand-ring. The XRF analyses of the Lebedevka jug’s metal revealed that its body and handle were made of a copper-based alloy with very high admixtures of zinc (24-27 % and inconsiderable additions of lead (up to 3 %. A similar alloy was used for manufacturing a vessel in the form of a crouching young negro from Niederbieber. Most objects of provincial Roman import reached Western Kazakhstan via the Bosporan kingdom along the Northern branch of the Silk Road. The above discussed bronze vessels from Lebedevka let suggest, that the nomads could receive some import articles that were brought along the caravan routes leading from Egypt and Syria to the East.

  15. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; Lara, Luisa-M.; Marty, Bernard; Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, Andy; Bohnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John R.; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESAfs Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, as well as optimization of the mission. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily compared to a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system

  16. Dimensoes da vulnerabilidade para as familias da crianca com dor oncologica em ambiente hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graca Corso da Motta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Identificar aspectos que demonstrem as dimensões da vulnerabilidade no universo familiar na ótica da família de crianças com dor oncológica em ambiente hospitalar Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizada na Unidade de Hematologia e Oncologia Pediátrica, de um hospital de grande porte da cidade de Porto Alegre - RS. Participaram do estudo nove famílias, utilizando-se para coleta dos dados o Método Criativo Sensível, por meio das dinâmicas de criatividade e sensibilidade, analisadas conforme o referencial da Análise de Conteúdo de Minayo, nos meses de Maio e Junho de 2010 Constatou-se que a doença traz à tona situações de vulnerabilidade, conferindo à criança e à família, sofrimento, dor, medo, angústia, desgaste físico e mental, causados pelo câncer. Assim, a Enfermagem, ao apropriar-se do marco conceitual da vulnerabilidade, pode visualizar novas dimensões do processo saúde/doença auxiliando a criança doente e sua família.

  17. 论山字纹铜镜的年代与分期%On the Date and Periodization of "山"-shaped Design Bronze Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秋玲

    2003-01-01

    The "山"-shaped design bronze mirror prevailed in the pre-Qin period and constituted the main type of bronze mirror in the Chu State. Its varieties can be dated by analyzing their examples unearthed in great numbers from Chu tombs in Hunan Changsha and its vicinity and by referring to archaeological data from other localities. As known so far, the use of such mirrors can be traced to the early Warring States period and lasted to the time from the late Warring States period to the early Han Dynasty. They underwent the beginning, developing, flourishing and declining stages.

  18. Methodology for the Construction of a Rule-Based Knowledge Base Enabling the Selection of Appropriate Bronze Heat Treatment Parameters Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górny Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Decisions regarding appropriate methods for the heat treatment of bronzes affect the final properties obtained in these materials. This study gives an example of the construction of a knowledge base with application of the rough set theory. Using relevant inference mechanisms, knowledge stored in the rule-based database allows the selection of appropriate heat treatment parameters to achieve the required properties of bronze. The paper presents the methodology and the results of exploratory research. It also discloses the methodology used in the creation of a knowledge base.

  19. Identification of ancient paths within the Late Bronze Age enclosure Corneşti-Iarcuri, western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykamp, Moritz; Heeb, Bernhard S.; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Knitter, Daniel; Krause, Jan; Krause, Rüdiger; Szentmiklosi, Alexandru; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    This study applies a landscape archaeological approach, combining geoscientific and archaeological data, to shed light into the Holocene landscape development in the environs of the Late Bronze Age enclosure of Corneşti-Iarcuri, Romania. Corneşti-Iarcuri is located at the eastern edge of the Great Hungarian Plain and represents with its four earth-filled wooden ramparts the largest known prehistoric enclosure in Europe. Late Bronze Age settlements are documented for the two innermost enclosures. However, the settlement history in its environs started already in the Copper Age. The aims of this study are i) to link hydro-morphological relief anomalies to evidences of settlement occurrence and ii) to document the variations of Holocene geomorphic activity and stability in a selected sub-catchment. The spatio-temporal relation between unnaturally bending tributaries and settled areas is uncovered and the involved formation processes are discussed. The morphometric analyses of the tributaries in the built-up area of Iarcuri show a clear tendency: unnaturally bending tributaries most often occur in the central valley and tend to cluster in the central part between the two innermost enclosures. By comparison of the locations of the strongly bending tributaries and the locations of the most densely settled areas it appears that both are related. It is well known that such linear features form in relation to settlements as a consequence of repeated passage of humans. Due to soil compaction along regular footpaths and the resulting reduced infiltration capacity gully erosion tends to occur forming hollow ways. Usually these hollow ways form contemporaneously with or subsequent to the occupation period of the site. As a consequence alluvial fans form at the outlet of the tributaries documenting former settlement and geomorphic activities. A sediment core obtained from the alluvial fan dumped by the tributary sourcing in the densely settled southern part of enclosure II

  20. Crystallographic analysis of the solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure

    OpenAIRE

    Silvania Lanfredi; Nobre,Marcos A. L.; Lima,Alan R. F.

    2010-01-01

    Solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with KSr2(FeNb4)O15-Δ stoichiometry was prepared by high efficiency ball milling method. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Crystalline structure was analyzed by the Rietveld refinements using the FullProf software. The results showed a tetragonal system with the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure - TTB (a = 12.4631 (2) Å and c = 3.9322 (6) Å, V = 610.78 (2) ų). In this work, the sites occupancy by...